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Sample records for amblyopia

  1. [Functional amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual system that represents unilateral or bi-lateral reduction of visual acuity in which an organic cause cannot be detected. The illness represents a syndrome of visual deficits, not only a deterioration of visual acuity. This syndrome includes: presence of crowding phenomena, contrast sensitivity deterioration, deficits in accommodation, deterioration of spatial orientation and ocular motility dysfunction. Depending on its etiology, amblyopia is classified into four main types: strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia and stimulus deprivation amblyopia. To successfully treat the "lazy eye" it is essential to remove the amblyopic factor with techniques addressing each disturbing factor. Techniques used for treating amblyopia include: occlusion, optical penalty or pharmacological, therapy with Levodopa and computer vision therapy. Amblyopia treatment is lengthy and it is very important to counsel not only the child but the whole family and to establish a relationship of trust between doctor and patient in order to get high treatment compliance and high child motivation.

  2. A Simulation of Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A simulation of the decreased visual acuity of individuals with amblyopia is used in one optometry program to help students understand how amblyopia patients see. Students act as patient, then as doctor, proceeding through clinical diagnosis. (MSE)

  3. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY IN AMBLYOPIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    Contrast sensitivity function(CSF) for sinusoid gratings of varying spatial frequencies was determined for each eye of 21 cases with unilateral amblyopia. The CSF of all amblyopic eyes, except one, showed reduced sensitivity when compared with the non-amblyopic eye of the same person. The curve showed reduction more significantly at middle and high spatial frequencies. The cut-off frequency was shifted toward lower spatial frequencies. The relationship between CSF and various degree of amblyopia was als...

  4. Amblyopia and Binocular Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Eileen E.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3% to 3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of bin...

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  6. Strabismus and Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, E.; Morse, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Strabismus and amblyopia are two common childhood vision conditions requiring early identification and treatment. Screening devices include external examination of the eye, ability to track, a cover test, acuity tests, and stereoscopic tests. Treatment includes patching therapy, use of glasses, orthoptics, CAM vision stimulator, or a combination…

  7. Facts about Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Search form Search Search Search the NEI Website NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L ... brain are created during this period of growth and development. Scientists are exploring whether treatment for amblyopia in ...

  8. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For ...

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  12. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Affairs Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry ... and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  16. Improvement of therapy for amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe term ‘amblyopia’ originates from the Greek language and literally means dimness or dullness of vision. In time, the condition has been defined in a variety of ways, very much depending on the prevailing patho-physiological concept about its etiology. In general, amblyopia can be defi

  17. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Supported by the NEI Research at NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs ... Health Information News and Events Grants and Funding Research at NEI Education ... NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  19. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Knill, David C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training. PMID:25637854

  20. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Knill, David C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training.

  1. Point Electric Stimulation and Children's Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-ke; CHU Hui-ju; WANG Fu-chun; YANG Bo; GAO Yang; HAN Chou-ping

    2007-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic efficacy of electric stimulation on points for children's amblyopia.Method:Ninety children amblyopia cases with ametropia upon correction were randomized into three groups:point electric stimulation,comprehensive conventional therapy and integrative therapy of the above two.And then visual function changes of kids in the three groups were observed.Results:Among the above three therapies,the recovery rates of point electric stimulation,comprehensive conventional therapy and integrative therapy of the two were 83.9%,82.6%and 94.25 respectively,showing no significant difierence(P>0.05) among the three groups.Conclusion:Point electric stimulation has similar action with comprehensive conventional therapy in the treatment of children's amblyopia,and the combination of the two therapies has better effect,indicating point electric stimulation can speed up recovery of visual function of kids with amblyopia.

  2. Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

  3. A Treatment of Amblyopia Using Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yi-Ding; Liu, Bing-Chun

    2000-04-01

    We propose the treatment of amblyopia using yellow-green laser diodes. There are amblyopia children in excess of fifty million in the world. Because the causative agent of amblyopia hasn't been well understood,only roughly considered to be concerned with visual sense cell, optic nerve network and function of nerve center, no appropriate treatment is found up to date. The vision of person is determined by the center hollow region of retina, where there are three kinds of cone cell. The corresponding peak wavelength in absorption spectrum locates 447nm (blue light), 532nm (green light) and 565nm (yellow light), respectively. When stimulated by white light, excited degree of three kinds of cone cell are identical,or yellow-green light, to which person eye is most sensitive, will significantly takes effects. Therefore the yellow-green laser diode is suitable for treating amblyopia. The weak laser, namely laser power less than mW order of magnitude, shows curative by stimulating bion tissue. When stimulating light power density is less than 0.001W/cm, the compounding speed of nucleic acid DNA is significantly increased. The growth rate of cell, activity of enzyme, content of hemoglobin and the growth of blood vessel, are all increased. However, it's key to control the dose of light. When the dose transcend some value, a inhibition will occur. The little dose of weak laser treatment can be accumulated with a parabolic characteristics, that is the weak laser generate bion response stengthening gradually versus time. Then it will weaken gradually after the peak. When the treatment duration is longer than a certain time, a inhibition also takes place. A suggested theraphy is characterized by little dose and short treatment course. In a conclusion, the yellow-green laser diode should be used for the treatment of amblyopia. The little dose and short treatment couse are to be adopted. Key words:treatment amblyopia laser diode

  4. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia.

  5. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

  6. Determinants of Compliance among Pediatric Amblyopia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    Given the recent focus on patient responsibility for health status and improvement, it is important to understand the dynamics involved in patient compliance to treatment regimens. The determinants of patching compliance among 30 pediatric amblyopia patients and their parents were investigated by means of parent, patient, and physician…

  7. Neuronal basis of amblyopia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigg John

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is an acquired defect in vision due to an abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of visual development. The neuronal basis of amblyopia is the study of the effects of "abnormal" environmental influences on the genetically programmed development of the visual processing system. Visual pathway development commences with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve. The process that guides these neurones initially to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and then onto the visual cortex is genetically programmed. Initially this process is influenced by spontaneously generated impulses and neurotrophic factors. Following birth, visual stimuli modify and refine the genetically programmed process. Exposure to the visual environment includes the risk of abnormal inputs. Abnormal stimuli disrupt the formation of patterned inputs allowing alteration of visual cortical wiring with reduction in ocular dominance columns driven by the abnormal eye. Correction of the abnormal visual input and penalisation of the "normal" input is the mainstay of therapy for amblyopia. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of a normal visual processing system will allow trialing therapies for amblyopia not responding to occlusion therapy. Levodopa is one agent providing insights into recovery of visual function for short periods in apparently mature visual systems.

  8. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2011-05-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  9. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308). PMID:27094069

  10. Rotterdam AMBlyopia screening effectiveness study: Detection and causes of amblyopia in a large birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Groenewoud (Hanny); A.M. Tjiam (Angela); V.K. Lantau (Kathleen); W.C. Hoogeveen; J.T.H.N. de Faber; R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Dutch population-based child health monitoring program includes regular preverbal (age range, 1-24 months) and preschool (age range, 36-72 months) vision screening. This study is on the contribution of an organized vision screening program to the detection of amblyopia. Meth

  11. Impaired visual decision-making in individuals with amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin, Faraz; Anthony M Norcia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of amblyopia on perceptual decision-making processes to determine the consequences of visual deprivation on development of higher-level cortical networks outside of visual cortex. A variant of the Eriksen flanker task was used to measure response time and accuracy for decisions made in the presence of response-selection conflict. Performance of adults with amblyopia was compared to that of neurotypical participants of the same age. Additionally, simple and choi...

  12. Is community screening for amblyopia possible, or appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, M. C.; Colville, D J; Oberklaid, F

    1995-01-01

    Photoscreeners are becoming increasingly available and are being widely used to screen for visual abnormalities in young children. However, consideration of accepted criteria for screening programs indicates there is still much further research that needs to be carried out before amblyopia screening could be recommended as a routine component of a community health surveillance program--an adequate description of the potential consequences of an individual developing amblyopia has yet to be pr...

  13. Pupillography of automated swinging flashlight test in amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Miki1, Atsuhiko Iijima2, Mineo Takagi1, Kiyoshi Yaoeda1, Tomoaki Usui1, Shigeru Hasegawa1, Haruki Abe1, Takehiko Bando21Department of Ophthalmology; 2Department of Physiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, JapanAbstract: Relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs in amblyopia have been reported, and it is widely accepted that amblyopes can have an RAPD. We investigated whether or not this could be confirmed by the use of binocular pupillography. We examined twelve patients (6 males and 6 females, aged 7–57 years with unilateral amblyopia associated with anisometropia and/or strabismus, using binocular infrared video pupillography (Newopto, Kawasaki, Japan. Eight normal subjects were also tested in the same manner. Two patients’ data had to be excluded because of poor recording quality. Only one patient with moderate anisometropic amblyopia was found to have reduced contraction amplitude in the amblyopic eye, and one patient with a borderline pupillary defect. The other amblyopes, some of whom showed even denser amblyopia, did not have a pupillary defect. This study has confirmed that only a small proportion of amblyopes have a reduced pupillary contraction amplitude in the affected eye, as established by pupillographic recordings, and even these amblyopes are not necessarily associated with dense amblyopia.Keywords: relative afferent pupillary defect, amblyopia, pupillography

  14. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  15. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail. PMID:24351514

  16. Integration of local motion is normal in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F.; Mansouri, Behzad; Dakin, Steven C.; Allen, Harriet A.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the global integration of local motion direction signals in amblyopia, in a task where performance is equated between normal and amblyopic eyes at the single element level. We use an equivalent noise model to derive the parameters of internal noise and number of samples, both of which we show are normal in amblyopia for this task. This result is in apparent conflict with a previous study in amblyopes showing that global motion processing is defective in global coherence tasks [Vision Res. 43, 729 (2003)]. A similar discrepancy between the normalcy of signal integration [Vision Res. 44, 2955 (2004)] and anomalous global coherence form processing has also been reported [Vision Res. 45, 449 (2005)]. We suggest that these discrepancies for form and motion processing in amblyopia point to a selective problem in separating signal from noise in the typical global coherence task.

  17. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-01-01

    Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  18. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  19. Repetitive Visual Stimulation Enhances Recovery from Severe Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montey, Karen L.; Eaton, Nicolette C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe amblyopia, characterized by a significant reduction in visual acuity through the affected eye, is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. We have previously shown that synaptic plasticity can be reactivated in the adult rat visual cortex by dark exposure, and the reactivated plasticity can be harnessed to promote the recovery from severe…

  20. Effects of different types of refractive errors on bilateral amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücella Arıkan Yorgun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Identifying effects of different types of refractiveerrors on final visual acuity and stereopsis levels inpatients with bilateral amblyopia.Materials and methods: Patients with bilateral amblyopialower than ≥1.5 D anisometropia were included. Thepatients were classified according to the level of sphericalequivalent (0-4 D and >4 D of hypermetropia, the levelof astigmatism (below and above 2D in positive cylinderand type of composed refractive error [ 4 D of hypermetropiaand 2 D of astigmatism (group III]. Initialand final binocular best corrected visual acuities (BCVAwere compared between groups.Results: The initial binocular BCVA levels were significantlylower in patients with > 4 D of hypermetropia(p=0.028, without correction after treatment (p=0.235.The initial binocular BCVA was not different betweenastigmatism groups, but final BCVA levels were significantlylower in 4-6D of astigmatism compared with 2-4D of astigmatism (p=0.001. During comparison of composedrefractive errors, only the initial binocular BCVAwas significantly lower in group I compared to group II(p=0.015. The final binocular BCVA levels were not differentbetween groups I and III (p>0.05.Conclusions: Although the initial BCVA is lower in patientswith higher levels of hypermetropia, the response ofpatients to treatment with glasses is good. The responseof patients with high levels of astigmatism seems to belimited. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 467-471Key words: Amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia, hypermetropia,refractive amblyopia, visual acuity

  1. Effective Detection and Treatment of Amblyopia: Addressing Noncompliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Tjiam (Angela)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmblyopia (a ‘lazy eye’) is commonly defined as a decrease in visual acuity (sight) in either or both eyes which persists after correction of the refractive error (by wearing glasses) and / or removal of any pathological obstacle to vision (Ansons et al. 2009). In the clinical setting am

  2. [Possibilities and limitations of amblyopia screening with auto-refractometers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrt, O

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is a frequent vision disorder with a prevalence of 3-6%, for which early treatment is more effective. More than half of the cases of amblyopia are due to refractive errors so that they are not obvious due to strabismus or other ocular abnormalities; therefore, examinations for early recognition are essential. Because no nationwide ophthalmological examination of infants with cycloplegia has been established in Germany, screening for refractive errors in the first 3 years of life could be very helpful. Only children with a very high risk of ametropia should be referred for a full ophthalmological and orthoptic assessment of cycloplegia in order to prevent excess prescription of eyeglasses. Mild amblyopia with a borderline refraction error can be more reliably detected with visual acuity tests at a later age of 3-4 years and still be treated successfully before entering school. Even with a good sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%, refraction screening with handheld binocular video refractometers has a positive predictive value of 30%, which should be considered acceptable; however, screening with refractometers alone is insufficient to detect all types of amblyopia. Cataracts can easily be detected in >95% of patients but microstrabismus sufficient reliability. If other risk factors, such as a negative Lang stereopsis test, ptosis, other ocular abnormalities, developmental delay or a positive family history are present, a full ophthalmological evaluation with cycloplegic refraction is necessary. PMID:27059984

  3. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R.; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-01-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement...

  4. Toric and toric multifocal IOLs in meridional amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kirithika; Muthusamy; Charles; Claoué

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Sir,M eridional amblyopia is sometimes put forward as a reason for not implanting Toric intraocular lenses(IOLs).It has been noted that patients with high levels of childhood astigmatism(>3 DC)can develop persistent orientation-dependent visual deficits despite optical correction.Studies by Mitchell et al[1]demonstrated that meridional visual deprivation during the critical period of visual development results in permanently reduced response to stimuli in those orientations.This phenomenon was termed

  5. Investigation of the effect of age of onset on amblyopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate if age of onset affects the pathogenesis of amblyopia. Amblyopic subjects were compared with normal controls. Strabismic amblyopes were assigned to early or late onset groups on the basis of detailed clinical history. Confirmatory histories were obtained from parents where possible. Contrast Sensitivity (CS) to a 3.2 cyc/deg (cpd) sinusoidal grating pattern was recorded. Monocular pattern appearance visual evoked potentials (VEP) at five contrast levels were...

  6. Study of the wavefront aberrations in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-fei; ZHOU Yue-hua; WANG Ning-li; ZHANG Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia.Methods The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data.Results Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z3-1-Z31), trefoil (Z3-3-Z33) and 4th order aberration (Z40); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z3-1) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z31). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17±0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11±0.13, P0.05).Conclusions Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.

  7. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current

  8. Treating amblyopia with liquid crystal glasses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Abraham; Raz, Judith; Benezra, Omry; Herzog, Rafi; Cohen, Evelyne; Karshai, Ilana; Benezra, David

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the use of liquid crystal glasses (LCG) for the treatment of amblyopia caused by refractive errors, strabismus, or both. METHODS. In this noncomparative, prospective, interventional case series, 28 children (age range, 4-7.8 years) with monocular amblyopia participated, of which 24 completed the study. In the LCG, the occluding and nonoccluding phases of the flicker were electronically set in all patients at a fixed rate. The rate was set so that accumulated occlusion was 5 hours during 8 hours' weartime. Occlusion was applied only to the good eye. All 24 children were followed up regularly for 9 months. Best corrected VA for distance and near, fixation patterns, and binocular function were measured. VA for distance was measured with the Snellen chart and for near with the Rossano/Weiss chart. RESULTS. Mean VA for distance at the end of the study (after 9 months) was 0.59 (SD, 0.16) compared with 0.27 (SD, 0.09) at the beginning (P compliance was defined as wearing the LCG for at least 8 hours per day.) Stereopsis at the end of treatment was good (better than 60 sec arc) in 21% of the children compared with 8% at the beginning. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS. The use of LCG in patients with amblyopia yielded an improvement in near and distance VA and in stereopsis. Treatment was well accepted by children and parents. PMID:20164454

  9. Dichoptic training improves contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P; Hess, Robert F; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Dichoptic training is designed to promote binocular vision in patients with amblyopia. Initial studies have found that the training effects transfer to both binocular (stereopsis) and monocular (recognition acuity) visual functions. The aim of this study was to assess whether dichoptic training effects also transfer to contrast sensitivity (CS) in adults with amblyopia. We analyzed CS data from 30 adults who had taken part in one of two previous dichoptic training studies and assessed whether the changes in CS exceeded the 95% confidence intervals for change based on test-retest data from a separate group of observers with amblyopia. CS was measured using Gabor patches (0.5, 3 and 10cpd) before and after 10days of dichoptic training. Training was delivered using a dichoptic video game viewed through video goggles (n=15) or on an iPod touch equipped with a lenticular overlay screen (n=15). In the iPod touch study, training was combined with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the visual cortex. We found that dichoptic training significantly improved CS across all spatial frequencies tested for both groups. These results suggest that dichoptic training modifies the sensitivity of the neural systems that underpin monocular CS. PMID:25676883

  10. Construct validation of the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) by factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); J. Felius (Joost); H. Kempen-du Saar (Hanneke); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Kelderman (Henk); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) was previously developed to assess quality of life (QoL) in amblyopia and/or strabismus patients. Here, factor analysis with Varimax rotation was employed to confirm that the questions of the A&SQ correlated to dimensions of q

  11. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.A. Rook (Caitlin); D.S. Nassif (Deborah); N.V. Piskun (Nadya); D.G. Hunter (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable

  12. Optimization of Visual Training for Full Recovery from Severe Amblyopia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicolette C.; Sheehan, Hanna Marie; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    The severe amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. Here we use a rodent model to show that recovery from deprivation amblyopia can be achieved in adults by a two-step sequence, involving enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex by dark exposure followed immediately by visual…

  13. The factors affecting amblyopia recurrence%弱视复发因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛; 郝玉星; 马艳玲

    2001-01-01

    了解弱视治愈远期疗效的影响因素。方法 对259例(448眼)基本治愈的弱视患者进行了3年以上的随访观察。经散瞳验光后证实视力下降至≤0.9时为弱视复发眼。结果 本组弱视复发率为29.24%。屈光参差性弱视和斜视性弱视的复发率明显高于屈光不正性弱视的复发率;弱视程度越重,复发率就越高;中心注视性弱视复发率低于旁中心注视性弱视复发率。结论 弱视复发率因弱视类型和弱视程度不同而异。随停止治疗的时间逐渐延长,弱视复发病例逐渐减少。对于易复发的弱视类型应进行重点监测。%Objective In this paper, factors affecting long term resultsamblyopia were reviewed. Methods The examination was done over three years for 259(448eyes) patients of amblyopia who have been cured basically. After cycloplegic optometry it is confirmed as recurrence of amblyopia when vision is reduced to ≤0.9. Results The ratio of amblyopia is recurrence 29.24% in this study. The recurrence ratio of anisometropic amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia is higher than that of ametropic amblyopia significantly. The more serious amblyopia occurs, the higher recurrence ratio occurs. Recurrence ratio of amblyopia of central fixation is lower than that of amblyopia of eccentric fixation. Conclusion There exists difference of recurrence ratio of amblyopia when there is difference of pattern of amblyopia or degree of amblyopia. The longer the time of cessation of treatment is, the less recurrence cases of amblyopia are observed. The amblyopia pattern of easy recurrence should be monitored especially.

