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Sample records for amblyopia

  1. Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gardaševič

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia mens weaker visual acuity of one or both eyes and is not due to an organic leason. It usually develops in early childhood, patients 8 years or older with a normal visual system have low probability of developing amblyopia. There is a risk of reappearing amblyopia even after it had been treated till the age of 9 or 10. The most frequent reason for developing amblyopia are strabismus, amethropia and anisomethropia.Conclusions: The treatment of amblyopia is removal of the source, prescription of suitable correction of refractive error, occlusion of the healthier eye, pleoptic exercises and surgical treatment if necessary. Early identification of amblyopia is important for a good treatment outcome.

  2. amblyopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: (i) Being among the top three causes of monocular visual loss in the adultage group from 18-85 years, this suggests that the condition persists well beyond the childhood years. (ii) Also, in spite of successful occlusion therapy in amblyopia patients, it has been found that visual acuity still diminished over.

  3. [Amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orssaud, C

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the entire visual system, including the extra-striate cortex. It manifests mainly by impaired visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. However, other abnormalities of visual function can be observed, such as decreased contrast sensitivity and stereoscopic vision, and some abnormalities can be found in the "good" eye. Amblyopia occurs during the critical period of brain development. It may be due to organic pathology of the visual pathways, visual deprivation or functional abnormalities, mainly anisometropia or strabismus. The diagnosis of amblyopia must be confirmed prior to treatment. Confirmation is based on cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity measurement and orthoptic assessment. However, screening for amblyopia and associated risk factors permits earlier diagnosis and treatment. The younger the child, the more effective the treatment, and it can only be achieved during the critical period. It requires parental cooperation in order to be effective and is based on occlusion or penalization of the healthy eye. The amblyopic eye may then develop better vision. Maintenance therapy must be performed until the end of the critical period to avoid recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Functional amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual system that represents unilateral or bi-lateral reduction of visual acuity in which an organic cause cannot be detected. The illness represents a syndrome of visual deficits, not only a deterioration of visual acuity. This syndrome includes: presence of crowding phenomena, contrast sensitivity deterioration, deficits in accommodation, deterioration of spatial orientation and ocular motility dysfunction. Depending on its etiology, amblyopia is classified into four main types: strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia and stimulus deprivation amblyopia. To successfully treat the "lazy eye" it is essential to remove the amblyopic factor with techniques addressing each disturbing factor. Techniques used for treating amblyopia include: occlusion, optical penalty or pharmacological, therapy with Levodopa and computer vision therapy. Amblyopia treatment is lengthy and it is very important to counsel not only the child but the whole family and to establish a relationship of trust between doctor and patient in order to get high treatment compliance and high child motivation.

  5. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Tratamiento ...

  6. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Diagnóstico ...

  7. A Simulation of Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A simulation of the decreased visual acuity of individuals with amblyopia is used in one optometry program to help students understand how amblyopia patients see. Students act as patient, then as doctor, proceeding through clinical diagnosis. (MSE)

  8. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  9. Amblyopia and Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3% to 3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of binocular dysfunction in the genesis of amblyopia and the constellation of visual and motor deficits that accompany the visual acuity deficit has been identified. These findings motivated us to evaluate a new, binocular approach to amblyopia treatment with the goals of reducing or eliminating residual and recurrent amblyopia and of improving the deficient ocular motor function and fine motor skills that accompany amblyopia. PMID:23201436

  10. Amblyopia and Strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, Roy A.

    1990-01-01

    Strabismus and amblyopia, two of the most common problems in children's vision, can be prevented only by early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Strabismus, a misalignment of the eyes that causes one eye to deviate from its normal position, is the most common cause of amblyopia. Amblyopia is impaired vision in one eye caused by disuse. The author describes diagnostic tests, common causes, and frequently used treatment for both conditions.

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  12. Laterality of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amblyopia and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Koçak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of unilateral visual impairment in children is amblyopia. Anisometropia is the major cause in school-age and strabismus is in pre-school period. Amblyopia occurs from visual deprivation in the critical period or abnormal binocular interaction. If visual acuity in one eye is less than the other and if there are differences in refractive error, strabismus or strabismus history, diagnosis of amblyopia should be considered. Refractive correction, patching, and penalization are overriding treatment modalities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 228-36

  14. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Visual search deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-04-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.

  16. Strabismus and Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, E.; Morse, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Strabismus and amblyopia are two common childhood vision conditions requiring early identification and treatment. Screening devices include external examination of the eye, ability to track, a cover test, acuity tests, and stereoscopic tests. Treatment includes patching therapy, use of glasses, orthoptics, CAM vision stimulator, or a combination…

  17. Amblyopia screening in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, Alexander; Cherninkova, Sylvia; Haykin, Vasil; Aroyo, Ani; Levi, Alina; Marinov, Nikolay; Kostova, Stanislava; Elenkov, Chavdar; Veleva, Nevyana; Chernodrinska, Violeta; Petkova, Iva; Spitzer, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and the average age at first ophthalmological examination of school-aged children from northwestern Bulgaria. Visual acuity testing, stereopsis, orthoptics, ocular motility, non-cycloplegic refraction, direct ophthalmoscopy, and external ocular inspection were performed. Cycloplegic refraction and indirect ophthalmoscopy were done as necessary. A total of 2,054 children (1,020 girls and 1,034 boys) were divided into three age groups: 6 to 8 years (803 children), 8 to 10 years (719 children), and 10 to 12 years (530 children). A total of 1,861 children (90.6%) received their first examination: 754 (93.9%) aged 6 to 8 years, 638 (88.7%) aged 8 to 10 years, and 469 (88.2%) aged 10 to 12 years. Amblyopia was detected in 88 children (4.3%): 42 (5.2%) aged 6 to 8 years, 27 (3.8%) aged 8 to 10 years, and 19 (3.6%) aged 10 to 12 years. The first group had higher prevalence compared to countries with well-developed screening programs. Refractive errors were detected in 403 children (19.7%): 125 (15.6%) aged 6 to 8 years, 146 (20.3%) aged 8 to 10 years, and 132 (24.8%) aged 10 to 12 years. The estimated prevalence increases with age. Strabismus was detected in 24 children (1.2%): 8 (1.0%) aged 6 to 8 years, 7 (1.0%) aged 8 to 10 years, and 9 (1.7%) aged 10 to 12 years. The lack of screening programs in Bulgaria is the main reason for late diagnosis of amblyopia. The "Do Good "project provided eye examination of school-aged children aged 6 to 12 years, when amblyopia is curable. This model could be used in establishing a Bulgarian national screening program. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Linking assumptions in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVI, DENNIS M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 35 years or so, there has been substantial progress in revealing and characterizing the many interesting and sometimes mysterious sensory abnormalities that accompany amblyopia. A goal of many of the studies has been to try to make the link between the sensory losses and the underlying neural losses, resulting in several hypotheses about the site, nature, and cause of amblyopia. This article reviews some of these hypotheses, and the assumptions that link the sensory losses to specific physiological alterations in the brain. Despite intensive study, it turns out to be quite difficult to make a simple linking hypothesis, at least at the level of single neurons, and the locus of the sensory loss remains elusive. It is now clear that the simplest notion—that reduced contrast sensitivity of neurons in cortical area V1 explains the reduction in contrast sensitivity—is too simplistic. Considerations of noise, noise correlations, pooling, and the weighting of information also play a critically important role in making perceptual decisions, and our current models of amblyopia do not adequately take these into account. Indeed, although the reduction of contrast sensitivity is generally considered to reflect “early” neural changes, it seems plausible that it reflects changes at many stages of visual processing. PMID:23879956

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  20. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  1. Amblyopia in childhood eyelid ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Gregory J; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G

    2013-06-01

    To report the prevalence and causes of amblyopia among children with ptosis diagnosed in a well-defined population over a 40-year period. Retrospective, population-based cohort study. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 107 patients younger than 19 years for the prevalence and causes of amblyopia who were diagnosed with childhood ptosis and were residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004. Amblyopia was diagnosed in 16 (14.9%) of the 107 patients with childhood ptosis. Fourteen (14.6%) of 96 patients diagnosed with a congenital form of ptosis demonstrated amblyopia. Twelve (14.8%) of the 81 patients diagnosed with simple congenital ptosis had amblyopia, 7 (8.6%) cases of which solely were the result of eyelid occlusion of the visual axis. The causes of amblyopia in the remaining 5 patients were significant refractive error in 3 patients and strabismus in 2 patients. Amblyopia occurred in 1 in 7 children diagnosed with ptosis in this population-based cohort. In approximately half of those with amblyopia, or less than 10% of all patients, the disease solely was the result of eyelid occlusion of the visual axis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

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  4. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  6. INSTRUMENTAL TREATMENT OF AMBLYOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Lavrent’ev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a device with broad functionality for treatment amblyopia. methods. Analysis of functionality and technical characteristics of devices for amblyopia treatment and the development of multifunctional apparatus. results. The full-color light transmitters (i.e., LEDs are used in device. It provides the radiation withfull color spectrum. There are several directions of movement of stimuli which are presented on the display: horizontally from left to right or from right to left, vertically bottom-up or top-down, multidirectionally from the center of the display to the periphery or from the periphery of the display to the center, in a circumferential or helical pattern clockwise or counterclockwise. The period of motion of the stimuli varies from 0.25 to 4 seconds in increments of 0.25 seconds. Pulse modulation is 0-20 Hz. Light intensity is 0.1-3.0 cd. The duration of one treatment session is 1-7 min. The characteristic property of the device is multiprogram operating, i.e., several modes are switched consistently in the course of one session. Operating modes are customized for each patient. Computer control provides reprogramming of the device when assigning new tasks. Light-emitting display can be placed in the cone or be made as external component (rectangular-, quadratic-, or round-shaped. Conclusions. Stimulation of visual analyzer is performed with full-color light stimuli which move in various directions or rotate. Adjustment of modulation frequency and movement rate of the stimuli allows to change stimulation mode temporally and spatially. The device can be used in clinical and domestic settings to treat amblyopia, myopia and computer vision syndrome as well as to prevent eye fatigue.

  7. Designing clinical trials for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) study design leads to one of the highest levels of evidence, and is a preferred study design over cohort studies, because randomization reduces bias and maximizes the chance that even unknown confounding factors will be balanced between treatment groups. Recent randomized clinical trials and observational studies in amblyopia can be taken together to formulate an evidence-based approach to amblyopia treatment, which is presented in this review. When designing future clinical studies of amblyopia treatment, issues such as regression to the mean, sample size and trial duration must be considered, since each may impact study results and conclusions. PMID:25752747

  8. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  11. Treatment of Amblyopia and Amblyopia Risk Factors Based on Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna B; Gilbert, Aubrey L; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a leading cause of low vision and warrants timely management during childhood. We performed a literature review of the management of amblyopia and potential risk factors for amblyopia. Literature review of the management of amblyopia and risk factors for amblyopia. Common amblyopia risk factors include anisometropic or high refractive error, strabismus, cataract, and ptosis. Often a conservative approach with spectacles is enough to prevent amblyopia. However, surgery may be necessary to clear the visual axis or align the eyes. Amblyopia risk factors should be managed early. Though amblyopia treatment is more likely to be successful at a younger age, those who are older but treatment-naïve may still respond to treatment. Promoting binocular or dichoptic experiences may be the future direction of amblyopia management.

  12. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D.E. Maconachie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction and/or strabismic (turn of one eye amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  13. The challenges of amblyopia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment progress of children myopic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Meng Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of myopic amblyopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia is difficult and usually resultless and it has been the obstacle of amblyopic treatment. Corneal contact lens, corneal refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lens as new methods can significantly improve visual acuity of patients with high myopic amblopia and myopic anisometorpic ambyopia. For correcting myopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia it provides a new method. This paper discusses the availibility and safty of above methods for the treatment of myopic amblyopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia.

  15. Improvement of therapy for amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe term ‘amblyopia’ originates from the Greek language and literally means dimness or dullness of vision. In time, the condition has been defined in a variety of ways, very much depending on the prevailing patho-physiological concept about its etiology. In general, amblyopia can be

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  17. Global processing in amblyopia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa M.; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system that is associated with disrupted binocular vision during early childhood. There is evidence that the effects of amblyopia extend beyond the primary visual cortex to regions of the dorsal and ventral extra-striate visual cortex involved in visual integration. Here, we review the current literature on global processing deficits in observers with either strabismic, anisometropic, or deprivation amblyopia. A range of global processing tasks have been used to investigate the extent of the cortical deficit in amblyopia including: global motion perception, global form perception, face perception, and biological motion. These tasks appear to be differentially affected by amblyopia. In general, observers with unilateral amblyopia appear to show deficits for local spatial processing and global tasks that require the segregation of signal from noise. In bilateral cases, the global processing deficits are exaggerated, and appear to extend to specialized perceptual systems such as those involved in face processing. PMID:24987383

  18. [Amblyopia. Epidemiology, causes and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, H M

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.

  19. The other side of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloper, John

    2016-02-01

    Amblyopia is defined as a loss of letter recognition visual acuity in the affected eye; however, studies in both nonhuman primates and man have shown that other important aspects of vision, including color, motion, and contour perception, are also abnormal. The anatomical changes that occur in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex following monocular visual deprivation affect both eyes and follow very different patterns with deprivation that begins at different ages and differ markedly in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. The interactions between the eyes and the requirements for recovery are very different following onset at different ages and differ for magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Electrophysiological and psychophysical studies in man show different patterns of change in patients with strabismic amblyopia of early and late onset and abnormalities of color and motion processing that affect both amblyopic and fellow eyes and differ with age of onset. Abnormal visual experience also has more general effects on development, with amblyopic children showing abnormalities of eye-hand coordination when using either their amblyopic or fellow eyes, and abnormalities of reading. Differential effects of abnormal visual experience and treatment on magnocellular and parvocellular pathways may account for some of the visual deficits and treatment failures seen in amblyopia. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Amblyopia Treatment on Macular Thickness in Eyes With Myopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A; Block, Sandra; Goodfellow, Geoffrey W; Allison, Christine

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether abnormal macular thickness in myopic anisometropic amblyopia differed after amblyopia treatment. Furthermore, to investigate whether effect of treatment on macular thickness was associated with subject age or improvement in stereoacuity. Seventeen children (mean age: 9.0 [±3.0] years, ranging from 5.7-13.9 years) with myopic anisometropic amblyopia (visual acuity [VA] in amblyopic eyes: 20/80-20/400) were recruited and treated with 16-week refractive correction, followed by an additional 16-week refractive correction and patching. Macular thickness, best-corrected VA, and stereoacuity were measured both before and after amblyopia treatment. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to determine whether macular thickness in amblyopic eyes changed after amblyopia treatment. Mean baseline VA in the amblyopic eye was 1.0 ± 0.3 logMAR and improved to 0.7 ± 0.3 after amblyopia treatment (P amblyopia treatment was statistically significant for average foveal thickness (P = 0.040). There was no treatment effect on fellow eyes (P = 0.245); however, the average foveal thickness in the amblyopic eye was significantly reduced after amblyopia treatment (P = 0.049). No statistically significant interactions were found for the other macular thickness parameters (P > 0.05). Abnormal central macula associated with myopic anisometropic amblyopia tended to be thinner following amblyopia treatment with no significant changes in peripheral macular thickness.

  2. Refractive Amblyopia among children in Ibadan: the need for amblyopia screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, B A; Ugalahi, M O; Okoli, C E; Baiyeroju, A M

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and burden of amblyopia in developing countries is probably underestimated, and little is known about the pattern of amblyopia in West Africa. To determine the relative frequency and types of amblyopia among children with refractive errors seen in the eye clinic of a tertiary hospital over a 2 year period. A cross-sectional study conducted at the eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2013. Case notes of children with refractive errors seen during this period were retrieved and information including socio-demographic data, presenting visual acuity and visual acuity with correction were recorded. Amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity worse than 6/9 or a difference of ≥ 2 Snellen chart lines between both eyes in the absence of any ocular pathology that could explain the visual impairment. A total of 250 eligible patients who had refractive errors were included in the study. Visual acuity was corrected to 6/9 or better in 224 (89.6%) children while 26 (10.4%) of them had amblyopia. Among the 26 children with amblyopia, 21 (80.8%) children had amblyopia in both eyes and majority (65.4%) had iso-ametropic amblyopia. Of the 47 amblyopic eyes, 36 (76.6%) eyes had moderate amblyopia while 11 (23.4%) eyes had severe amblyopia. There is a high relative frequency of amblyopia in this study and we recommend preschool eye examinations for all children to ensure early detection and management of amblyopia, thereby reducing the burden of amblyopia in our populace.

  3. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Knill, David C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  5. The relationship between anisometropia and amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T; Bradley, Arthur; Candy, T Rowan

    2013-09-01

    This review aims to disentangle cause and effect in the relationship between anisometropia and amblyopia. Specifically, we examine the literature for evidence to support different possible developmental sequences that could ultimately lead to the presentation of both conditions. The prevalence of anisometropia is around 20% for an inter-ocular difference of 0.5D or greater in spherical equivalent refraction, falling to 2-3%, for an inter-ocular difference of 3D or above. Anisometropia prevalence is relatively high in the weeks following birth, in the teenage years coinciding with the onset of myopia and, most notably, in older adults starting after the onset of presbyopia. It has about one-third the prevalence of bilateral refractive errors of the same magnitude. Importantly, the prevalence of anisometropia is higher in highly ametropic groups, suggesting that emmetropization failures underlying ametropia and anisometropia may be similar. Amblyopia is present in 1-3% of humans and around one-half to two-thirds of amblyopes have anisometropia either alone or in combination with strabismus. The frequent co-existence of amblyopia and anisometropia at a child's first clinical examination promotes the belief that the anisometropia has caused the amblyopia, as has been demonstrated in animal models of the condition. In reviewing the human and monkey literature however it is clear that there are additional paths beyond this classic hypothesis to the co-occurrence of anisometropia and amblyopia. For example, after the emergence of amblyopia secondary to either deprivation or strabismus, anisometropia often follows. In cases of anisometropia with no apparent deprivation or strabismus, questions remain about the failure of the emmetropization mechanism that routinely eliminates infantile anisometropia. Also, the chronology of amblyopia development is poorly documented in cases of 'pure' anisometropic amblyopia. Although indirect, the therapeutic impact of refractive

  6. The Relationship between Anisometropia and Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T.; Bradley, Arthur; Candy, T. Rowan

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to disentangle cause and effect in the relationship between anisometropia and amblyopia. Specifically, we examine the literature for evidence to support different possible developmental sequences that could ultimately lead to the presentation of both conditions. The prevalence of anisometropia is around 20% for an inter-ocular difference of 0.5D or greater in spherical equivalent refraction, falling to 2-3%, for an inter-ocular difference of 3D or above. Anisometropia prevalence is relatively high in the weeks following birth, in the teenage years coinciding with the onset of myopia and, most notably, in older adults starting after the onset of presbyopia. It has about one-third the prevalence of bilateral refractive errors of the same magnitude. Importantly, the prevalence of anisometropia is higher in highly ametropic groups, suggesting that emmetropization failures underlying ametropia and anisometropia may be similar. Amblyopia is present in 1-3% of humans and around one-half to two-thirds of amblyopes have anisometropia either alone or in combination with strabismus. The frequent co-existence of amblyopia and anisometropia at a child’s first clinical examination promotes the belief that the anisometropia has caused the amblyopia, as has been demonstrated in animal models of the condition. In reviewing the human and monkey literature however it is clear that there are additional paths beyond this classic hypothesis to the co-occurrence of anisometropia and amblyopia. For example, after amblyopia secondary to either deprivation or strabismus has emerged, anisometropia often follows. In cases of anisometropia with no apparent deprivation or strabismus, questions remain about the failure of the emmetropization mechanism that routinely eliminates infantile anisometropia. Also, the chronology of amblyopia development is poorly documented in cases of ‘pure’ anisometropic amblyopia. Although indirect, the therapeutic impact of refractive

  7. Amblyopia: Types, Presentation And Treatment – A Review | Chuka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of types, presentation and treatment of amblyopia was done. There are four major types of amblyopia namely: strabismic, ametropic (isoametropic), anisometropic and deprivation. The critical or sensitive period for each varies, although almost all cases present within 7 - 8 years of age. Amblyopia treatment should ...

  8. Vision screening for amblyopia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christine; Hatt, Sarah R

    2009-07-08

    Amblyopia is a reversible deficit of vision that has to be treated within the sensitive period for visual development. Screening programmes have been set up to detect this largely asymptomatic condition and refer children for treatment while an improvement in vision is still possible. The value of such programmes and the optimum protocol for administering them remain controversial. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of vision screening in reducing the prevalence of amblyopia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2008), MEDLINE (January 1950 to August 2008) and EMBASE (January 1947 to August 2008). The electronic databases were last searched on 15 August 2008. No language restrictions were placed on these searches. No handsearching was done. We planned to analyse data from randomised controlled trials and cluster-randomised trials comparing the prevalence of amblyopia in screened versus unscreened populations. Two authors independently assessed study abstracts identified by the electronic searches. Full text copies of appropriate studies were obtained and, where necessary, authors were contacted. No data were available for analysis and no meta-analysis was performed. Despite the large amount of literature available regarding vision screening no trials designed to compare the prevalence of amblyopia in screened versus unscreened populations were found. The lack of data from randomised controlled trials makes it difficult to analyse the impact of existing screening programmes on the prevalence of amblyopia. The absence of such evidence cannot be taken to mean that vision screening is not beneficial; simply that this intervention has not yet been tested in robust trials. To facilitate such trials normative data on age-appropriate vision tests need to be available and a consensus reached regarding the definition of amblyopia. In addition, the consequences of living with untreated

  9. Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they may continue to have problems with depth perception. Permanent vision problems may result if treatment is ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  10. Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child’s vision. [See figure 2] Are there different types of patches? The classic patch is an adhesive " ... such as watching a preferred television program or video). Some eye doctors ... hand-held computer games) during treatment may be more stimulating to the ...

  11. Childhood amblyopia: current management and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2016-09-01

    With a prevalence of 2-5%, amblyopia is the most common vision deficit in children in the UK and the second most common cause of functional low vision in children in low-income countries. Pubmed, Cochrane library and clinical trial registries (clinicaltrials.gov, ISRCTN, UKCRN portfolio database). Screening and treatment at the age of 4-5 years are cost efficient and clinically effective. Optical treatment (glasses) alone can improve visual acuity, with residual amblyopia treated by part-time occlusion or pharmacological blurring of the better-seeing eye. Treatment after the end of the conventional 'critical period' can improve vision, but in strabismic amblyopia carries a low risk of double vision. It is not clear whether earlier vision screening would be cost efficient and associated with better outcomes. Optimization of treatment by individualized patching regimes or early start of occlusion, and novel binocular treatment approaches may enhance adherence to treatment, provide better outcomes and shorten treatment duration. Binocular treatments for amblyopia. Impact of amblyopia on education and quality of life; optimal screening timing and tests; optimal administration of conventional treatments; development of child-friendly, effective and safe binocular treatments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Alterations in audiovisual simultaneity perception in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual impairment that is increasingly recognized to affect higher-level perceptual and multisensory processes. To further investigate the audiovisual (AV) perceptual impairments associated with this condition, we characterized the temporal interval in which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are perceived as simultaneous 50% of the time (i.e., the AV simultaneity window). Adults with unilateral amblyopia (n = 17) and visually normal controls (n = 17) judged the simultaneity of a flash and a click presented with both eyes viewing. The signal onset asynchrony (SOA) varied from 0 ms to 450 ms for auditory-lead and visual-lead conditions. A subset of participants with amblyopia (n = 6) was tested monocularly. Compared to the control group, the auditory-lead side of the AV simultaneity window was widened by 48 ms (36%; p = 0.002), whereas that of the visual-lead side was widened by 86 ms (37%; p = 0.02). The overall mean window width was 500 ms, compared to 366 ms among controls (37% wider; p = 0.002). Among participants with amblyopia, the simultaneity window parameters were unchanged by viewing condition, but subgroup analysis revealed differential effects on the parameters by amblyopia severity, etiology, and foveal suppression status. Possible mechanisms to explain these findings include visual temporal uncertainty, interocular perceptual latency asymmetry, and disruption of normal developmental tuning of sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony.

  13. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add

  14. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia.

  15. Internet-based perceptual learning in treating amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqiu; Yang, Xubo; Liao, Meng; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Longqian

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a common childhood condition, which affects 2%-3% of the population. The efficacy of conventional treatment in amblyopia seems not to be high and recently perceptual learning has been used for treating amblyopia. The aim of this study was to address the efficacy of Internet-based perceptual learning in treating amblyopia. A total of 530 eyes of 341 patients with amblyopia presenting to the outpatient department of West China Hospital of Sichuan University between February 2011 and December 2011 were reviewed. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Internet-based perceptual learning and conventional treatment in amblyopia. The efficacy was evaluated by the change in visual acuity between pretreatment and posttreatment. The change in visual acuity between pretreatment and posttreatment by Internet-based perceptual learning was larger than that by conventional treatment in ametropic and strabismic amblyopia (pInternet-based perceptual learning was larger for patients with amblyopia not younger than 7 years (pInternet-based perceptual learning was 3.06 ± 1.42 months, while conventional treatment required 3.52 ± 1.67 months to reach the same improvement (pInternet-based perceptual learning can be considered as an alternative to conventional treatment. It is especially suitable for ametropic and strabismic patients with amblyopia who are older than 7 years and can shorten the cure time of amblyopia.

  16. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  17. A game platform for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin; Blum, Jeffrey R; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a prototype device for take-home use that can be used in the treatment of amblyopia. The therapeutic scenario we envision involves patients first visiting a clinic, where their vision parameters are assessed and suitable parameters are determined for therapy. Patients then proceed with the actual therapeutic treatment on their own, using our device, which consists of an Apple iPod Touch running a specially modified game application. Our rationale for choosing to develop the prototype around a game stems from multiple requirements that such an application satisfies. First, system operation must be sufficiently straightforward that ease-of-use is not an obstacle. Second, the application itself should be compelling and motivate use more so than a traditional therapeutic task if it is to be used regularly outside of the clinic. This is particularly relevant for children, as compliance is a major issue for current treatments of childhood amblyopia. However, despite the traditional opinion that treatment of amblyopia is only effective in children, our initial results add to the growing body of evidence that improvements in visual function can be achieved in adults with amblyopia.

  18. Active training for amblyopia in adult rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eSale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most diffused form of visual function impairment affecting one eye, with a prevalence of 1-5% in the total world population. Amblyopia is usually caused by an early functional imbalance between the two eyes, deriving from anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, leading to severe deficits in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. While amblyopia can be efficiently treated in children, it becomes irreversible in adults, as result of a dramatic decline in visual cortex plasticity which occurs at the end of the critical period in the primary visual cortex. Notwithstanding this widely accepted dogma, recent evidence in animal models and in human patients have started to challenge this view, revealing a previously unsuspected possibility to enhance plasticity in the adult visual system and to achieve substantial visual function recovery. Among the new proposed intervention strategies, non invasive procedures based on environmental enrichment, physical exercise or visual perceptual learning appear particularly promising in terms of future applicability in the clinical setting. In this survey, we will review recent literature concerning the application of these behavioral intervention strategies to the treatment of amblyopia, with a focus on possible underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms.

  19. Determinants of Compliance among Pediatric Amblyopia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    Given the recent focus on patient responsibility for health status and improvement, it is important to understand the dynamics involved in patient compliance to treatment regimens. The determinants of patching compliance among 30 pediatric amblyopia patients and their parents were investigated by means of parent, patient, and physician…

  20. Distant stereoacuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Woong; Park, Shin Hae; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-09-01

    To characterize changes in distant stereoacuity using Frisby-Davis Distance test (FD2) and Distant Randot test (DR) during treatment for anisometropic amblyopia, to determine factors that influence posttreatment stereoacuity and to compare the two distant stereotests. Fifty-eight anisometropic amblyopic patients with an interocular difference of ≥1.00 diopter who achieved the visual acuity 20/20 following amblyopia treatment were retrospectively included. Stereoacuity using FD2 and DR for distant and Titmus test for near measurement were assessed and compared at the initial, intermediate, and final visit. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with initial and final stereoacuity. The two distant stereotests revealed a significant improvement in distant stereoacuity after successful amblyopia treatment. Distant stereoacuity using FD2 showed the greatest improvement during the follow up period. The number of nil scores was higher in DR than FD2 at each period. In multivariate analysis, better final stereoacuity was associated with better initial amblyopic eye acuity in both distant stereotests, but not in the Titmus test. Comparing the two distant stereotests, final stereoacuity using FD2 was associated with initial stereoacuity and was moderately related with the Titmus test at each period, but final stereoacuity using DR was not. Distant stereoacuity measured with both FD2 and DR showed significant improvement when the visual acuity of the amblyopic eye achieved 20/20. Changes in distant stereoacuity by FD2 and DR during the amblyopia treatment were somewhat different.

  1. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Study progress of clinical electrophysiology on amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology examination is an important technique in studying amblyopia, which mainly includes electrooculography(EOG, electroretinography(ERG, visual evoked potential(VEP. This study does not only summarizes the definition, the mechanisms and the meaning of these indexes in the relevant research progress in recent years, but also makes a comment on the controversies among the relevant research conclusions.

  3. Amblyopia and strabismus in Iranian schoolchildren, Mashhad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali

    2011-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus among the population of schoolchildren Mashhad, Iran. In a cross-sectional study with cluster sampling, 2510 schoolchildren were selected from schools of district 1 in Mashhad. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded for each participant. Amblyopia was distinguished as a reduction of BCVA to 20/30 or less in one eye or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences in the absence of pathological causes. Of the 2510 selected schoolchildren, 2150 participated (response rate, 85.6%). The mean (± standard deviation) age of the participants was 13.2 ± 3.2 (range, 6-21) years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.9% (95% CI: 0.94-2.90); 2.1% (95% CI: 0.10-3.16) in girls and 1.7% (95% CI: 0.30-3.12) in boys (P = 0.6). Among myopic, hyperopic, and astigmatic students, 3.7%, 27.8%, and 6.5% had amblyopia, respectively (Pamblyopia were anisometropia in 65.9%, strabismus in 24.4%, and isoametropia in 9.8%. The prevalence of strabismus was 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3% to 4.3%); 4.2% (95% CI, 3.05 to 5.7%) in girls, and 2.0% (1.3% to 2.9%) in boys (P = 0.0011). Strabismus was significantly more prevalent among hyperopic students (7.9%) compared with myopic ones (3.7%). Results of the present study indicate that the prevalence rate of amblyopia was in the mid-range of other studies, and the prevalence of strabismus was relatively high. Since refractive errors, especially hyperopia, are responsible for some cases of strabismus.

  4. The Relationship between Higher-order Aberrations and Amblyopia Treatment in Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Han

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and amblyopia treatment in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Methods The medical records of hyperopic amblyopia patients with both spherical anisometropia of 1.00 diopter (D) or more and astigmatic anisometropia of less than 1.00 D were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the results of the amblyopia treatment, patients were divided into two groups: treatment successes and failures. Using the degree of spherical anisometropia, subjects were categorized into mild, moderate, or severe groups. Ocular, corneal, and internal HOAs were measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit, and at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups. Results The results of the 45 (21 males and 24 females) hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia patients who completed the 12-month follow-up examinations were analyzed. The mean patient age at the initial visit was 70.3 months. In total, 28 patients (62.2%) had successful amblyopia treatments and 17 patients (37.8%) failed treatment after 12 months. Among the patient population, 24 (53.3%) had mild hyperopic anisometropia and 21 (46.7%) had moderate hyperopic anisometropia. When comparing the two groups (i.e., the success and failure groups), ocular spherical aberrations and internal spherical aberrations in the amblyopic eyes were significantly higher in the failure group at every follow-up point. There were no significant differences in any of the HOAs between mild and moderate cases of hyperopic anisometropia at any follow-up. When the amblyopic and fellow eyes were compared between the groups there were no significant differences in any of the HOAs. Conclusions HOAs, particularly ocular spherical aberrations and internal spherical aberrations, should be considered as reasons for failed amblyopia treatment. PMID:24505201

  5. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2011-05-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  6. Optical Treatment of Strabismic and Combined Strabismic-Anisometropic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine visual acuity improvement in children with strabismic and combined strabismic-anisometropic (combined-mechanism) amblyopia treated with optical correction alone and to explore factors associated with improvement. Design Prospective multi-center cohort study Participants 146 children 3 to amblyopia (N=52) or combined-mechanism amblyopia (N=94). Methods Optical treatment was provided as spectacles (prescription based on a cycloplegic refraction) that were worn for the first time at the baseline visit. Visual acuity with spectacles was measured using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV© visual acuity protocol at baseline and every 9 weeks thereafter until no further improvement in visual acuity. Ocular alignment was assessed at each visit. Main outcome measure Visual acuity 18 weeks after baseline. Results Overall, amblyopic eye visual acuity improved a mean of 2.6 lines (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 3.0), with 75% of children improving ≥2 lines and 54% improving ≥3 lines. Resolution of amblyopia occurred in 32% (95% confidence interval: 24% to 41%) of the children. The treatment effect was greater for strabismic amblyopia than for combined-mechanism amblyopia (3.2 versus 2.3 lines, adjusted P=0.003). Visual acuity improved regardless of whether eye alignment improved. Conclusions Optical treatment alone of strabismic and combined-mechanism amblyopia results in clinically meaningful improvement in amblyopic eye visual acuity for most 3 to amblyopia before initiating other therapies. PMID:21959371

  7. Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne

    2005-11-01

    Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows.

  8. Risk Factors for Amblyopia in the Vision In Preschoolers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Maisie; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Quinn, Graham E; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn A; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-shuang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for unilateral amblyopia and for bilateral amblyopia in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional Study. Participants Three- to 5-year old Head Start preschoolers from 5 clinical centers, over-representing children with vision disorders. Methods All children underwent comprehensive eye exams including threshold visual acuity (VA), cover testing, and cycloplegic retinoscopy, performed by VIP-certified optometrists and ophthalmologists who were experienced in providing care to children. Monocular threshold VA was tested using single-surround HOTV letter protocol without correction, and retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as an inter-ocular difference in best-corrected VA ≥2 lines. Bilateral amblyopia was defined as best-corrected VA in each eye worse than 20/50 for 3-year-olds and worse than 20/40 for 4- to 5-year-olds. Main Outcome Measures Risk of amblyopia was summarized by The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) estimated from logistic regression models. Results In this enriched sample of Head Start children (N=3869), 296 (7.7%) children had unilateral amblyopia, and 144 (3.7%) children had bilateral amblyopia. Presence of strabismus (pamblyopia. Presence of strabismus, hyperopia ≥2.0 D, astigmatism ≥1.0 D, or anisometropia ≥0.5 D were present in 91% of children with unilateral amblyopia. Greater magnitude of astigmatism (pamblyopia. Bilateral hyperopia ≥3.0 diopters (D) or astigmatism ≥1.0 D were present in 76% of children with bilateral amblyopia. Conclusion Strabismus and significant refractive errors were risk factors for unilateral amblyopia. Bilateral astigmatism and bilateral hyperopia were risk factors for bilateral amblyopia. Despite differences in selection of study population, these results validated the findings from the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and Baltimore

  9. Effect of Amblyopia Treatment on Choroidal Thickness in Children with Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in the eyes of children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and to assess changes in CT during amblyopia treatment using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This longitudinal study, initially enrolled 40 patients, aged 3-9 years with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Patients underwent treatment with refractive correction alone for 16 weeks and if needed, with refractive correction and patching treatment thereafter (6 months). CT was measured perpendicularly (from the outer edge of the hyper-reflective retinal pigment epithelium to the inner sclera) at the fovea, and 1.5-mm temporal, 3.0-mm temporal, 1.5-mm nasal, and 3.0-mm nasal to the fovea using SD-OCT in amblyopic eyes and fellow eyes during treatment and in the control subjects (n = 22). The baseline subfoveal CT measurement was mean 367.9 ± 54 in the amblyopic eyes, 283.9 ± 39.6 in the fellow eyes, and 267.3 ± 41.3 µm in the control eyes. Before amblyopia treatment, the subfoveal CT and CT at 1.5-mm nasal and temporal to the fovea and 3.0-mm nasal to fovea in the amblyopic eyes were significantly thicker than those of the control subjects after adjustment for refraction and axial length by multivariate ANCOVA. CT at all locations decreased significantly after treatment in the amblyopic eyes. The final measurement of subfoveal choroid and CT at 1.5-mm nasal to the fovea of the amblyopic eyes was significantly thicker than those of the control subjects after adjusting for axial length and refraction. The findings of this study indicate that children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia have significant CT alterations, and these changes partially regress after amblyopia treatment.

  10. Compliance with occlusion therapy for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R

    2013-09-17

    Explore compliance with occlusion treatment of amblyopia in the Monitored and Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Studies (MOTAS and ROTAS), using objective monitoring. Both studies had a three-phase protocol: initial assessment, refractive adaptation, and occlusion. In the occlusion phase, participants were instructed to dose for 6 hours/day (MOTAS) or randomized to 6 or 12 hour/day (ROTAS). Dose was monitored continuously using an occlusion dose monitor (ODM). One hundred and fifty-two patients (71 male, 81 female; 122 Caucasian, 30 non-Caucasian) of mean ± SD age 68 ± 18 months participated. Amblyopia was defined as an interocular acuity difference of at least 0.1 logMAR and was associated with anisometropia in 50, strabismus in 44, and both (mixed) in 58. Median duration of occlusion was 99 days (interquartile range 72 days). Mean compliance was 44%, mean proportion of days with no patch worn was 42%. Compliance was lower (39%) on weekends compared with weekdays (46%, P = 0.04), as was the likelihood of dosing at all (52% vs. 60%, P = 0.028). Compliance was lower when attendance was less frequent (P amblyopia type, and severity were not associated with compliance. Mixture modeling suggested three subpopulations of patch day doses: less than 30 minutes; doses that achieve 30% to 80% compliance; and doses that achieve around 100% compliance. This study shows that compliance with patching treatment averages less than 50% and is influenced by several factors. A greater understanding of these influences should improve treatment outcome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00274664).

  11. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  12. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in young singaporean chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Audrey; Dirani, Mohamed; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Gazzard, Gus; Au Eong, Kah-Guan; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Ling, Yvonne; Quah, Boon-Long; Young, Terri L; Mitchell, Paul; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in young Singaporean Chinese children. METHODS. Enrolled in the study were 3009 Singaporean children, aged 6 to 72 months. All underwent complete eye examinations and cycloplegic refraction. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a logMAR chart when possible and the Sheridan-Gardner test when not. Strabismus was defined as any manifest tropia. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference between eyes with VA or =1.00 D for hyperopia, > or =3.00 D for myopia, and > or =1.50 D for astigmatism), strabismus, or past or present visual axis obstruction. Bilateral amblyopia was defined as VA in both eyes or =4.00 D, myopia or =2.50 D, or past or present visual axis obstruction. RESULTS. The amblyopia prevalence in children aged 30 to 72 months was 1.19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.83) with no age (P = 0.37) or sex (P = 0.22) differences. Unilateral amblyopia (0.83%) was twice as frequent as bilateral amblyopia (0.36%). The most frequent causes of amblyopia were refractive error (85%) and strabismus (15%); anisometropic astigmatism >1.50 D (42%) and isometropic astigmatism >2.50 D (29%) were frequent refractive errors. The prevalence of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months was 0.80% (95% CI, 0.51-1.19), with no sex (P = 0.52) or age (P = 0.08) effects. The exotropia-esotropia ratio was 7:1, with most exotropia being intermittent (63%). Of children with amblyopia, 15.0% had strabismus, whereas 12.5% of children with strabismus had amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of amblyopia was similar, whereas the prevalence of strabismus was lower than in other populations.

  13. Rotterdam AMBlyopia screening effectiveness study: Detection and causes of amblyopia in a large birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Groenewoud (Hanny); A.M. Tjiam (Angela); V.K. Lantau (Kathleen); W.C. Hoogeveen; J.T.H.N. de Faber; R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Dutch population-based child health monitoring program includes regular preverbal (age range, 1-24 months) and preschool (age range, 36-72 months) vision screening. This study is on the contribution of an organized vision screening program to the detection of amblyopia.

  14. Adaptation to Laterally Displacing Prisms in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Jaime C; Goltz, Herbert C; Gane, Luke; Wong, Agnes M F

    2015-06-01

    Using visual feedback to modify sensorimotor output in response to changes in the external environment is essential for daily function. Prism adaptation is a well-established experimental paradigm to quantify sensorimotor adaptation; that is, how the sensorimotor system adapts to an optically-altered visuospatial environment. Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by spatiotemporal deficits in vision that impacts manual and oculomotor function. This study explored the effects of anisometropic amblyopia on prism adaptation. Eight participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 11 visually-normal adults, all right-handed, were tested. Participants pointed to visual targets and were presented with feedback of hand position near the terminus of limb movement in three blocks: baseline, adaptation, and deadaptation. Adaptation was induced by viewing with binocular 11.4° (20 prism diopter [PD]) left-shifting prisms. All tasks were performed during binocular viewing. Participants with anisometropic amblyopia required significantly more trials (i.e., increased time constant) to adapt to prismatic optical displacement than visually-normal controls. During the rapid error correction phase of adaptation, people with anisometropic amblyopia also exhibited greater variance in motor output than visually-normal controls. Amblyopia impacts on the ability to adapt the sensorimotor system to an optically-displaced visual environment. The increased time constant and greater variance in motor output during the rapid error correction phase of adaptation may indicate deficits in processing of visual information as a result of degraded spatiotemporal vision in amblyopia.

  15. A retrospective analysis of children with anisometropic amblyopia in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Kishor

    2014-06-01

    Anisometropia is one of the main causes of amblyopia. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the depth of amblyopia and the magnitude of anisometropia. A retrospective record review was conducted at the Nepal Eye Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011. Those children included in this study were aged ≤13 years and diagnosed with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia, no strabismus and ocular pathology. Associations between the depth of amblyopia and the age and/or gender of the subjects, the laterality of the amblyopic eyes, the type and magnitude of refractive error of amblyopic eyes, and the magnitude of anisometropia were statistically analyzed. Out of the 189 children with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia (mean age 9.1 ± 2.8 years), 59% were boys. Amblyopia was more commonly found in left eye (p amblyopia was not associated with the gender (p = 0.864) or age (p = 0.341) of the subjects or the laterality of the eyes (p = 0.159), but it was associated with the type (p = 0.049) and magnitude (p = 0.013) of refractive error of the amblyopic eye and the magnitude of anisometropia (p = 0.002). Nepalese anisometropic amblyopic children were presented late to hospital. The depth of amblyopia was highly associated with the type and magnitude of refractive error of the amblyopic eye and the magnitude of anisometropia. So, basic vision screening programs may help to find out the anisometropic children and reefer them to the hospital for timely management of anisometropic amblyopia if present.