  14. Clinical Course and Response to Therapy in Different Types of Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat Duman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to compare the demographic features, visual acuities before and after treatment, amblyopia and strabismus degrees and binocular visual functions in cases with anisometropic, strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Material and Method: The study included 50 anisometropic, 50 strabismic and 50 anisometropic and strabismic cases that were followed up with the diagnosis of amblyopia, in our clinic, between January 2007 - September 2010. Amblyopia criteria was defined as the best corrected visual acuity of ≤0.8 and at least 2 lines difference between the visual acuities of two eyes. Anisometropia was defined as ≥1D difference in the spherical and cylindrical value between two eyes. Results: The groups were statistically similar in means of age and sex distribution. Visual acuities in amblyopic eyes before and after treatment were also statistically similar. There were no significant difference between 3 groups in means of compliance to occlusion therapy. In anisometropic cases, anisometropic spherical values were found to have position correlation with amblyopia degree. In hypermetropic and myopic cases, a strong correlation was shown between anisometropia and amblyopia, especially in hypermetropic cases, amblyopia degree increased as the anisometropia increased. In all strabismus cases, a positive correlation between strabismus and amblyopia degrees was shown even though it was statistically insignificant. In strabismic cases, esotropia was significantly higher than exotropia. In anisometropia group, stereopsis and fusion was found to be preserved better in comparison to the strabismic cases. It was concluded that deviation had a more profound effect on binocular function loss than anisometropia. Discussion: We recommend to follow the hypermetropic anisometropic cases and especially cases with high degree strabismus and esotropia more closely. And also we emphasize that strabismus affects binocular function loss more than

  15. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  16. Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce eBonaccorsi; Nicoletta eBerardi; Alessandro eSale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1-5% of the total world population. Amblyopia usually derives from conditions of early functional imbalance between the two eyes, owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, and results in a pronounced reduction of visual acuity and severe deficits in contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. It is widely accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity...

  17. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  18. A case of Biateral Extensive Persistent Pupillary Membranes with Amblyopia and Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pupillary membrane represents a congenital remnant of the anterior tunica vasculosa lentis. It can be associated with other ocular pathologies. These membranes can cause deprivation or anisometropic amblyopia. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s age and the characteristics of the membranes. In this paper, we report the findings in a 21-year-old female patient with bilateral persistent pupillary membranes, amblyopia, and cataract. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 70-2

  19. A Limited Role for Suppression in the Central Field of Individuals with Strabismic Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan T Barrett; Panesar, Gurvinder K.; Scally, Andrew J.; Pacey, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although their eyes are pointing in different directions, people with long-standing strabismic amblyopia typically do not experience double-vision or indeed any visual symptoms arising from their condition. It is generally believed that the phenomenon of suppression plays a major role in dealing with the consequences of amblyopia and strabismus, by preventing images from the weaker/deviating eye from reaching conscious awareness. Suppression is thus a highly sophisticated coping m...

  20. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li; Ya Qi; Wei Shi; Yuan Wang; Wen Liu; Man Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I 2 test. Potent...

  1. Prolonged perceptual learning of positional acuity in adult amblyopia: perceptual template retuning dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-12-24

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is often successfully treated by patching the sound eye in infants and young children, but is generally considered to be untreatable in adults. However, a number of recent studies suggest that repetitive practice of a visual task using the amblyopic eye results in improved performance in both children and adults with amblyopia. These perceptual learning studies have used relatively brief periods of practice; however, clinical studies have shown that the time-constant for successful patching is long. The time-constant for perceptual learning in amblyopia is still unknown. Here we show that the time-constant for perceptual learning depends on the degree of amblyopia. Severe amblyopia requires >50 h (approximately equal to 35,000 trials) to reach plateau, yielding as much as a five-fold improvement in performance at a rate of approximately equal to 1.5%/h. There is significant transfer of learning from the amblyopic to the dominant eye, suggesting that the learning reflects alterations in higher decision stages of processing. Using a reverse correlation technique, we document, for the first time, a dynamic retuning of the amblyopic perceptual decision template and a substantial reduction in internal spatial distortion. These results show that the mature amblyopic brain is surprisingly malleable, and point to more intensive treatment methods for amblyopia.

  2. Biometric relationships of ocular components in esotropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Debert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of the individual ocular components, i.e. anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth, to total axial length in patients with esotropic amblyopia. METHODS: The study population consisted of 74 children, aged between 5 and 8 years: thirty-seven patients with esotropic amblyopia and 37 healthy volunteers (control group. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction and A-scan ultrasonography. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and total axial length were recorded. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare biometric measurements between amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes and between right and left eyes in the control group. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular components to the total axial length, we report the individual components as a percentage of total axial length. RESULTS: The comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes regarding the individual contribution from ocular components to the total axial length revealed greater contribution from lens thickness (P=0.001 and smaller contribution from vitreous chamber depth (P=0.001 in amblyopic eyes, despite similar contribution from anterior chamber depth (P=0.434. The comparison between right and left eyes in the control group showed similar contributions from anterior chamber depth (P=0.620, lens thickness (P=0.721, and vitreous chamber depth (P=0.483. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes when the total axial length is broken down into the individual contribution from the ocular components.

  3. 闪光ERG在儿童弱视诊断中的意义%Flash ERG Significance in the Youngster Amblyopia is Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安悦; 史惠琴; 胡甸萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective Probe into flash ERG significance at the diagnosis of youngster amblyopia. Methods ① In 63cases youngster 126 eyes are divided two group by correctional vision, amblyopia group and comparison group. The amblyopiamarkedness through amblyopia group photopia ERG and flicker ERG compare compalively group for the a - wave time, a -wave and b - wave swing with their difference value(P < 0.01 ). Condusion The photopia and flicker ERG may use index tothe amblyopia chargnosis and treat.

  4. 弱视的治疗进展%Progress of Treatment for Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倪(综述); 张黎(审校)

    2015-01-01

    弱视是眼科常见病,不仅使患儿视力低下,更重要的是会影响双眼视觉功能的发育,从而影响患儿立体视的建立。部分弱视经过及时适当的治疗是可逆的,其疗效与年龄等因素有密切关系。近年来,国内外在弱视的临床治疗方面取得了很大进展,治疗方法多种多样,主要包括屈光矫正、遮盖疗法、药物治疗、压抑疗法、手术治疗、知觉学习及综合治疗等。不同类型的弱视治疗方案的选择各有不同。%Amblyopia is common in department of ophthalmology .It leads to poor vision in children . What′s more,amblyopia seriously affects the visual development of binocular vision and stereoscopic vision . Some of the patients with amblyopia can improve their visual function if they are given proper treatment in time.The curative effect of amblyopia is closely related to the age.In recent years,considerable progress has been made in the treatment of amblyopia in China and abroad .There are varieties of treatment for amblyopia , such as refractive correction,occlusion therapy,drug therapy,suppression therapy,surgical treatment,percep-tual vision therapy and comprehensive treatment.And different types of amblyopia should choose different treatment.

  5. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF AMBLYOPIA IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharam S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is that condition in which there is deficiency of form or spatial vision sense resulting in the reduction of visual acuity of greater than two lines between the eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity below 6/9 either eye in Snellen's Vision Chart which cannot be corrected by refraction and cannot be attributed directly to the effect of any structural abnormality of the eye or the posterior visual pathway defects The aim of our study is to study the prevalence of amblyopia and different types of amblyopia in children between 6 – 14 years of age This prospective cross sectional study done in tertiary care centre over period of 2years. 2700 children were screened in this study out of which 54 children were found to be amblyopic. Children aged between 6 years and 14 years of age, with no previous history of strabismus surgery, with corrected or uncorrected refractive errors were included in study. RESULTS: Amblyopia was more common in male (63.79% than female children. It was lower in urban children (32.76% than in rural children (67.21%. This is because of the lack of awareness among the rural population to have regular eye check-ups. Monocular amblyopic 40(68.96% cases were common than binocular 18(21.04% cases. The most common cause of ambylopia in our study were anisometropic (36.20%, strabismic (25.86%, ametropic (12.06%, merdionic and visual deprivation (6.89%. Hypermetropia 18(46.15% was more common refractive error associated with amblyopia compared to myopia 10(25.64 and astigmatism 11(18.20%. In strabismic amblyopia (25.86%, exotropia 8 patients (53.33% are more frequent than esotropia 6 patients (40% and hypertropia 1patient (6.66 CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and treatment of ametropias can minimize permanent loss of vision by amblyopia. Those at greater risks are children of preschool and school going ages.

  6. 阿托品压抑疗法对儿童弱视的康复作用%Rehabilitation effect of atropine depre ssed therapy on amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳丽

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:The process of treating amblyopia is to create good development condictions for eyes of amblyopia so as to eyes of amblyopia and dominant eyes can grow successively. OBJECTIVE:To explore rehabilitation effect of Atropine depressed therapy on amblyopia of children.

  7. Utility analysis of disability caused by amblyopia and/or strabismus in a population-based, historic cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); H. Kempen-du Saar (Hanneke); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amblyopia (prevalence 3.4%) is in principle treatable, but approximately one quarter of children do not reach reading acuity in the amblyopic eye. Adults with persistent amblyopia and/or strabismus experience a decrease in quality of life. This was now quantified by patient-p

  8. Comparison of position discrimination in children with ametropic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia or strabismic amblyopia%屈光不正性、屈光参差性及斜视性弱视的位置辨别比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖信; 刘伟民; 王英; 赵武校; 阎丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distinction of position discrimination in children with ametropic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia or strabisraic amblyopia and the difference of position discrimination between the amblyopic eye and the fellow eye in monocular amblyopia. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine amblyopia (237 eyes) from the Guangxi Visual Science and Optometry Center were selected and divided into ametropic amblyopic group(40 cases,80 eyes) .strabismic amblyopic group(61 cases, 82 eyes) and anisometropic amblyopic group(38 cases,75 eyes). Of all the amblyopia were detected by position discrimination detective program and the result were ana- lyzed. Results Most of position discrimination in three groups were located from level 2 to level 4, and the median was level 3, there was no statistical difference in position discrimination in three groups(Hc =0.530,P>0.05). There was no statistical difference in position discrimination between the amblyopic eye and fellow eye in monocular am-blyopia( MH = 1.837 ,P > 0.05). There was also no statistical difference in position dis-crimination between the monocular amblyopic eye and binocular amblyopic eye( Z = -0.588 ,P > 0.05). Conclusion The position discrimination of children with ametropicamblyopia,anisometropic amblyopia or strabismic amblyopia has no difference. The po-sition discrimination of amblyopic eye is similar with that of fellow eye in monocularamblyopia,and the position discrimination of monocular amblyopic eye and binocular amblyopic eye is also similar.%目的 比较屈光不正性、屈光参差性及斜视性弱视患者的位置辨别功能差异以及单眼弱视双眼间位置辨别差异.方法 选取在广西视光中心就诊的139例(237眼)弱视患者,按弱视类型分为屈光不正性弱视组40例(80眼)、屈光参差性弱视组61例(82眼)、斜视性弱视组38例(75眼),检测3组弱视位置辨别功能并进行比较分析.结果 3组弱视位置辨别

  9. Higher order aberrations in amblyopic children and their role in refractory amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Dias-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have hypothesized that an unfavourable higher order aberrometric profile could act as an amblyogenic mechanism and may be responsible for some amblyopic cases that are refractory to conventional treatment or cases of “idiopathic” amblyopia. This study compared the aberrometric profile in amblyopic children to that of children with normal visual development and compared the aberrometric profile in corrected amblyopic eyes and refractory amblyopic eyes with that of healthy eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study with three groups of children – the CA group (22 eyes of 11 children with unilateral corrected amblyopia, the RA group (24 eyes of 13 children with unilateral refractory amblyopia and the C group (28 eyes of 14 children with normal visual development. Higher order aberrations were evaluated using an OPD-Scan III (NIDEK. Comparisons of the aberrometric profile were made between these groups as well as between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Results: Higher order aberrations with greater impact in visual quality were not significantly higher in the CA and RA groups when compared with the C group. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the higher order aberrometric profile between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Conclusions: Contrary to lower order aberrations (e.g., myopia, hyperopia, primary astigmatism, higher order aberrations do not seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia. Therefore, these are likely not the cause of most cases of refractory amblyopia.

  10. Global motion perception in children with amblyopia as a function of spatial and temporal stimulus parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Sum, Brian; Giaschi, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Global motion sensitivity in typically developing children depends on the spatial (Δx) and temporal (Δt) displacement parameters of the motion stimulus. Specifically, sensitivity for small Δx values matures at a later age, suggesting it may be the most vulnerable to damage by amblyopia. To explore this possibility, we compared motion coherence thresholds of children with amblyopia (7-14years old) to age-matched controls. Three Δx values were used with two Δt values, yielding six conditions covering a range of speeds (0.3-30deg/s). We predicted children with amblyopia would show normal coherence thresholds for the same parameters on which 5-year-olds previously demonstrated mature performance, and elevated coherence thresholds for parameters on which 5-year-olds demonstrated immaturities. Consistent with this, we found that children with amblyopia showed deficits with amblyopic eye viewing compared to controls for small and medium Δx values, regardless of Δt value. The fellow eye showed similar results at the smaller Δt. These results confirm that global motion perception in children with amblyopia is particularly deficient at the finer spatial scales that typically mature later in development. An additional implication is that carefully designed stimuli that are adequately sensitive must be used to assess global motion function in developmental disorders. Stimulus parameters for which performance matures early in life may not reveal global motion perception deficits. PMID:27426263

  11. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  12. Advantages, limitations, and diagnostic accuracy of photoscreeners in early detection of amblyopia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Irene; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Martin, Raul; de Juan, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia detection is important to ensure proper visual development and avoid permanent decrease of visual acuity. This condition does not produce symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose if a vision problem actually exists. However, because amblyopia treatment is limited by age, early diagnosis is of paramount relevance. Traditional vision screening (conducted in amblyopia detection are necessary. Handheld devices used for photoscreening or autorefraction could offer advantages to improve amblyopia screening because they reduce exploration time to just few seconds, no subject collaboration is needed, and they provide objective information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main functions and clinical applicability of commercially available devices for early detection of amblyopia and to describe their differences, advantages, and limitations. Although the studies reviewed are heterogeneous (due to wide differences in referral criteria, use of different risk factors, different types of samples studied, etc), these devices provide objective measures in a quick and objective way with a simple outcome report: retest, pass, or refer. However, due to major limitations, these devices are not recommended, and their use in clinical practice is limited. PMID:27555744

  13. Medical Therapies of Amblyopia: Translational Research to Expand Our Treatment Armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Charlotte; Wu, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental brain disorder in which vision is lost due to asymmetric or inadequate visual stimulation early in life. Although amblyopia is responsive to treatment if therapy is initiated early, treatment of older children and adults is usually unsuccessful due to closure of a window of cortical brain plasticity. Extensive basic research has been devoted to understanding modulators in shaping the visual cortex during the critical period of plasticity, and to providing potential clinical applications of neurotransmitters in the treatment of amblyopia. Current pharmacological treatments are reviewed from basic science research extending into clinical use, focusing on the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donezepil, serotonin receptor inhibitor fluoxetine, dopamine precursors carbidopa-levodopa, and catecholamine modulator citicoline. PMID:26959141

  14. The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Shin, Seung Ai; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12{+-}7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23{+-}2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further.

  15. Using Stereoscopic 3D Technologies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amblyopia in Children

    CERN Document Server

    Gargantini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The 3D4Amb project aims at developing a system based on the stereoscopic 3D techonlogy, like the NVIDIA 3D Vision, for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia in young children. It exploits the active shutter technology to provide binocular vision, i.e. to show different images to the amblyotic (or lazy) and the normal eye. It would allow easy diagnosis of amblyopia and its treatment by means of interactive games or other entertainment activities. It should not suffer from the compliance problems of the classical treatment, it is suitable to domestic use, and it could at least partially substitute occlusion or patching of the normal eye.

  16. Is Noncycloplegic Photorefraction Applicable for Screening Refractive Amblyopia Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the accuracy of noncycloplegic photorefraction (NCP with that of cycloplegic refraction (CR for detecting refractive amblyopia risk factors (RARFs and to determine cutoff points. Methods: In this diagnostic test study, right eyes of 185 children (aged 1 to 14 years first underwent NCP using the PlusoptiX SO4 photoscreener followed by CR. Based on CR results, hyperopia (≥ +3.5 D, myopia (≥ -3 D, astigmatism (≥ 1.5 D, and anisometropia (≥ 1.5 D were set as diagnostic criteria based on AAPOS guidelines. The difference in the detection of RARFs by the two methods was the main outcome measure. Results: RARFs were present in 57 (30.8% and 52 (28.1% of cases by CR and NCP, respectively, with an 89.7% agreement. In contrast to myopia and astigmatism, mean spherical power in hyperopic eyes was significantly different based on the two methods (P < 0.001, being higher with CR (+5.96 ± 2.13 D as compared to NCP (+2.37 ± 1.36 D. Considering CR as the gold standard, specificities for NCP exceeded 93% and sensitivities were also acceptable (≥ 83% for myopia and astigmatism. Nevertheless, sensitivity of NCP for detecting hyperopia was only 45.4%. Using a cutoff point of +1.87 D, instead of +3.5 D, for hyperopia, sensitivity of NCP was increased to 81.8% with specificity of 84%. Conclusion: NCP is a relatively accurate method for detecting RARFs in myopia and astigmatism. Using an alternative cutoff point in this study, NCP may be considered an acceptable device for detecting hyperopia as well.

  17. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I2 test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger’s test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12–1.93 times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66 times more likely to suffer from amblyopia and hyperopia, respectively, compared with children whose mother did not smoke, and the difference was significant. Significant heterogeneity was only found among studies involving the influence of maternal smoking on children’s refractive error (P<0.05; I2=69.9%. No potential publication bias was detected by Egger’s test. Conclusion. The meta-analysis suggests that maternal smoking is a risk factor for childhood hyperopia and amblyopia.

  18. The Rotterdam AMblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: RAMSES is a 7 year follow up study, aiming at the evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for amblyopia. In this first report, concerning the first 2 years of life, the compliance with the prevention programme and the positive predict

  19. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qi, Ya; Shi, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Wen; Hu, Man

    2016-01-01

    Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I (2) test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger's test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12-1.93) times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66) times more likely to suffer from amblyopia and hyperopia, respectively, compared with children whose mother did not smoke, and the difference was significant. Significant heterogeneity was only found among studies involving the influence of maternal smoking on children's refractive error (P amblyopia. PMID:27247800

  20. Analysis of retinal nerve fibre layer changes in anisometropic amblyopia by Heidelberg retina tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify if anisometropic amblyopia is associated with changes in optic disk morphology. Methods: The study comprised a total of 80 eyes recruited from Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad between May and October 2012. Anisometropic amblyopia was the only cause of disability (visual acuity >6/12) in amblyopic eyes whereas normal eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6 and no morbidities. Patients with other causes of amblyopia, co-morbid ocular diseases, and in whom a good-quality image could not be obtained were excluded. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was analysed using Heidelberg retina tomograph. Analysis of frequency distribution, probability and regression were run on the data collected during the study using SPSS version 15.0. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.85+-5.85 years. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness ranged between 0.09mm and 0.35 mm (mean: 0.23mm+-0.07) in amblyopic eyes, and between 0.18mm and 0.36mm (mean: 0.25mm+-0.05) in normal eyes. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.087). No association was found between the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness or the age and refractive error of patients. Conclusion: The optic disk does not appear to be the site of morphological changes in amblyopia. (author)

  1. A dichoptic custom-made action video game as a treatment for adult amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Huang, Samuel J; Zheng, Frank; Bayliss, Jessica; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have employed different experimental approaches to enhance visual function in adults with amblyopia including perceptual learning, videogame play, and dichoptic training. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel dichoptic action videogame combining all three approaches. This experimental intervention was compared to a conventional, yet unstudied method of supervised occlusion while watching movies. Adults with unilateral amblyopia were assigned to either play the dichoptic action game (n=23; 'game' group), or to watch movies monocularly while the fellow eye was patched (n=15; 'movies' group) for a total of 40hours. Following training, visual acuity (VA) improved on average by ≈0.14logMAR (≈28%) in the game group, with improvements noted in both anisometropic and strabismic patients. This improvement is similar to that obtained following perceptual learning, video game play or dichoptic training. Surprisingly, patients with anisometropic amblyopia in the movies group showed similar improvement, revealing a greater impact of supervised occlusion in adults than typically thought. Stereoacuity, reading speed, and contrast sensitivity improved more for game group participants compared with movies group participants. Most improvements were largely retained following a 2-month no-contact period. This novel video game, which combines action gaming, perceptual learning and dichoptic presentation, results in VA improvements equivalent to those previously documented with each of these techniques alone. Our game intervention led to greater improvement than control training in a variety of visual functions, thus suggesting that this approach has promise for the treatment of adult amblyopia. PMID:25917239

  2. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  3. Application of special computer programs for diagnostics and treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsiashvili, E

    2007-09-01

    Under amblyopia one ought to understand a variety by origin forms of reduction of vision the reason for which are functional disorders of the visual analyzer with no changes in the fundus of the eye and without any organic affections of the visual pathways and centers. At the present time, the pathophysiological mechanisms of amblyopia remain a puzzle. Diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia remains so far a topical problem in clinical ophthalmology. The objective of our investigation was to estimate functional state of the visual system and efficiency of treatment of amblyopia of varying degree by means of special computer programs. Clinical researches were based on the analysis of results of 317 patients (410 eyes) with anisometropic (120 patients-120 eyes), disbinocular (127 patients-150 eyes) and refractive (70 patients-140 eyes) amblyopias of different degrees at the age from 5 to 17 with visual acuity from 0.05 up to 0.5 on the amblyopic eye, with the symptoms of functional disturbance: decrease in achromatic and color spatial contrast sensitivity in the domain of high and middle frequencies; decrease in contrast sensitivity of on-off channels of the retinal cone system; normal sensitivity to saturated colors; decrease in color sensitivity to unsaturated, red and green colors; dramatic changes in color (red and green) sensitivity in the paracentral zone (5 degrees -10 degrees ) of the retina and 20 healthy children-40 eyes. In addition to routine ophthalmologic methods we also used the special computer programs for diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia: "ZEBRA"; "OFF-ON"; "eYe" ("Shooting-gallery", "Chase", "Crosses","Spiders"); "Contour"; "MEKO" ("KONSTR", "UFO", "SHOW"). Statistical analysis of results was performed with statistical method "ANOVA". Diagnostical computer methods enable quantitative estimation of the functional state of different channels of the visual system (based on the data of spatial contrast, light, color and contrast

  4. Application of special computer programs for diagnostics and treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsiashvili, E

    2007-09-01

    Under amblyopia one ought to understand a variety by origin forms of reduction of vision the reason for which are functional disorders of the visual analyzer with no changes in the fundus of the eye and without any organic affections of the visual pathways and centers. At the present time, the pathophysiological mechanisms of amblyopia remain a puzzle. Diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia remains so far a topical problem in clinical ophthalmology. The objective of our investigation was to estimate functional state of the visual system and efficiency of treatment of amblyopia of varying degree by means of special computer programs. Clinical researches were based on the analysis of results of 317 patients (410 eyes) with anisometropic (120 patients-120 eyes), disbinocular (127 patients-150 eyes) and refractive (70 patients-140 eyes) amblyopias of different degrees at the age from 5 to 17 with visual acuity from 0.05 up to 0.5 on the amblyopic eye, with the symptoms of functional disturbance: decrease in achromatic and color spatial contrast sensitivity in the domain of high and middle frequencies; decrease in contrast sensitivity of on-off channels of the retinal cone system; normal sensitivity to saturated colors; decrease in color sensitivity to unsaturated, red and green colors; dramatic changes in color (red and green) sensitivity in the paracentral zone (5 degrees -10 degrees ) of the retina and 20 healthy children-40 eyes. In addition to routine ophthalmologic methods we also used the special computer programs for diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia: "ZEBRA"; "OFF-ON"; "eYe" ("Shooting-gallery", "Chase", "Crosses","Spiders"); "Contour"; "MEKO" ("KONSTR", "UFO", "SHOW"). Statistical analysis of results was performed with statistical method "ANOVA". Diagnostical computer methods enable quantitative estimation of the functional state of different channels of the visual system (based on the data of spatial contrast, light, color and contrast

  5. A limited role for suppression in the central field of individuals with strabismic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T Barrett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although their eyes are pointing in different directions, people with long-standing strabismic amblyopia typically do not experience double-vision or indeed any visual symptoms arising from their condition. It is generally believed that the phenomenon of suppression plays a major role in dealing with the consequences of amblyopia and strabismus, by preventing images from the weaker/deviating eye from reaching conscious awareness. Suppression is thus a highly sophisticated coping mechanism. Although suppression has been studied for over 100 years the literature is equivocal in relation to the extent of the retina that is suppressed, though the method used to investigate suppression is crucial to the outcome. There is growing evidence that some measurement methods lead to artefactual claims that suppression exists when it does not. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Here we present the results of an experiment conducted with a new method to examine the prevalence, depth and extent of suppression in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia. Seven subjects (70% showed no evidence whatsoever for suppression and in the three individuals who did (30%, the depth and extent of suppression was small. CONCLUSIONS: Suppression may play a much smaller role in dealing with the negative consequences of strabismic amblyopia than previously thought. Whereas recent claims of this nature have been made only in those with micro-strabismus our results show extremely limited evidence for suppression across the central visual field in strabismic amblyopes more generally. Instead of suppressing the image from the weaker/deviating eye, we suggest the visual system of individuals with strabismic amblyopia may act to maximise the possibilities for binocular co-operation. This is consistent with recent evidence from strabismic and amblyopic individuals that their binocular mechanisms are intact, and that, just as in visual normals, performance with two eyes is better than

  6. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui; Zeng, Junwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR...

  7. Clinicians’ perspectives of health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aims or Purpose The health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been reported. However the clinician’s perspective has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment from a clinicians’ perspective. Methods Three focus group sessions were conducted with practising orthoptists. Thematic content analysis was undertaken, to identify HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment. Results Nine HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment were identified. These included adult quality of life issues; hospital appointments; appearance; glasses-wear; patching treatment; atropine treatment; limited activities; relationships within the family; and treatment compliance. Conclusions The HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment was similar to those identified in the literature. Participants acknowledged a change in societal attitudes towards glasses and patching; with glasses becoming more socially acceptable. Further research is needed to explore the exact impact of amblyopia and/or its treatment from both the child and the parental perspective. PMID:22022338

  8. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  9. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  10. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T.; Webb, Ben S.; Paul V. McGraw

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages ...

  11. A computer-based anaglyphic system for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegarpour A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Rastegarpour Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: Virtual reality (VR-based treatment has been introduced as a potential option for amblyopia management, presumably without involving the problems of occlusion and penalization, including variable and unsatisfactory outcomes, long duration of treatment, poor compliance, psychological impact, and complications. However, VR-based treatment is costly and not accessible for most children. This paper introduces a method that encompasses the advantages of VR-based treatment at a lower cost. Methods: The presented system consists of a pair of glasses with two color filters and software for use on a personal computer. The software is designed such that some active graphic components can only be seen by the amblyopic eye and are filtered out for the other eye. Some components would be seen by both to encourage fusion. The result is that the patient must use both eyes, and specifically the amblyopic eye, to play the games. Results: A prototype of the system, the ABG InSight, was found capable of successfully filtering out elements of a certain color and therefore, could prove to be a viable alternative to VR-based treatment for amblyopia. Conclusion: The anaglyphic system maintains most of the advantages of VR-based systems, but is less costly and highly accessible. It fulfills the means that VR-based systems are designed to achieve, and warrants further investigation. Keywords: amblyopia, computer-based, open source, virtual reality, color filters, 3-D

  12. Changes in visual evoked potential of children with amblyopia%弱视儿童视觉诱发电位改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬卉; 夏娟; 洪流

    2002-01-01

    @@ Amblyopia is common among children.Visual evoked potential(VEP) is a new approach for diagnosis and evaluation of amblyopia. VEP was examined using tessellation stimulation in our hospital since 1999.20 healthy children were selected as controls.Here is the report.

  13. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10, non-action videogame group (n = 3, and crossover control group (n = 7. Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%, positional acuity (16%, spatial attention (37%, and stereopsis (54%. Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy, we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7% and increased processing efficiency (33%. Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia

  14. 儿童弱视47例临床分析%Children amblyopia 47 cases of clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李六平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童弱视的规范化诊疗。方法对47例(84眼)弱视儿童阿托品散瞳验光,及时屈光矫正遮盖以及弱视训练等综合性治疗。结果47例(84眼)基本治愈70只眼(83.33%),进步14只眼(16.67%),总有效率100%。结论弱视儿童通过阿托品散瞳验光,配戴合适的眼镜,遮盖、弱视训练等综合疗法治疗,可以取得满意的效果。%Objective to explore the standardized diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia in children. Methods In 47 cases (84 eyes) of amblyopia children atropine mydriatic optometry, the comprehensive treatment such as cover and refractive amblyopia training in time. Results 47 cases (84 eyes) with basic cure 70 eyes (83.33%), 14 eyes (16.67%), progressive, total effective rate was 100%.conclusion Amblyopia children by atropine mydriatic optometry, wearing the right glasses, cover, amblyopia training, such as comprehensive therapy to treat, can obtain satisfactory results.

  15. 儿童近视性弱视的治疗进展%Treatment progress of children myopic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨蒙; 刘虎

    2015-01-01

    近视与近视性屈光参差导致的弱视治疗难度大,效果差,一直是弱视治疗的难点。角膜接触镜、角膜屈光手术、有晶状体眼人工晶状体植入术能够有效提高弱视眼的视力,为矫正近视性和近视性屈光参差性弱视提供新的方法。本文拟讨论以上各方法在近视性和近视性屈光参差性弱视治疗中的有效性和安全性。%The treatment of myopic amblyopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia is difficult and usually resultless and it has been the obstacle of amblyopic treatment. Corneal contact lens, corneal refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lens as new methods can significantly improve visual acuity of patients with high myopic amblopia and myopic anisometorpic ambyopia. For correcting myopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia it provides a new method. This paper discusses the availibility and safty of above methods for the treatment of myopic amblyopia and myopic anisometropic amblyopia.

  16. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  17. 儿童弱视综合治疗疗效观察%Observation on the comprehensive treatment for amblyopia in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步观察并讨论综合治疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效.方法 对128例弱视儿童(186眼),经戴镜、遮盖治疗、虚拟视觉弱视治疗系统及精细目力训练等弱视综合治疗3年,观察治疗效果及相关因素.结果 在128例患者中屈光不正性弱视的疗效最好,治愈率为85.29%,显著高于斜视性弱视(33.33%)和屈光参差性弱视(34.92%).轻度弱视的治愈率为90.90%,明显高于中度弱视(45.83%)和重度弱视(15.38%).中心注视的疗效明显优于旁中心注视的患者.结论 练合治疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效与弱视的类型、弱视的程度、注视性质有密切关系,弱视治疗的关键在于早诊断、早治疗.%OBJECTIVE To preliminary observe the efficacy of comprehensive treatment for amblyopia in Children. METHODS For 12S children with amblyopia, we conducted glasses, covering method, Virtual visual amblyopia cure system and accurate eyesight exercise for 3 years, and observed treatment effect and its related influence factors. RESULTS The effect of 128 patients with ametroic amblyopia showed good, and thecure rate was 85.29%, which was better than that of strabismus ambly-. opia (33.33%) and anisometropic amblyopia (34.92%). The cure rate for mild amblyopia was 90.90%, which was significantly higher than that of moderate amblyopia (45.83%) and serious amblyopia (15.38%) . The efficacy of central fixation was significantly better than the paracentral fixation. CONCLUSION The comprehensive treatment for amblyopia in Children has relationship between the type of amblyopia, serious of amblyopia and type of amblyopia, and the key factors for treatment of amblyopia should be early diagnozed and treated.

  18. 屈光不正性、屈光参差性及斜视性弱视儿童轮廓察觉比较%Comparison of contour integration among the children with ametropic amblyopia,anisometropic amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖信; 王英; 罗武强; 赵武校; 刘洪婷; 林泉; 刘伟民

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨屈光不正性、屈光参差性及斜视性弱视儿童轮廓察觉特征及三者之间的差异.方法:选取在广西视光中心就诊的139例(237眼)弱视患者,按弱视类型分为屈光不正性弱视组40例(80眼)、屈光参差性弱视组61例( 82眼)、斜视性弱视组38例(75眼),检测最佳矫正视力、轮廓察觉并对结果进行比较.结果:三组患儿弱视年龄构成无统计学差异(F =0.021,P=0.979),性别构成无统计学差异(x2=3.229,P=0.199),最佳矫正视力比较无统计学差异(F=1.697,P=0.185),等效球镜无统计学差异(F=0.545,P=0.580),说明三组基线一致.三组患儿弱视轮廓察觉检测结果均集中在3级及3级以下,三组轮廓察觉结果比较,差异无统计学意义(H.=4.416,P>0.05).结论:屈光不正性、屈光参差性及斜视性弱视儿童均存在轮廓察觉功能缺陷.%Objective: To explore the characteristics of contour integration in children with ametropic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia, compare the differences. Methods; 139 patients with amblyopia (237 eyes) were selected from Optom-etiy Center of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, then they were divided into ametropic amblyopia group (40 cases, 80 eyes) , strabismic amblyopia group (61 cases, 82 eyes) and anisometropic amblyopia group (38 cases, 75 eyes) according to the types of amblyopia, their best corrected visual acuity and contour integration were detected, and the results were compared. Results; There was no significant differ-ence in the proportions of age and gender of children among the three groups (F =0.021, P = 0.979 ) (x2 = 3. 229, P = 0. 199) . There was no significant difference in the best corrected visual acuity and spherical equivalent refraction of children among the three groups ( F = 1.697, P=0.185) (F =0.545, P =0.580) . The baselines of the three groups were the same. In the three groups, the detection results of contour integration of amblyopia were mainly at

  19. 儿童弱视治疗的疗效分析%Analysis of treatment in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 孙慧华; 唐根英; 钱洁民; 吴彤霞; 周绍荣

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨弱视治疗的疗效。方法 对239例456眼弱视患儿进行治疗,包括配戴合适眼镜、遮盖健眼或交替遮盖、穿针及闪烁弱视治疗仪的应用。结果 基本治愈为78.07%,进步为8.56%.其中轻度弱视的基本治愈率为90.52%,中度弱视为71.43%;重度弱视为35.71%;屈光不正性弱视为88.80%,屈光参差性弱视为67.24%,斜视性弱视为69.57%.结论 弱视治疗的疗效与弱视的类型、程度、年龄有密切关系。弱视程度越轻,开始治疗越早,疗效越好。各类型的弱视以屈光不正性疗效最好。%Objective To study efficiency on treatment ofamblyopia.Methods Two hundred and thirty-nine children 456 eyes with amblyopia were treated.Results 78.07% were cured and 8.56% appeared effective. The recovery rate of minimal degree of amblyopia was 90.52%, moderate degree was 71.43%, severe degree was 35.71%, ametropic amblyopia was 88.80%, anisometropic amblyopia was 67.24%, strabismic amblyopia was 69.57%.Conclusion The results of treatment are associated with age, degree, and types of amblyopia. The minimal degree and low age of amblyopia had the better effect and the ametropic amblyopia is the best in response to treatment.