  16. The Initiation of Smooth Pursuit is Delayed in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Liu, Ivy Ziqian; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2016-04-01

    Several behavioral studies have shown that the reaction times of visually guided movements are slower in people with amblyopia, particularly during amblyopic eye viewing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements, which are responsible for accurately keeping moving objects on the fovea, is delayed in people with anisometropic amblyopia. Eleven participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 14 visually normal observers were asked to track a step-ramp target moving at ±15°/s horizontally as quickly and as accurately as possible. The experiment was conducted under three viewing conditions: amblyopic/nondominant eye, binocular, and fellow/dominant eye viewing. Outcome measures were smooth pursuit latency, open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency. Participants with anisometropic amblyopia initiated smooth pursuit significantly slower during amblyopic eye viewing (206 ± 20 ms) than visually normal observers viewing with their nondominant eye (183 ± 17 ms, P = 0.002). However, mean pursuit latency in the anisometropic amblyopia group during binocular and monocular fellow eye viewing was comparable to the visually normal group. Mean open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency were similar between the two groups, but participants with anisometropic amblyopia exhibited more variable steady state gain (P = 0.045). This study provides evidence of temporally delayed smooth pursuit initiation in anisometropic amblyopia. After initiation, the smooth pursuit velocity profile in anisometropic amblyopia participants is similar to visually normal controls. This finding differs from what has been observed previously in participants with strabismic amblyopia who exhibit reduced smooth pursuit velocity gains with more catch-up saccades.

  17. Observations on the relationship between anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Earl L; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar; Wensveen, Janice M; Chino, Yuzo M; Harwerth, Ronald S

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the potential causal relationships between anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus, specifically to determine whether either amblyopia or strabismus interfered with emmetropization. We analyzed data from non-human primates that were relevant to the co-existence of anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus in children. We relied on interocular comparisons of spatial vision and refractive development in animals reared with 1) monocular form deprivation; 2) anisometropia optically imposed by either contact lenses or spectacle lenses; 3) organic amblyopia produced by laser ablation of the fovea; and 4) strabismus that was either optically imposed with prisms or produced by either surgical or pharmacological manipulation of the extraocular muscles. Hyperopic anisometropia imposed early in life produced amblyopia in a dose-dependent manner. However, when potential methodological confounds were taken into account, there was no support for the hypothesis that the presence of amblyopia interferes with emmetropization or promotes hyperopia or that the degree of image degradation determines the direction of eye growth. To the contrary, there was strong evidence that amblyopic eyes were able to detect the presence of a refractive error and alter ocular growth to eliminate the ametropia. On the other hand, early onset strabismus, both optically and surgically imposed, disrupted the emmetropization process producing anisometropia. In surgical strabismus, the deviating eyes were typically more hyperopic than their fellow fixating eyes. The results show that early hyperopic anisometropia is a significant risk factor for amblyopia. Early esotropia can trigger the onset of both anisometropia and amblyopia. However, amblyopia, in isolation, does not pose a significant risk for the development of hyperopia or anisometropia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amblyopia and quality of life: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, J; Kaltenthaler, E

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia is a common condition, which can affect up to 5% of the general population. Health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been explored in the literature. A systematic literature search was undertaken during the period of 7–14 May 2010 to identify the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment. A total of 35 papers were included in the literature review. The HRQoL implications of amblyopia related specifically to amblyopia treatment, rather than to the condition itself. These included impact on family life, social interactions, difficulties in undertaking daily activities, as well as feelings and behaviour. The identified studies adopted a number of methodologies. The study populations included children with the condition, parents of children with amblyopia, and adults who had undertaken amblyopia treatment as a child. Some studies developed their own measures of HRQoL, and others determined HRQoL through proxy measures. The reported findings of the HRQoL implications are of importance when considering the management of cases of amblyopia. The issues identified in the literature review are discussed with respect to how HRQoL is measured (treatment compliance vs proxy measures), and whether HRQoL is taken from a child's or a parent's perspective. Changing societal views over glasses and occlusion therapy are also discussed. Further research is required to assess the immediate and long-term effects of amblyopia and/or its treatment on HRQoL using a more standardised approach. PMID:21274010

  19. Research of refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and influence factors for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and to investigate the related influence factors for the treatment effect. METHODS:Three hundred and fifty-four children diagnosed as ametropia amblyopia from January 2010 to June 2015 in our hospital were selected. The children were divided into groups according to the children's age, refraction types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. The clinical treatment effect of different groups was compared. RESULTS:The cure rate for amblyopia children in different groups was significantly different(PPPCONCLUSION:The treatment effect of ametropia amblyopia is correlated with the children's age, types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. It has a poor treatment effect for the older children with severe myopia and amblyopia.

  20. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Rose, Kathryn A; Leone, Jody F; Sharbini, Sharimawati; Burlutsky, George; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a sample of Australian preschool children. Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study examined 2461 (73.8% participation) children aged between 6 and 72 months from 2007 to 2009. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed in children aged ≥ 30 months using the Electronic Visual Acuity system, and a subset using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart. Amblyopia was categorized into unilateral and bilateral subtypes: Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference in reduced VA between the 2 eyes, in addition to strabismus, anisometropia, and/or visual axis obstruction; bilateral amblyopia was defined as bilateral reduced VA with either bilateral visual axis obstruction or significant bilateral ametropia. Information on ethnicity, birth parameters, and measures of socioeconomic status were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. Amblyopia. We included 1422 children aged 30 to 72 months, of whom 27 (1.9%) were found to have amblyopia or suspected amblyopia. Mean spherical equivalent for the amblyopic eyes was +3.57 diopters, with a mean VA of 20/50. Only 3 of the 27 amblyopic children had previous diagnoses or treatments for amblyopia. In regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (odds ratio [OR], 15.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-36.4), astigmatism (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-12.7), anisometropia (OR, 27.8; 95% CI, 11.2-69.3), and strabismus (OR, 13.1; 95% CI, 4.3-40.4). There were no significant associations of amblyopia with low birthweight (0.05). Amblyopia was found in 1.9% of this Australian preschool sample, which is comparable with prevalence rates reported by other recent studies in preschool children. Refractive errors, particularly significant hyperopia and astigmatism, in addition to anisometropia and strabismus, were the major amblyogenic factors

  1. [Research advances on cortical functional and structural deficits of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Liu, L Q

    2017-05-11

    Previous studies have observed functional deficits in primary visual cortex. With the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological technique, the research of the striate, extra-striate cortex and higher-order cortical deficit underlying amblyopia reaches a new stage. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia show that anomalous responses exist throughout the visual processing hierarchy, including the functional and structural abnormalities. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional deficits of brain regions associated with amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 392 - 395) .

  2. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?i?, Mladen; Bjelo?, Mirjana; Petrove?ki, Mladen; Kuzmanovi? Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Rami?, Senad; Mileti?, Daliborka; Andrija?evi?, Lidija; Kond?a Krstonijevi?, Edita; Jakovljevi?, Vid; Bi??an Tvrdi, Ana; Predovi?, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bi??an, Filip; Kova?evi? Ljubi?, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at...

  3. [The lazy eye - contemporary strategies of amblyopia treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, V

    2011-02-16

    Amblyopia is a condition of decreased monocular or binocular visual acuity caused by form deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction. Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular vision loss in children with a prevalence of 2 to 5%. During the last decade, several prospective randomized studies have influenced our clinical management. Based on these studies, optimum refractive correction should be prescribed first. However, most patients will need additional occlusion therapy which is still considered the «gold standard» of amblyopia management. Now much lower doses have been shown to be effective. In moderate amblyopia, penalization with atropine is as effective as patching. New treatment modalities including perceptual learning, pharmacotherapy with levodopa and citicholine or transcranial magnetic stimulation have not yet been widely accepted.

  4. [Prevalence of astigmatism in 2023 children with amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Liu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Wu-Xiao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Juan

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence, type and distribution of astigmatism in children with amblyopia. A total of 2023 children with amblyopia (aged 4-11 years, 3657 eyes) were recruited. The prevalence of astigmatism was investigated. Of the 3657 amblyopic eyes, 91.9% presented astigmatism (≥0.5 D). The proportion of eyes with astigmatism decreased with the increasing age. Compound hyperopic astigmatism was the most common type of astigmatism (38.8%) and its prevalence increased with the increasing age in children with amblyopia. Astigmatism with the rule was the most common (90.1%) in the axial distribution test. There were statistical significances in the axial distribution of astigmatism in different age groups. Statistical significances were also found in the degree, type and axis of astigmatism among the children with mild, moderate and severe amblyopia (Pprevalence of astigmatism in children with amblyopia is high but is reduced with age. The age and the degree of amblyopia might be influential factors in the distribution of astigmatism.

  5. Nutritional Amblyopia Combined with Night Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling.

  6. INFLUENCE OF CHOLINE ALFOSCERATE ON VISUAL PERCEPTION IN PATIENTS WITH AMBLYOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    I.E. Aznauryan; I.S. Bagrova

    2006-01-01

    Amblyopia is a frequent disorder in pediatric ophthalmology. The term of amblyopia refers to reduced vision caused by limited visual sensory stimulation (visual deprivation) at a time of visual system development, so the vision can not be improved by proper sunglasses. Apparatus treatment of amblyopia have limited effect in rehabilitation of children with moderate (lens corrected visual acuity between 0.2 and 0.3) and severe (lens corrected visual acuity below 0.2) amblyopia. Novel data conce...

  7. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

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    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  8. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, E.S. van de; Despriet, D.D.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Simonsz, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational

  9. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current

  10. Impact of cylinder axis on the treatment for astigmatic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen-Shou; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Po-Liang; Lu, Da-Wen; Chien, Ke-Hung

    2014-04-01

    To compare the effects of oblique astigmatism on refractive amblyopia in children aged 3-7 years with those having orthogonal astigmatism. A retrospective review of medical records. The medical records of patients attending Tri-Service General Hospital in Taiwan from January 2003 to December 2010 were reviewed and summarized. Seventy-two children with oblique astigmatism-related refractive amblyopia (Group 1) and 82 children with orthogonal astigmatism (Group 2) were chosen. Characteristics such as baseline visual acuity (VA), the time course of VA improvement, refractive error, and family history were assessed. Group 1 showed a worse baseline mean VA (±SD) of 0.61 (0.13) vs 0.52 (0.16) logMAR (P = .01), a slower rate of amblyopia improvement, and higher prevalence of parental oblique astigmatism (29% vs 5.5%; P amblyopia in Group 1 of 2.48 (0.82) was lower than that in Group 2: 2.93 (0.71) (P = .006). However, Group 1 achieved a noninferior resolution of amblyopia (mean final VA 0.18 vs 0.16 logMAR) after longer treatment of 6.45 (2.44) vs 5.86 (2.92) months (P = .039). A smaller degree of initial oblique astigmatism caused amblyopia than did orthogonal astigmatism. Although the children with oblique astigmatism achieved equal resolution rates after treatment, this took longer. Therefore, we should pay more attention to children with mild oblique astigmatism, as they are more likely to develop oblique astigmatism-related amblyopia. Moreover, early diagnosis and prompt treatment might help visual improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of strabismic amblyopia and strabismus without amblyopia on visuomotor behavior: III. Temporal eye-hand coordination during reaching.

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    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M F

    2014-11-11

    To examine the effects of strabismic amblyopia and strabismus only, without amblyopia, on the temporal patterns of eye-hand coordination during both the planning and execution stages of visually-guided reaching. Forty-six adults (16 with strabismic amblyopia, 14 with strabismus only, and 16 visually normal) executed reach-to-touch movements toward targets presented randomly 5° or 10° to the left or right of central fixation. Viewing conditions were binocular, monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, and monocular viewing with the fellow eye (dominant and nondominant viewing for participants without amblyopia). Temporal coordination between eye and hand movements was examined during reach planning (interval between the initiation of saccade and reaching, i.e., saccade-to-reach planning interval) and reach execution (interval between the initiation of saccade and reach peak velocity [PV], i.e., saccade-to-reach PV interval). The frequency and dynamics of secondary reach-related saccades were also examined. The temporal patterns of eye-hand coordination prior to reach initiation were comparable among participants with strabismic amblyopia, strabismus only, and visually normal adults. However, the reach acceleration phase of participants with strabismic amblyopia and those with strabismus only were longer following target fixation (saccade-to-reach PV interval) than that of visually normal participants (P amblyopia with different levels of acuity and stereo acuity loss. Participants with strabismic amblyopia and strabismus only initiated secondary reach-related saccades significantly more frequently than visually normal participants. The amplitude and peak velocity of these saccades were significantly greater during amblyopic eye viewing in participants with amblyopia who also had negative stereopsis. Adults with strabismic amblyopia and strabismus only showed an altered pattern of temporal eye-hand coordination during the reach acceleration phase, which might

  12. Prevalence and etiology of amblyopia in Southern India: results from screening of school children aged 5-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, Sunil; Jhanji, Vishal; Liang, Yuanbo; Dorairaj, Syril

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and etiology of amblyopia in school children. A total of 4020 school children aged between 5 and 15 years were screened in a population-based, cross-sectional study. Best corrected visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic evaluation were performed in all participants. Amblyopia associated with degraded visual input due to high refractive error was labeled ametropic amblyopia. Anisometropic amblyopia was diagnosed in participants with interocular refractive error difference ≥1 diopter. Strabismic amblyopia included that due to conflicting visual inputs between the eyes due to squint. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia was defined as amblyopia due to obstruction of the visual axis. Prevalence of amblyopia was 1.1% (n = 44). The number of boys with amblyopia (n = 25, 57%) was slightly higher than the number of girls with amblyopia (n = 19, 43%; p = 0.6). A total of 28 (63.7%) children had mild to moderate amblyopia, whereas 16 (36.3%) had severe amblyopia. Underlying amblyogenic causes were ametropia (50%), anisometropia (40.9%), strabismus (6.8%), visual deprivation (4.5%) and combined causes (2.2%). No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of amblyopia between rural (1.2%) and urban (0.9%) children (p = 0.5). In this study, the prevalence of amblyopia was 1.1% of the school children. Ametropia and anisometropia were the most common causes of amblyopia. We did not find any significant difference in amblyopia prevalence between rural and urban school children.

  13. The measurement and treatment of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna M; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R; To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin

    2012-12-14

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of the visual cortex, is one of the leading causes of visual dysfunction in the working age population. Current estimates put the prevalence of amblyopia at approximately 1-3%(1-3), the majority of cases being monocular(2). Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error (anisometropia), and in some cases by form deprivation. Although amblyopia is initially caused by abnormal visual input in infancy, once established, the visual deficit often remains when normal visual input has been restored using surgery and/or refractive correction. This is because amblyopia is the result of abnormal visual cortex development rather than a problem with the amblyopic eye itself(4,5) . Amblyopia is characterized by both monocular and binocular deficits(6,7) which include impaired visual acuity and poor or absent stereopsis respectively. The visual dysfunction in amblyopia is often associated with a strong suppression of the inputs from the amblyopic eye under binocular viewing conditions(8). Recent work has indicated that suppression may play a central role in both the monocular and binocular deficits associated with amblyopia(9,10) . Current clinical tests for suppression tend to verify the presence or absence of suppression rather than giving a quantitative measurement of the degree of suppression. Here we describe a technique for measuring amblyopic suppression with a compact, portable device(11,12) . The device consists of a laptop computer connected to a pair of virtual reality goggles. The novelty of the technique lies in the way we present visual stimuli to measure suppression. Stimuli are shown to the amblyopic eye at high contrast while the contrast of the stimuli shown to the non-amblyopic eye are varied. Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. The contrast offset at which

  14. Factors influencing the prevalence of amblyopia in children with anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Eun; Lee, Young Chun; Lee, Se-Youp

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate factors that can influence the prevalence of amblyopia in children with anisometropia. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 63 children 2 to 13 years of age who had anisometropic amblyopia with a difference in the refractive errors between the eyes of at least two diopters (D). The type of anisometropia (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism), degree of anisometropia (4 D), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the amblyopic eye at the time of initial examination, BCVA differences between sound and amblyopic eyes, whether or not occlusion therapy was performed, compliance with occlusion therapy, and the patient's age when eyeglasses were first worn were investigated. There was an increase in the risk of amblyopia with increased magnitude of anisometropia (p=0.021). The prevalence of amblyopia was higher in the BCVA 4 lines between sound and amblyopic eyes (p=0.008 and p=0.045, respectively). There was no statistical relationship between the prevalence of amblyopia and the type of anisometropia or the age when eyeglasses were first worn. Poor compliance with occlusion therapy was less likely to achieve successful outcome (p=0.015). Eyes with poor initial visual acuities of 4 line difference in the BCVA between sound and amblyopic eyes at the initial visit may require active treatment.

  15. Refractive Error, Srabismus and Amblyopia in Congenital Ptosis

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    R Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital ptosis is often associated with visual impairment. The aim of the study is to find out the pattern of refractive error,strabismus and amblyopia in patients with congenital ptosis in a hospital setting. METHODS: This is a hospital based prospective and descriptive study conducted at Tribhuvan University, B P Koirala Lion's Centre for Ophthalmic studies in Nepal from February 2003 to July 2004. All the consecutive cases with congenital ptosis were included and cases with pseudoptosis were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Among the 78 cases (95 eyes of congenital ptosis, refractive error was present in 13 cases (16.7% with astigmatism as the commonestrefractive error (8.9%. Strabismus was found in 23 cases (26.9% of congenital ptosis. Among the strabismus, combined exotropia with hypotropia was found in the majority of cases (16.7%. Visual impairment due to amblyopia was found in 15 cases (19.2% of congenital ptosis with mixed strabismic and refractive etiology as the commonest one (46.7% followed by pure strabismic (26.7%, pure refractive (20% and stimulus deprivationamblyopia (6.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with congenital ptosis have higher rate of amblyopia due to greater prevalence of strabismus and refractive errors although stimulus deprivation amblyopia is less common. Early ophthalmic evaluation and timely treatment of these conditions may help prevent the irreversible visual impairment in case of congenital ptosis. Keywords: amblyopia, congenital ptosis, refractive error, strabismus.

  16. Prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Noelle S; Singman, Eric L; Silbert, David I

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether children who present to an ophthalmology practice for nasolacrimal duct obstruction are more likely to have risk factors for amblyopia. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients presenting to a pediatric oculoplastic specialist between January 1, 2001, and August 8, 2009. The review yielded 402 pediatric patients diagnosed with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Children were classified as having amblyopia risk factors on the basis of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus referral criteria. Of 402 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction, 100% received a cyclopegic refraction. Of these, 88 patients (22%) were found to have amblyogenic risk factors; 65 of these patients had amblyogenic refractive errors, 9 had strabismus, and 14 had a combination of the two. Of the 88 patients with amblyopia risk factors, 11% had a family history of strabismus compared with 9% of patients without amblyopia risk factors, which was not a statistically significant difference. There was no other significant pathology found on the dilated fundus examinations except for one child known to have persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and a congenital cataract and one child with previously known CHARGE syndrome before the examination for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Children who present with nasolacromal duct obstructions seem to be more likely to have amblyopia risk factors and therefore should have a full comprehensive pediatric ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction. Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of refractive state in 708 children with ametropic amblyopia

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    Ju-Fen Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the refractive state and explore the epidemiologic feature of children with ametropic amblyopia.METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 708 children(1 416 eyeswith amblyopia from January 2012 to December 2013 in Special Department of Strabismus and Amblyopic and Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology in our hospital, who were diagnosed as ametropic amblyopia and accepted centrally comprehensive training. The refractive state were given epidemiologic analyze.RESULTS: In the 708 cases(1 416 eyes, there were 190 eyes with hyperopia(13.42%,612 eyes with hyperopia astigmatism(43.22%,18 eyes with myopia(1.27%,134 eyes with myopia astigmatism(9.46%,462 eyes with mixed astigmatism(32.63%. The distributions of refractive state in children at different age were different, and the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Hyperopia ametropia and mixed astigmatism are the main types of refractive errors in amblyopia children. The level of amblyopia is related to refractive state and astigmatism axial.

  18. Effect of stimulus configuration on crowding in strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgett, Yvonne; Siderov, John

    2017-11-01

    Foveal vision in strabismic amblyopia can show increased levels of crowding, akin to typical peripheral vision. Target-flanker similarity and visual-acuity test configuration may cause the magnitude of crowding to vary in strabismic amblyopia. We used custom-designed visual acuity tests to investigate crowding in observers with strabismic amblyopia. LogMAR was measured monocularly in both eyes of 11 adults with strabismic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia using custom-designed letter tests. The tests used single-letter and linear formats with either bar or letter flankers to introduce crowding. Tests were presented monocularly on a high-resolution display at a test distance of 4 m, using standardized instructions. For each condition, five letters of each size were shown; testing continued until three letters of a given size were named incorrectly. Uncrowded logMAR was subtracted from logMAR in each of the crowded tests to highlight the crowding effect. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that letter flankers and linear presentation individually resulted in poorer performance in the amblyopic eyes (respectively, mean normalized logMAR = 0.29, SE = 0.07, mean normalized logMAR = 0.27, SE = 0.07; p 0.05). Both linear presentation and letter rather than bar flankers increase crowding in the amblyopic eyes of people with strabismic amblyopia. These results suggest the influence of more than one mechanism contributing to crowding in linear visual-acuity charts with letter flankers.

  19. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

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    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  20. Amblyopia and strabismus: trends in prevalence and risk factors among young adults in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Yinon; Machluf, Yossy; Mimouni, Michael; Chaiter, Yoram; Mezer, Eedy

    2017-08-16

    To estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, present strabismus and amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) among young adults in Israel and to analyse trends over time of prevalence rates. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 107 608 pre-enlistees aged 17.4±0.6 years born between 1971 and 1994. Across the birth years, the following trends of prevalence rates among young adults were analysed: prevalence of amblyopia, prevalence of strabismus, severity of amblyopia and prevalence of ARFs (strabismsus, anisometropia and isoametropia). Unilateral amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of amblyopia was defined as BCVA of amblyopia was classified as mild (BCVA ≥0.5 [6/12]), moderate (BCVA prevalence of young adulthood amblyopia declined by 33%, from 1.2% to 0.8% (R 2 =0.87, pamblyopia from 1% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.93, pprevalence of bilateral amblyopia remained stable (0.2%, p=0.12). The decline in amblyopia was apparent in mild and moderate amblyopia, but not in severe amblyopia. Strabismus and anisometropia were detected in 6-12% and 11-20% of subjects with unilateral amblyopia, respectively, without significant trends. Strabismic amblyopia remained constant in the entire population across years. Isoametropia was detected in 46-59% of subjects with bilateral amblyopia without a significant trend across birth years. Prevalence of strabismus in the study population decreased by 50%, from 1.2% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.75, pprevalence of mild unilateral amblyopia increased, while moderate or severe unilateral amblyopia remained relatively stable. Among young adults, the prevalence of unilateral amblyopia, as well as the prevalence of present strabismus, decreased significantly over a period of a generation. The prevalence of strabismic, bilateral or severe (both unilateral and bilateral) amblyopia remained stable. The establishment of the national screening programme for children and the improved utility of treatment for amblyopia and strabismus coincide with

  1. Evaluation of Occlusion Treatment Outcomes for Unilateral Amblyopia Using Different Definitions of Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liping; Yan, Hong; Xing, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhai; Zhu, Baoyi

    2016-01-01

    We studied 87 cases of children aged 3 to 10 with unilateral amblyopia (with types of anisometropia, strabismus, or both) who received good recovery after occlusion therapy. The proportional improvement had moderate positive correlation with amblyopic eye improvement (p amblyopia (p amblyopia residual had no correlation with amblyopic eye improvement (p amblyopia eye and residual amblyopia are simple and direct indicators for clinical application. The proportion of the deficit-corrected method should be graded as the proportion of change in visual acuity with respect to the absolute potential for improvement, and these optimum outcomes can provide powerful evidence for good therapeutic effect.

  2. Prevalence of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebasi, Yousef Homood

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In this cross sectional study, 5176 children, aged 6 to 13 years (mean - 9.53 ± 1.88 years) were evaluated. There were 2573 (49.71%) males and 2603 (50.29%) females. Distance visual acuity (V/A) was tested monocularly using a logMAR chart with and without correction. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in children with reduced vision. To determine the etiology of amblyopia, children were enrolled if there was a difference in V/A of two or more lines between eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity 0.05). The prevalence of amblyopia was statistically significant higher in the older age group (10-13 year) compared to younger age group (6 to 9 years) (P amblyopia (3.24%) was more frequent than bilateral amblyopia (0.66%). The most frequent causes of amblyopia were refractive error (94.56%), of which anisometropic amblyopia was present in 77.72%, isoametropic amblyopia in 16.84% and strabismus in 5.44%. The prevalence of amblyopia in Qassim province, KSA, is 3.9% which is similar or higher than other published studies on amblyopia. Anisometropic refractive errors are the most common underlying cause for this population. We recommend implementation of visual screening programs for children with appropriate clinical and social settings for early detection and proper management of amblyopia.

  3. Association of Optic Radiation Integrity with Cortical Thickness in Children with Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shun; Mu, Yun-Feng; Cui, Long-Biao; Li, Rong; Shi, Mei; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jian; Yin, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated regional abnormalities of both gray and white matter in amblyopia. However, alterations of cortical thickness associated with changes in white matter integrity have rarely been reported. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 15 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 15 age- and gender-matched children with normal sight. Combining DTI and surface-based morphometry, we examined a potential linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and altered cortical thickness. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the optic radiations (ORs) of children with anisometropic amblyopia were lower than in controls (P amblyopia. These findings indicate that developmental changes occur simultaneously in the OR and visual cortex in amblyopia, and provide key information on complex damage of brain networks in anisometropic amblyopia. Our results also support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of anisometropic amblyopia is neurodevelopmental.

  4. Integration of local motion is normal in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F.; Mansouri, Behzad; Dakin, Steven C.; Allen, Harriet A.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the global integration of local motion direction signals in amblyopia, in a task where performance is equated between normal and amblyopic eyes at the single element level. We use an equivalent noise model to derive the parameters of internal noise and number of samples, both of which we show are normal in amblyopia for this task. This result is in apparent conflict with a previous study in amblyopes showing that global motion processing is defective in global coherence tasks [Vision Res. 43, 729 (2003)]. A similar discrepancy between the normalcy of signal integration [Vision Res. 44, 2955 (2004)] and anomalous global coherence form processing has also been reported [Vision Res. 45, 449 (2005)]. We suggest that these discrepancies for form and motion processing in amblyopia point to a selective problem in separating signal from noise in the typical global coherence task.

  5. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-12-18

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail.

  6. Effect of amblyopia on self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne M; Gole, Glen A; Brown, Brian

    2008-11-01

    In an investigation of the psychosocial impact of amblyopia on children, the perceived self-esteem of children who had been treated for amblyopia was compared with that of age-matched controls. The influence of amblyopia condition or treatment factors that may impact self-perception scores was also explored. Children with a history of treatment for amblyopia (n = 47; age 9.2 +/- 1.3 years) and age-matched controls (n = 52; age 9.4 +/- 0.5 years) completed a standardized age-appropriate questionnaire based evaluation of perceived self-esteem (Harter Self Perception Profile for Children). Their vision characteristics and treatment regimen were also recorded. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to investigate the amblyopic characteristics and treatment factors that may have influenced self-perception scores in the amblyopic group. Children treated for amblyopia had significantly lower social acceptance scores than age-matched control children. In other areas related to self-esteem, including scholastic competence, physical appearance, athletic competence, behavioral conduct and global self worth, amblyopic children gave scores similar to those of control children. Within the amblyopic group, a lower social acceptance score was significantly correlated with a history of treatment with patching but not with a history of strabismus or wearing of glasses. Self-perception of social acceptance was lower in children treated for amblyopia compared with age-matched controls. A reduction in these scores was associated with a history of patching treatment but not with a history of strabismus or spectacle wear.

  7. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Refractive Errors Among Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Baghini, Ahmad Shojaei; Yaseri, Mehdi; Moein, Hamidreza; Akbarian, Shadi; Behradfar, Narges; Hosseini, Simin; Rabei, Hossein Mohammad; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Tehran, Iran. This population-based cross-sectional study included 2,410 randomly selected students. Visual acuity was tested using an E-chart on Yang vision tester. Refractive errors were measured by photorefractometry and cycloautorefraction. Strabismus was checked using cover test. Direct ophthalmoscopy was used to assess the anterior segment, lens opacities, red reflex and fundus. Functional amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in one or both eyes with no anatomical problems. Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9%) of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004). Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D) was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (Pprevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  8. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Refractive Errors Among Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Baghini, Ahmad Shojaei; Yaseri, Mehdi; Moein, Hamidreza; Akbarian, Shadi; Behradfar, Narges; Hosseini, Simin; Rabei, Hossein Mohammad; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 2,410 randomly selected students. Visual acuity was tested using an E-chart on Yang vision tester. Refractive errors were measured by photorefractometry and cycloautorefraction. Strabismus was checked using cover test. Direct ophthalmoscopy was used to assess the anterior segment, lens opacities, red reflex and fundus. Functional amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in one or both eyes with no anatomical problems. Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9%) of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004). Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D) was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (Prefractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87) and hyperopia (OR=11.87), were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations. PMID:27051485

  9. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglan Wang

    Full Text Available Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs. Accuracy (ACC, reaction time (RT, the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process

  10. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianglan; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Shoujing; Gong, Rui; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Longqian

    2017-01-01

    Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd) in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). Accuracy (ACC), reaction time (RT), the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process the same visual

  11. Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: an experience from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Emily W H; Li, Brian C Y; Yeung, Ian Y L; Li, Kenneth K W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the results of patching for amblyopia management in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Records of all patients attending Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic at United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 31 March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of all children who underwent patching for amblyopia in the study period were evaluated. RESULTS. The mean age of 50 children (50 eyes) was 4 (standard deviation, 1; range, 2-7) years and mean pretreatment visual acuity was 0.35 (0.15; 0.02-0.63) [~20/60]. The values for mean, standard deviation, and range of treatment duration were 27, 16, 4-67 months respectively, and corresponding values for prescribed patching per day were 4, 1, 2-8 hours. The mean, standard deviation, and range of visual acuity at final post-treatment assessment were 0.66, 0.16, 0.1-1.0 (~20/30), respectively. The overall success rate (ie final visual acuity >0.7 or 20/30) was 62%. Children with moderate amblyopia (20/40-20/80) and severe amblyopia (20/100-20/400) had success rates of 74% and 55%, respectively. The mean visual acuity improvements for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 2.3 lines and 5.8 lines, respectively. The mean, standard deviation, and range of patching prescriptions for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 5, 1, 2-7 hours and 5, 1, 3-6 hours, respectively. Recurrence ensued in 7% of the children with moderate amblyopia and 46% of those with severe amblyopia. Reported compliance was good (>75% of the time) in 68% of the children. CONCLUSION. Occlusion therapy is the mainstay of treatment in Hong Kong. The overall success rate was comparable to that achieved in the Amblyopia Treatment Study. Recurrence was more common in patients with severe amblyopia, for whom maintenance therapy may reduce the risk of recurrence. The duration of treatment was much longer in our locality than in western countries. Reported

  12. Amblyopia: What Is the Cause of Lazy Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Amblyopia: What Is the Cause of Lazy Eye? Leer en Español: Ambliopía: ¿Qué causa el ojo ... Cloudiness in the normally clear parts of the eye Some children are born with a cataract , where ...

  13. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  14. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-01-01

    Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  15. Amblyopia in rural Nigerian school children | Alarepe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors, and characteristics of amblyopia among rural, public primary school children in Ijebu East Local ... required to prevent the attendant consequences of socioeconomic burden following visual impairment in this vulnerable subsection of the Nigerian rural populace.

  16. Opaque contact lens treatment for older children with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Brown, Sandra M; Mathews, Taryn A; Mathews, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of daily-wear opaque contact lens treatment for older children with amblyopia. A retrospective chart review of all children undergoing opaque contact lens therapy for amblyopia between 2000 and 2003 was performed. All patients were included except for those younger than 5 years of age, those undergoing maintenance treatment only, those lost to follow-up, or those unable to cooperate with Snellen visual acuity testing. Thirteen children were identified, and seven met the inclusion criteria. The seven patients had a mean age of 7.5 years (range, 5.7-8.7 years). The causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (five patients), cataract (one patient), and strabismus (one patient). For all seven patients, the mean logMAR improvement in visual acuity was 0.52 (range, 0.26-1.22). The average duration of opaque contact lens use was 9.3 months (range, 2-21 months). Compliance problems were encountered in three patients. No major complications occurred, but one patient had an episode of mild superficial punctate keratitis. Daily-wear opaque contact lens treatment is a useful occlusion method for amblyopia treatment in older children with various practical and social impediments to skin patching. Meaningful improvement in visual acuity can be obtained, even in children older than 8 years of age.

  17. Amblyopia risk factors in infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wan; Lee, Hwa; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Lee, Tae Soo; Baek, Sehyun

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to report the prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in patients with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions. We recruited patients who were treated for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction from April 2007 to December 2011 at Korea University Ansan Hospital. We evaluated visual acuity and refraction, performed strabismus test and slit-lamp examination, and assessed marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) to rule out amblyopia risk factors. We examined 26 children among 115 patients. Ten patients underwent probing procedure and 16 underwent Monoka stent intubation. Nine (35%) patients showed amblyopia risk factors, which occurred in the same eye as the congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 8 (89%) patients. Seven out of 9 patients had refractive error alone, and 2 patients had both refractive error and strabismus. One (11%) had anisometropia, 2 (22%) had hyperopia, and 8 (89%) had astigmatism. Children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction had a higher prevalence of amblyopia risk factors than children in the general population. Children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction require special attention and treatments for refractive error. We recommend early treatment, such as probing or intubation, for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  18. Prevalence of Amblyopia among Secondary School Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia among secondary school students in Calabar metropolis. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study with subjects recruited by multi-stage simple random technique. A total of 1,241 students were eligible of which 1,175 were available for vision screening with Snellen's ...

  19. [Possibilities and limitations of amblyopia screening with auto-refractometers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, O

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is a frequent vision disorder with a prevalence of 3-6%, for which early treatment is more effective. More than half of the cases of amblyopia are due to refractive errors so that they are not obvious due to strabismus or other ocular abnormalities; therefore, examinations for early recognition are essential. Because no nationwide ophthalmological examination of infants with cycloplegia has been established in Germany, screening for refractive errors in the first 3 years of life could be very helpful. Only children with a very high risk of ametropia should be referred for a full ophthalmological and orthoptic assessment of cycloplegia in order to prevent excess prescription of eyeglasses. Mild amblyopia with a borderline refraction error can be more reliably detected with visual acuity tests at a later age of 3-4 years and still be treated successfully before entering school. Even with a good sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%, refraction screening with handheld binocular video refractometers has a positive predictive value of 30%, which should be considered acceptable; however, screening with refractometers alone is insufficient to detect all types of amblyopia. Cataracts can easily be detected in >95% of patients but microstrabismus present, a full ophthalmological evaluation with cycloplegic refraction is necessary.

  20. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  1. Effects of different types of refractive errors on bilateral amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücella Arıkan Yorgun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Identifying effects of different types of refractiveerrors on final visual acuity and stereopsis levels inpatients with bilateral amblyopia.Materials and methods: Patients with bilateral amblyopialower than ≥1.5 D anisometropia were included. Thepatients were classified according to the level of sphericalequivalent (0-4 D and >4 D of hypermetropia, the levelof astigmatism (below and above 2D in positive cylinderand type of composed refractive error [ 4 D of hypermetropiaand 2 D of astigmatism (group III]. Initialand final binocular best corrected visual acuities (BCVAwere compared between groups.Results: The initial binocular BCVA levels were significantlylower in patients with > 4 D of hypermetropia(p=0.028, without correction after treatment (p=0.235.The initial binocular BCVA was not different betweenastigmatism groups, but final BCVA levels were significantlylower in 4-6D of astigmatism compared with 2-4D of astigmatism (p=0.001. During comparison of composedrefractive errors, only the initial binocular BCVAwas significantly lower in group I compared to group II(p=0.015. The final binocular BCVA levels were not differentbetween groups I and III (p>0.05.Conclusions: Although the initial BCVA is lower in patientswith higher levels of hypermetropia, the response ofpatients to treatment with glasses is good. The responseof patients with high levels of astigmatism seems to belimited. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 467-471Key words: Amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia, hypermetropia,refractive amblyopia, visual acuity

  2. Repetitive Visual Stimulation Enhances Recovery from Severe Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montey, Karen L.; Eaton, Nicolette C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe amblyopia, characterized by a significant reduction in visual acuity through the affected eye, is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. We have previously shown that synaptic plasticity can be reactivated in the adult rat visual cortex by dark exposure, and the reactivated plasticity can be harnessed to promote the recovery from severe…

  3. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Kwon; Chang, Ji Woong

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia.

  4. Reversal of myopic Anisometropic amblyopia with occlusion therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report a reversal of myopic anisometropic amblyopia with occlusion therapy in a 25 year old. Design: Case report. Setting: Eye clinic of a University Teaching Hospital in a metropolitan city. Participant: an index patient. Intervention: Occlusion therapy. Main Outcome Measure: Post occlusion visual acuity.

  5. Effective Detection and Treatment of Amblyopia: Addressing Noncompliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Tjiam (Angela)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmblyopia (a ‘lazy eye’) is commonly defined as a decrease in visual acuity (sight) in either or both eyes which persists after correction of the refractive error (by wearing glasses) and / or removal of any pathological obstacle to vision (Ansons et al. 2009). In the clinical setting

  6. Amblyopia screening in children in Bandar Abbas (Iran) during 2011?2012

    OpenAIRE

    Moradabadi, Ali Safari; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Pourshoorijeh, Leila Taghi; Tofighi, Mehrdad; Zamzam, Tahereh; Dadipoor, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amblyopia is an acquired defect of vision caused by abnormal visual experience that occurs during childhood. Since early diagnosis is important in preventing further irreparable effects, the aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of amblyopia screening in children. Methods: Data from the amblyopia screening program in the Welfare Department of Bandar Abbas during 2011?2012 were used. Suspected cases were referred to specialists in the Optometry clinic for screening purpo...

  7. Prevalence of amblyopia in children undergoing nasolacrimal duct irrigation and probing

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur, Ozlen Rodop; Sayman, Isıl Bahar; Oral, Yesim; Akmaz, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate ambylopia and amblyopia risk factors of children who underwent nasolacrimal duct (NLD) irrigation and probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who had undergone NLD irrigation and probing for CNLDO at an age of 3 years or younger were reviewed, and 51 of the patients were recalled between October 1 and December 31, 2011 for a detailed ophthalmic examination to determinate amblyopia or amblyopia...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANISOMETROPIA, PATIENT AGE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMBLYOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Sean P

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Anisometropia is a common cause of amblyopia. The relationship between anisometropia, patient age, and the development of amblyopia is unknown. Photoscreening identifies children with anisometropia in a manner that is not biased by visual acuity and allows a unique opportunity to evaluate how patient age influences the prevalence and depth of anisometropic amblyopia. Methods A statewide preschool photoscreening program screened 120,000 children and identified 792 with anisometropia greater than 1.0 diopter. Age was correlated with visual acuity and amblyopia depth. Data were compared with those from 562 strabismic children similarly identified. Results Only 14% (6/44) of anisometropic children aged 1 year or less had amblyopia. Prevalence was 40% (32/80) for 2-year-olds, 65% (119/182) for 3-year-olds, and peaked at 76% (age 5). Amblyopia depth also increased with age. Moderate amblyopia prevalence was 2% (ages 0 to 1), 17% (age 2), and rose steadily to 45% (ages 6 to 7). Severe amblyopia was rare prior to age 4, 9% at age 4, 14% at age 5, and 9% at ages 6 to 7. In contrast, children with strabismus had a stable prevalence of amblyopia (30% at ages 0 to 2, 42% at ages 3 to 4, 44% at ages 5 to 7). Conclusions Younger children with anisometropic refractive error have a lower prevalence and depth of amblyopia than do older children. By age 4, when most children undergo traditional screening, amblyopia has usually already developed. New vision screening technologies that allow early detection of anisometropia provide ophthalmologists an opportunity to intervene early, perhaps retarding, or even preventing, the development of amblyopia. PMID:17057809

  9. Extended Daily Eye Patching Effective at Treating Stubborn Amblyopia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) AIDS-related eye disease (cytomegalovirus [CMV] retinitis) Amblyopia Anophthalmia and ... Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) Low Vision Macular Degeneration Macular Edema ...

  10. Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in a population-based study of young adult men in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Mohamad; Wong, Tien Yin; Koh, Colleen L K; Tan, Donald T H

    2005-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in young adult Chinese, Indian, and Malay men in Singapore. A population-based cross-sectional study. Best-corrected visual acuities of all Singaporean men born in the years 1978 to 1983 were measured before enlistment into military service. Those with BCVA of 6/12 or worse were examined by an ophthalmologist for the presence of amblyopia and other causes. Of the 122,596 men examined, there were 428 with amblyopia, an overall prevalence of 0.35%. The prevalence was similar among Chinese (0.34%), Malays (0.37%), and Indians (0.41%, P = .52). Anisometropic amblyopia was the most common type of amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia was more common in Indians. There were little racial differences in the prevalence of meridional or form deprivation amblyopia. The overall prevalence of amblyopia was low and was similar among the three racial groups in young adult Singaporean males.

  11. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current

  12. Discriminating anisometropic amblyopia from myopia based on interocular inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wuli; Zhou, Jiawei; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Lesmes, Luis A.; Huang, Chang-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia screening during childhood is critical for early detection and successful treatment. In the current study, we develop and evaluate a screening method that exploits the imbalanced interocular inhibition between amblyopic and fellow eyes. In nineteen subjects with anisometropic amblyopia and twenty-two age-matched subjects with myopia, we measured the area under the contrast sensitivity functions (AUCSFs) in eight monocular conditions defined by tested eye (left, right), patching of the untested eye (translucent, opaque), and refractive status (corrected, uncorrected). For each test eye, we defined the inhibition index as the ratio between AUCSF values obtained in the translucent and opaque patching conditions of the untested eye. To evaluate the screening potential of the inhibition index, we compared results from patients with amblyopia and myopia. With and without optical correction, the index was significantly lower in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye of the amblyopic subjects and both eyes of the myopic subjects. No significant difference was found among the two eyes of the myopic subjects and the fellow eyes of the amblyopic subjects. With the inhibition index as the predictor, a logistic regression model successfully discriminated amblyopic eyes from myopic eyes with 100% accuracy in the uncorrected condition. In the corrected condition, with the inhibition index and interocular visual acuity difference as predictors, amblyopic eyes were likewise discriminated from myopic eyes with 100% accuracy. This pattern of CSF changes, caused by the different patching modes of the untested eye, provides a potential CSF signature to discriminate anisometropic amblyopia from myopia. PMID:25701741

  13. Improved Binocular Outcomes Following Binocular Treatment for Childhood Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L; Leffler, Joel N; Birch, Eileen E

    2018-03-01

    Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia. Data for amblyopic children enrolled in two ongoing studies were pooled. The sample included 41 amblyopic children (6 strabismic, 21 anisometropic, 14 combined; age 4-10 years; ≤4 prism diopters [PD]) who received binocular treatment (20 game, 21 movies; prescribed 9-10 hours treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and binocular outcomes (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity, extent of suppression, and depth of suppression) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (P game adherence, 100% movie adherence). Depth of suppression was reduced more in children aged <8 years than in those aged ≥8 years (P = 0.004). Worse baseline depth of suppression was correlated with a larger depth of suppression reduction at 2 weeks (P = 0.001). After 2 weeks, binocular treatment in amblyopic children improved visual acuity and binocular outcomes, reducing the extent and depth of suppression and improving stereoacuity. Binocular treatments that rebalance contrast to overcome suppression are a promising additional option for treating amblyopia.