  20. Clinicians' perspectives of health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims or Purpose: The health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been reported. However the clinician’s perspective has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment from a clinician’s perspective. Methods: Three focus group sessions were conducted with practising orthoptists. The transcripts were analysed using “Framework” analysis to identify HRQoL ...

  1. Relationship between monocularly deprivation and amblyopia rats and visual system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes of lateral geniculate body and visual cortex in monocular strabismus and form deprived amblyopic rat, and visual development plastic stage and visual plasticity in adult rats.Methods:A total of60SD rats ages13 d were randomly divided intoA, B,C three groups with20 in each group, groupA was set as the normal control group without any processing, groupB was strabismus amblyopic group, using the unilateral extraocular rectus resection to establish the strabismus amblyopia model, groupC was monocular form deprivation amblyopia group using unilateral eyelid edge resection+ lid suture.At visual developmental early phase(P25), meta phase(P35), late phase(P45) and adult phase(P120), the lateral geniculate body and visual cortex area17 of five rats in each group were exacted forC-fosImmunocytochemistry. Neuron morphological changes in lateral geniculate body and visual cortex was observed, the positive neurons differences ofC-fos expression induced by light stimulation was measured in each group, and the condition of radiation development ofP120 amblyopic adult rats was observed.Results:In groupsB andC,C-fos positive cells were significantly lower thanthe control group atP25(P0.05),C-fos protein positive cells level of groupB was significantly lower than that of groupA(P<0.05).The binoculusC-fos protein positive cells level of groupsB andC were significantly higher than that of control group atP35,P45 andP120 with statistically significant differences(P<0.05).Conclusions:The increasing ofC-fos expression in geniculate body and visual cortex neurons of adult amblyopia suggests the visual cortex neurons exist a certain degree of visual plasticity.

  2. Treatment effect of the amblyopia under different treatment environment%医院内外综合弱视治疗的效果观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包长娣; 严占红; 谢素珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare amblyopia treatment effect under different environments. Methods 35 amblyopia children were treated at home, while 35 amblyopia children were treated at hospital. Both accepted the same amblyopia treatment. Results The treatment environment had no statistically significant influence on the amblyopia treatment effect(P>0.05). Age, degree of amblyopia had statisti-cally significant influence on amblyopia treatment effect. Conclusion Amblyopia requires early diagnosis and early treatment. On the premise of treatment compliance, it's ok to treat amblyopia at home.%目的:比较不同环境下弱视治疗的效果。方法运用相同的弱视治疗方法,比较在医院内治疗的35例弱视儿童和在家庭中治疗的35例弱视儿童的治疗效果。结果治疗环境对弱视治疗效果的影响无统计学意义(P>0.05),但年龄、弱视程度对弱视治疗效果的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论弱视需早诊断、早治疗,在保证治疗依从性的情况下,医院内外对弱视治疗的效果基本相同。

  3. 学龄前儿童屈光不正性弱视治疗的临床观察%Clinical observation on treating preschoolers refractive amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨不同类型屈光矫正对学龄前弱视儿童治疗的临床观察.方法:对262例儿童弱视资料整理,屈光不正性弱视102例,屈光参差性弱视42例,斜视性弱视38例,所有儿童均采用散瞳后配戴矫正眼镜,3~6个月复查1次,根据视力、眼位、弱视类型等情况每半年到1年重新验光调整眼镜.结果:本组共262例,其中屈光参差性弱视基本治愈率38.78%,近视性弱视治愈率50.28%,散光性弱视和远视性弱视治愈率85.62%和87.38%.结论:不同类型的屈光矫正,治疗效果对弱视儿童疗效差异很大,与弱视的程度、配戴达到最佳视力的配镜度数有重要关系.%  Objective: To investigate the clinical observation of treating preschool children with amblyopia by different type of refractive. Methods: Sorted out 262 cases of children amblyopia information,102 cases of refractive amblyopia,42 cases of anisometropic amblyopia,38 cases of strabismic amblyopia, all children wear corrective glasses,3~6 months to review once, According to the vision, eye position, and the type of amblyopia, every six months to a year to re-optometry adjust glasses. Results:262 cases in the group, the anisometropic amblyopia basic cure rate was 38.78%,50.28% of the myopic amblyopia, the astigmatism, amblyopia and hyperopia amblyopia cure rate was 85.62% and 87.38%. Conclusion: The effect of different types of refractive and therapeutic on children with amblyopia great differences efficacy, that has important relationship between the degree of amblyopia and the best vision glasses degrees.

  4. Low energy He-Ne laser combined with the synthetic treatment amblyopia instrument in treating on eccentric fixation amblyopia%氦氖激光联合综合治疗仪治疗偏心注视性弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘冰心; 楼倚天; 周武英; 莫萍萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨氦氖激光联合后像法及广州视加弱视治疗仪治疗偏心注视性弱视的疗效分析.方法 对34例(56只眼)偏心注视弱视儿童进行氦氖激光联合后像法及广州视加弱视治疗仪治疗,其中男14例, 女20例,单眼弱视12例,其余22例为双眼弱视.年龄5~12岁,平均(8.18±1.85)岁.结果 34例(56只眼)弱视患者经第一疗程治疗后的治愈率为55.36%,第二疗程治疗后的治愈率为75.00%,第三疗程的治愈率达87.50%.结论 用氦氖激光联合后像法、广州视加弱视治疗仪治疗偏心注视性弱视的疗效肯定.较后像法联合遮盖,少数加用红色滤光片及光刷疗法(基本治愈率为37.72%),以及遮盖、增视疗法联合CAM疗法(基本治愈率为34.78%)治愈率提高,疗程缩短.%Objective To study the effects of the low energy He-Ne laser combined with the afterimage, synthetic treatment amblyopia instrument in treating on eccentric fixation amblyopia.Methods Thirty-four cases (56 eyes) with eccentric fixation amblyopia were treated with He-Ne laser,afterimage and synthetic treatment amblyopia instrument of Guang Zhou Shi Jia. Results The effect of the first in treatment was 55.36%,the effect of the second in treatment was 75.00%,and the third in treatment was 87.50%. Conclusions The effects of the low energy He-Ne laser combined with the afterimage,synthetic treatment amblyopia instrument of Guang Zhou Shi Jia in treating on eccentric fixation amblyopia is better than the effects of the afterimage,synthetic treatment amblyopia instrument.

  5. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  6. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCampana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period, several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS, was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat, Ma-Naim, Belkin & Sagi, 2004, here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.

  7. Predictors and a remedy for noncompliance with amblyopia therapy in children measured with the occlusion dose monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); M. Fronius; C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); M. Awan (Musarat); B. Simonsz-Tóth (Brigitte); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. Noncompliance is one of the limiting factors in the success of occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Electronic monitoring was used to investigate predictors of noncompliance, and, in a prospective randomized clinical trial, determined the effectiveness of an educational program. MET

  8. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on 20 amblyopic subjects (10 children and 10 adults), who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 h). Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, logMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean = 1.3 lines; range = 0-3.6 lines). We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings. PMID:25404922

  9. Perceptual learning reduces crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Webb, Ben S; Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V

    2012-01-11

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder of cortical origin, characterized by crowding and poor acuity in central vision of the affected eye. Crowding refers to the adverse effects of surrounding items on object identification, common only in normal peripheral but not central vision. We trained a group of adult human amblyopes on a crowded letter identification task to assess whether the crowding problem can be ameliorated. Letter size was fixed well above the acuity limit, and letter spacing was varied to obtain spacing thresholds for central target identification. Normally sighted observers practiced the same task in their lower peripheral visual field. Independent measures of acuity were taken in flanked and unflanked conditions before and after training to measure crowding ratios at three fixed letter separations. Practice improved the letter spacing thresholds of both groups on the training task, and crowding ratios were reduced after posttest. The reductions in crowding in amblyopes were associated with improvements in standard measures of visual acuity. Thus, perceptual learning reduced the deleterious effects of crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery. The results support the effectiveness of plasticity-based approaches for improving vision in adult amblyopes and suggest experience-dependent effects on the cortical substrates of crowding.

  10. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on 20 amblyopic subjects (10 children and 10 adults), who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 h). Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, logMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean = 1.3 lines; range = 0-3.6 lines). We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  11. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra eHussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on twenty amblyopic subjects (ten children and ten adults, who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 hours. Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, LogMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean: 1.3 lines; range: 0-3.6 lines. We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  12. Refractive state analysis of children hyperopic amblyopia%儿童远视性弱视与屈光状态的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云; 谭星平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨远视性弱视儿童远视度数与弱视、斜视的关系。方法对远视性弱视儿童300例(550眼)使用阿托品散瞳验光,检查结果进行统计学处理。结果远视性弱视儿童的远视度数由低至高依次为外斜视组、无斜视组、内斜视组。球镜度数越高,弱视程度越高,无斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视球镜度数高,差异有高度显著性,轻度弱视比中度弱视的柱镜度数高,差异有显著性;重度弱视只有1例。内斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视的球镜度数高,差异有高度显著性;重度弱视球镜度数比中度弱视低,与斜视和注视性质有关;外斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视球镜度数高,差异有显著性。结论远视性弱视儿童远视度数与弱视程度有一定关系,但重度弱视还与视觉抑制和中心旁注视关系更为紧密;中高度远视是内斜视的主要原因;远视散光是弱视的重要原因。%Objective Explore the relationship between the degree of hyperopia in children with amblyopia, and the status of amblyopia and strabismus. Methods Three hundreds and twelve children (550 eyes) with hyperopia amblyopia were checked their refraction error after using atropin ,and their refractive datum were analyzed by statistic method. Results In hyperopic amblyopic children, the group of exotropia had the lowest hyperopia degree, followed by the group without strabismus and esotropic group had the highest. The higher degree of spherical, the higher degree of amblyopia. In the esotropia group there are significant difference of spherical degree between moderate amblyopia and mild. But in severe amblyopia there were more close relationship with Properties of fixation than hyperopia degree. Spherical degree between patients with moderate amblyopia and mild amblyopia without strabismus has highly sig-nificant difference.Cylinder power in mild amblyopia is significant high than that in moderate

  13. Doctor'instruction combing family therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in 76 children%医生指导结合家庭疗法治疗儿童弱视76例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅文; 王鹤平

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Childhood is the key for children development and intelligence.Children amblyopia is common, multiple. Correction vision of singleeye or both eyes is below normal value, function of both eyes is notcomplete, fine 3D vision is deficient for amblyopia which will affecttheir job life and studying. Family therapy is an important part forvision protection in children. In this study, family therapy combiningdoctor's instruction was used to correct amblyopia.

  14. 综合疗法治疗儿童弱视188例疗效分析%Analysis in 188 cases of children amblyopia by combined therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜敏; 季元元

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效.方法对188例(280眼)弱视患儿进行戴镜、遮盖疗法、弱视训练及精细作业等弱视综合治疗,分别从弱视的类型、程度、初诊年龄和注视性质评价和疗效的关系.结果治疗总有效率为97.14%,基本治愈率为77.86%.其中屈光不正性弱视疗效最好,与屈光参差性、斜视性弱视比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).初诊年龄越小,疗效越好.3岁~6岁年龄组基本治愈率与7岁~9岁年龄组、10岁~12岁年龄组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).弱视程度越轻,疗效越好.轻度弱视与中度弱视、重度弱视比较差异均有显著性(P<0.01).中心注视性弱视基本治愈率和旁中心注视性弱视比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论综合疗法治疗儿童弱视疗效肯定,其疗效与弱视类型、程度、初诊年龄和注视性质等因素相关.%  Objective To research the effect of children amblyopia by applying combined therapy. Method 188 asthenopic children(280 eyes)were given combined therapy, such as wearing glasses, occlusion therapy, amblyopia curing training and overhaul, etc. The relation between the therapy response and amblyopia type, amblyopia level, the age of first visit to doctor or stare characteristic was evaluated respectively. Results The totally response rate was 97.14%. The basic cure probability was 77.86%. Among the 188 asthenopic children, the best response was ametroic amblyopia, the rate was 88.32%. Comparing with anisometropy and strabismic amblyopia, the difference was remarkable (P<0.01). However, the difference between anisometropy and strabismic amblyopia had no difference. The first visiting doctor earlier, the effect was better. The basic effect was variant according to age groups. Among 3-6 years old group, the response rate was 89.32%, among 7-9 years old group, the percentage was 75.63%, among 10-12 years old group the rate is 62.07%. The difference was significant

  15. Corneal refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lens for treatment of amblyopia caused by high myopia or anisometropia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunyu; Peng Xiujun; Fan Zhengjun; Yin Zhengqin

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review of literature was performed to compare various visual function parameters including the final visual acuity outcome and/or adverse events between corneal refractive surgery (CLRS) and phakic intraocular lens implantation (p-IOLi) in the treatment of refractive amblyopic children.Data sources Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed,EMBASE,and Controlled Trials Register databases for publications from 1991 to 2013.Study selection There were 25 articles,including 597 patients and 682 eyes,was included in CLRS group.Among them,21 articles reported the use of CLRS in the treatment of myopic anisometropia for 318 patients (13 photorefractive keratectomy or laser epithelial keratomileusis and eight laser in situ keratomileusis).And 11 articles had the results of CLRS in treating hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia children.Eleven articles reported the effect of p-IOLi for treating high myopia or anisometropic amblyopia,including 61 patients (75 eyes).Age,pre-and postoperation best-corrected vision acuity (BCVA),and spherical equivalent (SE) were compared in CLRS and p-IOLi groups.Results The average age of CLRS group and p-IOLi group has no statistically significant difference.The SE in CLRS group for myopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (-10.13±2.73) diopters (D) and for hyperopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (5.58±1.28) D.In p-IOLi group the SE was (-14.01±1.93) D.BCVA was improved significantly in both groups,and even better in p-IOLi group.Refractive errors were corrected in both groups,but there was no clinically significant difference in final SE between each group.More than one-half of the children had improved binocular fusion and stereopsis function in both groups.Conclusions Both CLRS group and p-IOLi group showed their advantage in treating refractive amblyopia in children.In comparing p-IOLi with CLRS for treatment of refractive amblyopia,no statistically significant difference in final BCVA was observed.

  16. Interactive stereo games to improve vision in children with amblyopia using dichoptic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M.; MacKeith, Daisy; Vivian, Anthony; Purdy, Jonathan H.; Fakis, Apostolos; Cobb, Sue V.; Hepburn, Trish; Eastgate, Richard M.; Gregson, Richard M.; Foss, Alexander J. E.

    2015-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common condition affecting 2% of all children and traditional treatment consists of either wearing a patch or penalisation. We have developed a treatment using stereo technology, not to provide a 3D image but to allow dichoptic stimulation. This involves presenting an image with the same background to both eyes but with features of interest removed from the image presented to the normal eye with the aim to preferentially stimulated visual development in the amblyopic, or lazy, eye. Our system, called I-BiT can use either a game or a video (DVD) source as input. Pilot studies show that this treatment is effective with short treatment times and has proceeded to randomised controlled clinical trial. The early indications are that the treatment has a high degree of acceptability and corresponding good compliance.

  17. Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.J. [Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Holliday, I.E.; Harding, G.F.A. [Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Psychology, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg{sup -1} using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson and Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg{sup -1}, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P<0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Prevalence of color vision deficiency and its correlation with amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhale Rajavi; Hamideh Sabbaghi; Ahmad Shojaei Baghini; Mehdi Yaseri; Koroush Sheibani; Ghazal Norouzi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of color vision deficiency (CVD) and its correlation with amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children. Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, 2160 children were selected from 36 primary schools; 60 students were from each school (10 students in each grade), with equal sex distribution. A complete eye examination including refraction using a photorefractometer, determination of visual acuity (VA) and color vision using a ...

  19. Efficacy of comprehensive treatment on amblyopia in 255 children%综合治疗儿童弱视255例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐星慧; 张武锋

    2015-01-01

    Abstract•AlM:To study the efficacy of comprehensive treatment on amblyopia in children.•METHODS: A total of 255 cases 386 eyes diagnosed as amblyopia were given refractive errors correction, multi-media training system, coveting treatment, CAM treatment and red light stimulation. The relationship of therapeutic effect with age, type and degree of amblyopia was analyzed.•RESULTS: The total effective rate was 94%, and total cure rate was 71%. Mild amblyopia, 3 ~ 6 years group, ametropia amblyopia had the highest cure rate.•CONCLUSlON: Efficacy of comprehensive treatment on amblyopia is certain, which is relation with age, type and degree of amblyopia.%目的:探讨综合治疗各种类型儿童弱视的疗效。方法:对确诊为弱视的患儿255例386眼,采用戴镜矫正、遮盖疗法、增视能训练系统、CAM训练、红光刺激等综合治疗。并对弱视的年龄、类型及弱视程度与疗效关系进行分析。结果:弱视治疗总有效率为94%,总治愈率为71%。轻度弱视、3~6岁年龄段和屈光不正性弱视治愈率最高。结论:综合治疗法对儿童弱视疗效确切,年龄、弱视类型及弱视程度对疗效影响显著。

  20. 中医治疗弱视的临床方法研究%TCM clinical treatment of amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱静

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research and Analysis on Chinese medicine treatment of amblyopia were.Methods The clinical data of 2013 in our hospital 23 cases of amblyopia, its review and analysis.Results after the timely diagnosis and careful treatment, 23 patients cured 21 cases, one case of basic recovery, progress in 1 case, 1 case is invalid.Conclusion Chinese medicine treatment of amblyopia is one effective way to treat the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practice.%目的:对弱视的中医治疗方法进行研究与分析.方法:选取2013年我院收治的23例弱视患者的临床资料,对其进行回顾与分析.结果:经过及时的诊断与精心治疗后,23例患者中,痊愈21例,基本痊愈1例,进步1例,无1例无效.结论:中医治疗弱视是切实有效的方法之一,可在临床推广中医的治疗优势.

  1. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system. Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Results: Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus, bilateral occipital gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus (clusters > 10). The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus, left precentral gyrus,and left superior frontal gyrus (clusters > 10). The white matter volume in bilateral optic radiation and internal capsule, especially right optic radiation, decreased significantly in patient group (clusters > 10 ). No white matter showed significantly increased volume in patient group. Conclusion: VBM can be used to investigate the changes of grey matter volume and white matter volume in the whole brain of anisometropic amblyopia children, it provides a method to illustrate the presumed neuro-mechanism from a morphologic point of view. (authors)

  2. The Therapeutic Effect of Bangerter Amblyopia Depressed Membrane for the Treatment of Anisometropia of Mild and Moderate Amblyopia%Bangerter弱视压抑膜在轻中度屈光参差中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋英

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较Bangerter弱视压抑膜及传统眼罩遮盖治疗轻、中度屈光参差的疗效.方法:收集2012年1月 -2013年1月就诊于大同市第五人民医院的轻、中度的单眼屈光参差性弱视患儿60例(60眼).恰当的屈光矫正后 ,随机分为2组:Ⅰ组为压抑膜+弱视仪器训练 ,Ⅱ组为传统的遮盖+弱视仪器训练.于开始治疗后的3个月、6个月、12个月进行随访.结果:3个月随访时 ,Ⅰ组与Ⅱ组的有效率无统计学意义(χ2 =0 .11 ,P>0 .05 );6个月随访时 ,Ⅰ组的有效率明显高于Ⅱ组 ,差别有统计学意义(χ2 =4 .29 ,P0 .11);followed up 6 months later ,the effectiveness of group Ⅰ was obviously higher than that of group Ⅱ , the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 4 .29 ,P< 0 .05);followed up 12 months later ,the effectiveness of group Ⅰ was obviously higher than that of group Ⅱ ,the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =4 .32 ,P<0 .05) , the compliance of two groups of patients had obvious difference (χ2 =6 .67 ,P<0 .05) ,and the amblyopia cure rate of group Ⅰ was higher than that of group Ⅱ (χ2 =5 .45 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion:(1)Long-term effect of depressed mem-brane treatment of amblyopia is superior to the traditional cover .(2)Amblyopia depressed membrane is helpful to im-prove patients'compliance .(3)With mild-to-moderate anisometropia amblyopia ,amblyopia depressed membrane treat-ment is a safe and effective method .

  3. 单眼弱视者的空间视觉缺损及其与弱视程度的相关性研究%Correlation between space visual defect of monocular amblyopia and the degree of amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 罗红

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究单眼弱视者的空间视觉缺损模式及其与弱视程度的相关性,探讨连续全遮盖治疗的临床效果。方法回顾性分析我院2011年8月至2014年4月期间,于我科治疗的65例单眼弱视患者的临床资料,均予以连续全遮盖方式治疗,疗程12周,通过治疗效果,对比患者治疗前后双眼的视力、视锐度、AULCSF (对比敏感度函数的曲线下面积)、Smax (峰值对比敏感度)、Frmax (Smax空间频率)、CutSF (截止空间频率),评价弱视程度对空间视觉缺损所产生的影响。结果经12周治疗后,患者患眼视力、AULCSF、CutSF与治疗前相比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。视锐度、AULCSF、Smax、Frmax、CutSF在患眼不同弱视程度下差异均有显著统计学意义(P0.05). Visual acuity, AULCSF, Smax, Frmax, CutSF had statistically sig-nificant difference between different degrees of amblyopia (P<0.01), and Smax, Frmax, CutSF decreased with the de-gree of amblyopia eyes increased. Conclusion In patients with monocular amblyopia, AULCSF, Smax, Frmax, CutSF show a trend of consistency with visual sharpness and space visual defects. If the space visual defects deterio-rate, the corresponding degree of amblyopia would get worse. If high frequency contrast and resolution are reduced, the risk of eye spatial frequency will also show low frequency offset. For monocular amblyopia, continuous full cover treatment can improve the visual to the high frequency resolution, and not reduce visual function of eye.

  4. 屈光不正性弱视相关因素临床分析%Clinical analysis of related factors of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 潘勇; 葛军; 郭翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the relevant factors affecting the treatment of various types of ametropia amblyopia in chileren. Methods We treat 336 children ( 568 eyes) with amblyopia for 1 to 4 years, and observe the correlation between the treatment effect and different factors. Results The amblyopia cure rate is higher in the 3 ~ 6 years old group (89.26%) and in the 7 ~ 10 years old group (74.57) than in the 11 ~ 13 years old group (52.17%). It is higher in the mild amblyopia group (91.23%), moderate amblyopia group (73.71%) than in the severe amblyopia group (47.06%). Among various types of ametropia amblyopia, it is higher in the hyperopia group (89.32%), astigmatism group (76.68%) than in the myopia group (48.48%).Conclusion Age, the degree of amblyopia, refraction category and other factors are closely related to the treatment of the ametropic amblyopia.%目的:观察相关因素对治疗儿童各类型屈光不正性弱视的影响。方法对336例儿童568眼弱视治疗1~4年,观察不同相关因素对疗效的影响。结果弱视治愈率:年龄3~6岁组(89.26%)、7~10岁组(74.57%),高于11~13岁组(52.17%)。轻度弱视组(91.23%)、中度弱视组(73.71%)高于重度弱视组(47.06%)。各类型屈光不正性弱视中远视弱视组(89.32%)、散光弱视组(76.68%)高于近视弱视组(48.48%)。结论治疗年龄、弱视的程度、屈光的类别等相关因素和屈光不正性弱视的疗效密切相关。

  5. 大龄儿童及青少年弱视的治疗%The treatment of Elder Children and teen - ager amblyopia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 董红

    2008-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the treatment effect of amblyiopia in Eider Children and teen -ager.Methods 77 cases (85eyes) with amblyopia ranged in age from 9 to 17 years in Elder Children and teen - ager were studied.They were treated with occlusion and penalization therapy combined with red scintillation et al.The mean follow - up time was26 months.Risults Among amblyopia of 85 eyes,45 eyes (52.94%)were cured,28eyes (32.94%)improved,12eyes(14.12 %) failed.According to age,amblyopia of 53 eyes from 9 aged to 12 aged,3 leyes(58.49%) were cured ; Amblyopia of 32 eyes from 13 aged to 17 aged,14 eyes (43.75%)were cured ,There w as no significant difference in recoveryrate among them.Analyzed further for amblyopia of 32 eyes from 13 aged to 17 aged,amblyopia therapy was concerned with different types of f ixation,amblyopia and different level of amblyopia.Conelusion Most of Elder Children and teen - agert amblyopia can get prospective results.%目的 探讨大龄儿童及青少年弱视治疗效果.方法 观察9~17岁的弱视77例85只眼.采用光学药物压抑疗法加遮盖疗法联合红光闪烁等综合治疗,平均随访26月.结果 85只弱视眼中治愈52.94%(45只眼),进步32.94%(28只眼),无效14.12%(12只眼);按年龄分组,9~12岁组53只眼,治愈31只眼(58.49%),13~17岁组32眼,治愈14只眼(43.75%),两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).对13~17组进一步分析,其疗效与注视性质,弱视类型,弱视程度有关.结论 大龄儿童及青少年弱视大部分是治疗有效的.

  6. Long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with high anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-ming; YAN Xiao-he; WANG Zheng; YANG Bin; CHEN Qi-wen; SU Jin-ai; YE Xue-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with anisometropic amblyopia are often noncompliant with traditional treatment including spectacules and contact lenses.This study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for children with high anisometropic amblyopia.Methods A retrospective analysis of 24 children with high unilateral anisometropic amblyopia,who underwent LASIK during the period between August 2000 and September 2005 in our hospital,was conducted.The mean age of these children was (7.4±1.9) years (range 5-14 years) and the mean follow-up period was (33.3±14.2) months (range 18.5-74.2 months).After LASIK,visual acuity,refraction and far or near stereoacuity were analyzed.Near stereoacuity was measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the pre-school random-dot stereogram,while far stereoacuity was measured by the synoptophore with Yan's random-dot stereogram.Results Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.06±0.05,while mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.43±0.33.Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.26±0.22,while mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.67±0.40.For patients with myopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (-8.01±2.70) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (-1.32±2.47) D.For patients with hyperopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (+7.35±1.55) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (+3.30±0.86) D.These results demonstrated that there was statistical difference in these parameters between preoperative and postoperative tests.At the last follow-up,20 patients had near stereoacuity,and the mean near stereoacuities measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the preschool random-dot stereogram were (149.00±152.93)" and (201.05±235.94)",respectively.In contrast,11 patients had far stereoacuity,and the mean far stereoacuity

  7. Screening for amblyopia among grade-1 students in primary school with uncorrected vision and stereopsis test in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shi-ming; LI Jin-ling; LI Si-yuan; LIU Luo-ru; WANG Yang; LI He

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis.This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.Methods By stratified cluster sampling,3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study.All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA,stereopsis test,cycloplegic refraction,best corrected VA (BCVA),cover test,and ocular movement examination.VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (IogMAR) chart.Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang Ⅱ stereo card and TNO test.Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 IogMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.Results Out of the 3112 eligible students,2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations.The average age of the students was (7.10±0.41) years.Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (IogMAR 0.1),high cutoff (IogMAR 0.0),and near VA (IogMAR 0.0),31.64%,73.18%,and 50.23% students were abnormal,respectively.Screened by stereopsis test,only 4.69% students were abnormal.Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist,61 students had amblyopia.The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%,100%,and 80.77%,respectively,whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%.Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.Conclusions Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity.Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  8. 弱视患者图形视网膜电图的分析%An analysis on the pattern electroretinogram of patients with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彩萍; 左同军; 戴翠萍; 袁孝如

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨弱视患者图形视网膜电图(PERG)的特征.方法 弱视患者24例,弱视眼28只,非弱视眼20只,分别进行PERG检测和分析.结果 与非弱视眼比较,弱视眼PERG的q波潜伏期明显延长(P<0.01),波幅降低(P<0.05),并有明显波型改变.结论 PERG检测对弱视的临床诊断和治疗具有一定的指导意义.%Objective To explore the features of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in the patients with amblyopia. Methods Of 24 patients with amblyopia, 28 eyes were amblyopia (group A) and 20 eyes were non-amblyopia(group B).which were analyzed with PERG. Results Compared with group B, the latency of q-wave of PERG was significantly prolonged (P<0. 01), amplitude was decreased(P<0. 05),and the waveform was remarkably changed in group A. Conclusion The PERG analysis may guide the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia.

  9. Perceptual learning for treating amblyopia in children based on activation of visual signal pathway Relationship of curative effects and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Liu; Jiang Shen; Jianzhong Huang; Yan Luo; Hongting Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods (such as occlusion therapy, fine manipulation, complementary, and alternative medicine) take effects slowly, are time and labor consuming, and have uncertain curative effects in the treatment of amblyopia. Perceptual learning, a new method for treating amblyopia, improves the ability to process signals from the cerebral optic nerve system by specific visual stimulation and visual learning, as well as activation of the visual signal pathway utilizing brain nervous system plasticity.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated and evaluated the curative effects of perceptual learning, which can directionally increase brain plasticity, on the treatment of amblyopia in children. The relationship between curative effect and time was also analyzed.DESIGN: A self-control experiment. SETTING: Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 125 amblyopic children (250 amblyopic eyes), 73 males, 52 females, averaging (6 ± 2) years of age, received treatment at the Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between September 2006 and February 2007 and were recruited for this study. All children presented with no structural disease of the eyeballs. Written informed consent for therapeutic regiments was obtained from each child's parent. The protocol received approval from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Visual function was tested with a perceptual learning system (Research Center for Human Health and Development of Sun Yat-sen University, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Medical Care Implement) for visual noise, position noise, contour discrimination, contrast sensitivity, grating stereogram, and random-dot fusion. These tests helped to evaluate the efficiency of visual information processing of these children, and to determine the degree of defects of the optic nerve cells and the connections of visual

  10. Research Analysis of Relevant Factors in Children's Amblyopia Treatment Effect%影响儿童弱视治疗效果相关因素研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林子丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence factors of children's amblyopia treatment effect.Methods During the period of May 2014 to February 2015,72 cases of amblyopia in children with a total of 122 eyes were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital,analysis of gender,age,type of amblyopia and the degree of amblyopia effect on the treatment effect.Results The main factors affecting children amblyopia treatment effect were: age,type of amblyopia and the degree of amblyopia,had nothing to do with children's gender(P>0.05).Conclusion The main factors influencing the treatment effect in amblyopia children is children's age,type of amblyopia and the degree of amblyopia,children with treatment of the earlier,treatment effect is better.%目的:对儿童弱视治疗效果的影响因素进行分析。方法选择2014年5月~2015年2月在我院接受治疗的72例弱视患儿共122只眼进行回顾性分析,分析性别、年龄、弱视类型以及弱视程度对治疗效果的影响。结果影响儿童弱视治疗效果的主要因素是:患儿年龄、弱视类型以及弱视程度,与患儿的性别无关(P>0.05)。结论影响弱视患儿治疗效果的主要因素是患儿的年龄、弱视的程度以及弱视类型,患儿接受治疗的时间越早,治疗效果就越好。

  11. Exploration on the indexes of taking off glasses after recovery in children with amblyopia%儿童弱视愈后脱镜指标的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪峰; 王恩荣; 廖美婷; 邢玉琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童弱视治愈后脱镜指标.方法:儿章弱视治愈后必须符合4项指标才能脱镜,脱镜后要继续追踪观察3年.结果:368例678眼的弱视儿童治愈后,经3~7年的治疗,有205例364眼脱镜,占治愈眼数的53.69%.其中轻度弱视脱镜244眼,高于中度(114眼)和重度(6眼);屈光不正性弱视脱镜305眼,屈光参差性29眼,斜视性30眼;单纯远视性弱视脱镜316眼,高于单纯远散(11眼)和复性远散(37眼);而单纯近视性弱视和单纯近散、复性近散性弱视均没能脱镜.弱视儿童初戴眼镜属低屈光度脱镜289眼,中度58眼,高度17眼.从就诊时的年龄上看3~8周岁者脱镜率高.结论:儿童弱视治愈后按照4项脱镜指标摘掉眼镜是可行的.在脱镜前一定要坚持治疗复诊,即使脱镜后也要坚持追踪观察,最好观察超过视力发育敏感期12周岁之后.%Objective: To explore the indexes of taking off glasses after recovery in children with amblyopia. Methods: The children with amblyopia could take off their glasses after recovery when they accorded with four indexes, and all the children were followed up for three years after taking off glasses. Results: 368 children (678 eyes) with amblyopia were selected, after treatment for 3 ~ 7 years, 205 children (364 eyes) took off glasses, accounting for 53.69%, including 244 eyes of mild amblyopia, the proportion was higher than those of middle amblyopia (114 eyes) and severe amblyopia (6 eyes) ; 305 eyes had ametropic amblyopia, 29 eyes had anisometropic amblyopia and 30 eyes had strabismic amblyopia; 316 eyes had simple hypermetropic amblyopia, the proportion was higher than those of simple hypermetropic astignatism ( 11 eyes) and complex astigmatism (37 eyes) ; the children with simple myopic amblyopia, simple myopic astigmatism and complex myopic astigmatism did not take off glasses; 289 eyes were low diopter, 58 eyes were middle diopter and 17 eyes were high diopter; the rate of taking

  12. Mechanism of Neurophysiological Treatment of Amblyopia Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Guangming Lu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ping Liang; Wenzhen Zhou; Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To research the mechanism of neurophysiological treatment of amblyopia by observing the visual cortex activation under rotating grating stimulus with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and identify the components of the activation.Methods: Nine healthy volunteers were examined using gradient-recalled echo and echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) pulse sequence performed at the 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. In the block designing, rotating grating, stationary grating and luminance were plotted as task states, stationary grating, luminance and darkness as control states, respectively. The tasks of stimuli included 6 steps. Imaging processing and statistical analysis were carried out off-line using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software in single-subject.Results: Some individual areas of visual cortex were activated by various stimuli information supplied by rotating grating. The strong activation in the middle of occipital lobe related to the stimuli of luminance, bilateral activation of Brodmann's 19th area related to visual motion perception, and the mild activation in the middle of occipital lobe related to form perception.Conclusion: The plotting of control state is important in bock design. The effective visual information of rotating grating includes components of luminance, visual motion perception and form perception. Functional MRI has potential as a tool for studying the physiological mechanism of visual cortex.