  14. Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Miller, Alexandra; Kazlas, Melanie; Hunter, David G.; Bex, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. Methods Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7), anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6), strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15) and normal vision (n = 40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. Results Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (∼20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r = 0.94, pamblyopia. PMID:24959842

  15. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.A. Rook (Caitlin); D.S. Nassif (Deborah); N.V. Piskun (Nadya); D.G. Hunter (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable

  16. High prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in preverbal children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Noelle S; Silbert, David I

    2011-08-01

    To report the percentage of children under the age of 3 with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) and amblyopia risk factors who develop clinical evidence of amblyopia over time. Records of children under 3 years of age presenting to a pediatric oculoplastic specialist with NLDO between January 1, 2001, and August 8, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed to identify those who also had amblyopia risk factors. Amblyopia was diagnosed based on visual acuity and treatment history. A total of 375 children under the age of 3 had NLDO. Of these, 82 (22%) had amblyopia risk factors, and 70 received a follow-up examination. Average age at first visit was 12 months (1-27 months). In all patients with anisometropia and unilateral NLDO, the side with the NLDO had higher hyperopia. Of the 70 with risk factors, 44 (63%) were later treated for amblyopia: 29 with spectacles alone, 2 with occlusion therapy, 13 with spectacles and occlusion therapy. Six patients required strabismus surgery. In all patients with anisometropia and unilateral NLDO, the side with the NLDO had higher hyperopia. The percentage of children identified with amblyopia risk factors who later develop clinical amblyopia was much higher than the 1.6% to 3.6% expected in a cohort of normal children. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of bilateral visual impairment in individuals with amblyopia: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The excess risk of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; bilateral visual acuity <0.5) among individuals with amblyopia is an argument for screening for amblyopia, but data are scarce. Methods: The risk was estimated by determining the incidence of BVI in the Rotterdam Study, a

  18. Termination of amblyopia treatment: when to stop follow-up visits and risk factors for recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weger, Christine; van den Brom, Henry J. B.; Lindeboom, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated when it is safe to stop follow-up visits after cessation of amblyopia treatment and to identify factors associated with deterioration of visual acuity. Study patients included 282 patients aged 7 to 13 years who were monitored for deterioration after cessation of amblyopia

  19. Construct validation of the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) by factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); J. Felius (Joost); H. Kempen-du Saar (Hanneke); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Kelderman (Henk); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) was previously developed to assess quality of life (QoL) in amblyopia and/or strabismus patients. Here, factor analysis with Varimax rotation was employed to confirm that the questions of the A&SQ correlated to dimensions of

  20. Optimization of Visual Training for Full Recovery from Severe Amblyopia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicolette C.; Sheehan, Hanna Marie; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    The severe amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. Here we use a rodent model to show that recovery from deprivation amblyopia can be achieved in adults by a two-step sequence, involving enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex by dark exposure followed immediately by visual…

  1. [Molecular Biology of the Treatment of Amblyopia with Acupuncture: a Review of Recent Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Xia; Liu, An-Guo; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Li, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Yu-Ting; Yan, Xing-Ke

    2018-03-25

    Acupuncture has been found effective for the treatment of amblyopia, and its mechanism has been investigated. A review of recently published research results indicated that when used to treat amblyopia, acupuncture induced changes in the action of neurotransmitters in the visual system, promoted the secretion and synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and stimulated the expression of genes related to visual plasticity.

  2. Altered white matter in early visual pathways of humans with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Spiegel, Daniel P; Thompson, Benjamin; Pestilli, Franco; Rokers, Bas

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a visual disorder caused by poorly coordinated binocular input during development. Little is known about the impact of amblyopia on the white matter within the visual system. We studied the properties of six major visual white-matter pathways in a group of adults with amblyopia (n=10) and matched controls (n=10) using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fiber tractography. While we did not find significant differences in diffusion properties in cortico-cortical pathways, patients with amblyopia exhibited increased mean diffusivity in thalamo-cortical visual pathways. These findings suggest that amblyopia may systematically alter the white matter properties of early visual pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of amblyopia in ametropias in a clinical set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, K J D

    2006-01-01

    To find out prevalence of amblyopia in ametropias in a clinical set-up. In this retrospective clinical study children from 4-5 years age group to the young adults who attended the eye clinic in one year period were included after taking history, VA test by Snellen's Vision Chart, cycloplegic refraction by streak retinoscope in children and wet or dry retinospcopy in young adults; and a thorough anterior and posterior segment eye examinations by slit lamp biomicroscope and ophthalmoscope to exclude structural abnormality of the eye or the posterior visual pathway defects. A total of 970 eye patients having diminution of vision with ametropias were identified and patients having reduction of visual acuity of greater than two lines between the eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity below 6/9 either eye in snellen's vision chart which cannot be corrected by refraction were enrolled to find out prevalence of amblyopia. Out of 970 ametropic eye patients amblyopia was present in 56 patients (5.97%) with anisometropias and high bilateral ametropias. The prevalence of amblyopia according to types of ametropias are: hyperopia 6 (10.71%), myopia 2 (3.57%), myopic astigmatism 31 (55.36%), hyperopic astigmatism 11 (19.64%) and mixed astigmatism 6 (10.71%). Sex distribution of amblyopia is male 32 (57.14%) and female 24 (42.86%). Laterality of amblyopia shows: monocular 40 (71.43%) and binocular 16 (28.57%). Out of 970 ametropic eye patients a total of 56 (5.97%) patients have amblyopia. A preschool and school screening program in children in critical period of development of amblyopia must be conducted to find out the ametropias and amblyopia in time; and treat them earlier, by optical correction and amblyopia therapy, effectively and adequately.

  4. Prevalence and pattern of amblyopia among primary school pupils in Kosofe town, Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuomenisan, Segun Joseph; Musa, Kareem Olatunbosun; Aribaba, Olufisayo Tade; Onakoya, Adeola Olukorede

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of amblyopia in primary school pupils in Kosofe town of Lagos State with a view to providing baseline data that may facilitate the establishment of routine school eye screening programs in primary schools in Lagos State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among pupils from public and private primary schools in Kosofe town. The pupils underwent visual acuity assessment with the HOTV charts, detailed ocular examinations and cycloplegic refractions. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 1702 pupils participated in the study, out of which 899 (52.8%) were males. The age range was 4-16 years with 1630 (95.8%) pupils within the ages of 4 and 10. Amblyopia was detected in 24 (1.4%) of the screened pupils (95% confidence interval = 0.610-0.914). There was no significant sex predilection (P = 0.367) or age trend (P = 0.158) in this study although amblyopia occurred more in boys (54.2%). Refractive amblyopia (58.4%) was the most common type of amblyopia out of which anisometropic amblyopia accounted for 78.6%. Unilateral amblyopia was observed in 87.5% of the amblyopic pupils, and the left eye was more commonly affected than the right eye. All the types of amblyopia were more common within the age group of 4-10 years and in public school children (P = 0.039 and P = 0.015, respectively). The prevalence of amblyopia in this study was low and it falls within the general prevalence range for amblyopia in Nigeria.

  5. Congenital eyelid ptosis: onset and prevalence of amblyopia, associations with systemic disorders, and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, August; Kelly, John P; Weiss, Avery H

    2014-10-01

    To determine the age at onset of amblyopia, the response to occlusion therapy, and the association with systemic disorders in children with congenital eyelid ptosis. Retrospective chart review of children seen at Seattle Children's Hospital with moderate or severe congenital ptosis. Assessments were longitudinal visual acuity development using objective methods, definition of ptosis severity by eyelid margin to pupillary light reflex distance (margin reflex distance [MRD]), age at amblyopia diagnosis, correlation between amblyopia and MRD, and associated systemic disorders. Eighty-four children with moderate-to-severe congenital ptosis met inclusion criteria; the mean longitudinal follow-up was 49.1 months. Fifteen (18%) of these children had amblyopia, of which 9 had deprivation amblyopia (mean age 17.3 months ± 11.2) and 6 had anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia (mean age 60 months ± 11.8). Eleven (73%) of the children with amblyopia were successfully treated with occlusion therapy. Amblyopia was not correlated with MRD. A systemic disorder was identified in 29 (35%) of the children, the most common being genetic, chromosomal, or neurologic conditions. Patients with systemic disorders and developmental delay have significantly lower visual acuity bilaterally compared with patients without systemic disorders (P ≤ .003). Using longitudinal and objective visual acuity assessments, the incidence of amblyopia was 18% in children with moderate to severe congenital ptosis. Visual deprivation was the predominant risk factor that was reliably distinguished by its earlier onset in young children. The best indicator of amblyopia in children is visual acuity rather than MRD measurements. Systemic disorders are frequent in children with moderate to severe congenital ptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of amblyopia and patterns of refractive error in the amblyopic children of a tertiary eye care center of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, K; Pirouzian, A; Matta, N S

    2013-01-01

    Refractive error is a common cause of amblyopia. To determine prevalence of amblyopia and the pattern and the types of refractive error in children with amblyopia in a tertiary eye hospital of Nepal. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with amblyopia in the Nepal Eye Hospital (NEH) from July 2006 to June 2011 was conducted. Children of age 13+ or who had any ocular pathology were excluded. Cycloplegic refraction and an ophthalmological examination was performed for all children. The pattern of refractive error and the association between types of refractive error and types of amblyopia were determined. Amblyopia was found in 0.7 % (440) of 62,633 children examined in NEH during this period. All the amblyopic eyes of the subjects had refractive error. Fifty-six percent (248) of the patients were male and the mean age was 7.74 ± 2.97 years. Anisometropia was the most common cause of amblyopia (p less than 0.001). One third (29 %) of the subjects had bilateral amblyopia due to high ametropia. Forty percent of eyes had severe amblyopia with visual acuity of 20/120 or worse. About twothirds (59.2 %) of the eyes had astigmatism. The prevalence of amblyopia in the Nepal Eye Hospital is 0.7%. Anisometropia is the most common cause of amblyopia. Astigmatism is the most common types of refractive error in amblyopic eyes. © NEPjOPH.

  7. The effect of occlusion therapy on motion perception deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaschi, Deborah; Chapman, Christine; Meier, Kimberly; Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Regan, David

    2015-09-01

    There is growing evidence for deficits in motion perception in amblyopia, but these are rarely assessed clinically. In this prospective study we examined the effect of occlusion therapy on motion-defined form perception and multiple-object tracking. Participants included children (3-10years old) with unilateral anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia who were currently undergoing occlusion therapy and age-matched control children with normal vision. At the start of the study, deficits in motion-defined form perception were present in at least one eye in 69% of the children with amblyopia. These deficits were still present at the end of the study in 55% of the amblyopia group. For multiple-object tracking, deficits were present initially in 64% and finally in 55% of the children with amblyopia, even after completion of occlusion therapy. Many of these deficits persisted in spite of an improvement in amblyopic eye visual acuity in response to occlusion therapy. The prevalence of motion perception deficits in amblyopia as well as their resistance to occlusion therapy, support the need for new approaches to amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE PREVALANCE AND CAUSES OF AMBLYOPIA IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir ERDEM

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the causes and risk factors of amblyopia which is the most important cause of legal blindness with a prevalance of 2,5% among people under 45 years old in developed countries. Material and Methods: A screening test was performed to 3-6 years old preschool children and kindergartens in Ankara. The records included age, sex, birth problems, education level of the parents, pre and postnatal problems, family history and visual acuities. Suspected cases were sent to the ophthalmologist for the examination of visual acuity, and duction and version, biomicroscopic, ophthalmoscopic and cycloplegic refractive examinations. Visual acuity of 8/10 or less without any organic cause was accepted as amblyopia. Results: Fifty six of the 202 children were sent to the ophthalmologist because of low vision. Ophthalmologic examination revealed 6 amblyopia cases. The prevalance of amblyopia was 2,97%. Conclusion: Ambliyopia was 3 times more frequent in cases with a positive family history compared with cases without a family history. But this value was statistically insignificant. The most frequent causes of amblyopia were esotropia (50%, hypermetropic amblyopia (33,3%, and deprivation amblyopia (16,6%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(9.000: 202-212

  9. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Li, Simone L; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R

    2015-02-01

    Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3-6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0-4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Refractive errors and amblyopia in children entering school: Shahrood, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Payman; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Younesian, Masud; Jafari, Alireza

    2009-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and refractive errors in children entering school. In this cross-sectional population-based study, 6-year-old children enrolling in Shahrood schools were randomly sampled. Those with organic blindness or mental retardation were excluded. Ocular alignment, visual acuity, stereopsis, cover testing, and cycloplegic refraction were recorded for all children by an optometrist. A diagnosis of amblyopia was based on a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or less in one or both eyes, or a bilateral difference of at least two best-corrected visual acuity lines. A total of 902 children were invited for optometry examinations, among which 827 (91.7%) responded and 815 children (98.5%) were included in the study. The prevalence of significantly reduced visual acuity (uncorrected VA amblyopia was 3.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperopia (+2.00 D or worse), myopia (-0.50 D or worse), astigmatism (0.75 D or worse), and anisometropia (1.00 D or more) were 20.5, 1.7, 19.6, and 2.2%, respectively. Significant refractive error, defined as hyperopia >+3.50 D, myopia >-3.00 D, astigmatism >1.50 D in the orthogonal meridian or >1.00 D in the oblique meridian, or anisometropia (hyperopic >1.00 D, myopic >3.00 D) was detected in 2.1, 0.1, 5.0, and 0.9% of the sample, respectively. Strabismus was diagnosed in 1.2% of children. Overall, 52 children (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-8.1%) were at risk of amblyopia; of these, 81% had significant refractive errors, 11% had strabismus, and 8% had both. A considerable proportion of 6-year-old children have strabismus and/or significant, potentially amblyogenic refractive errors. The relatively high rate of hyperopia and astigmatism in the studied population needs more attention. The results of the study emphasize the need for adequate diagnostic and therapeutic eye care services for preschool children.

  11. Prevalence of amblyopia in children undergoing nasolacrimal duct irrigation and probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlen Rodop Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate ambylopia and amblyopia risk factors of children who underwent nasolacrimal duct (NLD irrigation and probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who had undergone NLD irrigation and probing for CNLDO at an age of 3 years or younger were reviewed, and 51 of the patients were recalled between October 1 and December 31, 2011 for a detailed ophthalmic examination to determinate amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors. Amblyopia was accepted as difference in visual acuity of two or more Snellen lines between the two eyes or visual acuity of 20/30 or worse in either eye. Results: The median age of the 51 patients to whom NLD irrigation and probing were attempted for CNLDO was 23 months. CNLDO affected a total of 70 eyes. All patients were reviewed for best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, and strabismus at a median age of 70.5 months (range 31-95 months. Amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors were identified in 14 patients (27.5%. One child (7.15% had only strabismus, six children (42.8% had only amblyogenic refractive errors, two (14.3% had a combination of two, one child (7.15% had a family history for amblyopia, but four children (28.6% had no amblyopia risk factors but had amblyopia. Conclusion: Amblyogenic risk factors are found higher in patients with CNLDO and patients undergoing NLD irrigation and probing in comparison to normal population. Therefore, we recommend these children to routinely undergo cycloplegic refractions and full ophthalmic examinations.

  12. Prevalence of amblyopia in children undergoing nasolacrimal duct irrigation and probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Ozlen Rodop; Sayman, Isıl Bahar; Oral, Yesim; Akmaz, Berkay

    2013-12-01

    To investigate ambylopia and amblyopia risk factors of children who underwent nasolacrimal duct (NLD) irrigation and probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). The medical records of patients who had undergone NLD irrigation and probing for CNLDO at an age of 3 years or younger were reviewed, and 51 of the patients were recalled between October 1 and December 31, 2011 for a detailed ophthalmic examination to determinate amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors. Amblyopia was accepted as difference in visual acuity of two or more Snellen lines between the two eyes or visual acuity of 20/30 or worse in either eye. The median age of the 51 patients to whom NLD irrigation and probing were attempted for CNLDO was 23 months. CNLDO affected a total of 70 eyes. All patients were reviewed for best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, and strabismus at a median age of 70.5 months (range 31-95 months). Amblyopia or amblyopia risk factors were identified in 14 patients (27.5%). One child (7.15%) had only strabismus, six children (42.8%) had only amblyogenic refractive errors, two (14.3%) had a combination of two, one child (7.15%) had a family history for amblyopia, but four children (28.6%) had no amblyopia risk factors but had amblyopia. Amblyogenic risk factors are found higher in patients with CNLDO and patients undergoing NLD irrigation and probing in comparison to normal population. Therefore, we recommend these children to routinely undergo cycloplegic refractions and full ophthalmic examinations.

  13. Clinical Course and Response to Therapy in Different Types of Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat Duman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to compare the demographic features, visual acuities before and after treatment, amblyopia and strabismus degrees and binocular visual functions in cases with anisometropic, strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Material and Method: The study included 50 anisometropic, 50 strabismic and 50 anisometropic and strabismic cases that were followed up with the diagnosis of amblyopia, in our clinic, between January 2007 - September 2010. Amblyopia criteria was defined as the best corrected visual acuity of ≤0.8 and at least 2 lines difference between the visual acuities of two eyes. Anisometropia was defined as ≥1D difference in the spherical and cylindrical value between two eyes. Results: The groups were statistically similar in means of age and sex distribution. Visual acuities in amblyopic eyes before and after treatment were also statistically similar. There were no significant difference between 3 groups in means of compliance to occlusion therapy. In anisometropic cases, anisometropic spherical values were found to have position correlation with amblyopia degree. In hypermetropic and myopic cases, a strong correlation was shown between anisometropia and amblyopia, especially in hypermetropic cases, amblyopia degree increased as the anisometropia increased. In all strabismus cases, a positive correlation between strabismus and amblyopia degrees was shown even though it was statistically insignificant. In strabismic cases, esotropia was significantly higher than exotropia. In anisometropia group, stereopsis and fusion was found to be preserved better in comparison to the strabismic cases. It was concluded that deviation had a more profound effect on binocular function loss than anisometropia. Discussion: We recommend to follow the hypermetropic anisometropic cases and especially cases with high degree strabismus and esotropia more closely. And also we emphasize that strabismus affects binocular function loss more than

  14. Macular retinal and choroidal thickness in unilateral amblyopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Syunsuke; Miki, Atsushi; Goto, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Takizawa, Go; Haruishi, Kazuko; Ieki, Yoshiaki; Kiryu, Junichi; Yaoeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-15

    To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness in amblyopic eyes compared to that in fellow and normal eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). This study examined 31 patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia (6.9 ± 3.8 years, mean ± standard deviation), 15 patients with strabismic amblyopia without anisometropia (7.9 ± 4.2 years), and 24 age-matched controls (7.8 ± 3.3 years). Retinal and choroidal thickness was measured by 3D scans using SS-OCT. A 6-mm area around the fovea was automatically analyzed using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study map. The thickness from SS-OCT was corrected for magnification error using individual axial length, spherical refraction, cylinder refraction, and corneal radius. Retinal thickness was divided into the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the inner limiting membrane to the retinal pigment epithelium (ILM-RPE) thickness. Retinal and choroidal thickness was compared among amblyopic, fellow, and normal eyes. In both amblyopia groups, there was no significant difference in the mRNFL, GCL+IPL, and GCC thicknesses among the amblyopic, fellow, and control eyes. In the anisometropic amblyopia group, choroidal thickness (subfovea, center 1 mm, nasal and inferior of the inner ring, nasal of the outer ring, and center 6 mm) of amblyopic eyes were significantly greater than that of fellow and normal eyes. In contrast, none of the choroidal thicknesses were significantly different among the investigated eyes in the strabismic amblyopia group. We found no significant difference in inner retinal thickness in patients with unilateral amblyopia. Although there were significant differences in choroidal thickness with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia, there was no significant difference for the strabismic amblyopia. The discrepancy in choroidal thickness between the two types of amblyopia may be due

  15. Study of the perception of visual motion in amblyopia using functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guangming; Zhang Zhiqiang; Zhou Wenzhen; Zheng Ling; Yin Jie; Liang Ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To research the pathophysiological mechanism of anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia through observation of the cortex activation under the stimulus of visual motion using functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Seven patients with anisometropic amblyopia and 10 patients with strabismic amblyopia were examined under the stimulus with the paradigm that task and control states were rotating and stationary grating with 1.5 T MR scanners. The data were processed using software of SPM offline, and the result was analyzed with single subject. An index of interocular difference of activation (IDA) was set for Mann-Whitney rank sum test to denote the extension of difference between activation of each eye. Results: There appeared activation on bilaterally occipital lobe in both group of amblyopia patients. There was mild activation on frontal lobe when amblyopic eyes were stimulated, but no activation when sound eyes. The MT area was regarded as region of interesting when analyzed, the activation of all sound eyes was stronger than amblyopic eyes in 7 anisometropic amblyopia patients. There were 5 patients whose level of activation of amblyopic eye's were lower than sound eye, and four were higher than sound eye, among the strabismic amblyopia patients except one patient's activation was none. There was statistical difference between IDA value of two groups (Z=2.382, P=0.017). Conclusion: There are more cortex areas activated of amblyopic eye than sound eye when single eye is stimulated. The function of visual motion maybe has been affected in anisometropic amblyopia. In strabismic amblyopia, the function of visual motion may relate to the underlying mechanism of strabismic, which suggests, as for the impairment of perception of visual motion, there is difference between two types of amblyopia. (authors)

  16. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany: data from the prospective, population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-05-08

    Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.

  17. Risk factors for treatment failure and recurrence of anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirandi, Ece Uzun; Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Onmez, Funda Ebru Aksoy; Oto, Sibel

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with failed vision improvement and recurrence following occlusion therapy for anisometropic amblyopia in children aged 7-9 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 children aged 7-9 years who had been diagnosed as having anisometropic amblyopia and were treated with patching. Functional treatment failure was defined as final visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of worse than 20/32. Improvement of fewer than two logMAR lines was considered relative treatment failure. Recurrence was defined as the reduction of at least two logMAR levels of visual acuity after decreased or discontinued patching. Functional and relative success rates were 51.6 and 62.5 %, respectively. The most important factor for functional treatment failure [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval, CI) 11.57 (1.4-95.74)] and the only risk factor for recurrence [adjusted OR (95 % CI) 3.04 (1.13-8.12)] were the same: high spherical equivalent (SE) of the amblyopic eye. A large interocular difference in the best-corrected visual acuity was found to be a risk factor for both functional and relative failure. High SE of the amblyopic eye was the most influential risk factor for treatment failure and recurrence in compliant children aged 7-9 years.

  18. Use of video games for the treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Alexander J E

    2017-05-01

    To review the literature up to recent for the use of videos, videogames and dichoptic stimulation as a treatment for amblyopia. There have been three strategies explored. The first is to use videos and videogames monocularly with the normal eye covered. The second is dichoptic stimulation with a common background presented to both eyes and an enriched foreground to the amblyopic eye. The third are games specifically designed to generate stereopsis. Most work has focused on the second of these approaches but both of the first two approaches seem to give a similar improvement of 0.1-0.2 logMAR. One large randomized control trial (RCT) has published showing that dichoptic stimulation is not inferior to patching but no evidence that it was superior. It also showed that video games have their own compliance problems and a second smaller RCT did suggest that videogames, with a game designed by a gaming company, was superior. Most of the work done has had methodological issues and should be considered exploratory rather than definitive. Dichoptic stimulation is a viable treatment option for the treatment of amblyopia. The first trial results have shown results that are not superior to patching but they are not without methodological issues. There is sufficient encouragement to justify further research in this area.

  19. Prevalence, causes and associations of amblyopia in year 1 students in Central China : The Anyang childhood eye study (ACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Li, Shi Ming; Li, Si Yuan; Li, Jin Ling; Li, He; Zhu, Bi Dan; Yang, Zhou; Li, Lei; Wang, Ning Li

    2014-01-01

    Earlier diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia are associated with improved visual outcomes. This study reports the prevalence of amblyopia and associated factors in year 1 primary school students in central China. The school-based, cross-sectional study involved 3,112 year 1 primary school students . All the participants underwent a comprehensive eye examinations including cycloplegic refraction, cover test and ocular movement examinations. The unaided and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was recorded. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line interocular difference with BCVA ≤ 20/32 (≥ logMar 0.2) in the worse eye and with coexisting anisometropia (≥ 1.00 D SE for hyperopia, ≥ 3.00 D SE for myopia, or ≥ 1.50 D for astigmatism), strabismus or past or present visual axis obstruction. Bilateral amblyopia was defined as BCVA in both eyes logMar 0.3), with coexisting hyperopia ≥ 4 D SE, myopia ≤ -6 D SE, or astigmatism ≥ 2.5 D, or past or present visual axis obstruction. Out of the 3,112 eligible students, 2,893 (93.0 %) students completed the examinations. The average age of the students was 7.1 ± 0.4 (mean ± standard deviation SD) years old. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.6 %-1.3 %) with no difference between the sexes (P = 0.88). Of the 27 amblyopic students, unilateral amblyopia was found in 18 (66.7 %) students, and bilateral amblyopia in 9 (33.3 %) students. Of 18 unilateral amblyopia, 13 were anisometropic amblyopia, 4 were strabismus amblyopia, 1 was mixed amblyopia. Of 9 bilateral amblyopia, 7 were isoametropic amblyopia, 2 were stimulus deprivation. The mean corrected VA of the amblyopic eyes was 30.50 logMAR letters (Snellen VA equivalent 4/12.6), and the range was 5 to 45 logMAR letters (Snellen VA equivalent 4/40-4/6.3). Most amblyopic eyes (38.9 %) were significantly hyperopic (spherical equivalent ≥ +3.00 D); 25.0 % were myopic. In addition, 58

  20. Amblyopia due to inflamed chalazion in a 13-month old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark J; Gole, Glen A

    2005-06-01

    Meibomian gland cysts (chalazia) are very common lesions in childhood and are not thought of as visually threatening lesions. A case is reported of dense amblyopia and secondary exotropia resulting from an upper eyelid chalazion.

  1. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  2. The Prevalence of Amblyopia and Its Determinants in a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Saatchi, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Rafati, Shokoofeh; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or less or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences with no pathology. After considering the exclusion criteria, the data of 2739 individuals, 65.6% of whom were women, were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 29.5±17.5 years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.77%-5.43%) in the total population. The lowest prevalence was 2.24% in the age group 5-15 years (95% CI: 0.99%-3.48%) and the highest prevalence was 7.14% in the age group 55-65 years (95% CI: 2.64%-11.56%). Anisometropic amblyopia was observed in 45.24% of the amblyopic participants. Isometropic, mixed (strabismic/anisometropic), and strabismic amblyopia were other common causes of amblyopia, with a prevalence of 24.6%, 16.67%, and 13.49% in amblyopic patients, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having amblyopia for each 1-year increase in age was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Amblyopia was less common in people with better socioeconomic status. This study showed the prevalence of amblyopia in all age groups in a population-based study for the first time. The findings of this study regarding the relatively high prevalence of amblyopia in the older population and its lower prevalence in young people indicate attention to amblyopia in recent years.

  3. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Loudon, Sjoukje; Rook, Caitlin; Nassif, Deborah; Piskun, Nadya; Hunter, David

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable strabismus. Methods. The PVS test, administered from 40 cm and requiring 2.5 seconds of attention, generated a binocularity score (BIN, 0%-100%). We tested 154 patients and 48 controls between the...

  4. Perceived Visual Distortions in Juvenile Amblyopes During/Following Routine Amblyopia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Marianne E F; Bex, Peter J; Simmers, Anita J

    2016-08-01

    To establish the point prevalence of perceived visual distortions (PVDs) in amblyopic children; the association between severity of PVDs and clinical parameters of amblyopia; and the relationship between PVDs and amblyopia treatment outcomes. Perceived visual distortions were measured using a 16-point dichoptic alignment paradigm in 148 visually normal children (aged, 9.18 ± 2.51 years), and 82 amblyopic children (aged, 6.33 ± 1.48 years) receiving or following amblyopia treatment. Global distortion (GD; vector sum of mean-centered individual alignment error between physical and perceived target location) and Global uncertainty (GU; SD of GD over two experiment runs) were compared to age-matched control data, and correlated against clinical parameters of amblyopia (type, monocular visual acuity, pretreatment interocular acuity difference, refractive error, age at diagnosis, motor fusion, stereopsis, near angle of deviation) and amblyopia treatment outcomes (refractive adaption duration, treatment duration, occlusion dosage, posttreatment interocular acuity difference, number of lines improvement). Point prevalence of PVDs in amblyopes was 56.1%. Strabismic amblyopes experienced more severe distortions than anisometropic or microtropic amblyopes (GD Kruskal Wallis H = 16.89, P amblyopia treatment outcomes, or the amblyopic visual acuity deficit. Perceived visual distortions persisted in more than one-half of treated amblyopic cases whose treatment was deemed successful. Perceived visual distortions are common symptoms of amblyopia and are correlated with binocular (stereoacuity, angle of deviation), but not monocular (visual acuity) clinical outcomes. This adds to evidence demonstrating the role of decorrelated binocular single vision in many aspects of amblyopia, and emphasizes the importance of restoring and improving binocular single vision in amblyopic individuals.

  5. Prevalence of strabismic binocular anomalies, amblyopia and anisometropia. Rehabilitation Faculty of Shahid Beheshti Medical University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Akhgary; Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand; Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri; Mehdi Tabatabaee Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Manifest strabismus such as constant and alternative esotropia and exotropia, not only cause cosmetic problem in patients but also induce disorders such as amblyopia. These anomalies can lead to academic failure in students and reduce efficiency in other jobs. Therefore, determining the prevalence of binocular anomalies is important. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of strabismic binocular anomalies, amblyopia and anisometropia in patients examined in optometr...

  6. Temporal Binding Window of the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, Cindy; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-03-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience in childhood. In addition to known visual deficits, there is evidence for changes in audiovisual integration in amblyopia using explicit tasks. We examined audiovisual integration in amblyopia using an implicit task that is more relevant in a real-world context. A total of 11 participants with amblyopia and 16 controls were tested binocularly and monocularly on the sound-induced flash illusion, in which flashes and beeps are presented concurrently and the perceived number of flashes is influenced by the number of beeps. The task used 1 to 2 rapid peripheral flashes presented with 0 to 2 beeps, at 5 stimulus onset asynchronies, that is, beep (-200 milliseconds, -100 milliseconds) or flash leading (100 milliseconds, 200 milliseconds) or simultaneous (0 milliseconds). Participants reported the number of perceived flashes. Susceptibility was indicated by a "2 flashes" response to "fission" (1 flash, 2 beeps) or "1 flash" to "fusion" (2 flashes, 1 beep). For fission with the beep leading during binocular viewing, controls showed an expected decrease in illusion strength as stimulus onset asynchronies increased, whereas the illusion strength remained constant in participants with amblyopia, indicating a wider temporal binding window in amblyopia (P = 0.007). For fusion, participants with amblyopia showed reduced illusion strength during amblyopic eye viewing (P = 0.044) with the flash leading. Amblyopia is associated with the widening of the temporal binding window, specifically for fission when viewing binocularly with the beep leading. This suggests a developmental adaptation to delayed amblyopic eye visual processing to optimize audiovisual integration.

  7. A case of Biateral Extensive Persistent Pupillary Membranes with Amblyopia and Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pupillary membrane represents a congenital remnant of the anterior tunica vasculosa lentis. It can be associated with other ocular pathologies. These membranes can cause deprivation or anisometropic amblyopia. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s age and the characteristics of the membranes. In this paper, we report the findings in a 21-year-old female patient with bilateral persistent pupillary membranes, amblyopia, and cataract. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 70-2

  8. Validation of a school-based amblyopia screening protocol in a kindergarten population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Llera, Pilar; Ortega, Paula; Rubio, Inmaculada; Santos, Verónica; Prieto, María J; Alio, Jorge L

    2016-08-04

    To validate a school-based amblyopia screening program model by comparing its outcomes to those of a state-of-the-art conventional ophthalmic clinic examination in a kindergarten population of children between the ages of 4 and 5 years. An amblyopia screening protocol, which consisted of visual acuity measurement using Lea charts, ocular alignment test, ocular motility assessment, and stereoacuity with TNO random-dot test, was performed at school in a pediatric 4- to 5-year-old population by qualified healthcare professionals. The outcomes were validated in a selected group by a conventional ophthalmologic examination performed in a fully equipped ophthalmologic center. The ophthalmologic evaluation was used to confirm whether or not children were correctly classified by the screening protocol. The sensitivity and specificity of the test model to detect amblyopia were established. A total of 18,587 4- to 5-year-old children were subjected to the amblyopia screening program during the 2010-2011 school year. A population of 100 children were selected for the ophthalmologic validation screening. A sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 93.1%, positive predictive value of 83.3%, negative predictive value of 95.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 12.86, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 was obtained for the amblyopia screening validation model. The amblyopia screening protocol model tested in this investigation shows high sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-risk cases of amblyopia compared to the standard ophthalmologic examination. This screening program may be highly relevant for amblyopia screening at schools.

  9. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  10. The prevalence of anisometropia aniso-astigmatism and amblyopia in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardagil, Aylin; Yaylali, Sevil; Erbil, Hasan; Olgun, Ali; Aslan, Zeki; Dolar, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of anisometropia, anisoastigmatism, and anisometropic amblyopia in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) and to compare it with that in age- and sex-matched controls. Fifty patients with NF1 and 150 age- and sex-matched controls were examined in this study. Cycloplegic autorefraction was attempted on all patients 16 years old. Anisometropia was defined as absolute interocular difference of spherical equivalent more than or equal to 1 D. Aniso-astigmatism was defined as interocular difference of refractive astigmatism of more than or equal to 1 D. Amblyopia was defined as two-line decrease in Snellen acuity between the two eyes. The overall prevalence of anisometropia, aniso-astigmatism, and amblyopia in patients with NF1 was 16%, 20%, and 10%, respectively, and they were all significantly higher than in the controls. The amblyopia was either moderate or severe in nature and all affected patients had significant astigmatism (>2.5 D) in the amblyopic eye. NF1 is a risk factor for anisometropia, aniso-astigmatism, and aniso-astigmatic amblyopia and screening patients with NF1 for refractive errors before age 3 will help to detect patients at risk of amblyopia and give them proper treatment.

  11. The prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and ptosis in schoolchildren of Dezful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Abbasali; Hashemi, Hassan; Norouzirad, Reza; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Nabovati, Payam; Dadbin, Nooshin; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Shir-Alivand, Ehsan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2016-05-23

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and ptosis among schoolchildren in Dezful in the west of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 1,375 schoolchildren of Dezful were selected through multistage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consents, participants had uncorrected and corrected visual acuity tests, cycloplegic refraction, and the cover test, and were examined for ptosis at the school site. Of the 1,151 study participants (83.7%), examinations were completed for 1,130 schoolchildren. Prevalence rates of amblyopia, strabismus, and ptosis were 2.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-4.7), 1.9% (95% CI: 0.2-3.8), and 0.8%, respectively. Anisometropia was the most common cause of amblyopia; 45.2% of cases had anisometropic amblyopia. Among cases with strabismus, 63.6% were exotropic and 36.4% were esotropic. The present study indicated that the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Dezful schoolchildren falls in the average range. Since the Amblyopia Screening Program has been running for years, we expected lower rates compared to previous years, but this was not observed. Correcting refractive errors can significantly reduce amblyopic cases.

  12. Danish Rural Eye Study: the association of preschool vision screening with the prevalence of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Incidence of Amblyopia and Its Risk Factors in Children With Isolated Metopic Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuan B; Shock, Leslie A; Missoi, Tara G; Muzaffar, Arshad R

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with syndromic craniosynostosis have been reported previously, and referral of these children to a pediatric ophthalmologist is recommended. However, it is not as clear whether a child with nonsyndromic synostosis needs to be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of amblyopia and its risk factors in children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis. An institutional review board-approved, retrospective review was performed on 91 children diagnosed with isolated metopic craniosynostosis. Ophthalmologic records were reviewed for diagnoses of amblyopia, strabismus, and refractive error. Of the 91 children, 19 (20.9%) had astigmatism, eight (8.8%) had amblyopia, eight (8.8%) had strabismus, five had myopia (5.5%), five had hyperopia (5.5%), and five had anisometropia (5.5%). The incidence of amblyopia and its risk factors found in our study are higher than the rate found in the clinically normal pediatric population. In our patient population, children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis demonstrate an increased rate of amblyopia and its risk factors. Amblyopia is best treated early in life to achieve a successful outcome. A referral to a pediatric ophthalmologist for a formal eye exam and potential treatment is therefore recommended for children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis.

  14. Functional visual acuity in patients with successfully treated amblyopia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Sujin; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Kotsuka, Junko; Sato, Yumiko; Izumida, Shinya; Kato, Atsuko; Ueno, Yuta; Fukuda, Shinichi; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use conventional visual acuity measurements to quantify the functional visual acuity (FVA) in eyes with successfully treated amblyopia, and to compare the findings with those for contralateral normal eyes. Nineteen patients (7 boys, 12 girls; age 7.5 ± 2.2 years) with successfully treated unilateral amblyopia and the same conventional decimal visual acuity in both eyes (better than 1.0) were enrolled. FVA, the visual maintenance ratio (VMR), maximum and minimum visual acuity, and the average response time were recorded for both eyes of all patients using an FVA measurement system. The differences in FVA values between eyes were analyzed. The mean LogMAR FVA scores, VMR (p amblyopia than for the contralateral normal eyes. There was no significant difference in the average response time. Our results indicate that FVA and VMR were poorer for eyes with treated amblyopia than for normal eyes, even though the treatment for amblyopia was considered successful on the basis of conventional visual acuity measurements. These results suggest that visual function is impaired in eyes with amblyopia, regardless of treatment success, and that FVA measurements can provide highly valuable diagnosis and treatment information that is not readily provided by conventional visual acuity measurements.

  15. Does the treatment of amblyopia normalise subfoveal choroidal thickness in amblyopic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Veysi; Bulut, Asker

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. Thirty-two anisometropic hyperopic children with unilateral amblyopia were included in this prospective study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured as the distance between the retinal pigment epithelium and the chorioscleral edge, by using spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. The treatment of amblyopia was performed based on the full correction of the refractive error with eyeglasses, a refractive adaptation phase and occlusion by patching the fellow eye. The mean visual acuity of the amblyopic eyes significantly increased from 0.35 ± 0.3 to 0.16 ± 0.2 logMAR after the treatment (p amblyopia increased the visual acuity of the anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic eyes, it could not significantly change choroidal thickness. Our results were in accordance with the conventional explanation, which suggests visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus abnormalities in the pathophysiology of amblyopia. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  16. Macular and retinal nerve fiber thickness in recovered and persistent amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Sanaa A; Al-Tamimi, Elham R; Al-Hassan, Sultan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of increased macular or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in amblyopic eyes, find if the increased macular or RNFLT is related to the lack of response in amblyopic eyes, and to explore whether the increased central macular thickness (CMT) in amblyopic eyes is purely related to the hyperopia. This is a prospective descriptive study. CMT and peripapillary RNFLT were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to evaluate 60 patients with unilateral-treated amblyopia (median age 11.00 year). Patients were divided into two groups: 33 patients in recovered amblyopia group and 27 patients in persistent amblyopia group. The mean CMT in the recovered group was 247.31 (±23.4) versus 246.8 (±32.7) µm (p = 0.95) for the persistent group. The mean peripapillary RNFLT was 99.13 (±12.1) versus 99.9 (±14.9) µm (p = 0.85) for the persistent group. In anisometropic amblyopia, there was no significant difference in CMT and RNFLT in either group. Also there was no relation between the type of refractive error and CMT or RNFLT. There was no significant difference in CMT and RNFLT in amblyopic eyes for both the recovered amblyopia group and the persistent amblyopia group to explain the lack of response in persistent amblyopic eyes. Additionally there was no relation between the type of refractive error and CMT or peripapillary RNFLT.

  17. Altered Spontaneous Activity in Anisometropic Amblyopia Subjects: Revealed by Resting-State fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoming; Ding, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yan, Xiaohe; Song, Shaojie; Jiang, Tianzi

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, usually occurs during early childhood and results in poor or blurred vision. Recent neuroimaging studies have found cortical structural/functional abnormalities in amblyopia. However, until now, it was still not known whether the spontaneous activity of the brain changes in amblyopia subjects. In the present study, regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of the homogeneity of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals, was used for the first time to investigate changes in resting-state local spontaneous brain activity in individuals with anisometropic amblyopia. Compared with age- and gender-matched subjects with normal vision, the anisometropic amblyopia subjects showed decreased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the right precuneus, the left medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum, and increased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity was found in the bilateral conjunction area of the postcentral and precentral gyri, the left paracentral lobule, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, the conjunction area of the right insula, putamen and the right middle occipital gyrus. The observed decreases in ReHo may reflect decreased visuo-motor processing ability, and the increases in ReHo in the somatosensory cortices, the motor areas and the auditory area may indicate compensatory plasticity in amblyopia. PMID:22937041

  18. Smartphone Applications for Amblyopia Treatment: A Review of Current Apps and Professional Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Nabin

    2018-01-18

    The objective of this study was to review games for amblyopia (lazy eye) that are commercially available in mobile applications (apps) stores and assess the involvement of eye care professionals in their development. The Google play store and the Apple iTunes store were searched in July 2017 and updated in September 2017 for amblyopia games using the terms amblyopia, lazy eye, amblyopia therapy, lazy eye therapy, lazy eye exercises, amblyopia exercises, lazy eye games, and amblyopia games. General ophthalmology or optometry apps and apps in languages other than English were excluded. A total of 42 games were identified, 12 Android only (28%), 20 iOS only (48%), and 10 (24%) both Android and iOS. Most of the games were available under the medical category (60%). Most of the games were released in 2015. The price of the games ranged from $0.00 to $32.00 (USD). Nearly half of the games (45%) were to be played binocularly either using red-green goggles (38%) or a virtual reality set (7%). Only 7% of the games had explicitly documented the involvement of eye care professionals during game development. Only one game (app) was developed in collaboration with a research group and a children's hospital. This study identified that most of the currently available games do not have eye care professional input. An establishment of the quality assurance by a body of qualified eye care professionals could enhance the confidence of patients and clinicians using the game.