  13. A comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes in unilateral amblyopia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Syunsuke Araki,1 Atsushi Miki,1,2 Tsutomu Yamashita,1,2 Katsutoshi Goto,1,2 Kazuko Haruishi,1 Yoshiaki Ieki,1 Junichi Kiryu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan; 2Department of Sensory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Purpose: To compare the macular retinal thickness and characteristics of optic nerve head (ONH parameters in amblyopic and fellow eyes in patients with unilateral amblyopia.Patients and methods: A total of 21 patients with unilateral amblyopia (14 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, four patients with strabismic amblyopia, and three patients with both were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±3.5 years. The examined parameters included the mean macular (full, inner, and outer, ganglion cell complex and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thicknesses, and ONH parameters (rim volume, nerve head volume, cup volume, rim area, optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc area ratio.Results: The amblyopic eyes were significantly more hyperopic than the fellow eyes (P<0.001. Among the macular retinal thickness parameters, the cpRNFL thickness (P<0.01, macular full retinal thickness (3 mm region (P<0.01, and macular outer retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions (P<0.05 were significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes, while the ganglion cell complex thickness, macular full retinal thickness (1 mm region, and macular inner retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions were not significantly different. Among the ONH parameters, the rim area was significantly larger and the cup-to-disc area ratio was smaller in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes (P<0.05. None of the other ONH parameters were significantly different between the investigated eyes. The differences in the cpRNFL thickness and macular outer retinal thickness in the 1 mm

  14. The Survey of Amblyopia among Children Aged 3 ~ 6 Years Old in Kindergartens of Yinchuan%银川市幼儿园3~6岁儿童弱视现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何利东; 邓倩; 马雅玲; 张奇; 向伟; 王心凤; 付金京; 侯力华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemic status of amblyopia in children and the cause classification of amblyopia in Yinchuan.Methods using randomized clustering sampling,27 kindergarten in Yinchuan were selected from 126 and Lea visual acuity chart was used for children to make a general investigation of the visual acuity.The children whose visual were under 0.8 took the examination of pnotomerite, fundus oculi, the position of eye and optometry after cycloplegia by Atropine.Results Among 5108 children,there were 229 amblyopia children who accounted for 4.48%.No significant difference were found in amblyopia prevalence among different age groups.Of the total amblyopia, mild amblyopia( 178 eyes)had 53.13%, midrange amblyopia( 142 eyes) had 42.39% and severe amblyopia( 15 eyes) had 4.48%.there was significant difference in the amblyopia propotion of different level.Aetropia amblyopia( 135 eyes) accounted for 58.95%, anisometropic amblyopia ( 60children ) accounted for 26.20%, strabismic amblyopia ( 25 children ) accunted for 10.92%, form deprivation amblyopia(9 children) accunted for 3.93%.There was no difference in the amblyopia etiology of different age group.104 children were detected among 229 children with amblyopia for the first time, that accunted for 45.41%.46 cases had received regulate treatment among 125 children diagnosed with amblyopia and accunted for 36.8%.Conclusion Preschool period is the best treatment time for children with amblyopia.Vision screening and health education on eye health should be carried out in the kindergarten for early detection and early treatment of children with amblyopia.%目的 探讨银川市幼儿园儿童弱视患病现状及弱视病因分类.方法 对银川市126所幼儿园采用随机整群抽样的方法抽取27所幼儿园,采用Lea儿童图形视力表普查视力,对视力低于0.8的儿童进行眼前节、眼底及眼位的检查,再行阿托品睫状肌麻痹验光并将结果进行统计学

  15. Levodopa methyl ester increases nerve growth factor expression in visual cortex area 17 in a feline model of strabismic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwen Li; Xing Lin; Shijun Zhang; Rong Li; Weizhe Jiang; Renbin Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a feline model of strabismic amblyopia was established during a sensitive developmental period, and the influence of levodopa methyl ester and levodopa on nerve growth factor expression in the visual cortex (area 17) was compared. Pattern visual-evoked potential and immunohistochemistry results showed that levodopa methyl ester and levodopa treatment shortened P100 wave latency, increased P100 amplitude, and increased the number of endogenous nerve growth factor-positive cells in visual cortex levels. In particular, the effects of levodopa methyl ester were superior to levodopa treatment.

  16. The effect of treatment on different refractive amblyopia children%不同屈光状态弱视儿童治疗效果的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏飞; 肖瑛; 陈国玲; 侯静; 马广凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同屈光状态儿童弱视治疗的临床效果。方法回顾弱视儿童86例(150眼),其中远视性弱视77眼,近视性弱视38眼,混合散光性弱视35眼,比较评价三组治疗效果。结果远视性弱视组治愈68眼(88.3%),近视性弱视治愈24眼(63.2%),混合散光性弱视治愈11眼(31.5%),三组治愈率有明显差异,P<0.05。结论远视性弱视治疗效果明显好于近视性和混合散光性弱视。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of treatment on amblyopia children with different refractive states. Methods Total of 86 cases (150eyes) of amblyopia children, 77eyes with hyperopic amblyopia, 38 eyes with my-opic amblyopia and 35 eyes with mixed astigmatism amblyopia were treated and the effect were analyzed. Results 68 eyes (88.3%) of hyperopic amblyopia were cured, 24 eyes (63.2%) of myopic amblyopia were cured, 11 eyes (31.5%) of mixed astigmatism amblyopica were cured. There were significant difference of cured ratio among 3 groups, P<0.05. Conclusions The efficiency of treatment on hyperemia amblyopic is better than myopic amblyopia and mixed astigma-tism amblyopia.

  17. 弱视双眼三级视功能检查及其临床治疗意义研究%Study of amblyopia eyes triple visual function examination and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾堰平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the method of triple visual function examination for children amblyopia eyes and its clinical value for amblyopia treatment. Methods 52 cases (92 eyes) of amblyopia patients admitted to our hospital from June 2010 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. After triple visual function examination, according to children's age, type of amblyopia, degree of amblyopia and other factors, general treatment combined with triple visual function training were adopted to proceed amblyopia treatment. The clinical effects between different ages, amblyopia types, amblyopia degrees children were observed and compared. Results The total effective rate of amblyopia children aged 3 to 5 years old was significantly higher than other age groups (P < 0.05); the total effective rate of refractive amblyopia children was significantly better than children with strabismic amblyopia (P < 0.05); the lighter of the amblyopia degree, the better of the amblyopia efficacy, the total effective rate of the mild amblyopia children was significantly higher than the severe amblyopia children (P < 0.05). Conclusion Triple visual function examination has guiding significance in diagnosis and treatment of children with amblyopia, and the clinical effect of general treatment combined with triple visual function training in the treatment of amblyopia is good.%目的 探讨儿童弱视双眼三级视功能的检查方法及其对弱视治疗的临床意义.方法 回顾性分析我科2010年6月~2011年6月收治的弱视患儿52例(98眼),经双眼三级视功能检查后,根据患儿的年龄、弱视类型、弱视程度等因素,采取一般治疗方法结合三级视功能训练进行弱视治疗.观察不同年龄段、不同弱视类型、不同弱视程度患儿之间的疗效差异.结果 3~5岁弱视患儿总有效率明显高于其他年龄段的总有效率(P < 0.05);屈光性弱视患儿的痊愈率显著性优于斜视性弱视患儿的痊愈率(P < 0.05);弱

  18. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana T L Chung

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation. To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  19. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  20. Vision in Sight: The Relationships between Knowledge, Health Beliefs and Treatment Outcomes. The Case of Amblyopia. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, Dissertation No. 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goransson, Anne

    The research reported is an experimental study on the effects of intensified education of Swedish parents of children with amblyopia (dimness of sight without apparent organic defect) on their understanding of the nature of the disease, its origins, and treatment. Parents in the control group (n=60) were exposed to the ordinary information…

  1. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values of Snellen Chart Compared to the Diagnostic Test in Amblyopia Screening Program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rivakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amblyopia is a leading cause of visual impairment in both childhood and adult populations. Our aim in this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of the amblyopia screening program in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on a randomly selected sample of 4,636 Iranian children who were referred to screening program in 2013 were participated in validity study, too. From each provinces the major city were selected. Screening and diagnostic tests were done by instructors in first stage and optometrists in second stage, respectively. Finally data were analyzed by Stata version 13. Results The sensitivity was ranged from 74% to 100% among the various provinces such that Fars and Ardabil province had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The pattern of specificity was differ and ranged 44% to 84% among the provinces; Hormozgan and Fars had maximum and minimum values, respectively. The positive predictive value was also ranged from 35% to %81 which was assigned to Khuzestan and Ardabil provinces, respectively. The range of Negative Predictive value was 61% to 100% which was belonged to Ardabil and Fars provinces. Conclusion The total sensitivity (89% and negative predictive values (93% of screening test among children aged 3-6 years is acceptable, but only 51% of children refereed to second stage are true positive and this imposes considerable cost to health system.

  2. "A retrospective cohort study for prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance in anisometropic amblyopia.".

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    Singh Vinita

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 50 anisometropic amblyopes, between the ages of 2.5 to 10 years, was studied retrospectively to assess the prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance. There is ample evidence in the literature for a significantly lower accommodative response in the anisometropic amblyopic eye. It has been proposed that the efferent accommodative dysfunction may be a fundamental and causative factor in anisometropic amblyopia. A reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance was found in 17 [34%] patients and in 11 out of these the near vision improved after an addition of +3.0D sph. When a reduced visual acuity for near, was obtained it was difficult to determine whether the visual afferent system (due to insufficient visual input, or the accommodation efferent mechanism was responsible. However an improvement in corrected near vision by addition of +3.0D sph. suggested an accommodative dysfunction. In patients with reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance, not only was the final visual outcome poor but also the onset of visual improvement in response to amblyopia therapy was delayed.

  3. TELEMEDICINE FOR AMBLYOPIA TREATMENT BASED ON INTERNET%基于Internet的远程弱视医疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项阳; 顾其威

    2003-01-01

    Amblyopia is a common eye disease caught by many children. For some reason, the traditional treating method is unsatisfactory and ineffective. By connecting home and hospital through Internet, patients can receive service of treatment designed for their own purpose. Thus the effectiveness of therapy is expected to have sigificent improvment. A new Internet-based telemedicine system for amblyopia is put forward in this paper with further discussions of its principles, framework and implementation methods.%弱视是一种常见的疾病,通常在幼儿期间发病.由于多种原因,传统的弱视治疗手段效果不够理想.通过使用Internet将家庭和医院连接起来,病人能够获得具有个性化的治疗服务.因此,治疗效果有望得到明显提高.本文论述了基于Internet的远程弱视医疗系统的原理、框架及实现技术.

  4. 77例儿童弱视综合治疗疗效观察%Observation of combined treatment efficacy on77 cases of amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖莺; 曾旭辉; 李阳永

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the method and curative effect of the different nature and the various types of amblyopia in children.Methods Classify 77 cases of 1 42 visually-impaired children by age,degree and amblyopia type,and use correction of refractive errors,multi-media training system,covering treatment of amblyopia,etc.Resuits Total cure rate was 58%,and the total effective rate was 89%.The total cure rate of amblyopia was 60%,higher than the total cure rate of the strabismic amblyopia (45%) and the total cure rate of anisometropic amblyopia (59%).The younger patient was,the more light,the better the treatment effect.Conclusions According to the nature and type of children with amblyopia,using wearing glasses,multi-media training system,coveting treatments,the curative effect of the comprehensive treatment is certain.%目的 探讨不同性质各类型儿童弱视的治疗方法和疗效.方法 对77例142只眼弱视儿童,分别按年龄、程度、弱视类型予以分类,并采用矫正屈光不正、增视能多媒体训练系统,遮盖疗法等综合弱视治疗.结果 总治愈率为58%,总有效率为89%.屈光不正性弱视总治愈率为60%,高于斜视性弱视治愈率(45%)和屈光参差性弱视总治愈率(59%).年龄越小,程度越轻,治疗效果越好.结论 根据弱视儿童性质及类型,采用戴镜,增视能多媒体训练系统,遮盖疗法等进行综合治疗,疗效确切.

  5. Clinical effect of comprehensive therapy on amblyopia in 45 cases of elder children%45例大龄儿童弱视治疗疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨对大龄弱视患儿综合治疗的临床效果。方法随机选取本院2011年收治大龄弱视患儿45例,应用综合疗法进行治疗,对其临床资料回顾性分析,归纳治疗效果。结果治疗总有效率为81.7%(49/60);不同类型的弱视患儿,其临床治疗效果之间不存在显著差异性,对比无统计学意义(P>0.05);弱视程度不同的患儿,其临床治疗效果存在显著差异性(P<0.05),提示弱视程度越轻的患儿其临床疗效越是明显;非中心注视患儿其临床疗效明显高于中心注视弱视患儿,对比存在显著差异性,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对大龄弱视患儿应用综合治疗方法能够取得令人满意的临床疗效,其中弱视程度以及是否为中心注视类型弱视,对临床疗效产生较为明显的影响。%Objetive To investigate the clinical effects of treatment for amblyopia in elder children.Methods A total of 45 cases (60 eyes) of amblyopia were recruited and then treated with the comprehensive therapy methods in our hospital. Results The effective rate was about 81.7% (49/60). There were no significant differences between that of different types of amblyopia (P > 0.05). The therapeutic efficacy of mild-moderate amblyopia was better than that of severe amblyopia. After the treatment, vision of patients with maculalutea central fixation is better than that of paracentral fixation. Conclusion The comprehensive therapy method for amblyopia in elder children was effective. The degrees and properties of fixation were the main factors, which may affect the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment ofolder children's amblyopia with comprehensive therapy methods.

  6. Terapia oclusiva em ambliopia: fatores prognósticos Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: factors that influence the outcome

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    Ana Carolina Fava Salata

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Ambliopia é o defeito visual mais comum em crianças e por mais de 250 anos a terapia oclusiva vem sendo o melhor tratamento. Sendo assim, propusemo-nos a determinar os fatores que influenciam no sucesso do tratamento da ambliopia por terapia oclusiva em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com 169 crianças amblíopes atendidas no Ambulatório de Ambliopia do Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP, Campinas (SP, entre janeiro de 1996 e maio de 1998. A população atendida foi classificada quanto ao sexo, idade de início do tratamento por faixa etária (3 grupos, olho afetado, tipo de ambliopia (estrabísmica, anisometrópica, por deprivação, associação de dois tipos, tempo de seguimento, gravidade da ambliopia (leve, moderada, grave, adesão ao tratamento (regular, irregular e resposta obtida (cura, melhora, sem cura. Resultados: A adesão ao tratamento não diferiu entre as faixas etárias (p=0,68 e não foi influenciada pela gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,82. Dos pacientes estudados 52,67% curaram-se, 19,52% melhoraram e 27,81% não obtiveram cura. Os pacientes com adesão regular tiveram índice de cura significativamente maior do que os pacientes com adesão irregular (p=0,0009. O resultado do tratamento não dependeu da idade de início do mesmo (p=0,39 e da gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,30. Conclusão: Concluímos, assim, que, no nosso grupo de estudo, a adesão é o principal fator prognóstico no sucesso da terapia oclusiva.Purpose: Amblyopia is the most common form of visual problem in children and for more than 250 years occlusion therapy is the standard treatment. Thus our purpose is to identify the factors that influence the outcome of amblyopia treatment with occlusion therapy. Methods: We reviewed 169 amblyopic children seen in the outpatient clinic of amblyopia of the Campinas State University, between January 1996 and May 1998. Patients were analyzed regar-ding sex, age at start of treatment (3

  7. The common eye diseases of misdiagnosis amblyopia and clinical analysis%误诊为弱视的常见眼病及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾惠莉; 来小丽; 邓宏伟; 刘春民; 宋桂婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the common eye diseases of misdiagnosis amblyopia and clinical characters in order to improve the level of diagnosis.Methods Thirty-seven patients with misdiagnosis amblyopia were prospectively analyzed.By routine and special ophthalmologic examinations,misdiagnosis amblyopia was diagnosed other organic eye disease.Results Eye disease types with misdiagnosis amblyopia had retinal disease 19 cases (51.35%),lens disorder 3 cases (8.11%),intracalvarium disease 1 case (2.70%),hysteria 2 cases (5.41%),and optometry 12 cases (32.43%).Conclusions Amblyopia can be correctly diagnosed by rulling out organic eye diseases and according to the amblyopic diagnosis of different age children.%目的 探讨误诊为弱视的常见眼病及临床特征以提高诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析37例误诊为弱视的患者,经眼科常规及辅助检查而确诊其眼病.结果 误诊为弱视的眼病类型:眼底病19例(51.35%),晶状体异常3例(8.11%),颅内病变l例(2.70%),癔病2例(5.41%),屈光不正12例(32.43%).结论 弱视应在排除器质性眼病的同时结合不同年龄段儿童弱视诊断标准进行正确的诊断.