  19. Prevalence of amblyopia and its association with refraction in Chinese preschool children aged 36-48 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Zhu, Hui; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Fu, Zhujun; Pan, Chen-Wei; Liu, Hu

    2017-08-28

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its association with refraction in Chinese preschool children. The Yuhuatai Pediatric Eye Disease Study, a cross-sectional, population-based study, was conducted in children aged 36-48 months in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, China, in 2015. Visual acuity was measured in 1695 eligible children. Of the 1695 subjects, manifested amblyopia was detected in 25 children (1.47%, 95% CI 0.90% to 2.05%), including 11 and 14 with bilateral and unilateral amblyopia, respectively. Amblyopia prevalence did not differ by gender (p=0.77). Significant refractive errors were found in 22 (88.0%) of children with amblyopia, and strabismus was found in 6 (24.0%) children with amblyopia. In multivariate analysis, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (≥+2.00 dioptres (D); OR 8.81, 95% CI 3.27 to 23.69, pprevalence of amblyopia in children 36-48 months old in Eastern China was 1.47%. The refractive error is a major risk factor for amblyopia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Choroidal Thickness in Turkish Children with Anisometric Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Emine Esra; Çubuk, Mehmet Özgür; Akçam, Hanife Tuba; Uzun, Feyzahan; Yüksel, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    To assess macular choroidal thickness (CT) and axial length measurements in children with anisometropic amblyopia and to compare the measurements with that of fellow non-amblyopic eyes and age-sex matched controls. Forty patients with anisometropic amblyopia and 40 age-/sex-matched controls were evaluated in this study. Eyes were classified into three groups as follows: amblyopic eyes (n = 40), fellow non-amblyopic eyes, and healthy eyes (n = 40). All subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination and macular choroidal thickness measurements by enhanced depth imaging method of the Spectralis optical coherence tomography system. CT was measured at the fovea and at 1000-μm intervals from the foveal center in both temporal and nasal directions. The statistical assessment was performed with the assistance of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation test. The mean subfoveal CT was 389.35, 349.07, and 315.8 μm in the amblyopic, fellow non-amblyopic and healthy eyes, respectively. Choroid was thickest in subfoveal and thinnest in nasal regions among all groups. Both amblyopic and fellow non-amblopic eyes were more hyperopic than healthy eyes. While the subfoveal and nasal CT in amblyopic eyes and fellow eyes were significantly higher than healthy eyes, the temporal CT in amblyopic eyes was significantly higher than in healthy eyes. There was a significant positive correlation between the CT of the subfoveal, nasal, and temporal regions and the refractive state (r = 0.432 p = 0.001; r = 0.324 p = 0.001; r = 0.215 p = 0.01, respectively). The macular choroidal thickness-not only in amblyopic eyes but also in non-amblyopic fellow eyes-was significantly thicker than in the healthy subjects. The thick choroid in amblyopic and non-amblyopic fellow eyes may indicate bilateral delay of emmetropization, which probably means amblyopia affecting the visual feedback of both eyes.

  1. The prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in Japanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Chie

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in a large population of Japanese elementary school children, from Grade 1 to Grade 6, ages ranging from 6 to 12 years. The School Health Law requires that all pupils in Grade 1 to Grade 6 be examined for vision and eye problems. Visual acuity testing is done by school teachers and eye disease screening by school ophthalmologists. Pupils with suspected ocular diseases are further examined by extramural ophthalmologists and the results reported back to the schools. The schools then summarize and send uncorrected visual acuity and ocular disease incidence, together with other health statistics, to the municipal education committees. The data are forwarded to the Prefecture Governments and finally submitted to the Education Ministry of the Central Government. Both the Prefecture Governments and the Education Ministry publicize the school health statistics on their websites. The prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia remains unknown from these data because both diagnoses are included under the heading, eye diseases. Questionnaires asking about the numbers of children with different types of strabismus and amblyopia were sent to all elementary schools in Okayama Prefecture and the results were summarized. The number of children covered by the return of questionnaires was 86,531 (76.4%) of 113,254 total pupils in Grade 1 to Grade 6 in Okayama Prefecture in the year 2003. The total numbers of children with strabismus and amblyopia were 1,112 (1.28%) and 125 (0.14%), respectively. The numbers of children with any type of exotropia and any type of esotropia were 602 (0.69%) and 245 (0.28%), respectively. The major types of strabismus and amblyopia were intermittent exotropia in 109 children (0.12%), accommodative esotropia in 19 children (0.02%), anisometropic amblyopia in 23 children (0.03%), and ametropic amblyopia in 12 children (0.01%). The number of children with strabismus of unknown

  2. Biometric relationships of ocular components in esotropic amblyopia

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    Iara Debert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of the individual ocular components, i.e. anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth, to total axial length in patients with esotropic amblyopia. METHODS: The study population consisted of 74 children, aged between 5 and 8 years: thirty-seven patients with esotropic amblyopia and 37 healthy volunteers (control group. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction and A-scan ultrasonography. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and total axial length were recorded. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare biometric measurements between amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes and between right and left eyes in the control group. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular components to the total axial length, we report the individual components as a percentage of total axial length. RESULTS: The comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes regarding the individual contribution from ocular components to the total axial length revealed greater contribution from lens thickness (P=0.001 and smaller contribution from vitreous chamber depth (P=0.001 in amblyopic eyes, despite similar contribution from anterior chamber depth (P=0.434. The comparison between right and left eyes in the control group showed similar contributions from anterior chamber depth (P=0.620, lens thickness (P=0.721, and vitreous chamber depth (P=0.483. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes when the total axial length is broken down into the individual contribution from the ocular components.

  3. Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in a rural adult population of Chinese the Handan Eye Study.

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    Wang, Yue; Liang, Yuan Bo; Sun, Lan Ping; Duan, Xin Rong; Yuan, Rui Zhi; Wong, Tien Yin; Yi, Peng; Friedman, David S; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Jie Jin

    2011-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a rural Chinese population. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Six thousand eight hundred thirty Han Chinese aged 30 years or more, recruited from Yongnian County, Handan, Hebei Province, China. Thirteen villages in the Yongnian County of Handan were selected randomly, and residents of these selected villages 30 years of age or older were invited to participate in the Handan Eye Study. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination, including standardized visual acuity (VA) tests using logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution charts. Prevalence rates were age- and gender-standardized to the 2000 China census. The proportion of rural Chinese population aged 30 years or older with amblyopia. Unilateral amblyopia was diagnosed if best-corrected VA (BCVA) was 20/32 or worse in the amblyopic eye and was not attributable directly to any underlying structural abnormality of the eye or visual pathway. Bilateral amblyopia was diagnosed if BCVA was 20/32 or less in both eyes and if there was a history of form deprivation during the sensitive period of visual development, such as media opacities or high, uncorrected ametropia. Amblyopia was diagnosed in 205 participants, with an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 2.8%. Of these, 1.7% were unilateral cases and 1.1% were bilateral cases. Underlying causes included anisometropia (67.3%), strabismus (5.4%), mixed strabismus and anisometropia (4.4%), visual deprivation (9.8%), astigmatism association (9.8%), and other (3.4%). Of the amblyopia cases, 47.6% were hypermetropic. In this rural Chinese population, 2.8% of adults 30 to 80 years of age had amblyopia, a prevalence rate broadly consistent with that of most other studies. One third of the cases were bilateral, and anisometropia was the most common cause of this condition. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormal functional connectivity density in children with anisometropic amblyopia at resting-state.

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    Wang, Tianyue; Li, Qian; Guo, Mingxia; Peng, Yanmin; Li, Qingji; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-05-14

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder resulting from anomalous binocular visual input in early life. Task-based neuroimaging studies have widely investigated cortical functional impairments in amblyopia, but changes in spontaneous neuronal functional activities in amblyopia remain largely unknown. In the present study, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on fMRI, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in cortical functional connectivities in amblyopia during the resting-state. We quantified and compared both short- and long-range FCD in both the brains of children with anisometropic amblyopia (AAC) and normal sighted children (NSC). In contrast to the NSC, the AAC showed significantly decreased short-range FCD in the inferior temporal/fusiform gyri, parieto-occipital and rostrolateral prefrontal cortices, as well as decreased long-range FCD in the premotor cortex, dorsal inferior parietal lobule, frontal-insular and dorsal prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, most regions with reduced long-range FCD in the AAC showed decreased functional connectivity with occipital and posterior parietal cortices in the AAC. The results suggest that chronically poor visual input in amblyopia not only impairs the brain's short-range functional connections in visual pathways and in the frontal cortex, which is important for cognitive control, but also affects long-range functional connections among the visual areas, posterior parietal and frontal cortices that subserve visuomotor and visual-guided actions, visuospatial attention modulation and the integration of salient information. This study provides evidence for abnormal spontaneous brain activities in amblyopia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers

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    Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation of anisometropia with unilateral amblyopia, interocular acuity difference (IAD) and stereoacuity, among Head Start preschoolers, using both clinical notation and vector notation analyses. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants 3- to 5-year-old participants in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (N=4040). Methods Secondary analysis of VIP data from participants who had comprehensive eye examinations including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, stereoacuity testing, and cycloplegic refraction. VA was retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as IAD ≥2 lines in logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Anisometropia was defined as ≥0.25 D (diopter) difference in spherical equivalent (SE) or in cylinder power, and also two approaches using power vector notation. The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity were compared between anisometropic and isometropic children. Main Outcomes Measures The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity. Results Compared with isometropic children, anisometropic children had a higher percentage of unilateral amblyopia (8% vs. 2%), larger mean IAD (0.07 vs. 0.05 logMAR) and worse mean stereoacuity (145 vs.117 arc sec) (all pamblyopia, larger IAD, and worse stereoacuity (trend pamblyopia was significantly increased with spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia >0.5 D, cylindrical anisometropia >0.25 D, the vertical/horizontal meridian (J0) or oblique meridian (J45) >0.125 D, or vector dioptric distance (VDD) >0.35 D (all pamblyopia than cylinder, SE, J0 and J45 (pamblyopia, larger IAD and worse stereoacuity. The threshold level of anisometropia at which unilateral amblyopia becomes significant was lower than current guidelines. VDD is more accurate than spherical equivalent anisometropia or cylindrical anisometropia in identifying preschoolers with

  6. The effect of Bangerter filters on binocular function in observers with amblyopia.

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    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Deng, Daming; Yuan, Junpeng; Chan, Lily; Hess, Robert F; Yu, Minbin

    2014-10-28

    We assessed whether partial occlusion of the nonamblyopic eye with Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation of contrast in observers with amblyopia. In Experiment 1, suppression was measured for 22 observers (mean age, 20 years; range, 14-32 years; 10 females) with strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia and 10 controls using our previously established "balance point" protocol. Measurements were made at baseline and with 0.6-, 0.4-, and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. In Experiment 2, psychophysical measurements of contrast sensitivity were made under binocular and monocular viewing conditions for 25 observers with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age, 17 years; range, 11-28 years; 14 females) and 22 controls (mean age, 24 years; range, 22-27; 12 female). Measurements were made at baseline, and with 0.4- and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. Binocular summation ratios (BSRs) were calculated at baseline and with Bangerter filters in place. Experiment 1: Bangerter filters reduced suppression in observers with amblyopia and induced suppression in controls (P = 0.025). The 0.2-strength filter eliminated suppression in observers with amblyopia and this was not a visual acuity effect. Experiment 2: Bangerter filters were able to induce normal levels of binocular contrast summation in the group of observers with anisometropic amblyopia for a stimulus with a spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd, P = 0.006). The filters reduced binocular summation in controls. Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation for mid/low spatial frequencies in observers with amblyopia. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Utility analysis of disability caused by amblyopia and/or strabismus in a population-based, historic cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); H. Kempen-du Saar (Hanneke); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amblyopia (prevalence 3.4%) is in principle treatable, but approximately one quarter of children do not reach reading acuity in the amblyopic eye. Adults with persistent amblyopia and/or strabismus experience a decrease in quality of life. This was now quantified by

  8. Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients With Anisometropic Amblyopia Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

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    Tang, Angcang; Chen, Taolin; Zhang, Junran; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Longqian

    2017-09-01

    To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups. Compared with an age- and gender-matched control group, the anisometropic amblyopia group showed increased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity in the left superior temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left pons, and the right inferior semi-lunar lobe. The anisometropic amblyopia group also showed decreased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus. This study demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activities in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under Rs-fMRI, and these abnormalities might contribute to the neuropathological mechanisms of anisometropic amblyopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(5):303-310.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Global motion perception in children with amblyopia as a function of spatial and temporal stimulus parameters.

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    Meier, Kimberly; Sum, Brian; Giaschi, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Global motion sensitivity in typically developing children depends on the spatial (Δx) and temporal (Δt) displacement parameters of the motion stimulus. Specifically, sensitivity for small Δx values matures at a later age, suggesting it may be the most vulnerable to damage by amblyopia. To explore this possibility, we compared motion coherence thresholds of children with amblyopia (7-14years old) to age-matched controls. Three Δx values were used with two Δt values, yielding six conditions covering a range of speeds (0.3-30deg/s). We predicted children with amblyopia would show normal coherence thresholds for the same parameters on which 5-year-olds previously demonstrated mature performance, and elevated coherence thresholds for parameters on which 5-year-olds demonstrated immaturities. Consistent with this, we found that children with amblyopia showed deficits with amblyopic eye viewing compared to controls for small and medium Δx values, regardless of Δt value. The fellow eye showed similar results at the smaller Δt. These results confirm that global motion perception in children with amblyopia is particularly deficient at the finer spatial scales that typically mature later in development. An additional implication is that carefully designed stimuli that are adequately sensitive must be used to assess global motion function in developmental disorders. Stimulus parameters for which performance matures early in life may not reveal global motion perception deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The incidence and visual acuity outcomes of children identified with ametropic amblyopia by vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsud, Mohammed Aftab; Arblaster, Gemma E

    2015-04-01

    To determine the incidence of ametropic amblyopia within a vision screening program's population and report the visual acuity outcomes of children identified with the condition. The medical records of children who underwent vision screening as their first assessment at 4-5 years of age between September 1, 2005 and August 31, 2006, were retrospectively reviewed. Children referred with ≤0.30 logMAR in each eye with at least 1 year of follow-up had their hospital notes reviewed and data on final visual acuity, refractive error, and follow-up period collected. A total of 33 children identified as having ametropic amblyopia with a follow-up of at least 1 year. The incidence of ametropic amblyopia was 2%-3.2%, depending on the definition used. The mean visual acuity achieved after treatment was 0.12 logMAR, which is significantly less than the age-appropriate mean of 0.00 logMAR (P amblyopia responds to treatment, but most children demonstrate persistent reduced visual acuity at age 7 years. The incidence of ametropic amblyopia within a routine vision screening population shows that significant numbers fail to self-present. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of white matter changes in children with anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhai, Liying; Jiang, Qinying; Qin, Wen; Li, Qingji; Yin, Xiaohui; Guo, Mingxia

    2015-06-15

    Amblyopia is a neurological disorder of vision that follows abnormal binocular interaction or visual deprivation during early life. Previous studies have reported multiple functional or structural cortical alterations. Although white matter was also studied, it still cannot be clarified clearly which fasciculus was affected by amblyopia. In the present study, tract-based spatial statistics analysis was applied to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate potential diffusion changes of neural tracts in anisometropic amblyopia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) value was calculated and compared between 20 amblyopic children and 18 healthy age-matched controls. In contrast to the controls, significant decreases in FA values were found in right optic radiation (OR), left inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (ILF/IFO) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in the amblyopia. Furthermore, FA values of these identified tracts showed positive correlation with visual acuity. It can be inferred that abnormal visual input not only hinders OR from well developed, but also impairs fasciculi associated with dorsal and ventral visual pathways, which may be responsible for the amblyopic deficiency in object discrimination and stereopsis. Increased FA was detected in right posterior part of corpus callosum (CC) with a medium effect size, which may be due to compensation effect. DTI with subsequent measurement of FA is a useful tool for investigating neuronal tract involvement in amblyopia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher order aberrations in amblyopic children and their role in refractory amblyopia

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    Arnaldo Dias-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have hypothesized that an unfavourable higher order aberrometric profile could act as an amblyogenic mechanism and may be responsible for some amblyopic cases that are refractory to conventional treatment or cases of “idiopathic” amblyopia. This study compared the aberrometric profile in amblyopic children to that of children with normal visual development and compared the aberrometric profile in corrected amblyopic eyes and refractory amblyopic eyes with that of healthy eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study with three groups of children – the CA group (22 eyes of 11 children with unilateral corrected amblyopia, the RA group (24 eyes of 13 children with unilateral refractory amblyopia and the C group (28 eyes of 14 children with normal visual development. Higher order aberrations were evaluated using an OPD-Scan III (NIDEK. Comparisons of the aberrometric profile were made between these groups as well as between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Results: Higher order aberrations with greater impact in visual quality were not significantly higher in the CA and RA groups when compared with the C group. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the higher order aberrometric profile between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Conclusions: Contrary to lower order aberrations (e.g., myopia, hyperopia, primary astigmatism, higher order aberrations do not seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia. Therefore, these are likely not the cause of most cases of refractory amblyopia.

  13. Paediatric Eye Services: How Much of the Workload Is Amblyopia-Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Catherine E; Shah, Shaheen; Wren, Siobhan; Roberts, Clare J

    2016-09-01

    The proportion of patients seen by the paediatric eye service that attend for reasons related to amblyopia has not been quantified. The purpose of this study was to quantify the proportion of patients seen in the paediatric eye service attending for reasons related to amblyopia. Records of all eye appointments of children attending the Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and St Mary's Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust over one month in 2009 were examined to determine the diagnosis and reason for attendance. Seven hundred and four patients had appointments booked at St Mary's and Hillingdon in March 2009. The fail-to-attend rates were not significantly different at the 2 sites (19% at St Mary's and 9% at Hillingdon; P=0.75). Of the 704 patients, 533 (St Mary's, 252 [75%]; Hillingdon, 281 [76%]) were attending for amblyopia-related reasons. Of the overall 982 booked appointments, 770 (79%) were amblyopia-related. Amblyopia diagnosis and management is clearly the most common cause of attendance to the paediatric eye service, accounting for over three-quarters of outpatient visits.

  14. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  15. Visual Acuity Improvement in Continuous vs Divided Occlusion in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfani, Irawati; Feriyanto, Feri; Oktarima, Primawita; Kartasasmita, Arief

    2018-01-01

    To compare visual acuity improvement between continuous and split part-time occlusion for the treatment of moderate and severe anisometropic amblyopia. Randomised clinical trials in 6 - 13 y.o children with moderate and severe anisometropic amblyopia. Each patient was consecutively selected with continuous or split part-time occlusion. Best corrected visual acuity's improvement was followed up to six weeks and statistical data were analyzed using chi square and unpaired t-test. Best corrected visual acuity's improvement was comparable between continuous and split part-time occlusion (0.20±0.27 vs 0.21±0.25; p = 0.79). Split part-time occlusion may be considered as an alternative treatment for moderate and severe anisometropic amblyopia treatment.

  16. New perspectives in amblyopia therapy on adults: a critical role for the excitatory/inhibitory balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBaroncelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1% to 5% of the total world population. This pathology is caused by early abnormal visual experience with a functional imbalance between the two eyes owing to anisometropia, strabismus or congenital cataract, resulting in a dramatic loss of visual acuity in an apparently healthy eye and various other perceptual abnormalities, including deficits in contrast sensitivity and in stereopsis. It is currently accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity within the brain, amblyopia is untreatable in adulthood. However, recent results obtained both in clinical trials and in animal models have challenged this traditional view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery after the end of the critical period for visual cortex plasticity. These studies point toward the intracortical inhibitory transmission as a crucial brake for therapeutic rehabilitation and recovery from amblyopia in the adult brain.

  17. Clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens for refractoriness amblyopia

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    Xiao-Yan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens(RGPfor refractoriness amblyopia patients. METHODS: Ninety-eight cases(98 eyeswere voluntarily divided into RGP group and frame glasses group, and the two groups were received the regularity combined training to treat amblyopia for 6mo. We overviewed the corrected vision(on that day, 1, 3, 6moand the complication in RGP group. RESULTS: The corrected vision in RGP group was obviously better than that in control group during the same time. The therapeutic efficacy in RGP group was better than that in frame glasses group, without serious complications at 6mo after treatment.CONCLUSION: RGP groups could get better corrected visual acuity. It is safe and effective to improve corrected vision for refractoriness amblyopia patients.

  18. Curative effects of excimer laser corneal refractive surgery for hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

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    Xin-Gang Nie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate curative effects of excimer laser corneal refractive surgery for adults or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS: From March 2014 to March 2016, we selected 26 cases 26 eyes of adults or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in our hospital. All eyes underwent laser in situ keratomileusis, observed for the uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, diopter and stereopsis. RESULTS: At the end of the follow-up, the patient's spherical equivalent and anisometropia were 1.47±0.51D and 1.15±0.22D, were significantly lower than that before operation(PPPCONCLUSION: In adult or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia, excimer laser corneal refractive surgery has a certain effect.

  19. The role of eye movement driven attention in functional strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2015-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  20. The Role of Eye Movement Driven Attention in Functional Strabismic Amblyopia

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    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia.

  1. Modified iPad for treatment of amblyopia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Totuka, Satoru; Goseki, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of a new amblyopia treatment device used in 7 children with anisometropic amblyopia. The Occlu-pad was created by removing the polarizing film layer from the liquid crystal display screen of an iPad Air (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA). Patients were asked to wear special glasses that contained a polarizing filter for their amblyopic eye and a light reduction filter for their normal eye and instructed to play an amblyopia training game displayed only to the amblyopic eye. In 5 patients corrected distance visual acuities in the amblyopic eyes improved after 2 months' treatment on average by 0.38 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution). Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Advantages, limitations, and diagnostic accuracy of photoscreeners in early detection of Amblyopia: a review

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    Sanchez I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Irene Sanchez,1,2 Sara Ortiz-Toquero,1,2 Raul Martin,2,3 Victoria de Juan2,4 1Department of Theoretical Physics, Atomic and Optics, School of Optometry, 2Optometry Research Group, IOBA-Eye Institute, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 3Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Amblyopia detection is important to ensure proper visual development and avoid permanent decrease of visual acuity. This condition does not produce symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose if a vision problem actually exists. However, because amblyopia treatment is limited by age, early diagnosis is of paramount relevance. Traditional vision screening (conducted in <3 years is related with difficulty in getting cooperation from a subject to conduct the eye exam, so accurate objective methods to improve amblyopia detection are necessary. Handheld devices used for photoscreening or autorefraction could offer advantages to improve amblyopia screening because they reduce exploration time to just few seconds, no subject collaboration is needed, and they provide objective information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main functions and clinical applicability of commercially available devices for early detection of amblyopia and to describe their differences, advantages, and limitations. Although the studies reviewed are heterogeneous (due to wide differences in referral criteria, use of different risk factors, different types of samples studied, etc, these devices provide objective measures in a quick and objective way with a simple outcome report: retest, pass, or refer. However, due to major limitations, these devices are not recommended, and their use in clinical practice is limited. Keywords: handheld photoscreener, photoscreening, binocular autorefraction, amblyopia screening

  3. The prevalence of amblyopia in 7-year-old schoolchildren in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbasali; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Eshrati, Babak; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in schoolchildren aged 7 years in Iran, its relation with refractive errors, and its determinants. In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling was done from elementary school students in 7 cities in Iran. In all schools, an optometrist conducted all tests, including measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, and cover test. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity 20/30 or less or a 2-line interocular optotype acuity difference with no pathology. Of the 4157 students selected for the study, 3675 participated and final analyses were done with data from 3547 children. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.88% (95% CI: 1.24-2.52) (n=63). The prevalence was 1.91% (95% CI: 0.85-2.97) in boys and 1.85% (95% CI: 1.12-2.58) in girls (p=0.92). Among these cases, 60.30% (n=38) were unilateral. Also, 61.9% were strabismic, 27.0% were anisometropic, 9.5% were isometropic, and one case (1.6%) was due to congenital cataracts. Amblyopic individuals were more hypermetropic and the mean cylinder error was significantly higher. Necessary attention should be paid to amblyopia, although its prevalence in Iran is mid-range when compared with other countries. Amblyopia is more common in hyperopic and astigmatic individuals and therefore it is important to pay more attention to this refractive error during childhood. Since strabismus is the most common cause of amblyopia in Iran, children need to be checked for strabismus before the age of 5 years.

  4. The prevalence of anisometropia, amblyopia and strabismus in schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, AbbasAli; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Dehghani, Cirous; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Heravian, Javad; Derakhshan, Akbar; Yekta, Reihaneh; Rezvan, Farhad; Behnia, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2010-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia, anisometropia, and strabismus in schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran. A random cluster sampling was used in a cross-sectional study on schoolchildren in Shiraz. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in elementary and middle school children and high school students had non-cylcoplegic refraction. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded for each participant. Anisometropia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) refraction difference 1.00D or more between two eyes. Amblyopia was distinguished as a reduction of BCVA to 20/30 or less in one eye or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences in the absence of pathological causes. Cover test was performed for investigating of strabismus. Mean age of 2638 schoolchildren was 12.5 years (response rate = 86.06%). Prevalence of anisometropia was 2.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 3.16). 2.29% of schoolchildren (95% CI, 1.46 to 3.14) were amblyopic. The prevalence of amblyopia in boys and girls was 2.32% and 2.26%, respectively (p = 0.945). Anisometropic amblyopia was found in 58.1% of the amblyopic subjects. The strabismus prevalence was 2.02% (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.85). The prevalence of exotropia and esotropia was 1.30% and 0.59%, respectively. Results of this study showed that the prevalence of anisometropia, amblyopia, and strabismus are in the mid range. The etiology of amblyopia was often refractive, mostly astigmatic, and non-strabismic. Exotropia prevalence increased with age and was the most common strabismus type.

  5. Behavioral Training as New Treatment for Adult Amblyopia: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2015-06-01

    New behavioral treatment methods, including dichoptic training, perceptual learning, and video gaming, have been proposed to improve visual function in adult amblyopia. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of these methods to investigate the factors involved in amblyopia recovery and their clinical significance. Mean and individual participant data meta-analyses were performed on 24 studies using the new behavioral methods in adults. Studies were identified using PubMed, Google Scholar, and published reviews. The new methods yielded a mean improvement in visual acuity of 0.17 logMAR with 32% participants achieving gains ≥ 0.2 logMAR, and a mean improvement in stereo sensitivity of 0.01 arcsec-1 with 42% of participants improving ≥2 octaves. The most significant predictor of treatment outcome was visual acuity at the onset of treatment. Participants with more severe amblyopia improved more on visual acuity and less on stereo sensitivity than those with milder amblyopia. Better initial stereo sensitivity was a predictor of greater gains in stereo sensitivity following treatment. Treatment type, amblyopia type, age, and training duration did not have any significant influence on visual and stereo acuity outcomes. Our analyses showed that some participants may benefit from the new treatments; however, clinical trials are required to confirm these findings. Despite the diverse nature of the new behavioral methods, the lack of significant differences in visual and stereo sensitivity outcomes among them suggests that visual attention-a common element among the varied treatment methods-may play an important role in amblyopia recovery.

  6. Developmental Trajectory of McGurk Effect Susceptibility in Children and Adults With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, Cindy; Goltz, Herbert C; Raashid, Rana Arham; Wong, Agnes M F

    2015-03-05

    The McGurk effect is an audiovisual illusion that involves the concurrent presentation of a phoneme (auditory syllable) and an incongruent viseme (visual syllable). Adults with amblyopia show less susceptibility to this illusion than visually normal controls, even when viewing binocularly. The present study investigated the developmental trajectory of McGurk effect susceptibility in adults, older children (10-17 years), and younger children (4-9 years) with amblyopia. A total of 62 participants with amblyopia (22 adults, 12 older children, 28 younger children) and 66 visually normal controls (25 adults, 17 older children, 24 younger children) viewed videos that combined phonemes and visemes, and were asked to report what they heard. Videos with congruent (auditory and visual matching) and incongruent (auditory and visual not matching) stimuli were presented. Incorrect responses on incongruent trials correspond to high McGurk effect susceptibility, indicating that the viseme influenced the phoneme. Participants with amblyopia (28.0% ± 3.3%) demonstrated a less consistent McGurk effect than visually normal controls (15.2% ± 2.3%) across all age groups (P = 0.0024). Effect susceptibility increased with age (P = 0.0003) for amblyopic participants and controls. Both groups showed a similar response pattern to different speakers and syllables, but amblyopic participants invariably demonstrated a less consistent effect. Amblyopia is associated with reduced McGurk effect susceptibility in children and adults. Our findings indicate that the differences do not simply indicate delayed development in children with amblyopia; rather, they represent permanent alterations that persist into adulthood. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Is the 15∆ Base in Prism Test Reliable for Detection of Amblyopia in Anisometropic Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, F; Verkaik-Rijneveld, M C; Wubbels, R J; de Jongh, E

    2017-09-01

    The 15∆ base in prism test (15∆BIPT) introduced by Gobin is often used in The Netherlands to detect fixation preference, especially in young and preverbal children in whom a reliable measurement of the visual acuity (VA) is difficult. It is assumed that the fixation preference detected by the 15∆BIPT can be used to predict the presence of amblyopia. The aim of this retrospective case note review was to investigate the accuracy of the 15∆BIPT in detection of amblyopia in anisometropic patients. Four hundred and twelve files of anisometropic patients visiting the orthoptic department of The Rotterdam Eye Hospital were analyzed. Amblyopia was defined as an intraocular difference in VA of 2 or more Snellen lines. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the 15∆BIPT were calculated and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. One hundred and fifty-two patients ranging from 3.3-13.1 years of age (median 5.4 years) met the inclusion criteria. One hundred and two patients were diagnosed with amblyopia. Best-corrected median VA of the best eye was 1.0 (range 0.5-1.2) and the worst eye 0.70 (range 0.05-1.2). Sensitivity of the 15∆BIPT (based on detecting amblyopia) was 34.3%. Specificity was 88.0%. The positive predictive value was 85.4% versus a negative predictive value of 39.6%. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-0.74). The low sensitivity, large number of false negatives and the AUC show that the 15∆BIPT can be considered a poor test for detecting amblyopia in anisometropic patients.

  8. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE OF AMBLYOPIA PATIENTS BETWEEN 5-15 YEARS OF AGE

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    Mona Raghavendra Deshmuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to- 1. Diagnose strabismic, anisometropic and mixed amblyopia in age group 5-15 years. 2. Analyse these patients for age, sex, type of refractive error, type of squint, type of fixation pattern and classify them aetiologically. 3. Study effectiveness of different amblyopia treatments in this age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients in 5-15 years of age in a period of two years were selected and assessed for amblyopia, which included a detailed history, visual acuity, retinoscopy, ocular movements and alignment, slit lamp examination, fundus examination. Patients were given amblyopia treatment and assessed for improvement. Settings and Design- Hospital-based descriptive study in a period of two years. RESULTS In 32 amblyopic patients, maximum patients were of age group between 5-7 years. 53.12% of patients were females. Amblyopia was predominant among anisometropic patients (75% with maximum of refractive error difference between 2.00 D to 4.00 D. Amongst them, maximum amblyopes were having hypermetropia with astigmatism (37.50%. In the strabismic type, esotropia was more common. Patients showing more than 2 Snellen’s line improvements after patching for 2 hrs. were 77.27% and for 6 hrs. were 22.72%. After part-time patching, maximum improvement in BCVA (best corrected visual acuity was seen in anisometropes (P<0.0001 followed by strabismic (P=0.025 and least with mixed (P=0.026 amblyopes. CONCLUSION Amblyopia is treatable if detected earlier. Lack of community or preschool vision screening was the main cause for late pickup of amblyopic children for timely management and hence significant visual impairment associated with the condition.

  10. The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia

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    Ahn, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Shin, Seung Ai; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12{+-}7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23{+-}2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further.

  11. Beyond Screening for Risk Factors Objective Detection of Strabismus and Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Reed M.; Yanni, Susan E.; Beauchamp, Cynthia L.; Stager, David R.; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Birch, Eileen E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Commercially available automated vision screening devices assess refractive risk factors, not amblyopia or strabismus, underreferring affected children and overreferring healthy children. Nearly half of affected children are not identified until after age 5 years, when treatment is less effective. OBJECTIVES To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS), a binocular retinal birefringence scanner, to objectively identify strabismus and amblyopia, and to compare retinal birefringence screening with a widely used automated pediatric screening device. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three hundred consecutive preschool children (aged 2-6 years) were screened using the PVS and the SureSight Autorefractor at 2 pediatric ophthalmology private practices. A masked comprehensive pediatric ophthalmic examination provided the gold standard for determining sensitivity and specificity for each screening device. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was sensitivity and specificity of the PVS for detecting the targeted conditions, strabismus and amblyopia, in children aged 2 to 6 years. Secondary outcomes included the positive and negative likelihood ratios of the PVS for identifying the targeted conditions. In addition, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the SureSight Autorefractor for the targeted conditions were assessed in the same cohort of children. RESULTS Of the 300 patients, 188 had strabismus only, amblyopia only, or both, and 112 had no strabismus or amblyopia. The sensitivity of the PVS to detect strabismus and amblyopia (0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.00) was significantly higher than that of the SureSight Autorefractor (0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.83). Specificity of the PVS for strabismus and amblyopia (0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95) was significantly higher than that of the SureSight Autorefractor (0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.73). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The PVS identified children with strabismus and

  12. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography in Children With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonngi, Marcela; Velez, Federico G; Tsui, Irena; Davila, Juan Pablo; Rahimi, Mansour; Chan, Clarissa; Sarraf, David; Demer, Joseph L; Pineles, Stacy L

    2017-10-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in childhood, with a prevalence of 1% to 4% in children in the United States. To date, no studies using noninvasive optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) have measured blood flow in the retinal capillary layers in children with amblyopia. To evaluate the retinal and microvascular features using OCTA in children (amblyopia. This observational case-control study enrolled patients from September 1, 2016, through May 31, 2017, and was conducted from September 1, 2016, through June 30, 2017, at the Stein Eye Institute at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles). Participants included 59 children (amblyopia and without amblyopia examined at a pediatric ophthalmology clinic or referred to the clinic by coinvestigators. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity, refraction, and ocular motility tests; anterior and posterior segment examination; and OCTA. Reduced superficial and deep retinal capillary vessel density on OCTA. Of the 63 eyes evaluated, 13 (21%) were amblyopic and 50 (79%) were control eyes. Of the 59 patients, the mean (SD) age of patients with amblyopia was 8.0 (4.0) years and 10.3 (3.3) years for the controls; 33 patients (56%) were female; and 5 of 13 (39%) and 27 of 46 (54%) patients in the amblyopic and control groups, respectively, were identified as white. The macular vessel density of the superficial capillary plexus was lower in the amblyopic group than in the control group in both 3 × 3-mm and 6 × 6-mm scans. After adjusting for age and refractive error, the mean (SD) difference in the superficial capillary plexus in the 6 × 6-mm scan was statistically significant (49.3% [4.1] vs 51.2% [2.9]; P = .02). Macular vessel density of the deep capillary plexus in the 6 × 6-mm scans was also considerably different between groups: mean (SD) vessel density of the deep retinal capillary plexus was 54.4% (4.7%) in the amblyopia group

  13. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in African American and Hispanic Children Ages 6 to 72 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalences of strabismus in African American and Hispanic/Latino children ages 6 to 72 months and of amblyopia in African American and Hispanic/Latino children 30 to 72 months. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of vision disorders in children ages 6 to 72 months in Los Angeles County, California. A comprehensive eye examination was completed by 77% of eligible children. This report focuses on results from 3007 African American and 3007 Hispanic/Latino children. Methods Eligible children in all enumerated households in 44 census tracts were identified. Participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures, as well as determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children 30 months and older. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of 6- to 72-month-olds with strabismus on ocular examination and proportion of 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with predetermined definitions of amblyopia. Results Strabismus was detected in 2.4% of Hispanic/Latino children and 2.5% of African American children (P = 0.81), and was more prevalent in older children than in younger children. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of Hispanic/Latino children and 1.5% of African American children, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02), and 78% of cases of amblyopia were attributable to refractive error. Amblyopia prevalence did not vary with age. Conclusions Among Hispanic/Latino and African American children in Los Angeles County, strabismus prevalence increases with age, but amblyopia prevalence appears stable by 3 years of age. Amblyopia is usually caused by abnormal refractive error. These findings may help to

  14. Strabismus surgery before versus after completion of amblyopia therapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korah, Sanita; Philip, Swetha; Jasper, Smitha; Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Braganza, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Normal visual development occurs when the brain is able to integrate the visual input from each of the two eyes to form a single three-dimensional image. The process of development of complete three-dimensional vision begins at birth and is almost complete by 24 months of age. The development of this binocular vision is hindered by any abnormality that prevents the brain from receiving a clear, similar image from each eye, due to decreased vision (e.g. amblyopia), or due to misalignment of the two eyes (strabismus or squint) in infancy and early childhood. Currently, practice patterns for management of a child with both strabismus and amblyopia are not standardized. Objectives To study the functional and anatomic (ocular alignment) outcomes of strabismus surgery before completion of amblyopia therapy as compared with surgery after completion of amblyopia therapy in children under seven years of age. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 24 July 2014. A manual search for articles from a review of the references of the selected publications and conference abstracts was completed to identify any additional relevant studies. Selection criteria We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that provided data on strabismus surgery in

  15. [Prevalence and etiology of amblyopia of children in Yaoundé (Cameroon), aged 5-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noche, Christelle Domngang; Kagmeni, Giles; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne; Epee, Emilienne

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of amblyopia and identify its causes in a population of children aged 5-15 years in Cameroon. This retrospective study examined the files of children aged 5-15 years seen in a private eye clinic in Yaounde from January 2008 through December 2010. The subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including assessment of the best corrected visual acuity on a LogMAR chart, cycloplegic refraction measurements, and an orthoptic examination. The slit-lamp microscope and eye fundus examinations made it possible to rule out organic diseases. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software, version 3.5.3, to analyze the the frequency and laterality of amblyopia according to age, sex, and refractive errors. Twenty-eight of the 314 patients studied had amblyopia, for a frequency of 8.9 % in the study population and 10.3 % in the subjects with ametropia (n = 271). The average age of children with amblyopia was 9.9 + / - 3 years. The frequency of amblyopia was higher among boys, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.3679). In order of frequency, the causes were refractive errors, for 93 % (26/28) of the children, and strabismus for 7 % (2/28). Astigmatism was the most frequent cause of ametropic amblyopia. Amblyopia had an anisometropic origin in 43 % (12/28) of cases. It was unilateral in 39.2 % (11/28) and bilateral in 61 % (17/28) of cases, severe in 18 %, moderate in 18 %, and mild in 64 %. Ten percent of the subjects in our series had amblyopia, mainly due to refractive errors. Amblyopia was most frequently bilateral and mild. A systematic ophthalmological examination in childhood could provide early detection and management of refractive errors that cause ocular morbidity.

  16. The Rotterdam AMblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: RAMSES is a 7 year follow up study, aiming at the evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for amblyopia. In this first report, concerning the first 2 years of life, the compliance with the prevention programme and the positive

  17. Macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

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    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and macular thickness in the amblyopic eye with that in the sound eye of children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT.METHODS: A prospective, nonrandom, intraindividual comparative cohort study includes 72 children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in a single center. Macular thickness, macular foveola thickness, and peripapillary RNFL thickness were compared between the amblyopia eyes and the contralateral sound eyes.RESULTS:There were 38 male and 34 female patients, with a mean age as 9.7±1.9 years (range, 5–16 years. Hyperopic was +3.62±1.16D (range +2.00D to +6.50D in the amblyopic eyes, which was significantly higher in the control eyes with +0.76±0.90D (range 0D to +2.00D (P P = 0.02. The mean macular foveola thickness was significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than the contralateral sound eyes (181.4±14.2µm vs 175.2±13.3µm, P CONCLUSION:Eyes with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia are found thicker macular foveola and peripapillary RNFL than the contralateral eyes in children.

  18. Whole-population vision screening in children aged 4-5 years to detect amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-06-06

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects at least 2% of most populations and can lead to permanently reduced vision if not detected and treated within a specific period in childhood. Whole-population screening of children younger than 5 years is applied in many countries. The substantial diversity in existing programmes reflects their heterogeneous implementation in the absence of the complete evidence base that is now a pre-requisite for instituting screening. The functional importance of amblyopia at an individual level is unclear as data are scarce, but in view of the high prevalence the population-level effect might be notable. Screening of all children aged 4-5 years (eg, at school entry) confers most benefit and addresses inequity in access to timely treatment. Screening at younger ages is associated with increased risk of false-positive results, and at older ages with poor outcomes for children with moderate to severe amblyopia. We suggest that the real-life adverse effects of amblyopia should be characterised and screening and diagnosis should be standardised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning

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    Joyce eBonaccorsi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1-5% of the total world population. Amblyopia usually derives from conditions of early functional imbalance between the two eyes, owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, and results in a pronounced reduction of visual acuity and severe deficits in contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. It is widely accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain, amblyopia becomes untreatable after the closure of the critical period in the primary visual cortex. However, recent results obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials have challenged this view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery even in adulthood. In this context, non invasive procedures based on visual perceptual learning, i.e. the improvement in visual performance on a variety of simple visual tasks following practice, emerge as particularly promising to rescue discrimination abilities in adult amblyopic subjects. This review will survey recent work regarding the impact of visual perceptual learning on amblyopia, with a special focus on a new experimental model of perceptual learning in the amblyopic rat.

  20. Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1-5% of the total world population. Amblyopia usually derives from conditions of early functional imbalance between the two eyes, owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, and results in a pronounced reduction of visual acuity and severe deficits in contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. It is widely accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain, amblyopia becomes untreatable after the closure of the critical period in the primary visual cortex. However, recent results obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials have challenged this view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery even in adulthood. In this context, non invasive procedures based on visual perceptual learning, i.e., the improvement in visual performance on a variety of simple visual tasks following practice, emerge as particularly promising to rescue discrimination abilities in adult amblyopic subjects. This review will survey recent work regarding the impact of visual perceptual learning on amblyopia, with a special focus on a new experimental model of perceptual learning in the amblyopic rat.