  8. Binocular summation and other forms of non-dominant eye contribution in individuals with strabismic amblyopia during habitual viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T Barrett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults with amblyopia ('lazy eye', long-standing strabismus (ocular misalignment or both typically do not experience visual symptoms because the signal from weaker eye is given less weight than the signal from its fellow. Here we examine the contribution of the weaker eye of individuals with strabismus and amblyopia with both eyes open and with the deviating eye in its anomalous motor position. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The task consisted of a blue-on-yellow detection task along a horizontal line across the central 50 degrees of the visual field. We compare the results obtained in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia with ten visual normals. At each field location in each participant, we examined how the sensitivity exhibited under binocular conditions compared with sensitivity from four predictions, (i a model of binocular summation, (ii the average of the monocular sensitivities, (iii dominant-eye sensitivity or (iv non-dominant-eye sensitivity. The proportion of field locations for which the binocular summation model provided the best description of binocular sensitivity was similar in normals (50.6% and amblyopes (48.2%. Average monocular sensitivity matched binocular sensitivity in 14.1% of amblyopes' field locations compared to 8.8% of normals'. Dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 27.1% of field locations in amblyopes but 21.2% in normals. Non-dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 10.6% of field locations in amblyopes but 19.4% in normals. Binocular summation provided the best description of the sensitivity profile in 6/10 amblyopes compared to 7/10 of normals. In three amblyopes, dominant-eye sensitivity most closely reflected binocular sensitivity (compared to two normals and in the remaining amblyope, binocular sensitivity approximated to an average of the monocular sensitivities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a strong positive contribution in habitual viewing from the non-dominant eye in

  9. Efficacy of strengthened afterimage therapy of comprehensive treatment of 488 cases of children's amblyopia%强化后像综合疗法治疗儿童弱视488例观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑树锋; 李武军

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of strengthened afterimage therapy as comprehensive treatment in children's amblyopia. Methods A total of 488 cases diagnosed as visually impaired in 598 out-patient pediatric patients, according to the different causes of amblyopia, were given to strengthen afterimage therapy as the main comprehensive treatment for amblyopia age, amblyopia type, degree of amblyopia,amblyopia the nature of the as well as the efficacy of amblyopia treatment time and the relationship between the respective analysis. Results By strengthened afterimage therapy as the main comprehensive treatment, followed-up of 1-2 years, 488 cases of 598 eyes: Basic cured 378, valid 170 and invalid 50. The total effective treatment of amblyopia 91.64%, of which 63.21% cure rate, progressive 28.43%, invalid 8.36%, 3-6 year age group, ametropia amblyopia, mild amblyopia, central monitor the treatment of the highest cure rate, treatment time, adhere to the longer the treatment the better. Conclusions The efficacy ofamblyopia and the children's age, the type of amblyopia, amblyopia nature, extent and amblyopia, amblyopia treatment time is closely related to, and strengthened afterimage therapy as comprehensive treatment with amblyopia therapy curative effect is significant, worthy to be popularized.%目的 探讨强化后像综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效.方法 对确诊为弱视的488例598只眼门诊儿童患者,按不同原因引起的弱视,分别给予以强化后像为主的综合治疗,对弱视的年龄、弱视的类型、弱视的程度、弱视的性质以及弱视治疗的时间与疗效的关系分别进行分析.结果 通过强化后 像为主的综合治疗,随访1-2年,488例598只眼:基本治愈378只眼,有效170只眼,无效50只眼.弱视治疗的总有效率91.64%,其中治愈率63.21%,进步28.43,无效8.36%,3~6岁年龄组、屈光不正性弱视、轻度弱视、中心性注视治疗治愈率最高,治疗时间坚持越

  10. Analysis of pattern visual evoked potential waveforms for different kinds of amblyopia%不同类型弱视的图形视觉诱发电位波形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 孟晓红; 王敏; 余延基

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) waves of four kinds of amblyopia what are anisometropic amblyopia,ametropic amblyopia,strabismic amblyopia and high myopia with amblyopia.Methods PVEP waves of 40 asthenopic eyes were respectively analyzed and the amplitude of P100 waves and latencies were observed.Results Amplitude of P100 waves decreased obviously in each types of amblyopia.No direct correlations existed between the decrease of P100 amplitude and the visual acuity in the anisometropic amblyopia.The ametropic amblyopia,anisometropic amblyopia,strabismic amblyopia and high myopia with amblyopia were ordered according to the length of latency time.Conclusion The nerve conduction velocity is delayed in all types of amblyopia.There is less prolongation of P100 latency time in anisometropic amblyopia and ametropic amblyopia than that in optic neuritis,so it can distinguish the amblyopia from the optic neuritis.%目的 分析屈光参差性弱视眼、屈光不正性弱视眼、斜视性弱视眼、高度近视伴弱视眼的图形视觉诱发电位(PVEP)波形特性.方法 回顾性分析40例不同类型弱视眼的PVEP检查结果,观察P100波幅值及潜伏期的特点.结果 几种弱视眼的P100波幅值降低无明显规律,且屈光参差性弱视眼中P100波幅值降低程度与视力的降低程度无明显关系.潜伏期有一定程度延迟,按照由短到长的顺序排列为屈光不正性弱视、屈光参差性弱视、斜视性弱视、高度近视伴弱视.结论 弱视眼神经传导速度均有一定程度的变慢,按传导速度由快到慢的顺序排列为屈光不正性弱视、屈光参差性弱视、斜视性弱视、高度近视伴弱视.因单纯屈光不正性、屈光参差性弱视眼的潜伏期延迟较少,而球后视神经炎的P100波潜伏期延迟明显,可以作为鉴别诊断的参考.

  11. Clinical efficacy of visual perception learning in treatment of children with anisometropic amblyopia%视知觉学习治疗儿童屈光参差性弱视的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖信; 刘伟民; 林泉; 赵武校; 王英

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨视知觉学习疗法治疗4-8岁儿童屈光参差性弱视的临床疗效及其影响因素.方法:运用视知觉学习疗法对169例(266眼)4~8岁儿童屈光参差性弱视进行治疗,双眼视力相差两行者辅以遮盖疗法,观察治疗效果及其相关因素.结果:视知觉学习治疗对4~8岁儿童弱视的治愈率为67.7%,总有效率为87.6%;4~8岁各年龄疗效之间差异尤统计学意义(P>0.05),但治愈率有随年龄增长而下降的趋势;混合散光型弱视疗效最好,其次为远视性,而近视性弱视最差;轻度弱视疗效最好.中度弱视次之,重度弱视最差;双眼性屈光参差弱视疗效优于单眼弱视型屈光参差患者.结论:视知觉学习治疗4~8岁儿奄屈光参差性弱视疗效好,治疗年龄、屈光类型、弱视程度、是否双眼弱视是视知觉学习治疗疗效的影响因素,建议弱视儿童应尽早发现、尽早治疗.%Objective: To explore the clinic efficacy of visual perception learning in treatment of children aged 4 ~ 8 years old with anisometropic amblyopia and its effect factors. Methods: 169 children (266 eyes) aged 4 ~ 8 years old with anisometropic amblyopia were treated with visual perception learning, the children with difference of binocular visual acuity less than two lines were treated with occlusive therapy, the clinical efficacy and related factors were observed. Results: The curative rate and total effective rate of visual perception learning in children aged 4 ~ 8 years old with anisometropic amblyopia were 67. 7% and 87.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference among different age groups ( P > 0. 05 ), but the curative rate showed a downward trend with increasing age. The clinical efficacy of mixed astigmatism type amblyopia was the best, followed by hyperopic amblyopia, the clinical efficacy of myopic amblyopia was the worst; the clinical efficacy of mild amblyopia was the best, followed by moderate amblyopia, the

  12. A Study of 115 Comprehensive Treatment Cases of Children with Amblyopia%115例儿童弱视综合治疗情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 邬丽霞; 谢镜花

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of comprehensive treatment among children with amblyopia. Methods Of 220 chil-dren, 115 children with 185 eyes treated at the amblyopia therapeutic room in Department of Ophthalmology of the hospital from No-vember 2012 to August 2014 were chosen as the objects of the study. A retrospective analysis was made for the treatment process and curative effects of amblyopia. Results (1) After treatment, the total effective rates of the children from 4 to 6 years old, from 6 to 8 years old, from 8 to 12 years old were 98. 00%, 96. 40% and 86. 00% respectively. There was no significant difference in the com-parison among the three groups (F=2. 742, P>0. 05), but the cure rate of the former was significantly higher than the latter two groups. The differences between every two groups were obvious (χ2=4. 23, 8. 42, P0. 05), but the cure rates of children with ametropic amblyopia and children with anisometropic amblyopia were significantly higher than those of children with strabismus amblyopia, with significant difference (χ2=14. 16, 7. 93, P0.05),但前者治愈率显著性高于后两组,组间两两比较差异显著(χ2=4.23、8.42, P0.05),但屈光不正性弱视患儿、屈光参差性弱视患儿治愈率均显著性高于斜视性弱视患儿,组间比较差异显著(χ2=14.16、7.93, P<0.05)。结论对弱视儿童予以综合治疗方案,临床疗效显著,在患儿能配合的情况下,年龄越小则疗效越显著,屈光不正性弱视的治疗效果优于其他类型弱视。

  13. 尼泊尔儿童弱视种类及治疗结果%Types of amblyopia and treatment outcome in Nepalese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srijana Adhikari; Ujjowala Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the pattern of amblyopia and factors responsible for treatment outcome in Nepalese children.METHODS: It was a hospital based retrospective study. The medical records of 257 children registered from June 2009 to June 2011 with the diagnosis of amblyopia were reviewed retrospectively. Types of amblyopia studied were anisometropic, isoametropic, strabismic and the mixed amblyopia. Children with isoametropic amblyopia were treated with glass alone, strabismic amblyopia with patching of 6 hours a day, anisometropic and mixed amblyopes were given patching and optical correction both according to the need. The main outcome measure was the visual acuity at the end of treatment. The age at presentation, type of amblyopia, initial visual acuity, type and severity of refractive error, were the factors analyzed for their effect on final visual outcome.RESULTS: The mean age of children was (7.96±3.093) years with the age range from 3 to 15 years. Isoametropic amblyopia was the most common type (35.8%), followed by the strabismic amblyopia (31.9%), anisometropic (23.0%) and the mixed type (9.3%). The mean final visual outcome was better in isoametropic amblyopia (LogMAR 0.295±0.25) than in other types (P=0.001). There was no significant correlation between the visual acuity outcome and the age at presentation (P=0.98), type and severity of refractive error (P=0.12). However the presenting visual acuity had a significant correlation with the final visual outcome (P=0.00).CONCLUSION: Isoametropic amblyopia was the most common type of amblyopia and with the best visual outcome. The initial visual acuity was the most important factor determining success of amblyopia treatment.%目的:研究尼泊尔儿童弱视类型以及影响治疗结果的相关因素.方法:该研究为以医院为基础的回顾性研究.对2009-06/2011-06注册登记的257名弱视儿童的诊断记录进行了回顾性分析.弱视的类型分为屈光参差性、双眼屈光不正

  14. 5~10岁弱视、斜视患儿的流行病学调查分析%Epidemiology of 5 ~10-year-old patients with amblyopia and strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小叶; 李凤娥; 邓梦秦; 谢亮球

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of amblyopia and strabismus of the urban children aged 5 -10 and related factors so that the scientific basis can be provided for formulating the community control measures. Methods 1607 cases (3214 eyes) were checked by the international standard visual acuity chart, corneal light reflection method, the alternating cover method, and eye movement examination. 1% atropine was further used with mydriasis optometry and fundus examination. With the exclusion of other organic disease, their corrected visual acuity was checked to be≤0. 8 were defined as amblyopia. Results Amblyopia prevalence was 3. 42% and strabismus prevalence 2. 24%. The incidence (P>0. 05) of amblyopia and strabismus in each age group had no significant difference. In the type of amblyopia, the refractive amblyopia was the most common (P<0. 05). The establishment of stereopsis was clearly related to eye position. Conclusion The incidence of amblyopia and strabismus has no significant gender differences. The constituent rati-o of refractive amblyopia amblyopia amblyopia was significantly higher than other types. The establishment of stereopsis is clearly related to eye position.%目的 调查5~10岁儿童弱视、斜视的发病率与相关因素,为制定社区防治措施提供科学依据.方法 对1607例(3214眼)弱视、斜视患儿用国际标准视力表、角膜映光法及交替遮盖法、眼球运动进行检查,进一步使用1%阿托品散瞳验光并行眼底检查.排除其他器质性病变,矫正视力≤0.08者定为弱视.结果 弱视患病率为3.42%,斜视患病率为2.24%.各年龄组的弱视、斜视发病率没有显著性差异(P>0.05),弱视类型中以屈光不正性弱视最常见(P>0.05).立体视的建立与眼位有明显关系.结论 斜视发病率与性别无显著性差异,弱视构成比中屈光不正性弱视明显高于其他类型弱视,立体现的建立与眼位有明显关系.

  15. Clinical efficacy of visual perception learning in treatment of children with ametropic amblyopia%视知觉学习治疗儿童屈光不正性弱视疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖信; 刘伟民; 罗武强; 赵武校; 王英

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinic efficacy of visual perception learning in treatment of children aged 3 ~ 8 years old with ametropic amblyopia and its effect factors. Methods: 611 children aged 3 ~ 8 years old with ametropic amblyopia were treated with visual perception learning, the children with difference of binocular visual acuity less than two lines were treated with occlusive therapy, the clinical efficacy and related factors were observed. Results: The curative rate and effective rate of visual perception learning in children aged 3 ~ 8 years old with ametropic amblyopia were 72. 3% and 88.4%, respectively. There was significant difference among different age groups (P <0. 05 ), but the effective rate decreased with age; there was no significant difference in clinic efficacy between beys and girls ( P > 0. 05 ) .The clinical efficacy of mixed astigmatism type amblyopia was the best, followed by hyperopic amblyopia, the clinical efficacy of myopic amblyopia was the worst; the clinical efficacy of mild amblyopia was the best, followed by moderate amblyopia, the clinical efficacy of severe amblyopia was the worst; the clinical efficacy of central vision amblyopia eyes was better than that of paracentral vision amblyopia eyes ( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of visual perception learning in treatment of children aged 3 ~ 8 years old with ametropic amblyopia is good; age, refractive type, degree of amblyopia and properties of eye fixation are related to the clinical efficacy of visual perception learning; for the children with amblyopia, early detection and early treatment are recommended.%目的:探讨视知觉学习疗法治疗3~8岁儿童屈光不正性弱视的疗效及其影响因素.方法:运用视知觉学习疗法治疗3~8岁儿童屈光不正性弱视611例,双眼视力相差两行者辅以遮盖疗法,观察治疗效果及其相关因素.结果,视知觉学习治疗对3~8岁儿童弱视的治愈率为72.3%,

  16. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THE TREATMENT OF AMBLYOPIA WITH THE SOFTWARE APPLICATION FORVISUAL VIRTUAL REALITY%视觉虚拟现实训练软件治疗弱视的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明丽

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the visual virtual reality on treatment of amblyopia. [Methods] One and seventy-tow Children (248 eyes) with one of three types of amblyopia were treated with the software. Following observations were perforomed: the relation between its efficacy and some factors, such as type of amblyopia, ages and degree of amblyopia. [Results] 68.1% of eyes were cured; and 23.8% showed improved in the visual acuity; 8.1% showed no improvement Hie cure rates of ametropic amblyopia, slight amblyopia and the childrens about 6-8 year-old were significantly higher than others. [Conclusion] The software for visual virtual is a new effectual remedy for amblyopia, especially for 6-8 year-old children.%[目的]评价视觉虚拟现实训练软件治疗弱视的效果及特点.[方法]用视觉虚拟现实训练软件对172例248眼3种类型的弱视进行治疗,对弱视的类型、弱视的程度、患者的年龄与疗效的关系及弱视治愈的时间进行观察. [结果]基本治愈率为68.1%,进步率23.8%,无效率8.1%.屈光不正性弱视、轻度弱视、~8岁组治愈率最高.[结论]视觉虚拟现实训练软件治疗弱视是一种有效的治疗方法,对~8岁患儿治疗效果最好.

  17. 益视颗粒治疗形觉剥夺性弱视的实验研究%Experimental study on Yishi particle in treatment of deprivation amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小维; 邓燕; 杨洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effective treatment of Yishi particle for deprivation amblyopia. Methods The depriva-tion amblyopia rats were randomly divided into normal group,amblyopia control group,low-dose group and large-dose group. The amblyopia control group was given starch solution to fill the stomach and the medicine group was given Yishi particle to fill the stomach,using the flash visual evoked potential(F-VEP) to test the amblyopia rats. Results Drug treatment after 30 days,the low-dose group,s F-VEP latency period (N1,P1,N2) and amplitude of wave (N1-P1,P1-N2) was improved than amblyopia control group,but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.01). The large-dose group,s F-VEP latency period (N1,P1,N2) and amplitude of wave (N1-P1,P1-N2) was better than amblyopia control group,there was significant statistical difference between the group(P0.01);大剂量给药组F-VEP潜伏期N1、P1、N2,波峰N1-P1、P1-N2的振幅较对照组有明显改善,统计学存在显著性差异(P<0.01).结论 大剂量益视颗粒对弱视有一定的治疗作用,但其效果有待进一步观察.

  18. 儿童弱视的发病机制及最新治疗进展%Advances in treatment and pathogenesis of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妍丽; 张艳芳; 钱志刚; 李新宇

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is one of the common pediatric ophthalmology disease at present. It causes serious harm to children's visual development, which is characterized in the eye without obvious organic disease. However, functional factors can cause the distance vision≤0. 8 that can not be corrected. In this paper, it focuses on reviewing the current research advances and therapy of amblyopia children, so as to provide a powerful evidence for the better treatment of amblyopia children.%弱视是目前小儿眼科常见的眼病之一,严重损害儿童视力发育,其特征是眼部无明显器质性病变,以功能性因素为主所引起的远视力≤0.8且不能矫正。本文就目前儿童弱视的治疗现状及研究进展做一个综述,以便为能更好地治疗儿童弱视提供一个有力的证据。

  19. 儿童弱视治疗的护理研究进展%Research progress on the nursing care in the treatment of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏炳凤

    2013-01-01

    弱视是视觉发育期内由于异常视觉经验(单眼斜视、屈光参差、高度屈光不正、以及形觉剥夺)引起的单眼或双眼最佳矫正视力低于正常年龄,是一种可预防和治疗的视力残疾.我国人口众多,如果弱视患者按检出率2.8%来计算,保守估计达4 000 万,严重影响儿童生活质量和国家人口整体素质.随着我国医学者对弱视的病因、发病机制、治疗方法有更深入的研究,弱视护理研究也有明显进展,护理工作由原来单一的疾病护理逐渐转向生理、心理、社会全方位的护理.本文就有关儿童弱视护理研究进展进行综述.%Amblyopia is monocular or binocular best-corrected visual acuity lower than that of normal age induced by abnormal visual experience (monocular strabismus, anisometropia, ametropia, and form deprivation ) in visual development period, which is a preventable and treatable visual disability. In China, amblyopia was detected in 4 millions patients conservatively (calculated by the detection rate of 2.8%), which seriously affect the quality of life of children and the overall quality of population. Along with the study on the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment of amblyopia, significant advance had been made in the nursing of amblyopia. The nursing work has shifted from the original single disease gradually to the physiological, psychological nursing, social comprehensive nursing. In this paper, research progress on the nursing of amblyopia in children is presented.