  1. Impact of amblyopia on vision at age 12 years: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaei, D; Kifley, A; Rose, K A; Mitchell, P

    2008-04-01

    To report prevalence of amblyopia and long-term impact of its treatment on vision in a population-based sample of 12-year-old Australian children. Logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured in 2353 children (response rate 75.3%); visual impairment was defined as VAAmblyopia was defined using various criteria of best-corrected VA, together with an amblyogenic factor and absence of significant organic pathology. Corroborative historical data on previous diagnosis and treatment were obtained from parental questionnaires. Forty-four children (1.9%) were diagnosed with amblyopia, unilateral in 40 and bilateral in four. Isolated anisometropia was the most frequent cause (41%), followed by strabismus (25%), combined anisometropia and strabismus (23%), and high ametropia (9%). Myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were present in 28, 51, and 44% of amblyopic children, respectively, compared to 12, 4, and 9% of non-amblyopic children. Mean best-corrected VA in amblyopic eyes was 44.5 logMAR letters (Snellen equivalent 6/9), range: 11-60 letters. Most children with amblyopia (84%) had been treated. Only 27% were visually impaired in their amblyopic eye. This report documents a low amblyopia prevalence in a population of 12-year-old Australian children. Amblyopic visual impairment was infrequent in this sample despite absence of mandatory vision screening.

  2. Reduced response cluster size in early visual areas explains the acuity deficit in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufeng; Feng, Lixia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2017-05-03

    Focal visual stimulation typically results in the activation of a large portion of the early visual cortex. This spread of activity is attributed to long-range lateral interactions. Such long-range interactions may serve to stabilize a visual representation or to simply modulate incoming signals, and any associated dysfunction in long-range activation may reduce sensitivity to visual information in conditions such as amblyopia. We sought to measure the dispersion of cortical activity following local visual stimulation in a group of patients with amblyopia and matched normal. Twenty adult anisometropic amblyopes and 10 normal controls participated in this study. Using a multifocal stimulation, we simultaneously measured cluster sizes to multiple stimulation points in the visual field. We found that the functional MRI (fMRI) response cluster size that corresponded to the fellow eye was significantly larger as opposed to that corresponding to the amblyopic eye and that the fMRI response cluster size at the two more central retinotopic locations correlated with amblyopia acuity deficit. Our results suggest that the amblyopic visual cortex has a diminished long-range communication as evidenced by significantly smaller cluster of activity as measured with fMRI. These results have important implications for models of amblyopia and approaches to treatment.

  3. Reduced synchronization in the visual cortex of cats with strabismic amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, P. R.; König, P.; Engel, A. K.; Sireteanu, R.; Singer, W.

    1994-01-01

    Synchronous firing of spatially separate neurons was studied with multi-electrode recordings in area 17 of the visual cortex of strabismic cats which had developed behaviourally verified amblyopia of the deviated eye. Responses of neurons were evoked with moving light bars or gratings of different

  4. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I2 test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger’s test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12–1.93 times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66 times more likely to suffer from amblyopia and hyperopia, respectively, compared with children whose mother did not smoke, and the difference was significant. Significant heterogeneity was only found among studies involving the influence of maternal smoking on children’s refractive error (P<0.05; I2=69.9%. No potential publication bias was detected by Egger’s test. Conclusion. The meta-analysis suggests that maternal smoking is a risk factor for childhood hyperopia and amblyopia.

  5. Neuronal Responses in Visual Area V2 (V2) of Macaque Monkeys with Strabismic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, H.; Zhang, B.; Tao, X.; Harwerth, R. S.; Smith, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision, is thought to result from a cascade of cortical deficits over several processing stages beginning at the primary visual cortex (V1). However, beyond V1, little is known about how cortical development limits the visual performance of amblyopic primates. We quantitatively analyzed the monocular and binocular responses of V1 and V2 neurons in a group of strabismic monkeys exhibiting varying depths of amblyopia. Unlike in V1, the relative effectiveness of the affected eye to drive V2 neurons was drastically reduced in the amblyopic monkeys. The spatial resolution and the orientation bias of V2, but not V1, neurons were subnormal for the affected eyes. Binocular suppression was robust in both cortical areas, and the magnitude of suppression in individual monkeys was correlated with the depth of their amblyopia. These results suggest that the reduced functional connections beyond V1 and the subnormal spatial filter properties of V2 neurons might have substantially limited the sensitivity of the amblyopic eyes and that interocular suppression was likely to have played a key role in the observed alterations of V2 responses and the emergence of amblyopia. PMID:21263036

  6. Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Karen; Mehravaran, Shiva; Lu, Xiang; Brown, Stuart I; Mondino, Bartly J; Coleman, Anne L

    2016-12-01

    To report the outcomes of full ophthalmic examination for preschool children in LA County who failed screening with the Retinomax Autorefractor. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Between August 2012 and May 2013, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) preschool vision program screened 11 260 preschool children aged 3-5 years in Los Angeles County using the Retinomax Autorefractor only. Of those, 1007 children who failed the screening were examined by an ophthalmologist on the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic. Data from the eye examination were recorded for all children. Amblyopia was defined as unilateral if there was ≥2 line interocular difference in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and as bilateral if BCVA was amblyopia was found in 9% of those examined, or 0.8% of the original population. Of the amblyopic subjects, 77% were unilateral. Screening of preschoolers with the Retinomax led to diagnosis and early treatment of uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia. By treating children early, amblyopia may be prevented, quality of life improved, and academic achievements enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sociocultural and psychological determinants in migrants for noncompliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Tjiam (Angela); H. Akcan (Hilal); F. Ziylan (Fatma); E. Vukovic; S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J. Passchier (Jan); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Methods: Included were

  8. Analysis of retinal nerve fibre layer changes in anisometropic amblyopia by Heidelberg retina tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.; Afzal, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify if anisometropic amblyopia is associated with changes in optic disk morphology. Methods: The study comprised a total of 80 eyes recruited from Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad between May and October 2012. Anisometropic amblyopia was the only cause of disability (visual acuity >6/12) in amblyopic eyes whereas normal eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6 and no morbidities. Patients with other causes of amblyopia, co-morbid ocular diseases, and in whom a good-quality image could not be obtained were excluded. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was analysed using Heidelberg retina tomograph. Analysis of frequency distribution, probability and regression were run on the data collected during the study using SPSS version 15.0. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.85+-5.85 years. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness ranged between 0.09mm and 0.35 mm (mean: 0.23mm+-0.07) in amblyopic eyes, and between 0.18mm and 0.36mm (mean: 0.25mm+-0.05) in normal eyes. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.087). No association was found between the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness or the age and refractive error of patients. Conclusion: The optic disk does not appear to be the site of morphological changes in amblyopia. (author)

  9. Comparison of the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Cabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Tocompare the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients.METHODS:The records of 64 eyes of 50 patients 7 to 16y of age who had presented to our clinics with a diagnosis of amblyopia, were evaluated retrospectively. Forty eyes of 26 patients who had received patching therapy and 24 eyes of 24 patients who had received penalization therapy included in this study. The latencies and amplitudes of visual evoked potential (VEP records and best corrected visual acuities (BCVA of these two groups were compared before and six months after the treatment.RESULTS:In both patching and the penalization groups, the visual acuities increased significantly following the treatments (P<0.05. The latency measurements of the P100 wave obtained at 1.0°, 15 arc min. Patterns of both groups significantly decreased following the 6-months-treatment. However, the amplitude measurements increased (P<0.05.CONCLUSION: The patching and the penalization methods, which are the main methods used in the treatment of amblyopia, were also effective over the age of 7y, which has been accepted as the critical age for the treatment of amblyopia.

  10. Comparison of the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabi, Cemalettin; Sayman Muslubas, Isil Bahar; Aydin Oral, Ayse Yesim; Dastan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacies of patching and penalization therapies for the treatment of amblyopia patients. The records of 64 eyes of 50 patients 7 to 16y of age who had presented to our clinics with a diagnosis of amblyopia, were evaluated retrospectively. Forty eyes of 26 patients who had received patching therapy and 24 eyes of 24 patients who had received penalization therapy included in this study. The latencies and amplitudes of visual evoked potential (VEP) records and best corrected visual acuities (BCVA) of these two groups were compared before and six months after the treatment. In both patching and the penalization groups, the visual acuities increased significantly following the treatments (P<0.05). The latency measurements of the P100 wave obtained at 1.0°, 15 arc min. Patterns of both groups significantly decreased following the 6-months-treatment. However, the amplitude measurements increased (P<0.05). The patching and the penalization methods, which are the main methods used in the treatment of amblyopia, were also effective over the age of 7y, which has been accepted as the critical age for the treatment of amblyopia.

  11. Research on spontaneous activity in adult anisometropic amblyopia with regional homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufeng; Zhou, Yifeng

    2017-06-01

    Amblyopia usually occurs in early childhood and results in monocular visual impairment. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reflected functional anomaly in amblyopia. In resting-state fMRI study, spontaneous activity changes abnormally in anisometropic amblyopia could be revealed by the regional homogeneity (ReHo). Twenty two adult anisometropic amblyopes and Twenty one normal controls participated in this fMRI study. Two sample T test was carried out to analysis ReHo within the whole brain for the inter groups. Compare with normal group, our study found that the amblyopia’s ReHo mainly increased in the left frontal lobe, while decreased in the left cerebellum, the temporal lobe (left and right), and the left parietal lobe. And the ReHo values in middle and inferior temporal lobe, the prefrontal lobe, frontal lobe (positive) and parietal lobe and medial frontal gyrus (negative) could be correlated with the acuity deficit of amblyopia. The results increased in ReHo may indicate compensatory plasticity in higher vision information process, while the decreased in ReHo may reflect decreased ability in eye movement, spatial sense and visuo-motor coordination. The correlation revealed that the vision deficit may correspond to the spontaneous in certain brain area.

  12. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of video game training on the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a condition involving reduced acuity caused by abnormal visual input during a critical period beginning shortly after birth. Amblyopia is typically considered to be irreversible during adulthood. Here we provide the first demonstration that video game training can improve at least some aspects of the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia caused by a history of bilateral congenital cataracts. Specifically, after 40 h of training over one month with an action video game, most patients showed improvement in one or both eyes on a wide variety of tasks including acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, and sensitivity to global motion. As well, there was evidence of improvement in at least some patients for temporal contrast sensitivity, single letter acuity, crowding, and feature spacing in faces, but not for useful field of view. The results indicate that, long after the end of the critical period for damage, there is enough residual plasticity in the adult visual system to effect improvements, even in cases of deep amblyopia caused by early bilateral deprivation.

  14. Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Lam, Carly S Y; Dai, Shuan; Gao, Tina Y; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kowal, Lionel; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Walker, Natalie; Wadham, Angela; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-10-18

    Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults. We hypothesise that binocular treatment will significantly improve amblyopic eye visual acuity relative to placebo treatment. The BRAVO study is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre trial to assess the effectiveness of a novel videogame-based binocular treatment for amblyopia. One hundred and eight participants aged 7 years or older with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia (defined as ≥0.2 LogMAR interocular visual acuity difference, ≥0.3 LogMAR amblyopic eye visual acuity and no ocular disease) will be recruited via ophthalmologists, optometrists, clinical record searches and public advertisements at five sites in New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. Eligible participants will be randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio, with stratification by age group: 7-12, 13-17 and 18 years and older. Participants will be randomised to receive 6 weeks of active or placebo home-based binocular treatment. Treatment will be in the form of a modified interactive falling-blocks game, implemented on a 5th generation iPod touch device viewed through red/green anaglyphic glasses. Participants and those assessing outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is the change in best-corrected distance visual acuity in the amblyopic eye from baseline to 6 weeks post randomisation. Secondary outcomes include distance and near visual acuity, stereopsis, interocular suppression, angle of strabismus (where applicable) measured at

  15. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Elizabeth S; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Simonsz, Huibert J

    2016-05-17

    Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bilateral age-related macular degeneration with similar decrease of vision. From our out-patient department, two groups of patients with recent deterioration to bilateral visual acuity less than Snellen 0.5 (bilateral visual impairment, BVI) were recruited, with either persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMB + AMD), or with bilateral age-related macular degeneration (BAMD). To measure utility, the time trade-off method and the standard gamble method were applied through interviews. Correlations were sought between utility values and visual acuity, age and Visual Function Questionnaire-25 scores. Seventeen AMB + AMD patients (mean age 72.9 years), and 63 BAMD patients (mean age 79.6 years) were included in the study. Among AMB + AMD, 80 % were willing to trade lifetime in exchange for cure. The overall mean time trade-off utility was 0.925. Among BAMD, 75 % were willing to trade, utility was 0.917. Among AMB + AMD, 38 % accepted risk of death in exchange for cure, overall mean standard gamble utility was 0.999. Among BAMD, 49 % accepted risk of death, utility was 0.998. Utility was not related to visual acuity but it was to age (p = 0.02). Elderly patients with BVI, caused by persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or by bilateral AMD, had an approximately 8 % loss of TTO utility. Notably, the 8 % loss in elderly with BVI differs little from the 3.7 % loss we found previously in 35-year-old persons with unilateral

  16. Prevalence of Amblyopia or Strabismus in Asian and Non-Hispanic White Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Cotter, Susan A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Wen, Ge; Kim, Jeniffer; Borchert, Mark; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and race-specific prevalence of amblyopia in Asian and non-Hispanic white children aged 30 to 72 months and of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A population-based, multiethnic sample of children aged 6 to 72 months was identified in Los Angeles and Riverside counties in California to evaluate the prevalence of ocular conditions. Methods A comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview were conducted with 80% of eligible children. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures in children aged 6 to 72 months, as well as a determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children aged 30 to 72 months. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of 6- to 72-month-old participants with strabismus and 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with study definitions of amblyopia. Results Strabismus was found in 3.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68–4.60) of Asian children and 3.24% (95% CI, 2.40–4.26) of non-Hispanic white children, with a higher prevalence with each subsequent older age category from 6 to 72 months in both racial/ethnic groups (P=0.0003 and 0.02, respectively). Amblyopia was detected in 1.81% (95% CI, 1.06–2.89) of Asian and non-Hispanic white children; the prevalence of amblyopia was higher for each subsequent older age category among non-Hispanic white children (P=0.01) but showed no significant trend among Asian children (P=0.30). Conclusions The prevalence of strabismus was similar in Asian and non-Hispanic white children and was found to be higher among older children from 6 to 72 months. The prevalence of amblyopia was the same in Asian and non-Hispanic white children; prevalence seemed to be higher among older non-Hispanic white children but was relatively stable by age in Asian children. These findings may help clinicians to better understand the patterns of

  17. Donepezil Does Not Enhance Perceptual Learning in Adults with Amblyopia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Silver, Michael A; Levi, Dennis M

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder that results in a wide range of visual deficits. One proven approach to recovering vision in adults with amblyopia is perceptual learning (PL). Recent evidence suggests that neuromodulators can enhance adult plasticity. In this pilot study, we asked whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, enhances visual PL in adults with amblyopia. Nine adults with amblyopia were first trained on a low-contrast single-letter identification task while taking a daily dose (5 mg) of donepezil throughout training. Following 10,000 trials of training, participants showed improved contrast sensitivity for identifying single letters. However, the magnitude of improvement was no greater than, and the rate of improvement was slower than, that obtained in a previous study in which six adults with amblyopia were trained using an identical task and protocol but without donepezil (Chung et al., 2012). In addition, we measured transfer of learning effects to other tasks and found that for donepezil, the post-pre performance ratios in both a size-limited (acuity) and a spacing-limited (crowding) task were not significantly different from those found in the previous study without donepezil administration. After an interval of several weeks, six participants returned for a second course of training on identifying flanked (crowded) letters, again with concurrent donepezil administration. Although this task has previously been shown to be highly amenable to PL in adults with amblyopia (Chung et al., 2012; Hussain et al., 2012), only one observer in our study showed significant learning over 10,000 trials of training. Auxiliary experiments showed that the lack of a learning effect on this task during donepezil administration was not due to either the order of training of the two tasks or the use of a sequential training paradigm. Our results reveal that cholinergic enhancement with donepezil during training does not improve or speed up PL of single

  18. A limited role for suppression in the central field of individuals with strabismic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T Barrett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although their eyes are pointing in different directions, people with long-standing strabismic amblyopia typically do not experience double-vision or indeed any visual symptoms arising from their condition. It is generally believed that the phenomenon of suppression plays a major role in dealing with the consequences of amblyopia and strabismus, by preventing images from the weaker/deviating eye from reaching conscious awareness. Suppression is thus a highly sophisticated coping mechanism. Although suppression has been studied for over 100 years the literature is equivocal in relation to the extent of the retina that is suppressed, though the method used to investigate suppression is crucial to the outcome. There is growing evidence that some measurement methods lead to artefactual claims that suppression exists when it does not. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Here we present the results of an experiment conducted with a new method to examine the prevalence, depth and extent of suppression in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia. Seven subjects (70% showed no evidence whatsoever for suppression and in the three individuals who did (30%, the depth and extent of suppression was small. CONCLUSIONS: Suppression may play a much smaller role in dealing with the negative consequences of strabismic amblyopia than previously thought. Whereas recent claims of this nature have been made only in those with micro-strabismus our results show extremely limited evidence for suppression across the central visual field in strabismic amblyopes more generally. Instead of suppressing the image from the weaker/deviating eye, we suggest the visual system of individuals with strabismic amblyopia may act to maximise the possibilities for binocular co-operation. This is consistent with recent evidence from strabismic and amblyopic individuals that their binocular mechanisms are intact, and that, just as in visual normals, performance with two eyes is better than

  19. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: Does it really increase the risk of amblyopia in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Akila Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of records of children with the diagnosis of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO, who underwent probing from January 2009 to October 2011, was done. All of them underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including cycloplegic refraction and strabismus evaluation before probing. Results: A total of 142 children were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 22.38 months (sample standard deviation (SSD - 15.88. Amblyopia risk factors were defined according to two sets of guidelines: The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS referral criteria guidelines and the new AAPOS Vision Screening Committee guidelines. Twenty-eight (20% children were found to have some form of amblyopia risk factor based on the referral criteria prescribed by AAPOS. However, on applying modified guidelines described by Donahue et al., to analyze the same cohort, 21 children were found to have amblyogenic risk factors. Of these 28 children, 13 had significant astigmatism (>1.50 D, 8 children had hypermetropia (>3.50 D, and six children had anisometropia (>1.50 D. One child had significant cataract (media opacity >1 mm. None of the children in this series had either myopia or strabismus. Conclusion: Prevalence of amblyopia risk factor was found to be 20% in our study based on the older guidelines; however, it reduces to 14.78% by applying the modified guidelines. Despite this reduction, importance of a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including cycloplegic refraction in all children presenting with NLDO cannot be overstated. A close follow-up of these children is also essential to prevent the development of amblyopia.

  20. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: Does it really increase the risk of amblyopia in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, V Akila; Agarkar, Sumita; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2016-07-01

    To report the prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. A retrospective review of records of children with the diagnosis of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO), who underwent probing from January 2009 to October 2011, was done. All of them underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including cycloplegic refraction and strabismus evaluation before probing. A total of 142 children were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 22.38 months (sample standard deviation (SSD) - 15.88). Amblyopia risk factors were defined according to two sets of guidelines: The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) referral criteria guidelines and the new AAPOS Vision Screening Committee guidelines. Twenty-eight (20%) children were found to have some form of amblyopia risk factor based on the referral criteria prescribed by AAPOS. However, on applying modified guidelines described by Donahue et al., to analyze the same cohort, 21 children were found to have amblyogenic risk factors. Of these 28 children, 13 had significant astigmatism (>1.50 D), 8 children had hypermetropia (>3.50 D), and six children had anisometropia (>1.50 D). One child had significant cataract (media opacity >1 mm). None of the children in this series had either myopia or strabismus. Prevalence of amblyopia risk factor was found to be 20% in our study based on the older guidelines; however, it reduces to 14.78% by applying the modified guidelines. Despite this reduction, importance of a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including cycloplegic refraction in all children presenting with NLDO cannot be overstated. A close follow-up of these children is also essential to prevent the development of amblyopia.

  1. Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S.; Suttle, C. M.; Melmoth, D. R.; Conway, M. L.; Sloper, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. \\ud \\ud Methods: Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0-9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from 4 additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a...

  2. Improvement of visual acuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia treated with rotated prisms combined with near activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chyun Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a new modality for improving visual acuity (VA in pediatric patients with anisometropic amblyopia.METHODS: Retrospective and interventional case series. Medical records of 360 children with anisometropic amblyopia treated with a modality that included rotated prisms, lenses, and near activities from January 2008 to January 2012 were analyzed. Characteristics such as improvement of VA and contrast sensitivity in amblyopic eyes and resolution of amblyopia (VA≤0.1logMAR or a difference of ≤2 lines in logMAR between the eyes were assessed.RESULTS: Among the patients, the mean VA of the amblyopic eyes improved from 0.48logMAR (SD=0.16 to 0.12logMAR (SD=0.16 and the mean VA improvement was 0.36logMAR (SD=0.10, PP=0.437. We found that better baseline VA may be related to success and shorten the time to amblyopic resolution.CONCLUSION: VA and contrast sensitivity improved with rotated prisms, correcting lenses, and near activities in children with anisometropic amblyopia. The VA improvement by this modality was comparable to other methods. However, the time to resolution of amblyopia was shorter with this method than with other modalities. Rotated prisms combined with near acuity could provide an alternative treatment in children with anisometropic amblyopia who can’t tolerant traditional therapy method like patching.

  3. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concerts ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ... Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ...

  4. Visual outcomes after spectacles treatment in children with bilateral high refractive amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Wen; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lai, Ing-Chou; Teng, Mei-Ching

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the visual outcomes of treatment with spectacles for bilateral high refractive amblyopia in children three to eight years of age. Children with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled. Bilateral high refractive amblyopia was defined as visual acuity (VA) being worse than 6/9 in both eyes in the presence of 5.00 D or more of hyperopia, 5.00 D or more of myopia and 2.00 D or more of astigmatism. Full myopic and astigmatic refractive errors were corrected, and the hyperopic refractive errors were corrected within 1.00 D of the full correction. All children received visual assessments at four-weekly intervals. VA, Worth four-dot test and Randot preschool stereotest were assessed at baseline and every four weeks for two years. Twenty-eight children with previously untreated bilateral high refractive amblyopia were enrolled. The mean VA at baseline was 0.39 ± 0.24 logMAR and it significantly improved to 0.21, 0.14, 0.11, 0.05 and 0.0 logMAR at four, eight, 12, 24 weeks and 18 months, respectively (all p = 0.001). The mean stereoacuity (SA) was 1,143 ± 617 arcsec at baseline and it significantly improved to 701, 532, 429, 211 and 98 arcsec at four, eight, 12, 24 weeks and 18 months, respectively (all p = 0.001). The time interval for VA achieving 6/6 was significantly shorter in the eyes of low spherical equivalent (SE) (-2.00 D +2.00 D) (3.33 ± 2.75 months versus 8.11 ± 4.56 months, p = 0.0005). All subjects had normal fusion on Worth four-dot test at baseline and all follow-up visits. Refractive correction with good spectacles compliance improves VA and SA in young children with bilateral high refractive amblyopia. Patients with greater amounts of refractive error will achieve resolution of amblyopia with a longer time. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  5. Delayed resolution of eyelid swelling in preseptal cellulitis in a child: beware of causing occlusion amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendran, Muralidharan R; McLoone, Eibhlin

    2013-01-01

    A 7-month-old child presented with a 6-day history of right eyelid swelling and redness. She was being treated with chloramphenicol ointment and oral flucloxacillin by the general practitioner. Clinical examination revealed features of preseptal cellulitis. There was no evidence of orbital involvement and the child was generally well otherwise. Her oral antibiotics were changed and she was adviced to attend for a review in 2 days time. However, the child did not return for a review. Three weeks later following resolution of the eyelid swelling, the child represented with a divergent squint in the right eye. Clinical and orthoptic investigations suggested occlusion amblyopia. The child is currently receiving patching treatment for the amblyopia and is awaiting surgery for squint eye. PMID:23476010

  6. Prevalence of amblyopia among secondary school students in Calabar, south-south Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megbelayin, E O

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia among secondary school students in Calabar metropolis It was a cross-sectional study with subjects recruited by multi-stage simple random technique. A total of 1,241 students were eligible of which 1,175 were available for vision screening with Snellen's chart. Students whose visual acuities (VA) were 6/9 in either eye were considered emmetropic. History, ocular alignments, anterior and posterior segment examinations were carried out. Students with best-corrected VAamblyopia prevalence was 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 - 0.35) with no sex (P-value = 0.088) effects but showed statistical significance with age (chi-square, chi2 = 140.954, P-value = 0.000) The prevalence of amblyopia in this study is relatively low compared to otherAfrican and non-African studies.

  7. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  8. P-VEP games aided combined treatment of amblyopia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy for amblyopia in children by making use of pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPgame.METHODS: This was a prospective case control study. These asthenopic children were divided into two groups. The control group(66 eyes of 49 patients: occlusive therapy with glasses, cover, precision work, red light treatment and so on, later the stereo vision training was added. The experimental group(72 eyes of 52 patients: conventional methods mentioned above with P-VEP games.RESULTS: The total effective rate and cure rate of experimental group in 6mo were higher than those of control group. The overall effective rate was 94.4% in the experimental group and 83.3% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between them(PCONCLUSION: The comprehensive therapy by making use of P-VEP game is an individualized effective new way in treating amblyopia.

  9. Development assessment of natural latex membranes: a new proposal for the treatment of amblyopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jaqueline Alves; Rosa, Suelia Rodrigues Fleury, E-mail: jackalvesribeiro@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Engenharia e Biomaterial (BioEngLab), Faculdade Gama, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Leite, Cicilia Raquel Maia; Vasconcelos, Claudio Lopes; Soares, Joao Maria [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The ophthalmic dysfunction amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is characterized by decreased vision in one eye due to improper development in childhood. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize natural rubber membranes and to assess their utility as an eye film capable of altering the passage of light. The latex membranes were produced using the Van Gogh method and the deposition technique and were analyzed by physical and chemical methods to determine the properties of latex in natura and of natural rubber membranes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, analysis of water sorption and light crossing analysis. We report here a new approach to the treatment of patients with amblyopia using latex membranes. (author)

  10. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  11. In vivo optical imaging of amblyopia: Digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Tao, Jun; Xia, Fan; Yang, Zhi; Ma, Xiaoli; Hua, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Amblyopia is a visual impairment that is attributed to either abnormal binocular interactions or visual deprivation. The retina and choroids have been shown to be involved in the development of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retinal and choroidal microstructural abnormalities of amblyopia using digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) approaches. This prospective study included 44 eyes of 22 patients with unilateral amblyopia. All patients who received indirect ophthalmoscopy, combined depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), SSADA-OCT, and macular blue light (BL-) and near-infrared (NIR-) autofluorescences underwent pupil dilation. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured. BL- and NIR-autofluorescences were determined for all patients and used to generate subtraction images with ImageJ software. The superficial, deep layers of the retina, and inner choroid layer were required for SSADA-OCT. For the normal eyes, a regularly increasing signal was observed in the central macula based on the subtraction images. In contrast, a decreased signal for the central patch or a reduced peak was detected in 16 of 22 amblyopic eyes (72.7%). The mean SFCT of the amblyopic eyes was greater than that of the fellow normal eyes (399.25 ± 4.944 µm vs. 280.58 ± 6.491 µm, respectively, P amblyopia using SSADA-OCT and digital subtraction images of autofluorescence. The mechanistic relationship of a thicker choroid and choroidal capillary atrophy with amblyopia remains to be described. The digital subtraction image confirmed the changes in the microstructure of the amblyopic retina as a supplementary approach to detect the progression of amblyopia. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:660-667, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Eye-Hand Coordination Skills in Children with and without Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Suttle, C. M.; Melmoth, D. R.; Finlay, A. L.; Sloper, J. J.; Grant, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether binocular information provides benefits for programming and guidance of reach-to-grasp movements in normal children and whether these eye–hand coordination skills are impaired in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity.\\ud \\ud Methods. Reach-to-grasp performance of the preferred hand in binocular versus monocular (dominant or nondominant eye occluded) conditions to different objects (two sizes, three locations, and two to three repetitions) was quanti...

  13. School-based assessment of amblyopia and strabismus among multiethnic children in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Chen, Xuejuan; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Zhong, Hua; Li, Jun; Huang, Dan; Liu, Hu

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and possible ethnic variations in strabismus and amblyopia among multiethnic school-aged children in rural China. A total of 9,263 children (4,347 Han, 3,352 Yi, 799 Dai and 765 Bai) aged 6 to 14 years were analyzed. Comprehensive eye examinations including monocular distance visual acuity, anterior segment examination, autorefraction, cover testing and ocular motility were conducted. Manifested strabismus was detected in 3.53% of the overall population. T...

  14. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors in an unscreened population of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polling, Jan-Roelof; Loudon, Sjoukje E; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2012-11-01

    To describe the frequency of refractive errors and amblyopia in unscreened children aged 2 months to 12 years from a rural town in Poland. Five hundred ninety-one children were identified by medical records and examined in a standardized manner.Visual acuity was measured using LogMAR charts; refractive error was determined using retinoscopy or autorefraction after cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 D, emmetropia as SE between -0.5 D and+0.5 D, mild hyperopia as SE between +0.5 D and +2.0 D, and high hyperopia as SE Q+2.0 D. Amblyopia was classified as best-corrected visual acuity ≥0.3 (≤ 20/40) LogMAR, in combination with a 2 LogMAR line difference between the two eyes and the presence of an amblyogenic factor. Refractive errors ranged from 84.2% in children aged up to 2 years to 75.5% in those aged 10 to 12 years.Refractive error showed a myopic shift with age; myopia prevalence increased from 2.2% in those aged 6 to 7 years to 6.3% in those aged 10 to 12 years. Of the examined children, 77 (16.3%) had refractive errors, with visual loss; of these,60 (78%) did not use corrections. The prevalence of amblyopia was 3.1%, and refractive error attributed to the amblyopiain 9 of 13 (69%) children. Refractive errors are common in Caucasian children and often remain undiagnosed. The prevalence of amblyopia was three times higher in this unscreened population compared with screened populations. Greater awarenessof these common treatable visual conditions in children is warranted.

  15. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Axial Length in Preschool Children with Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takafumi; Sugano, Yukinori; Maruko, Ichiro; Sekiryu, Tetsuju

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and axial length in Japanese preschool children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Twenty-four children between the age of 3 and 6 years exhibiting hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia were examined. Differences in spherical equivalent between the two eyes were over 1.5 D in all children. Twenty-four eyes in 12 children without anisometropia and amblyopia were examined as age-matched normal controls. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured by using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Axial length was measured with noncontact optical biometer. The spherical equivalent ranged from +3.50 to +7.25 D in amblyopic eyes and from +0.75 to +3.50 D in fellow eyes. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly greater in the amblyopic eyes than that in the fellow eyes (407.3 ± 54.2 μm versus 357.7 ± 54.3 μm, Paired t-test, p amblyopia was greater than that in age matched normal children, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (326.0 ± 62.1 μm, p = 0.07). The subfoveal choroidal thickness in amblyopic children was negatively correlated with their axial length (r = -0.50, p < 0.01). The subfoveal choroidal thickness of amblyopic children abnormally increased and the thicker subfoveal choroid is mildly correlated with their shorter axial length. The anomalous subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in our amblyopic children may reflect a delay in emmetropization.

  16. Treatment of Amblyopia Using Personalized Dosing Strategies: Statistical Modelling and Clinical Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R

    2016-12-01

    To generate a statistical model for personalizing a patient's occlusion therapy regimen. Statistical modelling was undertaken on a combined data set of the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS) and the Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (ROTAS). This exercise permits the calculation of future patients' total effective dose (TED)-that predicted to achieve their best attainable visual acuity. Daily patching regimens (hours/day) can be calculated from the TED. Occlusion data for 149 study participants with amblyopia (anisometropic in 50, strabismic in 43, and mixed in 56) were analyzed. Median time to best observed visual acuity was 63 days (25% and 75% quartiles; 28 and 91 days). Median visual acuity in the amblyopic eye at start of occlusion was 0.40 logMAR (quartiles 0.22 and 0.68 logMAR) and at end of occlusion was 0.12 (quartiles 0.025 and 0.32 logMAR). Median lower and upper estimates of TED were 120 hours (quartiles 34 and 242 hours), and 176 hours (quartiles 84 and 316 hours). The data suggest a piecewise linear relationship (P = 0.008) between patching dose-rate (hours/day) and TED with a single breakpoint estimated at 2.16 (standard error 0.51) hours/day, suggesting doses below 2.16 hours/day are less effective. We introduce the concept of TED of occlusion. Predictors for TED are visual acuity deficit, amblyopia type, and age at start of occlusion therapy. Dose-rates prescribed within the model range from 2.5 to 12 hours/day and can be revised dynamically throughout treatment in response to recorded patient compliance: a personalized dosing strategy.

  17. A dichoptic custom-made action video game as a treatment for adult amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Huang, Samuel J; Zheng, Frank; Bayliss, Jessica; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have employed different experimental approaches to enhance visual function in adults with amblyopia including perceptual learning, videogame play, and dichoptic training. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel dichoptic action videogame combining all three approaches. This experimental intervention was compared to a conventional, yet unstudied method of supervised occlusion while watching movies. Adults with unilateral amblyopia were assigned to either play the dichoptic action game (n=23; 'game' group), or to watch movies monocularly while the fellow eye was patched (n=15; 'movies' group) for a total of 40hours. Following training, visual acuity (VA) improved on average by ≈0.14logMAR (≈28%) in the game group, with improvements noted in both anisometropic and strabismic patients. This improvement is similar to that obtained following perceptual learning, video game play or dichoptic training. Surprisingly, patients with anisometropic amblyopia in the movies group showed similar improvement, revealing a greater impact of supervised occlusion in adults than typically thought. Stereoacuity, reading speed, and contrast sensitivity improved more for game group participants compared with movies group participants. Most improvements were largely retained following a 2-month no-contact period. This novel video game, which combines action gaming, perceptual learning and dichoptic presentation, results in VA improvements equivalent to those previously documented with each of these techniques alone. Our game intervention led to greater improvement than control training in a variety of visual functions, thus suggesting that this approach has promise for the treatment of adult amblyopia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Binocular Therapy for Childhood Amblyopia Improves Vision Without Breaking Interocular Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Manuela; Tailor, Vijay K; Anderson, Elaine J; Bex, Peter J; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-06-01

    Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment. Balanced binocular viewing therapy (BBV) involves daily viewing of dichoptic movies (with "visibility" matched across the two eyes) and gameplay (to monitor compliance and suppression). Twenty-two children (3-11 years) with anisometropic (n = 7; group 1) and strabismic or combined mechanism amblyopia (group 2; n = 6 and 9, respectively) completed the study. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for a maximum of 8 or 24 weeks, respectively. The treatment elicited high levels of compliance (on average, 89.4% ± 24.2% of daily dose in 68.23% ± 12.2% of days on treatment) and led to a mean improvement in acuity of 0.27 logMAR (SD 0.22) for the amblyopic eye. Importantly, acuity gains were not correlated with a reduction in suppression. BBV is a binocular treatment for amblyopia that can be self-administered at home (with remote monitoring), producing rapid and substantial benefits that cannot be solely mediated by a reduction in interocular suppression.

  19. Crowded letter and crowded picture logMAR acuity in children with amblyopia: a quantitative comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Cathy; Chen, Sean I; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, picture acuity tests are thought to overestimate visual acuity (VA) compared with letter tests, but this has not been systematically investigated in children with amblyopia. This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4-6 years (mean=68.7, range=48-83 months) underwent VA measurements. VA chart testing order was randomised, but the amblyopic eye was tested before the fellow eye. All participants wore up-to-date refractive correction. The Kay Picture test significantly overestimated VA by 0.098 logMAR (95% limits of agreement (LOA), 0.13) in the amblyopic eye and 0.088 logMAR (95% LOA, 0.13) in the fellow eye, respectively (pamblyopia on VA results (p>0.23). For both the amblyopic and fellow eyes, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a systematic and predictable difference between Kay Picture and Keeler Letter charts across the range of acuities tested (Keeler acuity: amblyopic eye 0.75 to -0.05 logMAR; fellow eye 0.45 to -0.15 logMAR). Linear regression analysis (pamblyopia. Due to the predictable difference found between both crowded logMAR acuity tests, it is reasonable to adjust Kay Picture acuity thresholds by +0.10 logMAR to compute expected Keeler Letter acuity scores. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. [Occlusion treatment for amblyopia. Age dependence and dose-response relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronius, M

    2016-04-01

    Based on clinical experience and studies on animal models the age of 6-7 years was regarded as the limit for treatment of amblyopia, although functional improvement was also occasionally reported in older patients. New technical developments as well as insights from clinical studies and the neurosciences have attracted considerable attention to this topic. Various aspects of the age dependence of amblyopia treatment are discussed in this article, e. g. prescription, electronic monitoring of occlusion dosage, calculation of indicators for age-dependent plasticity of the visual system, and novel, alternative treatment approaches. Besides a discussion of the recent literature, results of studies by our "Child Vision Research Unit" in Frankfurt are presented: results of a questionnaire about prescription habits concerning age limits of patching, electronic recording of occlusion in patients beyond the conventional treatment age, calculation of dose-response function and efficiency of patching and their age dependence. The results of the questionnaire illustrate the uncertainty about age limits of prescription with significant deviations from the guideline of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG). Electronic recording of occlusion allowed the quantification of declining dose-response function and treatment efficiency between 5 and 16 years of age. Reports about successful treatment with conventional and novel methods in adults are at variance with the notion of a rigid adult visual system lacking plasticity. Electronic recording of patching allowed new insights into the age-dependent susceptibility of the visual system and contributes to a more evidence-based treatment of amblyopia. Alternative approaches for adults challenge established notions about age limits of amblyopia therapy. Further studies comparing different treatment options are urgently needed.

  1. Visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian pre-school children - The SEGPAEDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F L M; Thavaratnam, L K; Shukor, I N C; Ramasamy, S; Rahmat, J; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P; Alagaratnam, J

    2018-02-01

    Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria. A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia. Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.

  2. A dichoptic custom-made action video game as a treatment for adult amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Huang, Samuel J.; Zheng, Frank; Bayliss, Jessica; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have employed different experimental approaches to enhance visual function in adults with amblyopia including perceptual learning, videogame play, and dichoptic training. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel dichoptic action videogame combining all three approaches. This experimental intervention was compared to a conventional, yet unstudied method of supervised occlusion while watching movies. Adults with unilateral amblyopia were assigned to either playing the dichoptic action game (n = 23; ‘game’ group), or to watching movies monocularly while the fellow eye was patched (n = 15; ‘movies’ group) for a total of 40 h. Following training, visual acuity (VA) improved on average by ≈0.14 logMAR (≈27%) in the game group, with improvements noted in both anisometropic and strabismic patients. This improvement is similar to that described after perceptual learning, video game play or dichoptic training. Surprisingly, patients with anisometropic amblyopia in the movies group showed similar improvement, revealing a greater impact of supervised occlusion in adults than typically thought. Stereoacuity, reading speed, and contrast sensitivity improved more for game group participants compared with movies group participants. Most improvements were largely retained following a 2-month no-contact period. This novel video game, which combines action gaming, perceptual learning and dichoptic presentation, results in VA improvements equivalent to those previously documented with each of these techniques alone. Interestingly, however, our game intervention led to greater improvement than control training in a variety of visual functions, thus suggesting that this approach has promise for the treatment of adult amblyopia. PMID:25917239

  3. The Structural Properties of Major White Matter Tracts in Strabismic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yiran; Norcia, Anthony M; Yeatman, Jason D; Mezer, Aviv

    2015-08-01

    In order to better understand whether white matter structural deficits are present in strabismic amblyopia, we performed a survey of the tissue properties of 28 major white matter tracts using diffusion and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging approaches. We used diffusion-based tensor modeling and a new quantitative T1 protocol to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and myelin-sensitive T1 values. We surveyed tracts in the occipital lobe, including the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF)-a newly rediscovered tract that bridges dorsal and ventral areas of the occipital lobe, as well as tracts across the rest of the brain. Adults with long-standing strabismic amblyopia show tract-specific elevations in MD. We rank-ordered the tracts on the basis of their MD effect-size. The four most affected tracts were the anterior frontal corpus callosum (ACC), the right VOF, the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the left optic radiation. The results suggest that most white matter tissue properties are relatively robust to the early visual insult caused by strabismus. However, strabismic amblyopia does affect MD, not only in occipital tracts, such as the VOF and optic radiation, but also in long range association tracts connecting visual cortex to the frontal and temporal lobes (ILF) and connecting the two hemispheres (ACC).

  4. Processing Deficits of Motion of Contrast-Modulated Gratings in Anisometropic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongjian; Hu, Xiaopeng; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated substantial processing deficits for static second-order stimuli in amblyopia. However, less is known about the perception of second-order moving gratings. To investigate this issue, we measured the contrast sensitivity for second-order (contrast-modulated) moving gratings in seven anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls. The measurements were performed with non-equated carriers and a series of equated carriers. For comparison, the sensitivity for first-order motion and static second-order stimuli was also measured. Most of the amblyopic eyes (AEs) showed reduced sensitivity for second-order moving gratings relative to their non-amblyopic eyes (NAEs) and the dominant eyes (CEs) of normal control subjects, even when the detectability of the noise carriers was carefully controlled, suggesting substantial processing deficits of motion of contrast-modulated gratings in anisometropic amblyopia. In contrast, the non-amblyopic eyes of the anisometropic amblyopes were relatively spared. As a group, NAEs showed statistically comparable performance to CEs. We also found that contrast sensitivity for static second-order stimuli was strongly impaired in AEs and part of the NAEs of anisometropic amblyopes, consistent with previous studies. In addition, some amblyopes showed impaired performance in perception of static second-order stimuli but not in that of second-order moving gratings. These results may suggest a dissociation between the processing of static and moving second-order gratings in anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25409477

  5. A computer-based anaglyphic system for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegarpour A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Rastegarpour Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: Virtual reality (VR-based treatment has been introduced as a potential option for amblyopia management, presumably without involving the problems of occlusion and penalization, including variable and unsatisfactory outcomes, long duration of treatment, poor compliance, psychological impact, and complications. However, VR-based treatment is costly and not accessible for most children. This paper introduces a method that encompasses the advantages of VR-based treatment at a lower cost. Methods: The presented system consists of a pair of glasses with two color filters and software for use on a personal computer. The software is designed such that some active graphic components can only be seen by the amblyopic eye and are filtered out for the other eye. Some components would be seen by both to encourage fusion. The result is that the patient must use both eyes, and specifically the amblyopic eye, to play the games. Results: A prototype of the system, the ABG InSight, was found capable of successfully filtering out elements of a certain color and therefore, could prove to be a viable alternative to VR-based treatment for amblyopia. Conclusion: The anaglyphic system maintains most of the advantages of VR-based systems, but is less costly and highly accessible. It fulfills the means that VR-based systems are designed to achieve, and warrants further investigation. Keywords: amblyopia, computer-based, open source, virtual reality, color filters, 3-D

  6. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Effects of Reduced Acuity and Stereo Acuity on Saccades and Reaching Movements in Adults With Amblyopia and Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C; Colpa, Linda; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M F

    2017-02-01

    Our previous work has shown that amblyopia disrupts the planning and execution of visually-guided saccadic and reaching movements. We investigated the association between the clinical features of amblyopia and aspects of visuomotor behavior that are disrupted by amblyopia. A total of 55 adults with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic, 15 mixed mechanism), 14 adults with strabismus without amblyopia, and 22 visually-normal control participants completed a visuomotor task while their eye and hand movements were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between three clinical predictors of amblyopia (amblyopic eye [AE] acuity, stereo sensitivity, and eye deviation) and seven kinematic outcomes, including saccadic and reach latency, interocular saccadic and reach latency difference, saccadic and reach precision, and PA/We ratio (an index of reach control strategy efficacy using online feedback correction). Amblyopic eye acuity explained 28% of the variance in saccadic latency, and 48% of the variance in mean saccadic latency difference between the amblyopic and fellow eyes (i.e., interocular latency difference). In contrast, for reach latency, AE acuity explained only 10% of the variance. Amblyopic eye acuity was associated with reduced endpoint saccadic (23% of variance) and reach (22% of variance) precision in the amblyopic group. In the strabismus without amblyopia group, stereo sensitivity and eye deviation did not explain any significant variance in saccadic and reach latency or precision. Stereo sensitivity was the best clinical predictor of deficits in reach control strategy, explaining 23% of total variance of PA/We ratio in the amblyopic group and 12% of variance in the strabismus without amblyopia group when viewing with the amblyopic/nondominant eye. Deficits in eye and limb movement initiation (latency) and target localization (precision) were associated with amblyopic acuity deficit, whereas changes in

  8. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  9. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10, non-action videogame group (n = 3, and crossover control group (n = 7. Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%, positional acuity (16%, spatial attention (37%, and stereopsis (54%. Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy, we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7% and increased processing efficiency (33%. Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia

  10. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Ngo, Charlie; Nguyen, Jennie; Levi, Dennis M

    2011-08-01

    Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus) were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10), non-action videogame group (n = 3), and crossover control group (n = 7). Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games) for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d) using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%), positional acuity (16%), spatial attention (37%), and stereopsis (54%). Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy), we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7%) and increased processing efficiency (33%). Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia, and perhaps other

  11. The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their

  12. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao [Third Military Medical University, Ophthalmology Research Center, Southwest Eye Hospital/Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yu, Longhua [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); 401st Hospital of PLA, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); He, Sheng [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  13. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  14. Analysis the macular ganglion cell complex thickness in monocular strabismic amblyopia patients by Fourier-domain OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Deng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the macular ganglion cell complex thickness in monocular strabismus amblyopia patients, in order to explore the relationship between the degree of amblyopia and retinal ganglion cell complex thickness, and found out whether there is abnormal macular ganglion cell structure in strabismic amblyopia. METHODS: Using a fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCTinstrument iVue®(Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA, Macular ganglion cell complex(mGCCthickness was measured and statistical the relation rate with the best vision acuity correction was compared Gman among 26 patients(52 eyesincluded in this study. RESULTS: The mean thickness of the mGCC in macular was investigated into three parts: centrial, inner circle(3mmand outer circle(6mm. The mean thicknesses of mGCC in central, inner and outer circle was 50.74±21.51μm, 101.4±8.51μm, 114.2±9.455μm in the strabismic amblyopia eyes(SAE, and 43.79±11.92μm,92.47±25.01μm, 113.3±12.88μm in the contralateral sound eyes(CSErespectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the eyes(P>0.05. But the best corrected vision acuity had a good correlation rate between mGcc thicknesses, which was better relative for the lower part than the upper part.CONCLUSION:There is a relationship between the amblyopia vision acuity and the mGCC thickness. Although there has not statistically significant difference of the mGCC thickness compared with the SAE and CSE. To measure the macular center mGCC thickness in clinic may understand the degree of amblyopia.

  15. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yang, Hong; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng; Wang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia.

  16. Frecuencia de la ambliopía en escolares Frequency of amblyopia in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Capetillo Biart

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: una de las afecciones visuales más frecuentes en la edad pediátrica es la ambliopía, diez veces más que cualquier traumatismo o enfermedad ocular. Objetivo: identificar la frecuencia de ambliopía en niños de edad escolar. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en niños en edad escolar, entre 6 y 11 años cumplidos, de las escuelas primarias "Carlos Baliño López" y "José Ángel Conchello Ávila", del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, en La Habana, en el período comprendido de septiembre de 2009 a junio de 2010, es decir, durante el curso escolar 2009-2010. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 503 niños a los que se les realizó un examen oftalmológico completo. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, sexo, agudeza visual sin y con corrección, defecto refractivo y etiología. Resultados: fue discretamente más frecuente en el sexo masculino (50,49 %, y, en general, la edad de 9 años (19,88 %; en las hembras, los 6 años (10,92 %, y en los varones, los 10 (10,53 %. En el universo estudiado se constató ambliopía en el 1,39 %, el 71,42 % ligera y el 28,97 % moderada, y el 71,42 % de los ambliopes tenía entre 6 y 7 años. Predominó la ambliopía refractiva (57,14 %, seguida de la estrábica (42,85 %. No se encontró la causa deprivativa. El astigmatismo fue el defecto refractivo predominante (44,44 %, seguido por la miopía (35,18 % y por la hipermetropía (25,92 %. Conclusiones: en la serie estudiada fueron más frecuentes el sexo masculino, la emetropía, el astigmatismo y la ambliopía ligera de causa refractiva.Introduction: one the more frequent and visual affection in children is the amblyopia ten times more than any trauma or ocular disease. Objective: to identify the frequency of amblyopia in children of school age. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in school age children between 6 and 11 years in the "Carlos Baliño López" and "José Angel Conchello Avila

  17. Survey of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Anisometropic and Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Soltani Moghaddam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available . To investigate the effect of anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia on the nerve fiber layer thickness. This cross-sectional study was done on 54 amblyopic subjects, equally in both strabismic and anisometropic groups. The thickness otonerve fiber layer measured in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole in both eyes of both groups. The means of thickness were compared in amblyopic and sound eyes. In strabismus group, the average nerve fiber layer thickness of the sound eye , in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole were 113.23±14, 117.37±25, 68.96±6, 69.55±14 and 93.40±8 microns respectively. In amblyopic eyes of the same group, these measurements were 103.11±18, 67.74±11, and 69.59±16 and 89.59±12 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as whole respectively. In anisometropic groups, the sound eye measurements were as 130.96±22, 129.07±29, 80.62±12, and 83.88±20 and 107.7±13 microns in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole orderly. In amblyopic eyes of this group the mean thicknesses were 115.63±29, 133.15±25, 78.8±15, 80.2±16 and 109.17±21 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole respectively. Statistically, there were no significant differences between amblyopic and sound eyes (P>0.5. Our study did not support any significant change in a nerve fiber layer thickness of amblyopic patients; however, decreased thickness in superior and nasal quadrants of strabismic amblyopia and except inferior quadrant and as a whole. These measurements may be a clue for management and prognosis of amblyopia in old age.

  18. Eye–Hand Coordination Skills in Children with and without Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Catherine M.; Melmoth, Dean R.; Finlay, Alison L.; Sloper, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether binocular information provides benefits for programming and guidance of reach-to-grasp movements in normal children and whether these eye–hand coordination skills are impaired in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Methods. Reach-to-grasp performance of the preferred hand in binocular versus monocular (dominant or nondominant eye occluded) conditions to different objects (two sizes, three locations, and two to three repetitions) was quantified by using a 3D motion-capture system. The participants were 36 children (age, 5–11 years) and 11 adults who were normally sighted and 21 children (age, 4–8 years) who had strabismus and/or anisometropia. Movement kinematics and error rates were compared for each viewing condition within and between subject groups. Results. The youngest control subjects used a mainly programmed (ballistic) strategy and collided with the objects more often when viewing with only one eye, while older children progressively incorporated visual feedback to guide their reach and, eventually, their grasp, resulting in binocular advantages for both movement components resembling those of adult performance. Amblyopic children were the worst performers under all viewing conditions, even when using the dominant eye. They spent almost twice as long in the final approach to the objects and made many (1.5–3 times) more errors in reach direction and grip positioning than their normal counterparts, these impairments being most marked in those with the poorest binocularity, regardless of the severity or cause of their amblyopia. Conclusions. The importance of binocular vision for eye–hand coordination normally increases with age and use of online movement guidance. Restoring binocularity in children with amblyopia may improve their poor hand action control. PMID:21212188

  19. Eye-hand coordination skills in children with and without amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Catherine M; Melmoth, Dean R; Finlay, Alison L; Sloper, John J; Grant, Simon

    2011-03-01

    To investigate whether binocular information provides benefits for programming and guidance of reach-to-grasp movements in normal children and whether these eye-hand coordination skills are impaired in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Reach-to-grasp performance of the preferred hand in binocular versus monocular (dominant or nondominant eye occluded) conditions to different objects (two sizes, three locations, and two to three repetitions) was quantified by using a 3D motion-capture system. The participants were 36 children (age, 5-11 years) and 11 adults who were normally sighted and 21 children (age, 4-8 years) who had strabismus and/or anisometropia. Movement kinematics and error rates were compared for each viewing condition within and between subject groups. The youngest control subjects used a mainly programmed (ballistic) strategy and collided with the objects more often when viewing with only one eye, while older children progressively incorporated visual feedback to guide their reach and, eventually, their grasp, resulting in binocular advantages for both movement components resembling those of adult performance. Amblyopic children were the worst performers under all viewing conditions, even when using the dominant eye. They spent almost twice as long in the final approach to the objects and made many (1.5-3 times) more errors in reach direction and grip positioning than their normal counterparts, these impairments being most marked in those with the poorest binocularity, regardless of the severity or cause of their amblyopia. The importance of binocular vision for eye-hand coordination normally increases with age and use of online movement guidance. Restoring binocularity in children with amblyopia may improve their poor hand action control.

  20. Computerized method of visual acuity testing: adaptation of the amblyopia treatment study visual acuity testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moke, P S; Turpin, A H; Beck, R W; Holmes, J M; Repka, M X; Birch, E E; Hertle, R W; Kraker, R T; Miller, J M; Johnson, C A

    2001-12-01

    To report a computerized method for determining visual acuity in children using the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol. A computerized visual acuity tester was developed that uses a programmed handheld device that uses the Palm operating system (Palm, Inc, Santa Clara, California). The handheld device communicates with a personal computer running a Linux operating system and 17-inch monitor. At a test distance of 3 m, single letters can be displayed from 20/800 to 20/12. A C program on the handheld device runs the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol. Using this method, visual acuity was tested in both the right and left eyes, and then the testing was repeated in 156 children age 3 to 7 years at four clinical sites. Test-retest reliability was high (r =.92 and 0.95 for and right and left eyes, respectively), with 88% of right eye retests and 94% of left eye retests within 0.1 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) units of the initial test. The 95% confidence interval for an acuity score was calculated to be the score +/- 0.13 logMAR units. For a change between two acuity scores, the 95% confidence interval was the difference +/- 0.19 logMAR units. We have developed a computerized method for measurement of visual acuity. Automation of the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol is an effective method of testing visual acuity in children 3 to 7 years of age.

  1. Survey of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Anisometropic and Strabismic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Moghaddam, Reza; Medghalchi, Abdolreza; Alizadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    . To investigate the effect of anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia on the nerve fiber layer thickness. This cross-sectional study was done on 54 amblyopic subjects, equally in both strabismic and anisometropic groups. The thickness otonerve fiber layer measured in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole in both eyes of both groups. The means of thickness were compared in amblyopic and sound eyes. In strabismus group, the average nerve fiber layer thickness of the sound eye , in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole were 113.23±14, 117.37±25, 68.96±6, 69.55±14 and 93.40±8 microns respectively. In amblyopic eyes of the same group, these measurements were 103.11±18, 67.74±11, and 69.59±16 and 89.59±12 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as whole respectively. In anisometropic groups, the sound eye measurements were as 130.96±22, 129.07±29, 80.62±12, and 83.88±20 and 107.7±13 microns in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole orderly. In amblyopic eyes of this group the mean thicknesses were 115.63±29, 133.15±25, 78.8±15, 80.2±16 and 109.17±21 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole respectively. Statistically, there were no significant differences between amblyopic and sound eyes (P>0.5). Our study did not support any significant change in a nerve fiber layer thickness of amblyopic patients; however, decreased thickness in superior and nasal quadrants of strabismic amblyopia and except inferior quadrant and as a whole. These measurements may be a clue for management and prognosis of amblyopia in old age.

  2. Prevalence of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Homood Aldebasi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 5176 children, aged 6 to 13 years (mean - 9.53 ± 1.88 years) were evaluated. There were 2573 (49.71%) males and 2603 (50.29%) females. Distance visual acuity (V/A) was tested monocularly using a logMAR chart with and without correction. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in children with reduced v...

  3. Strabismus and Near Point of Convergence and Amblyopia in 4-6 Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, AbbasAli; Hashemi, Hassan; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Haghighi, Batool; Shafiee, Hava; Mehravaran, Shiva; Nabovati, Payam; Asharlous, Amir; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia, and the distribution of the near point of convergence (NPC), in a population of children aged 4 to 6 years. In this cross-sectional study, preschoolers in Mashhad were sampled using a random multistage cluster sampling approach. Examinations were done after obtaining parental consent. All participants had measurements of uncorrected visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, and non-cycloplegic refraction, and they had near and far cover tests to determine tropia and phoria. Of the 3765 selected children, 3701 participated in the study. The prevalence of tropia was 1.21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-1.57). Near and near/far tropia was observed in 0.83% (95% CI: 0.53-1.12) and 0.39% (95% CI: 0.18-0.59), respectively. Tropia was significantly more prevalent in boys (P=0.005). The most common type of tropia was esotropia, 0.22% (95% CI: 0.07-0.37). Among participants, 63.92% (95% CI: 62.36-65.48) had phoria; prevalence of far, near, and near/far phoria was 0.22% (95% CI: 0.07-0.37), 60.47% (95% CI: 58.88-62.07), and 3.22% (95% CI: 2.65-3.8), respectively. Mean NPC was 5.1 cm (95% CI: 5.05-5.14). NPC increased by 0.08 cm per month of age (P=0.033) and was 0.10 cm higher in boys compared to girls (P=0.027). Based on NPC, 61.58% (95% CI: 59.99-63.17) were symptomatic. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.41% (95% CI: 0.20-0.61). The type of amblyopia was anisometropic, strabismic, and isoametropic in 75%, 11.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia in this study population was not high; however, the prevalence of tropia was average compared to previous studies in Iran. Describing NPC in a 4- to 6-year-old Iranian population for the first time, we found that NPC increased with age in this sample.

  4. Prevalence of anisometropia and its association with refractive error and amblyopia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Sonia; Rose, Kathryn A; Gole, Glen A; Philip, Krupa; Leone, Jody F; French, Amanda; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-09-01

    To determine the age and ethnicity-specific prevalence of anisometropia in Australian preschool-aged children and to assess in this population-based study the risk of anisometropia with increasing ametropia levels and risk of amblyopia with increasing anisometropia. A total 2090 children (aged 6-72 months) completed detailed eye examinations in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study, including cycloplegic refraction, and were included. Refraction was measured using a Canon RK-F1 autorefractor, streak retinoscopy and/or the Retinomax K-Plus 2 autorefractor. Anisometropia was defined by the spherical equivalent (SE) difference, and plus cylinder difference for any cylindrical axis between eyes. The overall prevalence of SE and cylindrical anisometropia ≥1.0 D were 2.7% and 3.0%, for the overall sample and in children of European-Caucasian ethnicity, 3.2%, 1.9%; East-Asian 1.7%, 5.2%; South-Asian 2.5%, 3.6%; Middle-Eastern ethnicities 2.2%, 3.3%, respectively. Anisometropia prevalence was lower or similar to that in the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study, Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive error in Singapore study. Risk (OR) of anisometropic amblyopia with ≥1.0 D of SE and cylindrical anisometropia was 12.4 (CI 4.0 to 38.4) and 6.5 (CI 2.3 to 18.7), respectively. We found an increasing risk of anisometropia with higher myopia ≥-1.0 D, OR 61.6 (CI 21.3 to 308), hyperopia > +2.0 D, OR 13.6 (CI 2.9 to 63.6) and astigmatism ≥1.5 D, OR 30.0 (CI 14.5 to 58.1). In this preschool-age population-based sample, anisometropia was uncommon with inter-ethnic differences in cylindrical anisometropia prevalence. We also quantified the rising risk of amblyopia with increasing SE and cylindrical anisometropia, and present the specific levels of refractive error and associated increasing risk of anisometropia.

  5. Differences in quality-of-life dimensions of Adult Strabismus Quality of Life and Amblyopia & Strabismus Questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); G.W. van der Sterre (Geertje); J. Felius (Joost); H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H. Kelderman (Henk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) and the Amblyopia & Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) both measure health-related quality of life in strabismus patients. We evaluated to what extent these instruments cover similar domains by identifying the underlying

  6. Longitudinal Impact on Quality of Life for School-aged Children with Amblyopia Treatment: Perspective from Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Xinhong; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Jingwei; Xu, Jinling; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during amblyopia treatment for school-aged children from children's perspective. School-aged children prescribed amblyopia treatment for the first time were recruited into the current study. Using a questionnaire, subjects' HRQOL was assessed before patching treatment, and at 8 weeks and 16 weeks after the commencement of patching treatment. Evaluation of visual function and psychosocial aspect was included in the questionnaire. Visual acuity and demographic data of the subjects were recorded. Forty-four children, aged 7-12 years, with anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study. Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye improved 1.90 (0.41-3.74) and 3.98 (2.22-5.11) lines at follow-up weeks 8 and 16, respectively. Both the total score and subscales of the questionnaire were reduced at the first follow-up and recovered at the second follow-up. Scores at week 16 were higher than those before treatment in the psychosocial aspect (p = 0.003), and lower in the visual function aspect (p amblyopia treatment for school-aged children. Meanwhile, necessary precautions should be taken to help reduce the impacts.

  7. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406514; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  8. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P.; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated with greater deficits in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex would modulate VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. tDCS can transiently alter cortical excitability and may influence suppressive neural interactions. Twenty-one patients with amblyopia and twenty-seven controls completed separate sessions of anodal (a-), cathodal (c-) and sham (s-) visual cortex tDCS. A-tDCS transiently and significantly increased VEP amplitudes for amblyopic, fellow and control eyes and contrast sensitivity for amblyopic and control eyes. C-tDCS decreased VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity and s-tDCS had no effect. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate visual cortex responses to information from adult amblyopic eyes and provide a foundation for future clinical studies of tDCS in adults with amblyopia. PMID:26763954

  9. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCampana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period, several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS, was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat, Ma-Naim, Belkin & Sagi, 2004, here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.

  10. Clinical analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular fovea in hyperopia children with anisometropia amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the clinical significance of axial length, diopter and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in hyperopia children with anisometropia amblyopia. METHODS: From January 2015 to January 2017 in our hospital for treatment, 103 cases, all unilateral, were diagnosed as hyperopia anisometropia amblyopia. The eyes with amblyopia were as experimental group(103 eyes, another normal eye as control group(103 eyes. We took the detection with axial length, refraction, foveal thickness, corrected visual acuity, diopter and the average thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer. RESULTS: Differences in axial length and diopter and corrected visual acuity were statistically significant between the two groups(PP>0.05. There was statistical significance difference on the foveal thickness(PP>0.05. The positive correlation between diopter with nerve fiber layer thickness of foveal and around the optic disc were no statistically significant difference(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Retinal thickness of the fovea in the eye with hyperopic anisometropia amblyopia were thicker than those in normal eyes; the nerve fiber layer of around the optic disc was not significantly different between the amblyopic eyes and contralateral eyes. The refraction and axial length had no significant correlation with optic nerve fiber layer and macular foveal thickness.

  11. Optical treatment of amblyopia in older children and adults is essential prior to enrolment in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tina Y; Anstice, Nicola; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Dai, Shuan; Guo, Cindy X; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752). Participants were recruited in three age groups (7 to 12, 13 to 17, or ≥18 years), and had unilateral amblyopia due to anisometropia and/or strabismus, with amblyopic eye VA of 0.30-1.00 logMAR (6/12 to 6/60, 20/40 to 20/200). Corrective lenses were prescribed based on cycloplegic refraction to fully correct any anisometropia. VA was assessed using the electronic visual acuity testing algorithm (e-ETDRS) test and near stereoacuity was assessed using the Randot Preschool Test. Participants were assessed every four weeks up to 16 weeks, until either VA was stable or until amblyopic eye VA improved to better than 0.30 logMAR, rendering the participant ineligible for the trial. Eighty participants (mean age 24.6 years, range 7.6-55.5 years) completed four to 16 weeks of optical treatment. A small but statistically significant mean improvement in amblyopic eye VA of 0.05 logMAR was observed (S.D. 0.08 logMAR; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Twenty-five participants (31%) improved by ≥1 logMAR line and of these, seven (9%) improved by ≥2 logMAR lines. Stereoacuity improved in 15 participants (19%). Visual improvements were not associated with age, presence of strabismus, or prior occlusion treatment. Two adult participants withdrew due to intolerance to anisometropic correction. Sixteen out of 80 participants (20%) achieved better than 0

  12. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on 20 amblyopic subjects (10 children and 10 adults), who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 h). Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, logMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean = 1.3 lines; range = 0-3.6 lines). We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  13. An exploratory study: prolonged periods of binocular stimulation can provide an effective treatment for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Pamela J; Simmers, Anita J; Gray, Lyle S; Cleary, Marie

    2012-02-21

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential for treating childhood amblyopia with a binocular stimulus designed to correlate the visual input from both eyes. Eight strabismic, two anisometropic, and four strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes (mean age, 8.5 ± 2.6 years) undertook a dichoptic perceptual learning task for five sessions (each lasting 1 hour) over the course of a week. The training paradigm involved a simple computer game, which required the subject to use both eyes to perform the task. A statistically significant improvement (t(₁₃) = 5.46; P = 0.0001) in the mean visual acuity (VA) of the amblyopic eye (AE) was demonstrated, from 0.51 ± 0.27 logMAR before training to 0.42 ± 0.28 logMAR after training with six subjects gaining 0.1 logMAR or more of improvement. Measurable stereofunction was established for the first time in three subjects with an overall significant mean improvement in stereoacuity after training (t(₁₃) =2.64; P = 0.02). The dichoptic-based perceptual learning therapy employed in the present study improved both the monocular VA of the AE and stereofunction, verifying the feasibility of a binocular approach in the treatment of childhood amblyopia.

  14. The use of choline in association with the Bangerter filters for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelio Sabetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of choline combined with Bangerter filter in the treatment of amblyopia. All amblyopic subjects used a Bangerter filter on the corrective spectacle lens (1d over the left eye, 1d over the right eye. Choline was then administered orally to 39 patients once daily, five days per week for the entire study period. Subjects treated with the Bangerter filter showed a mean visual acuity of 0.27 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.09 logMAR. Patients treated with the Bangerter filter and citicoline showed a mean visual acuity of 0.35 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.01 logMAR. No significant changes in the angle of deviation were observed in both groups. Subjects in both forms of amblyopia therapies demonstrated an increase in visual acuity. However, these effects were markedly enhanced when coupled with the administration of choline. Findings suggest that the effects are particularly relevant in the more severe amblyopic cases.

  15. Fixation preference test: reliability for the detection of amblyopia in patients with strabismus and interexaminer agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Karahan, Sevilay; Sanac, Ali Sefik

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability of the fixation preference test (FPT) in the detection of amblyopia, and to determine interexaminer agreement. Eighty patients whose visual acuity could be tested objectively and had a horizontal misalignment of more than 10 prism diopters were enrolled. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and orthoptic findings were all recorded. Non-preferred eye in primary position and fixation preference grade were assessed independently by two masked experienced examiners. The primary outcome measures were reliability of FPT in terms of its correlation with BCVA and interexaminer agreement. There was no significant correlation between fixation preference grades and interocular visual acuity difference as well as the type and amount of deviation, the presence of fusion, stereopsis, anisometropia, and previous strabismus surgery for none of the examiners (p > 0.05 for all). Sensitivity was 52.0% for examiner 1 and 54.0% for examiner 2 while specificity was 50.0 and 46.7%, respectively. Interexaminer agreement was 76.7% (p amblyopia and also in predicting the visual acuity difference between both eyes, even though it was found to show a high degree of agreement between examiners. In conclusion, it should be kept in mind that the reliability of FPT may be limited and the results should be interpreted with caution and be supported by other tests.

  16. Effect of optical correction on subfoveal choroidal thickness in children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tomo; Ueda, Tetsuo; Mizusawa, Yuutaro; Semba, Kentaro; Shinomiya, Kayo; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of optical correction on the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in the eyes of children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia. Twenty-four anisohypermetropic amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes of 24 patients and twenty-three eyes of 23 age-matched control children were studied. After one year of optical correction, the BCVA in the anisohypermetropic amblyopic eyes was significantly improved. Before the treatment, the mean subfoveal CT in the amblyopic eyes was 351.9 ± 59.4 μm which was significantly thicker than that of control eyes at 302.4 ± 63.2 μm. After the treatment, the amount of change in the subfoveal CT in the amblyopic and fellow eyes was greater than that in the control eyes. The amblyopic and fellow eyes with thicker choroids had a greater thinning of the choroid whereas eyes with thinner choroids had a greater thickening of the choroid. We conclude that wearing corrective lenses improves the visual acuity, and induces changes of the subfoveal CT in eyes with anisohypermetropic amblyopia.

  17. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra eHussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on twenty amblyopic subjects (ten children and ten adults, who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 hours. Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, LogMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean: 1.3 lines; range: 0-3.6 lines. We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  18. Effect of visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy on myopic amblyopia in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the therapeutic effect of visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy in the treatment of myopic amblyopia. METHODS: Totally 73 children(135 eyeswith myopic amblyopia were divided into control group(36 cases, 67 eyesand treatment group(37 cases, 68 eyesaccording to random number table. The control group were treated with traditional spectaculars and grating covering combined with fine eyesight training; the treatment group were treated with visual perception training combined with total nutrient meal sequential therapy. The visual acuity, diopter and average diopter of two groups were compared before and after treatment at 3, 6mo and 1a. The curative effect of two groups of children was compared after 1a treatment. And the adverse reactions were recorded in two groups during the treatment period. The recurrence rate of amblyopia in 1a follow-up was compared between two groups. RESULTS: The difference of visual acuity between two groups was not significant at 3mo(P>0.05. The visual acuity of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group at 6mo and 1a(PP>0.05, but the average annual refractive changes in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in the control group(PPPCONCLUSION: Visual perception training combined with total nutrition meal sequential therapy in the treatment of myopic amblyopia in preschool children can significantly improve patients' visual acuity, reduce the average annual diopter changes, improve the therapeutic effect, reduce the recurrence rate of amblyopia.

  19. Comparison of prevalence rates of strabismus and amblyopia in Japanese elementary school children between the years 2003 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Chie

    2007-12-01

    We previously revealed the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in elementary school children between 6 and 12 years of age in Japan in the year 2003. Questionnaires asking the number of children with different types of strabismus and amblyopia were sent to all elementary schools in Okayama Prefecture in the year 2005, and the results in the year 2005 were compared with those obtained in the year 2003. The number of children covered by the return of questionnaires was 84,619 (74%) of 113,763 total pupils, including grades 1 to 6, in Okayama Prefecture in the year 2005. The total numbers of children with strabismus and amblyopia, including grades 1 to 6, were 844 (0.99%, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.06%) and 173 (0.20%, 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.23%), respectively. The numbers of children with any type of exotropia and any type of esotropia were 524 (0.62%) and 187(0.22%), respectively. In the previous survey conducted in 2003, the number of children covered by the return of questionnaires was 86,531 (76%) of 113,254 total pupils. The total numbers of children with strabismus and amblyopia were 1,112 (1.28%, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.36%) and 125 (0.14%, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.17%), respectively. The numbers of children with any types of exotropia and esotropia were 602 (0.69) and 245 (0.28%), respectively. The prevalence of strabismus in this large population of Japanese elementary school children was significantly different between the years 2003 and 2005, while the prevalence of amblyopia was similar between the years.

  20. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, Serge O; Hess, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive field (pRF) functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in the central field in humans with moderate-to-severe amblyopia. We measured the relationship between averaged pRF size and retinal eccentricity in retinotopic visual areas. Results showed that cortical magnification is normal in the foveal field of strabismic amblyopes. However, the pRF sizes are enlarged for the amblyopic eye. We speculate that the pRF enlargement reflects loss of cellular resolution or an increased cellular positional disarray within the representation of the amblyopic eye. The neural basis of amblyopia, a visual deficit affecting 3% of the human population, remains a matter of debate. We undertook the first population receptive field functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in participants with amblyopia and compared the projections from the amblyopic and fellow normal eye in the visual cortex. The projection from the amblyopic eye was found to have a normal cortical magnification factor, enlarged population receptive field sizes, and topographic disorganization in all early visual areas. This is consistent with an explanation of amblyopia as an immature system with a normal complement of cells whose spatial resolution is reduced and whose topographical map is disordered. This bears upon a number of competing theories for the psychophysical defect and affects future treatment therapies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514740-16$15.00/0.

  1. Comparison between over-glasses patching and adhesive patching for children with moderate amblyopia: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Hyeshin; Jung, Jae Ho; Lee, Kwang Min; Choi, Hee Young

    2018-02-01

    To investigate efficacy of over-glasses patching treatment for amblyopic children using visual function improvement and Amblyopia Treatment Index (ATI) changes. In a randomized multi-center controlled clinical trial, 107 children aged 3-7 years with moderate amblyopia (visual acuity in the range of 20/40 to 20/100) were included to receive treatment with either an adhesive skin patch or a fabric over-glasses patch. The patients were prescribed 2 h of patching per day for the sound eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was investigated and ATI questionnaires were collected from parents at 5 weeks and 17 weeks after the initiation of treatment. ATI identifies barriers and problems associated with amblyopia treatment. We compared the changes of visual acuity of amblyopic eyes and ATI scores in two groups. At 17 weeks, the mean visual acuity of the amblyopic eye using Snellen chart improved 3.2 lines in the adhesive patching group and 2.7 lines for an over-glasses patching method that fit over eyeglasses (p = 0.345). A similar proportion of subjects in each group had improvement of ≥ 2 lines (adhesive patching group 67% vs over-glasses patching group 67%, p = 0.372). There was also no difference in treatment burden in each group as measured with the Amblyopia Treatment Index. The only item to demonstrate a significant difference between groups was that related to "Treatment makes the eye or eyelids red" (mean 4.0 ± 1.1 vs 3.0 ± 1.0 at 17 weeks, p = 0.001, for adhesive vs over-glasses patch). Over-glasses patching treatment is a useful option for amblyopia treatment when the patients suffer from adverse effects of using adhesive skin patching.

  2. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in a population of 7th-grade junior high school students in Central China: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study (ACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Li, Shi Ming; Liu, Luo Ru; Li, Jin Ling; Li, Si Yuan; Zhu, Bi Dan; Li, He; Yang, Zhou; Li, Lei; Wang, Ning Li

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in 7th-grade junior high school students in central China. Using stratified cluster sampling, 2363 7th-grade students were recruited from four junior high schools in Anyang city into the cross-sectional Anyang Childhood Eye Study (ACES). All students underwent visual acuity (VA), cycloplegic autorefraction, cover test, and ocular movement examinations. Uncorrected VA and best-corrected VA (BCVA) were measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Cycloplegic autorefraction was performed after administration of 1.0% cyclopentolate and Mydrin-P. Strabismus was defined as heterotropia at near or distance fixation. Amblyopia was defined as BCVA ≤ 0.1 logMAR units in one or both eyes, without ocular pathology in either eye. Of the 2363 eligible students, 2260 (95.6%) completed all examinations. The mean age of the students was 12.4 ± 0.6 years. Amblyopia was present in 52 students (2.5%), of whom 33 (63.5%) had unilateral and 19 (36.6%) had bilateral amblyopia. Of those with unilateral amblyopia, 18 (54.5 %) had anisometropia and 7 (21.2%) had strabismus. Of those with bilateral amblyopia, 6 (31.6%) had significant refractive error. Strabismus was present in 108 students (5.0%), of whom 2 (1.9%) had esotropia, 102 (94.4%) had exotropia, 3 (2.8%) had vertical strabismus, and 1 (0.9%) had microstrabismus. Of the 108 students with strabismus, 9 (8.3%) had amblyopia. The cross-sectional ACES which examined the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in 7th-grade students in central China revealed the prevalence of strabismus, particularly the proportion of exotropia, to be higher than previously reported.

  3. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in African American and Hispanic children ages 6 to 72 months the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalences of strabismus in African American and Hispanic/Latino children ages 6 to 72 months and of amblyopia in African American and Hispanic/Latino children 30 to 72 months. Cross-sectional study. The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of vision disorders in children ages 6 to 72 months in Los Angeles County, California. A comprehensive eye examination was completed by 77% of eligible children. This report focuses on results from 3007 African American and 3007 Hispanic/Latino children. Eligible children in all enumerated households in 44 census tracts were identified. Participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures, as well as determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children 30 months and older. The proportion of 6- to 72-month-olds with strabismus on ocular examination and proportion of 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with predetermined definitions of amblyopia. Strabismus was detected in 2.4% of Hispanic/Latino children and 2.5% of African American children (P = 0.81), and was more prevalent in older children than in younger children. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of Hispanic/Latino children and 1.5% of African American children, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02), and 78% of cases of amblyopia were attributable to refractive error. Amblyopia prevalence did not vary with age. Among Hispanic/Latino and African American children in Los Angeles County, strabismus prevalence increases with age, but amblyopia prevalence appears stable by 3 years of age. Amblyopia is usually caused by abnormal refractive error. These findings may help to optimize the timing and modality of preschool vision screening programs.

  4. Electronic monitoring of occlusion treatment for amblyopia in patients aged 7 to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronius, Maria; Bachert, Iris; Lüchtenberg, Marc

    2009-10-01

    Age limits for the prescription of amblyopia treatment have been debated and challenged recently, due to results of studies from ophthalmology and the neurosciences. Lack of knowledge about compliance with prescribed treatment is still a major factor for the uncertainty about the amount of plasticity in the visual system of older children and adolescents. The development of devices for the electronic recording of patching (Occlusion Dose Monitor, ODM) has allowed the collection of objective data about daily occlusion. In a prospective study, occlusion dose rates were recorded continuously during 4 months by means of the ODM developed in the Netherlands [1] in nine amblyopic patients between 7 and 16 years of age who were prescribed between 5 and 7 hours of daily patching. Visual acuity was assessed every 3 to 6 weeks. The electronic monitoring showed objective occlusion between 2 and 6.25 hours/day (mean 4.61 h/d) during the first month and 0 to 6.5 hours/day (mean 3.47 h/d) during the following 3 months of treatment. The total acuity gain in the amblyopic eye amounted to between -0.1 and 0.4 log units (mean 0.19) for crowded optotypes. Differences to initial acuities were statistically significant. The calculated average dose-response relationship (cumulated hours occlusion*0.1/acuity gain) for 4 months of occlusion was 234 hours of occlusion per 0.1 log unit of acuity gain. This study presents for the first time objective treatment and dose response data in amblyopic patients beyond the "classical" treatment age. Electronic monitoring of occlusion and considerable amounts of patching were shown to be feasible. The acuity results indicate that there is a potential for improvement, yet treatment seemed to be less efficient than shown by previous studies in younger patients. Continuation of this research may advance the discussion about age-dependent evidence-based amblyopia treatment, about preschool screening for amblyopia and about plasticity of the visual system.

  5. [Refractive Surgery in Children with Myopic Anisometropia and Amblyopia in Comparison with Conventional Treatment by Contact Lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrata, R; Krejčířová, I; Griščíková, L; Doležel, Z

    2016-01-01

    Our study evaluated the visual and refractive results of LASEK and anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation performed for high myopic anisometropia with amblyopia and contact lens intolerance in children compared with conventional treatment by contact lenses.Fourty-three patients (Group A) aged 3 to 7 years (mean, 5,6 years) with high myopic anisometropia and amblyopia had performed multizonal LASEK (27 eyes) or pIOL Verisyse implantation (16 eyes) on the more myopic eye in general anesthesia. Surgery was followed by patching of the dominant eye. Postoperative visual and refractive outcomes were analyzed and all children had minimally two years follow-up after procedure. Refractive surgical data were reported in standard format to describe safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of the procedure. This Group A of 43 children was compared with control Group B of 37 children (mean age 5,4 years), in whom myopic anisometropia and amblyopia were treated conventionally by contact lenses (CL) and patching of the dominant eye. Visual acuity (VA) and binocular vision (BV) outcome were analyzed and compared in both groups.The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) cycloplegic refraction in Group A was - 9,45 ± 2,47 diopters (D) (range -6.0 to -18.25 D) and the mean postoperative SE -1,48 ± 1,13 D (range + 0,75 to - 2,25 D). The mean preop. decimal uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) 0,023 ± 0,017 increased to 0,46 ± 0,18. The mean preop.decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in Group A was 0,28 ± 0.22 and changed to 0,78± 0,19 by 2 years after surgery. The mean BCVA in Group B was 0,23 ± 0,19, at start of CL correction and amblyopia therapy, and improved to 0,42 ± 0,15 after two years. The mean BCVA at final examination was significantly better in Group A (P amblyopia in children when contact lens intolerance. Visual acuity and binocular vision outcomes were better in children who received permanent surgical correction of

  6. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere. American Optometric Association.

  7. Interactive stereo games to improve vision in children with amblyopia using dichoptic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M.; MacKeith, Daisy; Vivian, Anthony; Purdy, Jonathan H.; Fakis, Apostolos; Cobb, Sue V.; Hepburn, Trish; Eastgate, Richard M.; Gregson, Richard M.; Foss, Alexander J. E.

    2015-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common condition affecting 2% of all children and traditional treatment consists of either wearing a patch or penalisation. We have developed a treatment using stereo technology, not to provide a 3D image but to allow dichoptic stimulation. This involves presenting an image with the same background to both eyes but with features of interest removed from the image presented to the normal eye with the aim to preferentially stimulated visual development in the amblyopic, or lazy, eye. Our system, called I-BiT can use either a game or a video (DVD) source as input. Pilot studies show that this treatment is effective with short treatment times and has proceeded to randomised controlled clinical trial. The early indications are that the treatment has a high degree of acceptability and corresponding good compliance.

  8. The effect of amblyopia on visual-auditory speech perception: why mothers may say "Look at me when I'm talking to you".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Robert; Desai, Rajen U; Farner, Katherine C; Tiano, Benjamin; Lacey, Ryan; Volpe, Nicholas J; Mets, Marilyn B

    2015-01-01

    Children with a history of amblyopia, even if resolved, exhibit impaired visual-auditory integration and perceive speech differently. To determine whether a history of amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual-auditory speech integration. Retrospective observational study at an academic pediatric ophthalmologic clinic with an average of 4 years of follow-up. Participants were at least 3 years of age and without any history of neurologic or hearing disorders. Of 39 children originally in our study, 6 refused to participate. The remaining 33 participants completed the study. Twenty-four participants (mean [SD] age, 7.0 [1.5] years) had a history of amblyopia in 1 eye, with a visual acuity of at least 20/20 in the nonamblyopic eye. Nine controls (mean [SD] age, 8.0 [3.4] years) were recruited from referrals for visually insignificant etiologies or through preschool-screening eye examinations; all had 20/20 in both eyes. Participants were presented with a video demonstrating the McGurk effect (ie, a stimulus presenting an audio track playing the sound /pa/ and a separate video track of a person articulating /ka/). Normal visual-auditory integration produces the perception of hearing a fusion sound /ta/. Participants were asked to report which sound was perceived, /ka/, /pa/, or /ta/. Prevalence of perception of the fusion /ta/ sound. Prior to the study, amblyopic children were hypothesized to less frequently perceive /ta/. The McGurk effect was perceived by 11 of the 24 participants with amblyopia (45.8%) and all 9 controls (100%) (adjusted odds ratio, 22.3 [95% CI, 1.2-426.0]; P = .005). The McGurk effect was perceived by 100% of participants with amblyopia that was resolved by 5 years of age and by 100% of participants whose onset at amblyopia developed at or after 5 years of age. However, only 18.8% of participants with amblyopia that was unresolved by 5 years of age (n = 16) perceived the McGurk effect (adjusted odds ratio, 27.0 [95% CI, 1.1-654.0]; P = .02

  9. Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.J.; Holliday, I.E.; Harding, G.F.A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg -1 using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson and Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg -1 , the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P<0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.J. [Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Holliday, I.E.; Harding, G.F.A. [Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Psychology, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg{sup -1} using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson and Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg{sup -1}, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P<0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Prevalence of Amblyopia in School-Aged Children and Variations by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multi-Country Refractive Error Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ou; Morgan, Ian G; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Mingguang

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of amblyopia in children aged 5 to 15 years using data from the multi-country Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC). Population-based, cross-sectional study. Among 46 260 children aged 5 to 15 years who were enumerated from 8 sites in the RESC study, 39 551 had a detailed ocular examination and a reliable visual acuity (VA) measurement in 1 or both eyes. Information on ethnicity was available for 39 321 of these participants. This study focused on findings from the 39 321 children. The examination included VA measurements, evaluation of ocular alignment and refractive error under cycloplegia, and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus. The proportion of children aged 5 to 15 years with amblyopia in different ethnic cohorts. Amblyopia was defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≤20/40 in either eye, with tropia, anisometropia (≥2 spherical equivalent diopters [D]), or hyperopia (≥+6 spherical equivalent D), after excluding children with fundus or anterior segment abnormalities. The overall prevalence of amblyopia was 0.74% (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.83) with significant (P Amblyopia was not associated with age or gender. The most common cause of amblyopia was anisometropia. In this study, the prevalence of amblyopia varied with ethnicity and was highest in Hispanic children and lowest in African children. Most cases were unilateral and developed before the age of 5 years. The impact of changes of definitions on prevalence estimates is discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Eastern China: results from screening of preschool children aged 36-72 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Jiajia; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Gong, Yu; Zhu, Hui; Yu, Rongbing; Liu, Hu

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China. The Nanjing Pediatric Vision Project was a cross-sectional, population-based cohort study conducted in preschool children aged 36-72 months from 2011 to 2012 in Yuhua District, Nanjing, China, using an age-stratified random sampling procedure. A questionnaire totalling 117 items was sent to be completed by the corresponding parents or legal guardians of each eligible child. Comprehensive eye examinations, including visual acuity, anterior segment examination, autorefraction, cover test and ocular motility, were conducted. Postcycloplegic refraction and fundus examinations were performed if necessary. Amblyopia was present in 68 children (1.20%, 95% CI 0.92% to 1.48%), with no statistical differences in gender (p=0.903) and age (p=0.835). Among these, 27 had bilateral amblyopia and 41 had unilateral amblyopia, including 26 anisometropic without strabismus, 26 binocular refractive, 7 strabismic, 6 combined strabismic/anisometropic and 3 deprivation amblyopia. Strabismus was found in 320 children (5.65%, 95% CI 5.05% to 6.25%), including 43 with concomitant esotropia, 259 with concomitant exotropia (1 esotropia at near but exotropia at distance), 8 with microtropia (3 esotropia and 5 exotropia), 10 with pure vertical strabismus (3 dissociated vertical deviation and 7 oblique muscle dysfunction) and 1 with Type I Duane syndrome. The prevalence of strabismus had no statistical differences in gender (p=0.952), but had significant statistical differences between different age groups (p=0.021). The prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China were 1.20% and 5.65%, respectively. The refractive and strabismus are the main factors associated with amblyopia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in white and African American children aged 6 through 71 months the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David S; Repka, Michael X; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine; Hawse, Patricia; Tielsch, James M

    2009-11-01

    To determine the age-specific prevalence of strabismus in white and African American children aged 6 through 71 months and of amblyopia in white and African American children aged 30 through 71 months. Cross-sectional, population-based study. White and African American children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, MD, United States. Among 4132 children identified, 3990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2546 children (62%) were examined. Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a detailed eye examination, including optotype visual acuity and measurement of ocular deviations. Strabismus was defined as a heterotropia at near or distance fixation. Amblyopia was assessed in those children aged 30 through 71 months who were able to perform optotype testing at 3 meters. The proportions of children aged 6 through 71 months with strabismus and of children aged 30 through 71 months with amblyopia. Manifest strabismus was found in 3.3% of white and 2.1% of African American children (relative prevalence [RP], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.66). Esotropia and exotropia each accounted for close to half of all strabismus in both groups. Only 1 case of strabismus was found among 84 white children 6 through 11 months of age. Rates were higher in children 60 through 71 months of age (5.8% for whites and 2.9% for African Americans [RP, 2.05; 95% CI, 0.79-5.27]). Amblyopia was present in 12 (1.8%) white and 7 (0.8%) African American children (RP, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.88-5.62). Only 1 child had bilateral amblyopia. Manifest strabismus affected 1 in 30 white and 1 in 47 African American preschool-aged children. The prevalence of amblyopia was amblyopia among children 30 through 71 months of age in the United States.

  14. Associations between anisometropia, amblyopia, and reduced stereoacuity in a school-aged population with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Harvey, Erin M

    2008-10-01

    To describe the relation between magnitude of anisometropia and interocular acuity difference (IAD), stereoacuity (SA), and the presence of amblyopia in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction confirmed by retinoscopy), best corrected monocular visual acuity (VA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR charts), and best corrected SA (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test) were measured in 4- to 13-year-old Tohono O'odham children (N = 972). Anisometropia was calculated in clinical notation (spherical equivalent and cylinder) and in two forms of vector notation that take into account interocular differences in both axis and cylinder magnitude. Astigmatism >or= 1.00 D was present in one or both eyes of 415 children (42.7%). Significant increases in IAD and presence of amblyopia (IAD >or= 2 logMAR lines) occurred, with >or=1 D of hyperopic anisometropia and >or=2 to 3 D of cylinder anisometropia. Significant decreases in SA occurred with >or=0.5 D of hyperopic, myopic, or cylinder anisometropia. Results for vector notation depended on the analysis used, but also showed disruption of SA at lower values of anisometropia than were associated with increases in IAD and presence of amblyopia. Best corrected IAD and presence of amblyopia are related to amount and type of refractive error difference (hyperopic, myopic, or cylindrical) between eyes. Disruption of best corrected random dot SA occurs with smaller interocular differences than those producing an increase in IAD, suggesting that the development of SA is particularly dependent on similarity of the refractive error between eyes.

  15. [Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The Prevalence of Ptosis and Its Association with Amblyopia and Strabismus in 7-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Dadbin, Nooshin; Heidari, Zahra; Yekta, AbbasAli; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of ptosis (congenital/acquired) in Iranian children aged 7 years and its relationship with amblyopia and strabismus. Eight Iranian cities were selected for this cross-sectional study using multistage randomized cluster sampling. A number of primary schools were randomly selected in each city. All grade 1 students in each selected primary school underwent optometric examinations including the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cover test, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction. Of 4614 selected students, 4106 students participated in the study (response rate = 89%). The prevalence of ptosis (congenital/acquired) was 1.41% (95% CI 1-1.83); 0.49% (95% CI 0.26-0.72) and 0.93% (95% CI 0.59-1.26) had unilateral and bilateral ptosis, respectively. The prevalence of ptosis had no significant correlation with sex (p = 0.810, OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.59-1.97). The prevalence of amblyopia was 48.28% and 0.89% in students with and without ptosis, respectively. The prevalence of tropia was significantly higher in cases with bilateral ptosis (p prevalent in students with ptosis. We report the prevalence of ptosis (congenital/acquired) in children in Iran and the Middle East region for the first time. Amblyopia was considerably more prevalent in ptotic patients. We found a significant correlation between ptosis and tropia. Astigmatism, especially WTR stigmatism, was more prevalent in children with ptosis.

  17. Posterior sclera reinforcement and phakic intraocular lens implantation for highly myopic amblyopia in children: a 3-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S-Q; Wang, Q-M; Xue, A-Q; Zheng, L-Y; Su, Y-F; Yu, A-Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the safety and efficacy of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) combined with phakic intraocular lens (PIOLs) implantation for highly myopic amblyopia in children. Methods This study included eight highly myopic children (11 eyes) who failed in conventional therapy for amblyopia using various combination of spectacles, contact lenses, and intensive patching before enrollment into this study. They were treated sequentially with PSR and PIOL implantation, and were followed up for 3 years after surgery. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in LogMAR, spherical equivalent power (SE), and complications were evaluated. Results Before surgery, the mean UCVA was 1.59±0.33, BCVA, 0.74±0.37, SE, −17.57±5.56D, the axial length (AL), 30.09±2.18 mm. After PSR, BCVA improved one line in three patients, the rest were unchanged, and AL was unchanged among all cases. Six eyes of three patients were implanted with an iris-claw PIOL and five eyes of five patients were implanted with a posterior PIOL. After completion of treatment, the mean UCVA was 0.44±0.21, BCVA 0.38±0.24, SE −0.54±0.74 D, and AL 30.35±2.29 mm. No patient experienced complications. Conclusion Combined PSR and PIOL implantation treatment for highly myopic amblyopia in children is safe and effective. PMID:25125071

  18. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengyuan; Zhang Jing; Zhang Quan; Yin Huiming; Zhang Lihong; Li Wei; Zhang Yunting

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system. Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Results: Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus, bilateral occipital gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus (clusters > 10). The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus, left precentral gyrus,and left superior frontal gyrus (clusters > 10). The white matter volume in bilateral optic radiation and internal capsule, especially right optic radiation, decreased significantly in patient group (clusters > 10 ). No white matter showed significantly increased volume in patient group. Conclusion: VBM can be used to investigate the changes of grey matter volume and white matter volume in the whole brain of anisometropic amblyopia children, it provides a method to illustrate the presumed neuro-mechanism from a morphologic point of view. (authors)

  19. Performance of the Plusoptix A09 Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Children Attending an Eye Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Wen; Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of the Plusoptix A09 photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children and determine referral criteria when using Plusoptix A09 for a large-scale vision screening. Methods Pediatric patients attending our eye clinic underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included photorefraction, orthoptic examination, anterior segment assessment, fundus examination and cycloplegic retinoscopy. The measurements were collected for statistical analyses. Results One hundred and seventy-eight children (mean age ± SD: 6.2±2.4 years, range: 2.2 to 14.1 years) were included in the study. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) obtained using Plusoptix A09 (PSE) was 0.57 D lower than that obtained from cycloplegic retinoscopy (CRSE) (P = 0.00). However, there was no statistically significant difference of Jackson cross cylinder J0 and J45 between Plusoptix A09 (PJ) and cycloplegic retinoscopy (CRJ) (P = 0.14, P = 0.26). The relationship of SE obtained from Plusoptix A09 and SE obtained from cycloplegic retinoscopy was presented as the equation: CRSE = 0.358 + 0.776 PSE + 0.064 PSE2 + 0.011 PSE3. Based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the Plusoptix A09 had an overall sensitivity of 94.9% and specificity of 67.5% for detecting refractive amblyopia risk factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the Plusoptix A09 for detection of strabismus were 40.7% and 98.3%, respectively; detection of amblyopia and/or strabismus was 84.7% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusions The Plusoptix A09 photoscreener underestimated hyperopia and overestimated myopia according to SE when compared with cycloplegic retinoscopy. The accuracy of the Plusoptix A09 in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children could be improved by the regression equation and optimized criteria for refractive amblyopia risk factors developed in the present study. Moreover, the Plusoptix A09 photoscreener is not suitable for a large-scale strabismus screening when

  20. A Comparison between Anxiety and Self-esteem amongst High School Freshman Students(Male and Female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Karim Afzali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to investigate and compare the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem amongst high school freshman students (male and female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran city. To this end, all the male and female freshman students (1st Grade in high school suffering from Amblyopia in Gachsaran participated in the study as the research statistical population among which 80 students, including 40 girls and 40 boys, were selected based on Simple Random Sampling Method. Materials and tools used in this research included Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Cooper-smith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI and Snellen chart. In order to analyze results obtained from the present research, t-student test and correlation coefficient were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Accordingly, the results indicated that: there is a statistically significant relationship between anxiety and self-esteem in students with Amblyopia (P˂0.000. Statistically significant difference in anxiety between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.05 was observed. The results also showed that there is no any statistically significant difference in self-esteem between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.66.

  1. Femtosecond laser corneal refractive surgery for the correction of high myopic anisometropic amblyopia in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effects of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE to correct high myopic anisometropic amblyopia in juvenile patients. METHODS: From November 2013 to January 2015, 33 amblyopic patients with high myopic anisometropic amblyopia were studied. FS-LASIK (30 eyes or SMILE (3 eyes was performed in the amblyopic eyes. Visual acuity, refraction, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity and complications were evaluated. Patients completed follow-up examinations at 3d, 1mo, 3mo and the last follow-up time (mean 8.17±3.23mo after surgery. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 9.04±3.04y (range 6-16y. The mean spherical equivalent in the amblyopic eyes was significantly decreased from -10.00±2.39 D preoperatively to -0.06±1.06 D at 1mo, -0.19±1.33 D at 3mo and -0.60±1.43 D at approximately 8mo postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. The mean myopic anisometropia was significantly decreased from -9.45±2.33 D preoperatively to +0.37±1.48 D at 1mo, -0.46±1.47 D at 3mo and -0.09±1.83 D at approximately 8mo (P<0.05 for all. The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR for uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA, respectively of the amblyopic eye improved from 1.74±0.35 and 0.98±0.63 preoperatively to 0.45±0.31 and 0.41±0.33 at approximately 8mo after surgery, respectively. The logMAR CDVA at 3d, 1, 3 and 8mo postoperatively improved by means of 1.42, 2.22, 2.96, and 4.39 lines, and a gain of more than two lines accounted for 45%, 50%, 74% and 86% of all patients, respectively. The contrast sensitivity of both amblyopic eyes and dominant eyes at 0.5, 2, 8 cycles per degree was significantly improved postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. Of the 33 pediatric patients, no patients had near stereopsis preoperatively and seven patients (21.2% recovered near stereopsis (400″ to 60″ at approximately 8mo after surgery. No intraoperative or

  2. Television Video Games in the Treatment of Amblyopia in Children Aged 4-7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadeya, Subhash; Dangda, Sonal

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the role of television video games in childhood amblyopia treatment. This prospective, randomized, interventional study included 40 patients between 4-7 years of age, with unilateral amblyopia (visual acuity in amblyopic eye between 1-0.6 LogMAR equivalents) attending the squint clinic at a tertiary eye hospital. All patients were prescribed optimal spectacle correction and occlusion therapy, i.e. full time patching according to patient's age, was initiated after six weeks.; full-time patching according to patient's age was initiated after 6 weeks. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. Patients in the first group, Group A (control), were prescribed patching alone. Patients in the second group, Group B (study), were made to play action video games, with the help of a commercial television set, along with patching. They attended 12 half-hour sessions each, at weekly intervals. Follow-up assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (both distance and near) and stereoacuity measurements at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. The mean age of patients was 6.03 ± 1.14 years. The distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye showed a significant improvement at final follow-up (12 weeks) in both groups: from 0.84 ± 0.19 to 0.55 ± 0.21 LogMAReq in Group A and 0.89 ± 0.16 to 0.46 ± 0.22 LogMAReq in Group B. However, improvement in BCVA was significantly better in group B at all visits (P=0.002, 12 weeks). The study group also had a significantly better outcome in terms near visual acuity improvement (P = 0.006, 12 weeks). There was also greater stereoacuity improvement in group B, with 7 patients improving to 100 secs of arc or better. Video games supplemental to occlusion may be considered favorable for visual development in amblyopic children, and the study encourages further research on this subject.

  3. Visual acuity, residual amblyopia and ocular pathology in a screened population of 12-13-year-old children in Sweden.

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    Ohlsson, J; Villarreal, G; Sjöström, A; Abrahamsson, M; Sjöstrand, J

    2001-12-01

    To establish the distribution of visual acuity and the prevalence of residual amblyopia and other ocular disorders in a vision-screened population group of 12-13-year-old children. In total 1046 children were examined in a field study in Sweden. The examination included visual acuity, stereopsis, cover testing, red reflex, refractive retinoscopy and examination of the posterior pole. In selected cases VEP was also performed. Visual acuity > or =1.0 in at least one eye was present in 98% of cases. Residual amblyopia (albinism was found in 7 cases. In 15 children the cause of subnormal VA was unexplained. Results for visual acuity, residual amblyopia and other ocular disorders are very similar to previous Nordic, vision-screened populations.

  4. Prevalence of amblyopia and other vision disorders in young Newfoundland and Labrador children.

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    Drover, James R; Kean, Patrick G; Courage, Mary L; Adams, Russell J

    2008-02-01

    Currently, there is a lack of adequate data on pediatric eye and vision disorders in Canada, particularly in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In the present study, we estimate the prevalence of eye and vision disorders among young children who participated in a vision screening program in the St. John's, Newfoundland, metropolitan region. In daycare settings, 946 children (mean age 4.2 years) were screened with the latest tests of optics and functional vision. Those with suspected vision disorders were referred to an optometrist for a complete eye examination. From the results of these examinations, prevalence rates were estimated for several categories of vision disorders. Overall, we estimate that 14.0% of the children possessed significant vision disorders, the most prevalent of which were hyperopia, amblyopia, and strabismus (4.8%, 4.7%, and 4.3%, respectively). Myopia and anisometropia, on the other hand, were relatively rare (1.1% and 1.4%, respectively). In general, prevalence estimates are within the range of existing estimates from other developed nations. Although the prevalence rates reported here must be interpreted cautiously because of methodological limitations, it appears that children in the present study do not possess an abnormally high prevalence of visual dysfunction. Nevertheless, because an estimated 14.0% of children tested had treatable vision disorders, early screening is clearly warranted in Newfoundland and Labrador.

  5. A comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes in unilateral amblyopia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

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    Araki S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Syunsuke Araki,1 Atsushi Miki,1,2 Tsutomu Yamashita,1,2 Katsutoshi Goto,1,2 Kazuko Haruishi,1 Yoshiaki Ieki,1 Junichi Kiryu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan; 2Department of Sensory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Purpose: To compare the macular retinal thickness and characteristics of optic nerve head (ONH parameters in amblyopic and fellow eyes in patients with unilateral amblyopia.Patients and methods: A total of 21 patients with unilateral amblyopia (14 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, four patients with strabismic amblyopia, and three patients with both were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±3.5 years. The examined parameters included the mean macular (full, inner, and outer, ganglion cell complex and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thicknesses, and ONH parameters (rim volume, nerve head volume, cup volume, rim area, optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc area ratio.Results: The amblyopic eyes were significantly more hyperopic than the fellow eyes (P<0.001. Among the macular retinal thickness parameters, the cpRNFL thickness (P<0.01, macular full retinal thickness (3 mm region (P<0.01, and macular outer retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions (P<0.05 were significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes, while the ganglion cell complex thickness, macular full retinal thickness (1 mm region, and macular inner retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions were not significantly different. Among the ONH parameters, the rim area was significantly larger and the cup-to-disc area ratio was smaller in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes (P<0.05. None of the other ONH parameters were significantly different between the investigated eyes. The differences in the cpRNFL thickness and macular outer retinal thickness in the 1 mm

  6. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display: preliminary results.

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    Žiak, Peter; Holm, Anders; Halička, Juraj; Mojžiš, Peter; Piñero, David P

    2017-06-28

    The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye. However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment. A total of 17 subjects (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range, 17-69 year) and anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoacuity (Stereo Randot graded circle test) changes were evaluated after 8 sessions (40 min per session) of dichoptic training with the computer game Diplopia Game (Vivid Vision) run in the Oculus Rift OC DK2 virtual reality head mounted display (Oculus VR). Mean BCVA in amblyopic eye improved significantly from a logMAR value of 0.58 ± 0.35 before training to a post-training value of 0.43 ± 0.38 (p virtual reality head mounted display seems to be an effective option of treatment in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Trial ID: ISRCTN62086471 . Date registered: 13/06/2017. Retrospectively registered.

  7. Prevalence of the primary LHON mutations in Northern Finland associated with bilateral optic atrophy and tobacco-alcohol amblyopia.

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    Korkiamäki, Paula; Kervinen, Marko; Karjalainen, Karoliina; Majamaa, Kari; Uusimaa, Johanna; Remes, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is regarded as the most common mitochondrial disease. We have previously reported comprehensive population-based epidemiological data on common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations including m.3243A>G, m.8344A>G and large-scale mtDNA deletions in Northern Finland. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of primary LHON mutations and mutations in the four mtDNA genes considered hot spots for LHON in the same population. The study population consisted of 42 adult patients with an aetiologically undefined bilateral optic atrophy. The major LHON mutations m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and MTND1, MTND6 and MTATP6 genes were sequenced. MTND5 gene was analysed by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE). No major LHON mutations were found in the population of the province of Northern Ostrobothnia giving the prevalence of these mutations 0-1.36:100 000 (95% CI). However, two main mutations were found elsewhere in Northern Finland, homoplasmic m.11778G>A from Kainuu and heteroplasmic m.3460G>A from Central Ostrobothnia. Furthermore, tobacco-alcohol amblyopia was diagnosed in five patients in the study population and one of them had m.11778G>A. The prevalence of the three major LHON mutations is lower in Northern Finland than elsewhere in Finland or in Western Europe. As LHON and tobacco-alcohol amblyopia have a similar phenotype, we recommend analysing the known LHON-associated mutations before setting tobacco-alcohol amblyopia diagnosis. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity.

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    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R; Conway, Miriam L; Sloper, John J

    2014-08-05

    To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and "error" performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5-6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25-1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75-2.25) under all three views (P age-matched controls (n = 13). Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7-9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the "in-flight" approach at ages 5 to 6 years to more reliance on tactile

  9. Age- and Stereovision-Dependent Eye–Hand Coordination Deficits in Children With Amblyopia and Abnormal Binocularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R.; Conway, Miriam L.; Sloper, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine factors contributing to eye–hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Methods. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and “error” performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Results. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5–6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25–1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75–2.25) under all three views (P age-matched controls (n = 13). Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7–9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Conclusions. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the “in-flight” approach at ages

  10. Sociocultural and psychological determinants in migrants for noncompliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiam, Angela M; Akcan, Hilal; Ziylan, Fatma; Vukovic, Elizabet; Loudon, Sjoukje E; Looman, Caspar W N; Passchier, Jan; Simonsz, Huibert J

    2011-12-01

    Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Included were amblyopic children between the ages of 3 and 6, living in low socio-economic status (SES) areas. Compliance with occlusion therapy was measured electronically. Their parents completed an oral questionnaire, based on the "Social Position & Use of Social Services by Migrants and Natives" questionnaire that included demographics and questions on issues like education, employment, religion and social contacts. Parental fluency in Dutch was rated on a five-point scale. Regression analysis was used to describe the relationship between the level of compliance and sociocultural and psychological determinants. Data from 45 children and their parents were analyzed. Mean electronically measured compliance was 56 ± 44 percent. Children whose parents had close contact with their neighbors or who were highly dependent on their family demonstrated low levels of compliance. Children of parents who were members of a club and who had positive conceptualizations of Dutch society showed high levels of compliance. Poor compliance was also associated with low income, depression, and when patching interfered with the child's outdoor activity. Religion was not associated with compliance. Poor compliance with occlusion therapy seems correlated with indicators of social cohesion. High social cohesion at micro level, i.e., family, neighbors and friends, and low social cohesion on macro level, i.e., Dutch society, are associated with noncompliance. However, such parents tend to speak Dutch poorly, so it is difficult to determine its actual cause.

  11. Stereopsis and fusion in anisometropia according to the presence of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyun Sun; Choi, Dong Gyu

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the level of stereopsis and fusion in patients with anisometropia according to the presence of amblyopia. We included 107 children with anisometropia, divided into groups with non-amblyopic anisometropia (NA, n = 72) and amblyopic anisometropia (AA, n = 35). Normal subjects without anisometropia were enrolled in the control group (n = 73). Main outcome measures were the level of stereopsis and sensory fusion as evaluated by Titmus stereotest and Worth 4-dot test, respectively, using anisometropic glasses. The degree of anisometropia in the NA, AA, and control groups was 2.54 diopters (D), 4.29 D, and 0.30 D, respectively (P = 0.014). Stereopsis (arcsec) was significantly worse in the AA group than the NA and control groups (641.71, 76.25, 54.52, respectively, P < 0.001), while no significant difference was found between the NA and control groups. The rate of fusion was significantly lower in the AA than the NA group (14.3% vs. 65.3%, P < 0.001), and was significantly lower in the NA than the control group (65.3% vs. 80.6%, P = 0.001). The levels of stereopsis and sensory fusion with anisometropic glasses were significantly worse in the AA than in the NA group. The level of stereopsis in the NA group, however, did not differ significantly from that in the isometropic control, while the rate of fusion was significantly lower. Early prescription of anisometropic glasses is needed to improve visual acuity and binocularity in children with possible amblyopic anisometropia.

  12. Effectiveness of the GoCheck Kids Vision Screener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, M Millicent W; Rhodes, Ryan S; Patel, Rupa N; Wilson, M Edward; Edmondson, Luke E; Logan, Sarah A; Cheeseman, Edward W; Shortridge, Emily; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2018-03-01

    The GoCheck Kids smartphone photoscreening app (Gobiquity Mobile Health, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA), introduced in 2014, is marketed to pediatricians with little published validation. We wished to evaluate the GoCheck Kids Screener for accuracy in detecting amblyopia risk factors (ARF) using 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus guidelines. Validity assessment. Children 6 months to 6 years of age presenting from October 2016 to August 2017 were included. Children were screened with the GoCheck preloaded Nokia Lumia 1020, software version 4.6 with image processing version R4d, prior to undergoing a comprehensive eye examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist masked to the screener results. Determination of the presence of age-specific ARF was made based upon the examination and compared with the GoCheck recommendation. A total of 206 children were included (average age 43 months). When compared to examination, GoCheck had a sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 67.2% in detecting ARF. Positive predictive value was 57.0% and negative predictive value 83.0%. The screener results of 13 children were changed from "no risk factors" to "risk factors identified" based on the GoCheck remote review process. Four images remained "not gradable" and screening was unsuccessful in 3 children. In our high-risk population, this version of the Gocheck Kids smartphone app was useful in identifying ARF in children who are often not able to cooperate with visual acuity testing. This study informs pediatricians about the efficacy of this new screener as they make decisions about how to best detect vision problems in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vision in Sight: The Relationships between Knowledge, Health Beliefs and Treatment Outcomes. The Case of Amblyopia. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, Dissertation No. 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goransson, Anne

    The research reported is an experimental study on the effects of intensified education of Swedish parents of children with amblyopia (dimness of sight without apparent organic defect) on their understanding of the nature of the disease, its origins, and treatment. Parents in the control group (n=60) were exposed to the ordinary information…

  14. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in White and African-American Children Aged 6 through 71 Months: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine; Hawse, Patricia; Tielsch, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the age-specific prevalence of strabismus in White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months and of amblyopia in White and African-American children aged 30 through 71 months. Design Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Among 4,132 children identified, 3,990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2,546 children (62%) were examined. Methods Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a detailed eye examination including optotype visual acuity and measurement of ocular deviations. Strabismus was defined as a heterotropia at near or distance fixation. Amblyopia was assessed in those children aged 30 through 71 months who were able to perform optotype testing at 3 meters. Main Outcome Measures The proportions of children aged 6 through 71 months with strabismus and of children aged 30 through 71 months with amblyopia. Results Manifest strabismus was found in 3.3% of White and 2.1% of African American children (relative prevalence (RP) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 2.66). Esotropia and exotropia each accounted for close to half of all strabismus in both groups. Only one case of strabismus was found among 84 White children 6 through 11 months of age. Rates were higher in children 60 through 71 months of age (5.8% for Whites and 2.9% for African Americans (RP: 2.05, 95% CI: 0.79, 5.27). Amblyopia was present in 12 (1.8%) White and 7 (0.8%) African American children (RP: 2.23, 95% CI: 0.88, 5.62). Only one child had bilateral amblyopia. Conclusions Manifest strabismus affected 1 in 30 White and 1 in 47 African-American preschool aged children. The prevalence of amblyopia was under 2% in both Whites and African-Americans. National population projections suggest that there are approximately 677,000 cases of manifest strabismus among children 6–71 months

  15. Prevalence of amblyopia or strabismus in asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Cotter, Susan A; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Wen, Ge; Kim, Jeniffer; Borchert, Mark; Varma, Rohit

    2013-10-01

    To determine the age- and race-specific prevalence of amblyopia in Asian and non-Hispanic white children aged 30 to 72 months and of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months. Cross-sectional survey. A population-based, multiethnic sample of children aged 6 to 72 months was identified in Los Angeles and Riverside counties in California to evaluate the prevalence of ocular conditions. A comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview were conducted with 80% of eligible children. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures in children aged 6 to 72 months, as well as a determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children aged 30 to 72 months. The proportion of 6- to 72-month-old participants with strabismus and 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with study definitions of amblyopia. Strabismus was found in 3.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68-4.60) of Asian children and 3.24% (95% CI, 2.40-4.26) of non-Hispanic white children, with a higher prevalence with each subsequent older age category from 6 to 72 months in both racial/ethnic groups (P=0.0003 and 0.02, respectively). Amblyopia was detected in 1.81% (95% CI, 1.06-2.89) of Asian and non-Hispanic white children; the prevalence of amblyopia was higher for each subsequent older age category among non-Hispanic white children (P=0.01) but showed no significant trend among Asian children (P=0.30). The prevalence of strabismus was similar in Asian and non-Hispanic white children and was found to be higher among older children from 6 to 72 months. The prevalence of amblyopia was the same in Asian and non-Hispanic white children; prevalence seemed to be higher among older non-Hispanic white children but was relatively stable by age in Asian children. These findings may help clinicians to better understand the patterns of strabismus and amblyopia and potentially inform planning for preschool vision

  16. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values of Snellen Chart Compared to the Diagnostic Test in Amblyopia Screening Program in Iran

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    Fatemeh Rivakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amblyopia is a leading cause of visual impairment in both childhood and adult populations. Our aim in this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of the amblyopia screening program in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on a randomly selected sample of 4,636 Iranian children who were referred to screening program in 2013 were participated in validity study, too. From each provinces the major city were selected. Screening and diagnostic tests were done by instructors in first stage and optometrists in second stage, respectively. Finally data were analyzed by Stata version 13. Results The sensitivity was ranged from 74% to 100% among the various provinces such that Fars and Ardabil province had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The pattern of specificity was differ and ranged 44% to 84% among the provinces; Hormozgan and Fars had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The positive predictive value was also ranged from 35% to %81 which was assigned to Khuzestan and Ardabil provinces, respectively. The range of Negative Predictive value was 61% to 100% which was belonged to Ardabil and Fars provinces. Conclusion The total sensitivity (89% and negative predictive values (93% of screening test among children aged 3-6 years is acceptable, but only 51% of children refereed to second stage are true positive and this imposes considerable cost to health system.

  17. Efficacy of an Amblyopia Treatment Program with Both Eyes Open: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yo; Handa, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of an amblyopia treatment program with both eyes open. Ten subjects (mean age 20.5 ± 1.5 years) were enrolled. All subjects had un-remarkable ophthalmic examinations, but several subjects had minor refractive errors. Vision function was evaluated using the 3-D visual function trainer-ORTe. Brain measurements were made using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) concentration change upon visual stimulus presentation. The three conditions were as follows: both eyes open and both eyes stimulated, both eyes open and only one eye stimulated, and one eye open and one eye stimulated. Changes in HbO2 between the rest and stimulation phases were not statistically different between the unilateral and bilateral stimulation conditions with both eyes open. However, HbO 2 change was significantly higher in subjects with both eyes open than in subjects with one eye closed (P amblyopia treatment administered without occluding the healthy eye may provide the greatest therapeutic benefit. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.

  18. "A retrospective cohort study for prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance in anisometropic amblyopia.".

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    Singh Vinita

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 50 anisometropic amblyopes, between the ages of 2.5 to 10 years, was studied retrospectively to assess the prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance. There is ample evidence in the literature for a significantly lower accommodative response in the anisometropic amblyopic eye. It has been proposed that the efferent accommodative dysfunction may be a fundamental and causative factor in anisometropic amblyopia. A reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance was found in 17 [34%] patients and in 11 out of these the near vision improved after an addition of +3.0D sph. When a reduced visual acuity for near, was obtained it was difficult to determine whether the visual afferent system (due to insufficient visual input, or the accommodation efferent mechanism was responsible. However an improvement in corrected near vision by addition of +3.0D sph. suggested an accommodative dysfunction. In patients with reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance, not only was the final visual outcome poor but also the onset of visual improvement in response to amblyopia therapy was delayed.

  19. Visual acuity, amblyopia, and ocular pathology in 12- to 13-year-old children in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Josefin; Villarreal, Gerardo; Sjöström, Anders; Cavazos, Humberto; Abrahamsson, Maths; Sjöstrand, Johan

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to establish visual acuity (VA) and the prevalence of amblyopia and other ocular disorders in a population of 12- to 13-year-old children in Mexico who have not been vision screened. A total of 1,035 12- to 13-year-old children were examined in a field study. The examination included VA, stereopsis, cover testing, refractive retinoscopy, and examination of the red reflex and posterior pole. In cases with unexplained subnormal VA, visually evoked potential/visually evoked response was also performed. A >or=20/20 in at least one eye was found in 93% of the subjects. Bilateral VA albinism was found in 3 cases, whereas strabismus was found in 24 subjects (2.3%). There were very few ocular opacities or posterior pole abnormalities. The visual status in the Mexican 12- to 13-year-old children tested was good. The prevalence of amblyopia was similar to that in other unscreened populations.

  20. Efficiency of electronically monitored amblyopia treatment between 5 and 16 years of age: new insight into declining susceptibility of the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronius, Maria; Cirina, Licia; Ackermann, Hanns; Kohnen, Thomas; Diehl, Corinna M

    2014-10-01

    The notion of a limited, early period of plasticity of the visual system has been challenged by more recent research demonstrating functional enhancement even into adulthood. In amblyopia ("lazy eye") it is still unclear to what extent the reduced effect of treatment after early childhood is due to declining plasticity or lower compliance with prescribed patching. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response relationship and treatment efficiency from acuity gain and electronically recorded patching dose rates, and to infer from these parameters on a facet of age dependence of functional plasticity related to occlusion for amblyopia. The Occlusion Dose Monitor was used to record occlusion in 27 participants with previously untreated strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia aged between 5.4 and 15.8 (mean 9.2) years during 4months of conventional treatment. Group data showed improvement of acuity throughout the age span, but significantly more in patients younger than 7years despite comparable patching dosages. Treatment efficiency declined with age, with the most pronounced effects before the age of 7years. Thus, electronic recording allowed this first quantitative insight into occlusion treatment spanning the age range from within to beyond the conventional age for patching. Though demonstrating improvement in over 7year old patients, it confirmed the importance of early detection and treatment of amblyopia. Treatment efficiency is presented as a tool extending insight into age-dependent functional plasticity of the visual system, and providing a basis for comparisons of effects of patching vs. emerging alternative treatment approaches for amblyopia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA AMONG CHILDREN WITH NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY/INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ATTENDING OPHTHALMOLOGY OPD AT KLES HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha K. S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Global developmental delay/intellectual disability are on a rise in children in the present time. Ocular and visual anomalies are frequently associated with it of which refractive errors are the most frequent. This if goes unnoticed leads to strabismus and amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia among children with normal development or global developmental delay/intellectual disability attending ophthalmology OPD at KLES Hospital, Belagavi. Case records of all 200 new patients less than or equal to 12 years of age group who attended KLES, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. Out of the total evaluated 200 cases, 130 cases were with normal development and 70 with GDD/ID. Refractive errors were 85%, whereas the cases of amblyopia was 45.50% and strabismus 39.50%. Amblyopia with refractive error having GDD/ID was stastically significant as compared to amblyopia with refractive error having normal development (p=0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the most common ocular disorder seen. Refractive error with amblyopia is more in children with GDD/ID as compared to normal children. Owing to the high percentage of visual anomalies, ophthalmological referral becomes essential in children with developmental anomalies.

  2. Grey and white matter changes in children with monocular amblyopia: voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Jiang, Qinying; Guo, Mingxia; Li, Qingji; Cai, Chunquan; Yin, Xiaohui

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the potential morphological alterations of grey and white matter in monocular amblyopic children using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A total of 20 monocular amblyopic children and 20 age-matched controls were recruited. Whole-brain MRI scans were performed after a series of ophthalmologic exams. The imaging data were processed and two-sample t-tests were employed to identify group differences in grey matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA). After image screening, there were 12 amblyopic participants and 15 normal controls qualified for the VBM analyses. For DTI analysis, 14 amblyopes and 14 controls were included. Compared to the normal controls, reduced GMVs were observed in the left inferior occipital gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and the left supramarginal/postcentral gyrus in the monocular amblyopic group, with the lingual gyrus presenting augmented GMV. Meanwhile, WMVs reduced in the left calcarine, the bilateral inferior frontal and the right precuneus areas, and growth in the WMVs was seen in the right cuneus, right middle occipital and left orbital frontal areas. Diminished FA values in optic radiation and increased FA in the left middle occipital area and right precuneus were detected in amblyopic patients. In monocular amblyopia, cortices related to spatial vision underwent volume loss, which provided neuroanatomical evidence of stereoscopic defects. Additionally, white matter development was also hindered due to visual defects in amblyopes. Growth in the GMVs, WMVs and FA in the occipital lobe and precuneus may reflect a compensation effect by the unaffected eye in monocular amblyopia.

  3. Randomised controlled trial of video clips and interactive games to improve vision in children with amblyopia using the I-BiT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Nicola; MacKeith, Daisy; Vivian, Anthony; Purdy, Jon; Fakis, Apostolos; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Haworth, Stephen M; Gregson, Richard M; Foss, Alexander Je

    2016-11-01

    Traditional treatment of amblyopia involves either wearing a patch or atropine penalisation of the better eye. A new treatment is being developed on the basis of virtual reality technology allowing either DVD footage or computer games which present a common background to both eyes and the foreground, containing the imagery of interest, only to the amblyopic eye. A randomised control trial was performed on patients with amblyopia aged 4-8 years with three arms. All three arms had dichoptic stimulation using shutter glass technology. One arm had DVD footage shown to the amblyopic eye and common background to both, the second used a modified shooter game, Nux, with sprite and targets presented to the amblyopic eye (and background to both) while the third arm had both background and foreground presented to both eyes (non-interactive binocular treatment (non-I-BiT) games). Seventy-five patients were randomised; 67 were residual amblyopes and 70 had an associated strabismus. The visual acuity improved in all three arms by approximately 0.07 logMAR in the amblyopic eye at 6 weeks. There was no difference between I-BiT DVD and non-I-BiT games compared with I-BiT games (stated primary outcome) in terms of gain in vision. There was a modest vision improvement in all three arms. Treatment was well tolerated and safe. There was no difference between the three treatments in terms of primary stated outcomes but treatment duration was short and the high proportion of previously treated amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia disadvantaged dichoptic stimulation treatment. NCT01702727, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yajun; Bi, Hua; Ekure, Edgar; Ding, Gang; Wei, Nan; Hua, Ning; Qian, Xuehan; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children. Methods One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes), aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years) underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Result The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE) = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, Pamblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves. PMID:26882106

  5. Effect of Timing of Initial Cataract Surgery, Compliance to Amblyopia Therapy on Outcomes of Secondary Intraocular Lens Implantation in Chinese Children: A Retrospective Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As a secondary analysis, we reassess the association of initial congenital cataract surgery times, compliance to amblyopia therapy, and visual outcomes for a long-term follow-up in a secondary IOL implantation. Methods. Retrospective review of records of all infants with congenital cataracts who underwent secondary IOL implantation in the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2007, and the minimum follow-up period was 5 years. Multiple regression analysis was used and the possible confounding factors were also analyzed to assess the effect on visual outcome. Results. A total of 110 patients (male: 59.1% were included. The median (min–max age at cataract extraction and IOL implantation was 7.5 (3.0–15.0 and 35.0 (22.0–184.0 months, respectively, and the average follow-up period was 99.3 ± 23.6 months. The median (min–max BCVA at final follow-up was 0.20 (0.01–1.00. Compliance to amblyopia therapy was none, poor, and good in 21.8%, 24.5%, and 53.6%, respectively. Postoperative BCVA [logMAR, median (min–max 0.70 (0.00–2.00] linearly decreased with increasing cataract extraction time (per month (β=0.04, 95% CI: 0.03–0.06, p<0.0001 in multivariable models with laterality and compliance to amblyopia therapy adjusted. Good compliance to amblyopia therapy was associated with better BCVA (logMAR at last follow-up (β=−0.40, 95% CI = −0.53 to −0.27, p<0.0001 with laterality, opacity type, and extraction time adjusted. Conclusions. For Chinese infants with congenital cataract, an earlier primary congenital cataract surgery at an age of 3 to 15 months is associated with a better visual outcome. Good compliance to amblyopia therapy was also significant to visual outcome.

  6. Evaluation of the Role of Monocular Video Game Play as an Adjuvant to Occlusion Therapy in the Management of Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archita; Sharma, Pradeep; Saxena, Rohit

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the role of monocular video game play as an adjuvant to occlusion therapy in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. In a prospective randomized study design, 68 children with ages ranging from 6 to 14 years who had anisometropic amblyopia with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the amblyopic eye of better than 6/36 and worse than 6/12 and no manifest strabismus were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups: 34 children received 1 hour per day of video game play for the first month plus 6 hours per day of occlusion therapy (video game and occlusion group) and 34 children received 6 hours per day of occlusion therapy alone (occlusion only group). Patients were then evaluated at baseline and 1 and 3 months after treatment for BCVA, stereoacuity, and contrast sensitivity. In the video game and occlusion group, BCVA improved from 0.61 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline to 0.51 ± 0.14 logMAR (P = .001) at 1 month and 0.40 ± 0.15 logMAR (P = .001) at 3 months. In the occlusion only group, BCVA improved from 0.65 ± 0.09 logMAR at baseline to 0.60 ± 0.10 logMAR (P = .001) at 1 month and 0.48 ± 0.10 logMAR (P = .001) at 3 months. There was significantly more improvement in the video game and occlusion group compared to the occlusion only group (P = .003 at 1 month and P = .027 at 3 months). Video game play plus occlusion therapy enhances the visual recovery in anisometropic amblyopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):244-249.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children: the strabismus, amblyopia, and refractive error in young Singaporean Children (STARS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Gazzard, Gus; Hornbeak, Dana Marie; Leo, Seo-Wei; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Zhou, Brendan; Young, Terri L; Mitchell, Paul; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of refractive error types in Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 to 72 months. The Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Error in Singaporean Children (STARS) is a population-based study in southwest Singapore. Door-to-door recruitment of participants was used, with disproportionate random sampling in 6-month increments. Parental questionnaires were administered. Participant eye examinations included logMAR visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and ocular biometry. Overall and age-specific prevalences of myopia (spherical equivalence [SE] or= +3.00 D), astigmatism (cylinder >or= +1.50 D), and anisometropia (SE difference between each eye >or=2.00 D) were calculated. A total of 3009 children were examined (participation rate, 72.3%). Right eye (OD) cycloplegia data were available for 1375 boys and 1264 girls (mean age, 41 months). Mean OD SE was +0.69 D (SD 1.15). Overall myopia prevalence was 11.0% with no variance between the sexes (P = 0.91). The prevalence of high myopia (at least -6.00 D) was 0.2%. The prevalences of hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia were 1.4%, 8.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Most astigmatism (>95%) was with-the-rule (cylinder axes between 1 degrees and 15 degrees or 165 degrees and 180 degrees ). Myopia was present in 15.8%, 14.9%, 20.2%, 8.6%, 7.6%, and 6.4% of children aged 6 to 11, 12 to 23, 24 to 35, 36 to 47, 48 to 59, and 60 to 72 months, respectively. Prevalence increased with age for astigmatism (P prevalences of myopia and astigmatism in young Singaporean Chinese children are high, but that of hyperopia is low. Age effects were observed for each refractive error category, but differences between the sexes were not significant. Age-related variation in myopia prevalence may be influenced by ocular development, environment, and/or testability.

  8. Pediatric refractive surgery and its role in the treatment of amblyopia: meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió, Jorge L; Wolter, Nathaly V; Piñero, David P; Amparo, Fransisco; Sari, Esin Sogutlu; Cankaya, Cem; Laria, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    To provide an overview of the visual outcomes after pediatric refractive surgery in anisometropic amblyopia and to analyze the relationship of these outcomes with age and type of refractive surgery. Systematic searches in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases without data restrictions and a search by surveillance of the literature regarding pediatric refractive surgery were performed. Only studies reporting individual data of pediatric cases (age 1 to 17 years) undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), and LASIK were included. A total of 15 articles including data from a total of 213 amblyopic eyes were considered: LASIK in 95 eyes and surface ablation in 118 eyes. Changes in uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were investigated as well as their relation with age and ablation type. A significant increase in logMAR UDVA and CDVA was found in the overall sample of amblyopic eyes after surgery (P<.001). A significant correlation was found between age and preoperative CDVA (r=0.34, P<.001) as well as between age and the change in CDVA after surgery (r=-0.38, P<.001). The change in UDVA was significantly superior for eyes undergoing surface ablation compared to those undergoing LASIK (P=.04). Corneal haze was the predominant complication, which was reported in 5.3% of LASIK cases and 8.5% of surface ablation cases. Laser refractive surgery is an effective option for improving the visual acuity in children with an amblyopic eye in association with anisometropia. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Effect of a Binocular iPad Game vs Part-time Patching in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M; Manh, Vivian M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Beck, Roy W; Birch, Eileen E; Kraker, Raymond T; Crouch, Eric R; Erzurum, S Ayse; Khuddus, Nausheen; Summers, Allison I; Wallace, David K

    2016-12-01

    A binocular approach to treating anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia has recently been advocated. Initial studies have yielded promising results, suggesting that a larger randomized clinical trial is warranted. To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. A multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted in community and institutional practices from September 16, 2014, to August 28, 2015. Participants included 385 children aged 5 years to younger than 13 years with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/200, mean 20/63) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of a binocular iPad game prescribed for 1 hour a day (190 participants; binocular group) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours a day (195 participants; patching group). Study follow-up visits were scheduled at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was performed on participants who completed the 16-week trial. Binocular iPad game or patching of the fellow eye. Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Of the 385 participants, 187 were female (48.6%); mean (SD) age was 8.5 (1.9) years. At 16 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA improved 1.05 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 0.85-1.24 lines) in the binocular group and 1.35 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 1.17-1.54 lines) in the patching group, with an adjusted treatment group difference of 0.31 lines favoring patching (upper limit of the 1-sided 95% CI, 0.53 lines). This upper limit exceeded the prespecified noninferiority limit of 0.5 lines. Only 39 of the 176 participants (22.2%) randomized to the binocular game and with log file data available performed more than 75% of the prescribed treatment (median, 46%; interquartile range, 20%-72%). In younger participants (aged 5 to iPad treatment was not as good as with 2 hours of prescribed daily patching. http

  10. "Combined Occlusion and Atropine Therapy" Versus "Augmented Part-Time Patching" in Children with Refractory/Residual Amblyopia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Virender; Mittal, Vaibhev; Gupta, Varun; Gunturu, Rekha; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Chandrasekharan, Anjali; Chabblani, Preeti Patil; Rao, Harsha L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined occlusion and atropine therapy (COAT) and augmented part-time patching for the treatment of unilateral refractory/residual amblyopia. This retrospective study evaluated children between 4 and 11 years with refractory/residual amblyopia who were treated with either additional atropine (COAT group) or increased hours of patching (augmented group). Data were collected on improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) at each follow-up visit. There were 19 children in the COAT group and 17 children in the augmented group. The baseline BCVA of the amblyopic eye was 0.79 ± 0.36 logMAR in the COAT group and 0.72 ± 0.26 logMAR in augmented group. Children were statistically significantly younger in the COAT group (6.4 ± 2.2 years) compared to the augmented group (8.6 ± 3.3 years, P = 0.02). The mean duration of follow-up was statistically significantly longer in the augmented group (20.2 COAT group; 13.9 months augmented group) (P = 0.03). Compliance was similar in both groups. LogMAR BCVA (adjusted for difference in age and baseline BCVA) was statistically significantly better in the COAT group (0.56 ± 0.04) compared to the augmented group (0.80 ± 0.04) at 3 months (P = 0.000); 6 months (COAT group, 0.50 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.74 ± 0.04; P = 0.04) and at 1 year (COAT group, 0.42 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.67 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). There was statistically significantly greater improvement in logMAR BCVA at 6 months in COAT group (0.26 ± 0.15) compared to the augmented group (0.02 ± 0.14), (P = 0.0002). Age, gender, pretreatment BCVA, duration of follow-up, or compliance to patching did not affect improvement in BCVA. COAT may result in greater improvement in BCVA than augmented part-time patching in children with unilateral residual/refractory amblyopia.

  11. Bold-functional MRI study of the abnormal cortex and the relationship between the inpairment of vision and the decreased activation of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Li Chuanming; Zhou Yang; Xie Bing; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Hui; Qiu Mingguo; Weng Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the activation changes on Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19 in anisometropic amblyopia and compare the features of the cortex activations before and after refractive correction on amblyopic eyes. Methods: Bold-fMRI technique on 1.5 T Simens Sonata MRI and the blocks designation mode was used. The visual stimulation task was a black and white checkerboard with frequencies of 1 cycle/degree and 8 Hz. The baseline stimulus is a white cross-line at the center of the screen with black background. No other light or influence was allowed in the scanning room. The distance between the eyes and screen was 0.6 m. The experimental group included 10 anisometropic amblyopes. TSE and EPI sequence were used for the anatomical and functional data acquisitions. For experimental group, the activation areas of the visual cortex on both eyes were consequently measured before and after refractive correction. All data were analyzed online with t-test and offline with AFNI software. The threshold value was set to 0.001. During data processing, motion correction and three-dimensional smooth were used in all data. The time-signal intensity curves and the functional images were obtained. After Talairach coordinated the function images of every one, the activation areas were measured in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. The SPSS 12.0 software was used for statistic analysis. The difference of the cortical activations of amblyopic eyes before and after refractive correction was analyzed. The cortical activations of amblyopic eyes and the fellow eyes after refractive correction were compared. The visual acuity of the amblyopia eyes was measured. And the correlation between the lesion of cortical activation and visual acuity was analyzed. Results: It was found that the cortex was activated obviously in the calcarine cortex around, occipital lobe, LGN and temporal lobe. The activation areas of amblyopic eyes was (3.7±0.4) x 10 4 voxels, and (4.1±0.5 ) x 10 4 voxets after corrected

  12. Assessment of contrast sensitivity in children aged 3 years 9 months - 6 years with normal vision, visual impairment due to ocular disease and strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, A; Han, Y

    1999-06-01

    The contrast sensitivity function was assessed in children and adults with normal vision, visual impairment due to ocular disease, and strabismic amblyopia. The methods used were: the LH contrast vision test and the ability to detect raisins, puffed rice and white and black sugar strands against a white and black background. The aim of the study was to see whether any of the tests could be used in the detection of subnormal vision, and to compare the results between the different groups of patients. The following parameters of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) were measured with the LH-test: the maximum contrast sensitivity, the total area of CSF, and the area of 8 spatial frequency bands. Difficulty in detecting an object with low versus high contrast was measured with the sugar strands. Subjects with subnormal vision due to ocular disease and strabismic amblyopia had lower contrast sensitivity than subjects with normal vision measured as the total area of the CSF or the area of a specific frequency band. However, the maximum contrast sensitivity value that could be measured with the test was not significantly different between the groups. No subject had difficulties in the detection of raisins and puffed rice on a white and black background. Difficulties in detecting sugar strands on a white background were not seen in the normal children, but approximately 65% of the children with visual impairment had difficulties, as did approximately 25% of the children and adults with strabismus. Most of these subjects also had low visual acuity, but there was no correlation between the level of reduction of visual acuity and the difficulty in detecting sugar strands.

  13. Facts about Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to sight-saving treatments and plays a key role in reducing visual impairment and blindness. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social ...

  14. Amblyopia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Effectiveness of a Binocular Video Game vs Placebo Video Game for Improving Visual Functions in Older Children, Teenagers, and Adults With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tina Y; Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Chakraborty, Arijit; Dai, Shuan; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa S; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; Pieri, Roberto; Raveendren, Rajkumar Nallour; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Binocular amblyopia treatment using contrast-rebalanced stimuli showed promise in laboratory studies and requires clinical trial investigation in a home-based setting. To compare the effectiveness of a binocular video game with a placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children and adults. The Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Using Videogames clinical trial was a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Between March 2014 and June 2016, 115 participants 7 years and older with unilateral amblyopia (amblyopic eye visual acuity, 0.30-1.00 logMAR; Snellen equivalent, 20/40-20/200) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both were recruited. Eligible participants were allocated with equal chance to receive either the active or the placebo video game, with minimization stratified by age group (child, age 7 to 12 years; teenager, age 13 to 17 years; and adult, 18 years and older). Falling-blocks video games played at home on an iPod Touch for 1 hour per day for 6 weeks. The active video game had game elements split between eyes with a dichoptic contrast offset (mean [SD] initial fellow eye contrast, 0.23 [0.14]). The placebo video game presented identical images to both eyes. Change in amblyopic eye visual acuity at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included compliance, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression. Participants and clinicians who measured outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. Of the 115 included participants, 65 (56.5%) were male and 83 (72.2%) were white, and the mean (SD) age at randomization was 21.5 (13.6) years. There were 89 participants (77.4%) who had prior occlusion. The mean (SD) amblyopic eye visual acuity improved 0.06 (0.12) logMAR from baseline in the active group (n = 56) and 0.07 (0.10) logMAR in the placebo group (n = 59). The mean treatment difference between groups, adjusted for baseline visual acuity and age group, was -0.02 logMAR (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.02; P = .25). Compliance with more than 25

  16. A Randomized Trial of a Binocular iPad Game Versus Part-Time Patching in Children Aged 13 to 16 Years With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manh, Vivian M; Holmes, Jonathan M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Kraker, Raymond T; Wallace, David K; Kulp, Marjean T; Galvin, Jennifer A; Shah, Birva K; Davis, Patricia L

    2018-02-01

    To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in teenagers with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. One hundred participants aged 13 to iPad game prescribed for 1 hour per day (n = 40) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours per day (n = 60). The main outcome measure was change in amblyopic eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye VA improved from baseline by 3.5 letters (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-5.7 letters) in the binocular group and by 6.5 letters (2-sided 95% CI: 4.4-8.5 letters) in the patching group. After adjusting for baseline VA, the difference between the binocular and patching groups was -2.7 letters (95% CI: -5.7 to 0.3 letters, P = .082) or 0.5 lines, favoring patching. In the binocular group, treatment adherence data from the iPad device indicated that only 13% of participants completed >75% of prescribed treatment. In teenagers aged 13 to iPad game used in this study was not found to be better than patching, and was possibly worse. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the minimal treatment response to binocular treatment was owing to poor treatment adherence or lack of treatment effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation and development of a novel binocular treatment (I-BiT™) system using video clips and interactive games to improve vision in children with amblyopia ('lazy eye'): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Alexander J; Gregson, Richard M; MacKeith, Daisy; Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Hepburn, Trish; Vivian, Anthony; Moore, Diane; Haworth, Stephen M

    2013-05-20

    Amblyopia (lazy eye) affects the vision of approximately 2% of all children. Traditional treatment consists of wearing a patch over their 'good' eye for a number of hours daily, over several months. This treatment is unpopular and compliance is often low. Therefore results can be poor. A novel binocular treatment which uses 3D technology to present specially developed computer games and video footage (I-BiT™) has been studied in a small group of patients and has shown positive results over a short period of time. The system is therefore now being examined in a randomised clinical trial. Seventy-five patients aged between 4 and 8 years with a diagnosis of amblyopia will be randomised to one of three treatments with a ratio of 1:1:1 - I-BiT™ game, non-I-BiT™ game, and I-BiT™ DVD. They will be treated for 30 minutes once weekly for 6 weeks. Their visual acuity will be assessed independently at baseline, mid-treatment (week 3), at the end of treatment (week 6) and 4 weeks after completing treatment (week 10). The primary endpoint will be the change in visual acuity from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints will be additional visual acuity measures, patient acceptability, compliance and the incidence of adverse events. This is the first randomised controlled trial using the I-BiT™ system. The results will determine if the I-BiT™ system is effective in the treatment of amblyopia and will also determine the optimal treatment for future development. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702727.

  18. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes for amblyopia and strabismus in children up to the age of 4-5 years: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, J; Karnon, J; Czoski-Murray, C; Smith, K J; Marr, J

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia and strabismus in children aged up to 4-5 years, also identifying the major areas of uncertainty and so inform future research priorities in this disease area. Major electronic databases were searched in January 2006. Systematic literature reviews were undertaken to determine the prevalence and natural history, the screening methods, the effectiveness of treatment options and health-related quality of life issues relating to amblyopia and strabismus. The review of treatment interventions was restricted to high-quality reviews, meta-analyses and guidelines. The data derived from the review informed the structure and implementation of the decision-analytic model. The amblyopia screening model was analysed in detail to estimate the cost and effects of six alternative screening options comprising screening at different ages (3, 4 and 5 years) and using alternative sets of tests (visual acuity testing and the cover tests, with and without autorefraction). The reference case results showed that screening programmes that included autorefraction dominated screening programmes without autorefraction. Analyses based on the cost per case of amblyopia prevented showed screening at either 3 or 4 years prevented additional cases at a low absolute cost (3000-6000 pounds sterling). However, when these results were extrapolated to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, the reference case analysis found that no form of screening is likely to be cost-effective at currently accepted values of a QALY. The wide-ranging sensitivity analyses found that the results were robust to most parameter changes. The only parameter that radically affected the results was the utility effect of loss of vision in one eye. No direct evidence of a utility effect was identified and the reference case assumed no effect. When a small effect is assumed (a reduction in utility of 2%), the incremental cost per QALY gained

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  20. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  13. Alexia and quadrant-amblyopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2006-01-01

    Reading difficulties caused by hemianopia are well described. We present a study of alexia in a patient (NT) with a milder visual field deficit. The patient had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage causing damage to the left occipital cortex and underlying white matter. NT's text reading was slow...

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  11. Tratamento do coloboma de pálpebra superior pela técnica de Cutler-Beard e sua associação com ambliopia: relato de caso Upper eyelid coloboma treatment with the Cutler-Beard technique and its association with amblyopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bezerra de Menezes Reiff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato é apresentado um caso de coloboma congênito de pálpebra superior reconstruído por meio de retalho de transposição de pálpebra inferior (retalho de Cutler-Beard, com bom resultado estético e funcional. A paciente apresentou como complicação o desenvolvimento de ambliopia por privação de imagem (em função do período de oclusão visual, entre a primeira e a segunda intervenção cirúrgica, que respondeu adequadamente à terapêutica instituída. Realizou-se revisão bibliográfica, comentando-se os princípios que regem a reconstrução de defeitos da pálpebra superior, mostrando vantagens e desvantagens de cada técnica e levantou-se discussão quanto ao melhor método de reconstrução nos recém-nascidos, em função dos riscos da ocorrência de ambliopia.The authors present a case of a large congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid which was reconstructed through a transposition flap from the lower eyelid (Cutler-Beard technique, with good esthetic and functional result. The patient presented as a complication, development of deprivation amblyopia, (as a result of the time of visual axis occlusion between the first and second operation, which was solved utilizing appropriate therapy. A bibliographic review was made and the principles that rule the treatment of upper eyelid defects were commented, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Discussion was raised about the best method of reconstruction in newborns, facing the risks of occurrence of amblyopia.

  12. Diagnóstico de la coordinación visomotora en escolares con estrabismo y ambliopía / Visualmotor coordination diagnose for students with strabismus and amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaimara Peña-Peña,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La atención a las particularidades de los escolares con estrabismo y ambliopía exige como un elemento a contemplar la estimulación de la coordinación visomotora. En la constante búsqueda de las mejores opciones que garanticen la atención individualizada de estos escolares se consideró oportuno diagnosticar el comportamiento de este factor coordinativo. La investigación tomó como grupo de estudio a 21 escolares que cursaron el primer grado en la escuela especial Antonio Suárez Domínguez, en la provincia de Camagüey, durante los cursos comprendidos entre los años 2012 a 2015. Se propusieron diversas pruebas para medir la coordinación visomotora con el objetivo de ofrecer a los profesores de Educación Física Adaptada un instrumento para su diagnóstico en el primer ciclo de la enseñanza primaria porque ni el Programa de Educación Física, ni las pruebas de eficiencia física contemplan cómo evaluarla. La propuesta se valoró teóricamente por medio del criterio de experto (Delphy y en la práctica con un experimento de diseño pre-experimental. La consideración de los expertos acerca de la prueba adaptada y su factibilidad se corrobora en la práctica al develarse la incidencia positiva en los resultados obtenidos, de acuerdo con las particularidades de estos escolares. Abstract A key element when attending the special needs of students with strabismus and amblyopia is the stimulation of visualmotor coordination. From the standpoint of the constant research for better options that guarantee individual attention to these students it was considered appropriate to diagnose the coordinative factor behavior. Researchers took a sample of 21 first grade students of the special needs school Antonio Suárez Domínguez, Camagüey province, during the school years 2012-2015. Since neither the Physical Education Syllabus nor the Physical efficiency test had the necessary tools, various tests were taken to measure visualmotor coordination

  13. Amblyopia in Rural Nigerian School Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Ijebu East Local Government Education Authority,. Ogbere, Ogun state was also sought. The study was conducted according to the tenets of the 1968 Helsinki. Declaration (last revised in 2008). Informed written assent was obtained from the pupils, and parental/guardian consent was obtained by loco parentis through the ...

  14. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    utilizado para avaliar o estado de visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVES: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ; and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods ( ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  15. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVE: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods (ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  16. Methanol Induced Toxic Amblyopia--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A H; Rahaman, M F; Mollah, R I; Alam, A; Hassan, S N; Chowdhury, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year-old man, smoker having history of occasional alcohol intake--was admitted in the Department of Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) with gradual diminution of vision in both eyes 10 days after consumption of homemade alcoholic beverage in a wedding ceremony. His initial acuity of vision was limited to no perception of light in right eye and hand movement in left eye. Fundus examination revealed pale optic discs in both eyes. The patient was treated with Injection Methylprednisolone 1000 mg intravenous slowly over 1 hour for 3 consecutive days. This was followed by oral prednisolone 60 mg daily for 14 days and then gradually tapered over 4 weeks. The patient also received Injection Hydroxycobalamine and Injection Folinic Acid for 2 weeks. On the 3rd day of treatment there was perception of light in the right eye and on the 10th day the visual acuity improved to hand movement. In the left eye, the visual acuity gradually improved to 6/60 on 3rd day and on 10th day improved to 6/24. Four weeks later, the visual acuity had recovered in both eyes to 6/18. Combination of intravenous and oral steroid along with vitamin B1 and folinic acid has been found effective in treating severe methanol induced optic neuropathy.

  17. Prevalence of strabismic binocular anomalies, amblyopia and anisometropia. Rehabilitation Faculty of Shahid Beheshti Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhgary

    2011-07-01

    Discussion: The results show that the prevalence of anisometropia was higher than shown in previous studies but prevalence of convergence insufficiency, esotropia and exotropia was lower than previous studies.

  18. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  19. 78 FR 56986 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ..., including aphakia, prosthetic eye, central retinal artery occlusion, strabismic amblyopia, amblyopia... substantial driving on highways on the interstate system and on other roads built to interstate standards...

  20. L-dopa methyl ester attenuates amblyopia-induced neuronal injury in visual cortex of amblyopic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Zhaoni; Zhang, Shijun; Lin, Xing; Huang, Renbin

    2013-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential anti-amblyopic effects of L-dopa methyl ester (LDME) on visual cortex area 17 in an amblyopic feline model induced by monocular vision deprivation. After LDME administration, pathophysiologic and ultrastructural observations were utilized to examine the morphological changes of nerve cells in visual cortex area 17. Dopamine (DA) and its metabolite contents in visual cortex area 17 were investigated through HPLC analysis. Apoptotic cells in visual cortex area 17 were evaluated by TUNEL assay. Additionally, the c-fos expression both at gene and protein levels was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. The contents of DA and its metabolites were elevated in visual cortex area 17. Neuronal rejuvenation which occurred in visual cortex area 17 was observed through anatomical and physiological assessments. Similarly, TUNEL results showed that neuronal apoptosis was inhibited in the visual cortex of amblyopic cats by both L-dopa and LDME therapies. Meanwhile, the c-fos expression was notably up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels by the treatments. These findings suggested that LDME treatment could effectively increase DA and its metabolite contents, and restrain the apoptotic process, as well as elevate the c-fos expression in nerve cells of visual cortex area 17. Taken together, LDME might ameliorate the functional cytoarchitecture in visual cortex area 17 through mechanisms that elevate DA content and increase endogenous c-fos expression, as well as inhibit neuronal lesion in visual cortex tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Refractive Error in Singaporean Chinese Children: The Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error in Young Singaporean Children (STARS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dirani, Mohamed; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Gazzard, Gus; Hornbeak, Dana Marie; Leo, Seo-Wei; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Zhou, Brendan; Young, Terri L.; Mitchell, Paul; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Using population-based data, the authors report, for the first time, the prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 to 72 months. In selected regions of Singapore, myopia has been shown to affect more than 80% of adults; therefore, this paper provides insights into the development of refractive error at a very young age.

  2. Long-term visual outcome of congenital cataract at a Tertiary Referral Center from 2004 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Based on our results, 56% of cases showed amblyopia. It could be due to late operation (especially in unilateral cases, longer surgical interval between two eyes, and no compliance of amblyopia therapy. Early detection through screening may reduce the rate of amblyopia. Refractive errors, visual acuity, amblyopia, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacity, and compliance of amblyopia therapy should be checked regularly at follow-up visits.

  3. Ambliopia

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, António Filipe; Cardoso, Ana Maria Veloso

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia has a prevalence between 1.6% and 3.6% in countries where health care is good. These numbers are higher in countries where eye care is less effective than in wealth societies. Staying updated with the latest developments in amblyopia is fundamental for the every day practice of any eye care practitioner because amblyopia is mostly treatable when detected in time. Amblyopia is curable and that makes appropriated management, referral and prevention critical steps to avoid permanent vi...

  4. Prevalence and Pattern of Strabismus in Primary School Pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    threatening consequence known as amblyopia. Strabismus is the most common amblyogenic factor and approximately 40% of children with manifest strabismus have amblyopia.[12]. Children with strabismus and/or amblyopia will lack the ability to fully develop binocular single vision if left untreated and may have an ...

  5. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    of amblyopia , or a lazy eye. This "artificial amblyopia " of isoluminance is con- venient for experiments because it can be switched on and off and...from amblyopia , which is a help for at least intuitive understanding. A further and dramatic loss is of a certain kind of stereoscopic depth. The...with surface segregation, assumptions grounded in likelihood and simplicity are prevalent . To these are added various assumptive geometric

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxoplasmosis, measles, sickle cell retinopathy (through genetic counseling), trauma and glaucoma (early detection and treatment)], treatable (refractive error and amblyopia) and unavoidable (maculopathy, optic atrophy and oculocutaneous albinism).

  7. Paediatric cataract: challenges and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr P Vijayalakshmi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia should always be anticipated in children with unilateral cataract, asymmetrical bilateral cataracts (or where there is a delay between the first and second eye operation, or a delay of more than a year between diagnosis/ detection and surgery, cataracts with anisometropia or traumatic cataracts with corneal scars. When amblyopia is detected, occlusion therapy (eye patching must be instituted at the earliest opportunity. The patching regimen is the same with any strabismic amblyopia and sometimes needs to be aggressive at the start. It is crucial to explain the need for patching to the parents, since compliance is the greatest obstacle to the success of amblyopia treatment.

  8. The effect of omitting an early population-based vision screen in the Netherlands : A micro-simulation model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sloot; E. Heijnsdijk; F. Goudsmit; E.W. Steyerberg; H.J. de Koning; H.J. Simonsz; Dr. J.H. Groenewoud

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the effect of omitting an individual screen from a child vision screening programme on the detection of amblyopia in the Netherlands. A previous study (Rotterdam Amblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study) suggested that the three screens carried out between 6 and 24 months contributed

  9. The effect of omitting an early population-based vision screen in the Netherlands: A micro-simulation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, F; Heijnsdijk, Eam; Groenewoud, J H; Goudsmit, F; Steyerberg, E W; de Koning, H J; Simonsz, H J

    2017-09-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of omitting an individual screen from a child vision screening programme on the detection of amblyopia in the Netherlands. A previous study (Rotterdam Amblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study) suggested that the three screens carried out between 6 and 24 months contributed little. Methods We developed a micro-simulation model that approximated the birth-cohort data from the previous study, in which 2964 children had completed follow-up at age 7, and 100 amblyopia cases were detected. Detailed data on screens, referrals, and orthoptic follow-up, including the cause of amblyopia, were available. The model predicted the number of amblyopia cases detected for each screen and for the entire screening programme, and the effect of omitting screens. Incidence curves for all types of amblyopia caused by strabismus, refractive anomalies or by both were estimated by approximation of the observational data, in conjunction with experts' estimations and the literature. Results We calculated mean actual sensitivity per screen per type of amblyopia, and the effect per screen. Screening at 24 months was found to be least effective. The impact on the screening programme, estimated by summing the effectiveness per screen, omitting the 24-month screen, was a reduction of 3.4% (57 vs. 59 cases) in the number of detected cases of amblyopia at age 5. Conclusion The effectiveness of the Dutch vision screening programme would hardly be affected by omission of the 24-month screening examination. A disinvestment study is warranted.

  10. Vision of Strabismic Children in Ilorin, Nigeria | Azonobi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of strabismic children had normal vision. The prevalence of low vision and blindness was low. The prevalence of strabismic amblyopia was also low in the study population and most of it was associated with esotropia. Keywords: esotropia, exotropia, amblyopia, children, Nigeria Nigerian Journal of ...

  11. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*; Martha Lía Gaviria Bravo, MD**

    2011-01-01

    El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisa...

  12. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye ...

  13. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 10/2016 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  14. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  15. Refractive error changes after bilateral medial rectus muscle recession surgery in congenital esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Mohamed El-Zawahry

    2017-01-01

    Only the early postoperative period showed significant change in the SE value with myopic shift that necessitates early postoperative visual rehabilitation for fear of recurrence of the deviation or development of amblyopia.

  16. Acute Infantile Hemipl~gia Associated with Ipsilateral Retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cortical amblyopia can be better explained by the direct involvement of the retinal vasculature. The striking fundal picture of a right retinal vasculitis with a right hemiplegia suggests emboli from carotid arteries, or perhaps an ascending vasculitis.

  17. Behandeling van infantiele hemangiomen met propranolol: goede resultaten en weinig bijwerkingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Denise J. J.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Wijnen, Marc H. W. A.; van Beynum, Ingrid M.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; van der Vleuten, Carine J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are the most commonly occurring benign tumours of infancy, which may lead to considerable morbidity, such as amblyopia, ulceration and airway obstruction, depending on localization. Until recently, treatment was difficult: high-dose systemic glucocorticoids had limited

  18. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubbing extreme light sensitivity poor focusing poor visual tracking (following an object) abnormal alignment or movement of ... MD Date reviewed: June 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Amblyopia Can Vision Problems ...

  19. Facts about Uveal Coloboma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is a coloboma? Coloboma comes from a Greek word which means “curtailed”. It is used to ... vision in the stronger eye for a limited period of time. Ensuring that amblyopia (lazy eye) does ...

  20. 78 FR 34143 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Sam D. Zachary Mr. Zachary, age 57, has had amblyopia in his left.... Following an examination in 2013, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Zachary has sufficient vision to operate a [[Page 34151

  1. 77 FR 17117 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... meet the vision requirement in one eye for various reasons, including amblyopia, artery occlusion... interstate system and on other roads built to interstate standards. Moreover, driving in congested urban...

  2. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this development is largely complete by age three years. However, children who have eye conditions such as amblyopia (an imbalance in visual strength between the two eyes), strabismus (misaligned eyes), or other conditions that ...

  3. The prevalence of strabismus types in strabismic Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorrami-Nejad M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Khorrami-Nejad,1 Mohamad Reza Akbari,2 Bahram Khosravi1 1Department of Optometry, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: To determine the frequency of different types of strabismus and amblyopia in the patients of strabismus clinics from 2008 to 2014. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the archives of Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2008 to 2014. The study consisted of using records of strabismic patients. From these, strabismus types and associated abnormalities, types of amblyopia and other ocular pathological findings were recorded. Results: In this study, 1174 strabismic patients were studied. Accommodative esotropia (ET was the most prevalent type of strabismus accounting for 25.04% of all strabismic patients while intermittent exotropia (XT, nonaccommodative ET and partially accommodative ET, with 12.09%, 11.24% and 10.39%, respectively, were relatively common. Also, 63.03% of all strabismic patients had esodeviation with XT coming second accounting for 24.53% of patients. Other ocular pathologic findings in addition to strabismus were found in 236 (20.1% patients. The most common association with those types of strabismus was inferior oblique over action accounting for 11.07% of all cases, and 88 patients had nystagmus in addition to strabismus. Significantly 45% of patients had no amblyopia and 37% of patients had a combined type of amblyopia which was the most common type of amblyopia found in strabismic patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of ET was two and a half times more than XT and almost half of strabismic patients suffer from amblyopia. This study suggests that strabismus screening of children could be useful in the early detection of strabismus, appropriate management of it and prevention of strabismic amblyopia

  4. The Longitudinal Studies of Prisoners of War and Their Families. The Prisoner of War and His Family. The Captivity Experience of American Prisoners of War in Southeast Asia. Positive and Negative Residuals of Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-08

    treatment and sleep. The most prevalent form of torture was a technique known as the ropes. While there were many variations of this form of torture, it...and a chronic illness state) -- 6%, and Amblyopia , the symptoms of which are compatible with nutritional amblyopia (10%). Hill’s data on weight loss...to 5% of the RPWs had even more debilitating forms of infestation. Malaria, although endemic in Vietnam, was much more prevalent in the hot swampy

  5. The Effect of Common Therapeutic Drugs on Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    compared to its complete the F-M 100-hue test placebo condition. For Aralen (Fg. -3a), the increased errors are most Drug Placebo prevalent around 480...Netirophysiol 21: 622(A), dhisholm, I. A. The dyschromatopsia 1966. of tobacco amblyopia . Paper read at Symposium on Colour held at Edin- Brown, J. L...Turgeon. Detection of hydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl). narcotic use: comparison of the • 54 nalorphine (pupil) test with chemical toxic amblyopia

  6. Computer-Assisted Eye Examination: Background and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Summary and critique of available data on the prevalence of eoln, nrt and social costs of visual disorders and disabilities U.S Department of Health...the small pupil, and in cases of amblyopia with an alternating squint when the patient had eccentric fixation. Users emphasized the superiority of this...appropriate stereo test is used. such as the Random Dot E, stereo-based visual screening is, in fact, very reliable, especially for dctct- ing amblyopia and the

  7. Publications and Presentations of the Opthalmology Branch, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine 1981-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Postgraduate Seminar, San Antonio TY, 13-15 Apr 1981 NUTRITIONAL AMBLYOPIA IN VIETNAM POWs Tredici, Thomas J Presentation, Society of Air Force Clinical...RP Jr and DR Peters Aerospace Medical Association Meeting, New Orleans LA, 8-12 May 1988 STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA IN THE 1990’s: HOW NEW INFORMATION...and KK Gillingham USAFSAM-TR-89-23, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB TX, Nov 1989 THE PREVALENCE OF SPECTACLE WEAR AND INCIDENCE OF

  8. Functional Specialization in the Lower and Upper Visual Fields in Humans: Its Ecological Origins and Neurophysiological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    of presened pattern vision and acuity charac- processing and %isuoinotor coordination is obviously not terizes the strabismic amblyopia deficit...whereas the limited to primates, however, as tLiese phylogenetically reverse may be true for the refractive amblyopias and older areas engage in similar...functional significance of the Another prevalent theme in the visual sciences has been the somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons is unknown. However

  9. The Indication of Surgical Treatment and Visual Rehabilitation in the Congenital Cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Keklikçi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataracts constitute an important part of blindness in childhood. It’s a curable disease which is one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Main treatment is surgical operation. Timing of surgery, appropriate and rapid post sur- gery visual rehabilitation have a major effect on prognosis. Surgery should be perfor-med as soon as possible after the diagnosis in order to prevent amblyopia.Visual rehabi- litation of congenital cataract includes optical correction and amblyopia treatment. The most effective treatment of amblyopia is occlusion therapy. In this article congenital cataracts were evaluated in the light of recent literature and the importance of the timing of surgery and visual rehabilitation were attempted to be emphasized.

  10. Evaluation of ′vision screening′ program for three to six-year-old children in the Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandekar Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Since 1996, vision screening of three to six-year-old children is conducted every year in Iran. We present outcomes of project review held in August 2006. Materials and Methods : Kindergarten teachers examined vision by using Snellen′s illiterate ′E′ chart. They used torchlight to detect strabismus. On a repeat test, if either eye had vision < 20/30, the child was referred to the optometrist. A pediatric ophthalmologist examined and managed children with strabismus or amblyopia. Provincial managers supervised the screening program. The evaluator team assessed the coverage, yield, quality and feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of vision screening, as well as magnitude of amblyopia, and its risk factors. Result : In 2005, 1.4 million (67% children were examined in all provinces of Iran. Opticians examined 90,319 (61% children with defective vision that were referred to them. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia was 3.82% (95% CI 3.79 - 3.85, 0.39% (95% CI 0.38 - 0.40 and 1.25% (95% CI 1.24 - 1.26 respectively. Validity test of 7,768 children had a sensitivity of 74.5% (95% CI 72.7 - 76.3 and specificity of 97.2% (95% CI 96.7 - 97.7. The cost of amblyopia screening was US $ 1.5 per child. While the cost of screening and treating one child with amblyopia was US $ 245. Conclusion : A review of the vision screening of children in Iran showed it with screening and useful exercise and had a yield of 1:21. The coverage of vision screening was low and the management of children with amblyopia, low vision and refractive error needed strengthening.

  11. User’s Guide Engineering Data Compendium Human Perception and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    stick rapidly from maximum deflection in [t], [s], [n]). in one direction to maximum deflection in the opposite Amblyopia . Low or reduced visual...movement, 6.316 Aiding Ambiguous patterns, 6.306 of control, 9.520, 9.521, 9.526 Amblyopia , 1.932 contrasted with quickening, 9.526 Amel font, 11.209...motion perception linearvection, 5.501, 5.503, 5.707 Image prevalence tactile, 3.101,3.120 in binocular rivalry, 1.804-1.806 vestibular Image

  12. Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income. Data based on parent reports from 2009-2010 indicated identical screening rates among black non-Hispanic children and white non-Hispanic children (80.7%); however, Hispanic children were less likely than non-Hispanic children to report vision screening (69.8%). Children whose families earned 200% or more above the federal poverty level were more likely to report vision screening than families with lower incomes. To update the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for amblyopia and its risk factors in children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of vision screening tests and the benefits and harms of vision screening and treatment. Surgical interventions were considered to be out of scope for this review. Treatment of amblyopia is associated with moderate improvements in visual acuity in children aged 3 to 5 years, which are likely to result in permanent improvements in vision throughout life. The USPSTF concluded that the benefits are moderate because untreated amblyopia results in permanent, uncorrectable vision loss, and the benefits of screening and treatment potentially can be experienced over a child's lifetime. The USPSTF found adequate evidence to bound the potential harms of treatment (ie, higher false-positive rates in low-prevalence populations) as small. Therefore, the USPSTF concluded with moderate certainty that the overall net benefit is moderate for

  13. Interocular Shift of Visual Attention Enhances Stereopsis and Visual Acuities of Anisometropic Amblyopes beyond the Critical Period of Visual Development: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Increasing evidence shows that imbalanced suppressive drive prior to binocular combination may be the key factor in amblyopia. We described a novel binocular approach, interocular shift of visual attention (ISVA, for treatment of amblyopia in adult patients. Methods. Visual stimuli were presented anaglyphically on a computer screen. A square target resembling Landolt C had 2 openings, one in red and one in cyan color. Through blue-red goggles, each eye could only see one of the two openings. The patient was required to report the location of the opening presented to the amblyopic eye. It started at an opening size of 800 sec of arc, went up and down in 160 sec of arc step, and stopped when reaching the 5th reversals. Ten patients with anisometropic amblyopia older than age 14 (average age: 26.7 were recruited and received ISVA treatment for 6 weeks, with 2 training sessions per day. Results. Both Titmus stereopsis (z=-2.809, P=0.005 and Random-dot stereopsis (z=-2.317, P=0.018 were significantly improved. Average improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.74 line (t=5.842, P<0.001. Conclusions. The ISVA treatment may be effective in treating amblyopia and restoring stereoscopic function.

  14. 76 FR 49528 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... the speed limit by 13 miles per hour (mph). Daniel W. Eynon Mr. Eynon, 49, has had a macular scar in.... Everett H. Logan Mr. Logan, 44, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected... optometrist noted, ``It is my opinion that Mr. Everett Logan has sufficient vision to perform the driving...

  15. Prevalence of strabismus among pre-school children community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards strabismus in Cheha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Strabismus is the commonest cause of amblyopia that can be prevented or treated if detected early. Strabismus also causes psychosocial problems in both children and adults. It is clear that community's knowledge, attitude and practice dealing with strabismus affect the prevention of strabismic ...

  17. Brief communication : Unilateral blindness and low vision due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-11-15

    To assess the magnitude of unilateral blindness or low vision caused by strabismic amblyopia in astrabismic population, a prospective study was conducted between November 15, 1995 and March 20, 1997 at Menelik II Hospital. The visual acuity of 361 patients with strabismus was evaluated. The average age of ...

  18. Prevention of Childhood Blindness through the Integration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duke

    Further research in recruiting visually impaired children into eye care services through a gender focussed cataract surgical eye camp needs to be carried out to ascertain the efficiency in number and quality of visual outcomes; considering the risk of delay in presentation and subsequent amblyopia. A challenge with this ...

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than or equal to 3/60 in the involved eye was considered as blind, while visual acuity better than. 3/60 and less than or equal ... blindness or low vision as a result of strabismic amblyopia was significant among strabismic patients, especially when .... a screening program for pre- school children to early identify cases that are.

  20. STUDENTS IN ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for school eye screening cum intervention among. Nigerian children so as to prevent amblyopia and subsequent blindness. Key words: adolescent, students, eye disorders, school eye health. INTRODUCTION. There have been many reports on the prevalence of eye diseases and visual impairment in school children ...

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards strabismus in Cheha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Strabismus is the commonest cause of amblyopia that can be prevented or treated if detected early. Strabismus also causes psychosocial problems in both children and adults. It is clear that community's knowledge, attitude and practice dealing with strabismus affect the prevention of strabismic ambylopia and ...

  2. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clipboard: Recovery from amblyopia in adults via decreased visual cortical inhibition caused by experience in an enriched environment · Liisa A Tremere Raphael Pinaud · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 159-161. Commentary: Who is the Queen's mother? Royal cheats in social insects · Madeleine Beekman Benjamin P ...

  4. Visual Survey of Infantry Troops. Part 1. Visual Acuity, Refractive Status, Interpupillary Distance and Visual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    prevalence of refractive error types among infantrymen .............................. 35 15. 2ercentages of refractive errors by sphere and cylinder...not prescribing for a minimum amount. Table 14. Classification and prevalence of refractive error types among infantrymen Prevalence Refractive...with a 10 mm IPD difference was probably an accommodative esotrope. This five-plus diopter hyperope demonstrated left-eye amblyopia , 4 prism diopters

  5. Eye Movement in Response to Single and Multiple Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    50 ms. Saccades against the smooth response are more prevalent in the short delay records. In the 50-ms-delay record, the amplitude of the smooth...Experimental Bra-in Resejarchjl 1ý6, 121-139. Griffin, J.P. (1976). Theray for amblyopia . in Binloculai Anomaies Procedures for Vision phrp~ pp. 1 !75 -A3. 1

  6. Handbook of Human Tissue Sources. A National Resource of Human Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    assess exposure to infectious and toxic agents during deployment, to estimate immunity prevalence for a variety of diseases, and to determine the...the Missouri Lions Eye Tissue Banks in three Missouri cities, Glaucoma Screening, Eyeglass Recycling, Amblyopia Screening, Indigent Patient Care, and

  7. Refractive errors among students enrolled in Assiut University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. H. Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Refractive error is a common cause of visual impairment among the group of adolescents admitted for university education in Upper Egypt. Myopia is particularly more prevalent than that reported in other regions of Egypt and other countries. Early detection and correction is essential to avoid ametropic amblyopia.

  8. Injuries and Illnesses of Vietnam War POWs. 2. Army POWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    amblyopia , mostly of minimal degree; Plasmodium (P)falciparum, and eight with P Vifax. There were two RPWs with radiological evidence of osteoporosis; and...01A-6601 O TSErCURITY CL;A$1IFICATION Fe HISl PAGE[ (Whow D Unclassified L hIJITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(When Data Entered) ,six most prevalent

  9. Engineering Data Compendium. Human Perception and Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    animal figures • Often unreliable in differen- tiating observers with amblyopia and heterotropia • May give false positive Random Dot E test...Resources 7.204 Evidence for Undifferentiated and Differentiated Attentional Resources Table 1. Prevalence of structural alteration effects

  10. Blepharoptosis in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /18 all had myopia (2 were due to congenital glaucoma and the third eye had amblyopia caused by the myopia and severe ptosis. In the school survey, 759 children were examined and 9 were found to have mild ptosis, a prevalence of 1.2%.

  11. Local and Global Factors in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-06

    changed is the belief, becoming more and more prevalent , that the time has come. Not only is the problem fascinating and important but, also, the...Neurosci.", 4, 1354-1360 (1984). Duffy, F. H., S. R. Snodgrass, J. L. Burchfiel, and J. L. Conway, "Bicuculline Reversal of Deprivation Amblyopia in the

  12. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma ...

  13. Straatsma syndrome: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports two cases of Straatsma Syndrome, a rare disease, emphasizing its clinical features that inclued myopia, strabismus and amblyopia associated with persistent myelinated fibers in the retina. Ophthalmic examination, color retinography and optical coherence tomography were performed.

  14. 76 FR 17481 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... in a CMV. J. Bernando Rodriguez Mr. Rodriguez, 47, has had strabismic amblyopia in his left eye since... opinion, patient J. Bernardo Rodriguez, has sufficient vision to perform the driving tasks required to operate a commerical vehicle as he has been doing in the past 10 years.'' Mr. Rodriguez reported that he...

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-day social and natural environments, and this development is largely complete by age three years. However, children who have eye conditions such as amblyopia (an imbalance in visual strength between the two eyes), strabismus (misaligned eyes), or ...

  16. Pattern Of Refractive Errors At Obafemi Awolowo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The youngest age of presentation for presbyopia was 36 years. Astigmatism occurred in 55.8% of the patients seen. Most of the patients (68.3%) had myopic astigmatism. One of the two patients who had anisometropia had developed amblyopia in the more hypermetropic eye. Conclusion: Since refractive errors were found ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Liisa A Tremere. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2008 pp 157-158. Clipboard: Recovery from amblyopia in adults via decreased visual cortical inhibition caused by experience in an enriched environment · Liisa A Tremere Raphael Pinaud.

  18. Prevalence and pattern of strabismus in primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Strabismus is the most common amblyogenic factor and approximately 40% of children with manifest strabismus have amblyopia. In Nigeria, it is generally believed that strabismus is not common. However, few studies have been done to determine the prevalence of strabismus in Benin City, Edo State.

  19. Inclusive education in Tanzania: Are all learners identified and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven percent of all the participants had other eye conditions such as cataracts and amblyopia, which could lead to visual disabilities if not identified and treated early. The results of this study indicate that although Tanzania has set about establishing inclusive schools, the special needs of all children are not known ...

  20. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 2013;40(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... orous amblyopia therapy depending on the age of the child. Control of intraocular pressure is primarily surgi- cal with medical therapy playing a supportive role or as an adjunct in blacks, ensuring the prevention of uniocu- lar loss of visual fields in adolescent and blindness in adulthood.11, 12,13.