  20. 影响弱视早期发现的相关因素调查%Investigation of Relative Factors Affecting the Early Discovery of Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文舟; 陶虹; 黄洁成; 马成; 程杰

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relative factors affecting the earlier discovery of amblyopia in children. Method 220 cases of amblyopia children got through answer papers, and the results had been analyzed by SPSS software. Result On the total of 220 child patients, 14.5 per cent had been found less than 6 years old, many of cases been found above 6 years old, in them the age between 8 and 10 years old was the most; 61.4 per cent had less knowledge of eyesight health education, checkout or protection. In all of amblyopia cases, 14.5 per cent had been found by children themselves, 38.6 per cent by their parents or teachers and 66.5 per cent of parents and teachers had less knowledge of the disease. Conclusion The major reason which led children to amblyopia was that many parents or teachers had less knowledge about amblyopia and the checkout ways to find the disease.%目的 调查本地区影响儿童弱视早期发现的相关因素。方法 对220名弱视儿童的发病情况作走访问卷式调查,采用SPSS软件进行统计分析。结果 220名患者中,<6岁的只占14.5%,而大部分于6岁以后才被发现,而且以8~10岁最多,占27.7%;平时卫生用眼教育及视力检查和保护措施做得不好者占61.4%。调查220名患儿弱视的发现方式,由儿童自己表述发现者,所占比例14.5%,家长或教师无意中发现者最多,占38.6%,家长及教师对弱视的基本知识认识不足者占到66.8%。结论 多数家长及教师对儿童弱视的基本知识及常用的儿童视力的主客观检查方法了解不足,是导致儿童弱视不能早期发现的一个重要原因。

  1. Current progresses of experimental models of amblyopia and clinical therapeutic%弱视的实验研究及临床治疗展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少敏(综述)

    2014-01-01

    弱视是一种儿童早期由于异常的视觉经历如斜视,屈光参差,视觉剥夺等导致的皮层性视觉损害,因而,只有理解了其发病的神经机制,才可能提出有效的治疗。一般观念认为弱视只有在儿童期治疗才有效,而成人的弱视基本无法治愈,但是近年来随着对弱视发病机制的分子生物学及神经电生理的研究,尤其是对视觉皮层发育可塑性的细胞间交流及细胞内分子信号通路的认识,拓展了人们对弱视病理的知识,因而也成功地通过恢复成年期的可塑性改善了成年弱视的视力。本文介绍了视觉发育可塑性的进展,就近年在增强成年可塑性途径如改变神经兴奋性与抑制性的平衡、细胞外基质、丰富环境及表观遗传学修饰等作了介绍,以其对弱视的病理机制,尤其对成人弱视的治疗有更深入的认识。%Amblyopia is a form of cerebral visual impairment caused by abnormal visual experience ( e.g., strabismus, anisometropia, deprivation) during early childhood. It is essential to understand the neural mechanism of amblyopia in order to devise novel therapeutic strategies. Although previous concepts of amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults, recent data deepen our knowledge of the factors involved in the intercellular communication and intracellular signaling that mediate experience-dependent plasticity in the developing visual cortex. Successful en-hancement of adult plasticity has been achieved by altering the excitation to inhibition balance;extracellular matrices;environmental enrichment and epigenetic modification. In this review, I describe current concepts of brain plasticity and the established mechanisms of amblyopia, and their implications for novel therapeutic strategies, these may hold the best hope for success in the fight against amblyopia.

  2. 儿童屈光参差行LASIK手术后实施弱视治疗的效果分析%The effect of amblyopia treatment on anisometropic children afer LASIK surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雄伟; 麦土兴; 全雄; 吴芸

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of amblyopia treatment on anisometropic children afer LASIK surgeries. Methods 86 cases (107 eyes) with myopic anisometropia combined with moderate to severe amblyopia were given LASIK, the amblyopia treatment were taken after LASIK, and then the change of visual acuity before and after surgeries was observed. Results The postoperative best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA) of 86 cases (107 eyes) was improved 2 to 5 lines, and 28 of them were reached to 5.0. Conclusions It is an effective method to correct anisometropic amblyopia with postoperative amblyopia treatment.%目的 评价儿童屈光参差行LASIK手术后实施弱视治疗的临床效果.方法 对86例(107/眼)近视性屈光参差并伴有中重度弱视的病例进行LASIK治疗,术后实施弱视治疗,观察术前术后弱视的变化.结果 86例(107眼)弱视眼中,均比术前最佳矫正视力提高2~5行,28眼达到5.0.结论 LASIK术后实施弱视治疗是矫正儿童屈光参差性弱视的一种有效方法.

  3. The study of multifocal VEP in amblyopia%弱视儿童多焦视觉诱发电位的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷小龙; 廖瑜俊; 邓燕; 杨洋; 于春红; 彭小维

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究弱视儿童多焦视觉诱发电位(mVEP)特征峰的变化.方法 采用德国Roland公司生产的RETIScan3.20多焦视觉电生理仪,对30例正常对照组和78例弱视患者进行mVEP的检测,进行视网膜不同区域的比较.结果 (1)重度弱视组特征峰的振幅反应密度(646.78±29.53) nV.deg-2,低于正常对照组(835.29±11.02) nV·deg-2,重度弱视组特征峰隐含值(115.1±10.2) ms,长于正常对照组(103.8±11.1) ms,有统计学意义.轻度弱视组和中度弱视组特征峰振幅反应密度在第1、2、3环中降低,有统计学意义(P<0.05),第4、5、6环不延长,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)重度弱视组鼻侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(110.7±3.8) ms,长于正常对照组鼻侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(102.9±2.1) ms,差异有统计学意义;重度弱视组颞侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(107.2±4.5) ms,长于正常对照组颞侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(103.3±1.9)ms,差异有统计学意义;轻度和中度弱视组特征峰隐含值在第1环延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);3、重度弱视组上半侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(110.3±4.1) ms,长于正常对照组下半侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(105.2±2.9) ms,差异有统计学意义.重度弱视组下半侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(109.2±4.8) ms,长于正常对照组下半侧视网膜特征峰隐含值(106.4±2.2) ms,差异有统计学意义.结论 弱视的mVEP结果存在特征性改变,“中枢发生学说”与“外周发生学说”相互联系,互为补充.%ObJective To study the characteristic changes of multifocal VEP in amblyopia's children.Methods The mVEP of both eyes of 78 amblyopias were recorded by Roland RETIScan 3.20 multiofcal electrophysiological system made by Germany Roland Company.The changes in different retinal area were investigated by comparing with the normal subjects.Results 1.The amplitude densities in the serious amblyopias group was about 646.78±29.53 nV.deg-2,and it was lowered

  4. 屈光参差性弱视患儿的轮廓辨别特征%Contour integration of children with anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泉; 刘伟民; 刘洪婷; 王英

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the visual information processing state of patients with ametropic amblyopia and to understand whether ametropic amblyopia have contour integration deficits. Methods: 79 cases ( 148 eyes) with mild to moderate ametropic amblyopia were collected randomly as amblyopic group and 40 cases (80 eyes) normal children were collected as control group. Each group was detected by contour integration. The results of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results: In mild amblyopia group, the levels of contour integration were mainly identified as grade 0.6, 0.7, 0.9; In the moderate amblyopia group, they were mainly concentrated in grades 0.7 ~ 1.2; And in the control group, they were mainly distributed in grade 0.6. The levels of contour integration of patients with ametropic amblyopia were significantly lower than control group, P<0.01. Conclusion: Patients with ametropic amblyopia have some defects in contour integration ability, the reason is double poor eyesight destroy normal interaction of two eyes so that the visual information processing of high - level visual cortex is abnormal and collaboration function of contour integration mechanism is damaged. Contour integration defects suggest that abnormal binocular interaction could damage collaboration function of contour integration mechanism.%目的:评估屈光参差性弱视患儿的视觉信息处理状态,了解其屈光参差性弱视的轮廓辨别功能是否存在缺损.方法:随机抽取2008年6月~2010年8月广西壮族自治区人民医院轻、中度屈光参差性弱视患儿79例(148眼)作为弱视组,抽取视力正常儿童40例(80眼)作为对照组,进行轮廓辨别检测并进行对比研究.结果:轻度弱视组轮廓辨别级别主要分布在0.6级、0.7级、0.9级,中度弱视组主要集中在0.7~1.2级,对照组主要分布在0.6级.弱视组患儿的轮廓辨别级别明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:屈光参差性弱视患儿在轮廓辨别能力上

  5. 远视性弱视儿童的心理行为分析%Analysis of psychogenic behavior in children with hyperopic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏欣; 江灵莉; 肖满意; 李筠萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate psychogenic problems in children with hyperopic amblyopia, we compare the showing of psychological behavior in hyperopic amblyopia with emmetropia's of children. Methods 78 children definitely diagnosed as hyperopic amblyopia and 80 control normal children with uncorrected refraction error were collected. Their parents complete two psychological evaluated with the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL ) and the Conners Rating Scales (Parent Symptom Questionnaire, PSQ). Two groups had divided into four groups as gender. T-test was used to compare children with amblyopia and those without. Results This had adverse consequences for hyperopic amblyopia children's psychosocial well-being. Both girls and boys had the problems of school scales and social competence. While the girls had the problems of Impulsivity-hyperactivity, the boys had the problems of delinquent behavior aggressive behavior activities and psychosomatic disorder. Conclusions Given that amblyopia can affect children's psychosocial well-being, and the boys had more problems than the girls. Although abnormal psychogenic behavior exist in children of hyperopic amblyopia, the values of change have not reach the standard of mental illness. Health outcomes need to integrate both vision and psychosocial implications of treatment.%目的 通过比较远视性弱视儿童与正常同龄儿童的心理行为探讨弱视对儿童心理行为的影响,关注弱视儿童行为心理发育健康.方法 将门诊受试儿童分为2组:1.弱视组(78例)2.正常对照组(80例).采用Achenbach儿童行为量表家长用表和Conners父母症状问卷对同龄的远视性弱视和对照组儿童进行评定并进行比较分析.结果 Achenbach儿童行为量表显示:弱视组的男孩中,社交问题、违纪行为、攻击性行为、活动情况、学校情况、社会能力总分的评分显著高于对照组(P<0.05);女孩中,学校情况、社会能力总分的评分显著高

  6. Comparison of curative effects of visual perceptual learning and traditional treatment for the children under 8 years with astigmatism amblyopia with rule and astigmatism amblyopia against rule%8岁以下顺、逆规散光性弱视儿童视感知疗法与传统疗法疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔旻; 刘伟民; 林泉; 赵武校

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较8岁以下患儿视感知学习疗法(perceptual learning)与传统疗法治疗顺、逆规散光性弱视的疗效.方法:将252例(504眼)8岁以下顺、逆规散光性弱视患儿,分别行视感知学习(154例,308眼)和传统疗法(98例,196眼)治疗,2年后对结果进行统计学分析.结果:8岁以下的顺、逆规散光性弱视患儿视感知学习疗法组的总有效率均高于传统疗法组,组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:8岁以下的顺、逆规散光性弱视患者在视感知学习疗法中的总有效率高于其在传统疗法的总有效率.%Objective: To compare the curative effects of visual perceptual learning and traditional treatment for the children under 8 years with astigmatism amblyopia with rule and astigmatism amblyopia against rule. Methods: 252 children (504 eyes) under 8 years with astigmatism amblyopia with rule and astigmatism amblyopia against rule were divided into visual perceptual learning group (154 children, 308 eyes) and traditional treatment group (98 children, 196 eyes), then the results were analyzed statistically after two years. Results; The total effective rate in visual perceptual learning group was significantly higher than that in traditional treatment group (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion;The total effective rate in the children under 8 years with astigmatism amblyopia with rule and astigmatism amblyopia against rule treated with visual perceptual learning is significantly higher than that treated with traditional treatment

  7. Retinal optical coherence tomography study on children with anisometropia monocular amblyopia%屈光参差性弱视儿童视网膜光学相干断层成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初翠英; 代春华; 宋修芬; 纪芳; 蒋广伟; 姜善好

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用视网膜光学相干断层成像方法(OCT)研究屈光参差性弱视儿童视网膜神经纤维层(RNFL)和黄斑中心凹厚度,探讨弱视的发病机制。方法对屈光参差性单眼弱视儿童38例进行OCT检查,据弱视眼屈光状态分为远视散光弱视组18例,单纯远视弱视组20例,对侧健眼为正常对照组。分析比较三组视盘周围RNFL厚度和黄斑中心凹厚度的差异。结果远视散光弱视组、单纯远视弱视组和正常对照组视盘周围RNFL厚度分别为115.77±13.42μm、111.34±10.30μm 和103.05±11.10μm,黄斑中心凹厚度分别为198.86±28.30μm、191.98±27.81μm,181.18±29.06μm。两弱视组分别与正常对照组、两弱视组组间比较视盘周围RNFL厚度及黄斑中心凹厚度,差异均有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论屈光参差性弱视其弱视眼视盘周围RNFL厚度及黄斑中心凹厚度较对侧正常眼增厚,且远视散光弱视眼厚于单纯远视弱视眼。%Objective To assess retinal nerve fiber layer and the fovea in children with anisometropic am-blyopia by optical coherence tomography(OCT). Methods OCT was performed on 38 children with anisometropic am-blyopia. 18 children were astigmatic amblyopia and 20 children were hypermetropic amblyopia. The thickness of peri-papillary region retinal nerve fiber layer and the fovea were recorded and analyzed among amblyopia eyes and normal eyes. Results The thickness of mean peripapillary region RNFL and fovea were 115.77±13.42μm, 111.34±10.30μm, 103.05±11.10μm and 198.86±28.30μm, 191.98±27.81μm, 181.18±29.06μm respectively in the astigmatic amblyopia, hypermetropic amblyopia and normal eyes. The RNFL and fovea thickness in amblyopic eyes were thicker than those in normal eyes, and the RNFL and fovea thickness in astigmatic amblyopia were thicker than that in hypermetropic amblyopia, P < 0.05. Conclusions The thickness of RNFL and fovea in anisometropic amblyopia eyes were

  8. 低功率氦氖激光在儿童弱视治疗中的应用%Low power He-Ne laser in the treatment of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小梅; 师文; 左芸; 杨发斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low power He-Ne laser in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Methods The low power He-Ne laser with joint integrated therapy in treating 86 cases of 146 amblyopic eyes. The low power He-Ne laser irradiated the amblyopic eyes 3 minutes per day, continuous treatment of 20 days, to observe the effect. Results The low power He-Ne laser with joint integrated therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children, the basic cure rate was 50.68%, effective (cure + improvement) rate was 85.62%. Amblyopia in the 3 to 6 age group has the best effect (77/83), the refractive amblyopia in different types of amblyopia has the best effect (93/104), the mid amblyopia in different degrees of amblyopia has the best effect (87/105), the center concave watching in different watching natures of amblyopia has the best effect (80/86), the near vision of 1.0 in different near vision amblyopia has the best effect (109/ 126). Conclusions Low power He-Ne laser can shorten the course of treatment of amblyopia, improve compliance in amblyopia children and parents, is effective in treating amblyopia.%目的 观察低功率氦氖激光在儿童弱视中的治疗作用方法对86例146只弱视眼采用低功率氦氖激光联合综合疗法进行治疗,激光每日照射弱视眼3min,连续治疗20d,观察疗效.结果 低功率氦氖激光联合综合疗法治疗儿童弱视,基本治愈率为50.68%,有效率85.62%.其中不同年龄弱视中以3-6岁组疗效最好(77/83),不同类型弱视中以屈光不正性弱视疗效最好(93/104),不同程度弱视以轻度弱视疗效最好(87/105),不同注视性质弱视以中心凹注视疗效最好(80/86),不同近视力弱视以近视力为1.0疗效最好(109/126).结论 低功率氦氖激光可缩短弱视治疗的疗程,提高弱视患儿和家长的依从性,对儿童弱视的治疗有效.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of various ametropic amblyopia%各类屈光不正性弱视的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新苗

    2016-01-01

    目的:探析屈光不正性弱视的有效治疗方法,比较各类屈光不正性弱视的疗效。方法选择信阳市中心医院2010年4月至2012年11月收治的140例屈光不正性弱视门诊患者作为研究对象,将其分为两组。对照组采取全矫治疗,观察组采取双光镜治疗,比较两组矫正前、随访1年、随访2年时视力情况及治疗有效率。结果两组矫正前视力比较差异未见统计学意义(P ﹥0.05);经矫正后,观察组随访1年时视力平均为(0.91±0.37),随访2年视力平均为(0.95±0.24),均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。观察组远视性弱视、近视性弱视、散光性弱视治疗有效率分别达到95.92%、87.96%、94.74%,均明显高于对照组,总治疗有效率为93.72%,也高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论双光镜矫正治疗各种类型屈光不正弱视效果均优于全矫治疗,且远视性弱视有效率最高,散光性弱视有效率最低。%Objective To investigate the effective treatment method of ametropic amblyopia and compare the ther-apeutic effect of various ametropic amblyopia. Methods Selected 140 cases of ametropia amblyopia patients in Xinyang Central Hospital from April,2010 to November,2012 as the study objects,they were divided into two groups. The control group took the full correction treatment,observation group adopted double light treatment,compared visual acuity before the correction,follow-up of 1 year,2 years of follow-up and the treatment efficiency of two groups. Results The difference of corrected visual acuity of two groups before correction had no significant difference(P ﹥ 0. 05);after the correction,visual acuity averaged in observation group of 1 year of follow-up(0. 91 ± 0. 37),visual acuity averaged at 2 years of follow-up (0. 95 ± 0. 24),they were higher than those in the control group,the differences were significant(P ﹤ 0. 05

  10. 关于弱视、斜视患儿社区护理的现状调查%Investigation on Present Situation of Community Nursing in Children with Amblyopia and Strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志霞; 刘文兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究目前针对弱视、斜视患儿实施社区护理的状况é方法利用问卷调查的形式对该市200名弱视、斜视患儿的护理需求进行调查,并对目前社区50名护理人员护理现状进行调查分析é结果在经过问卷调查后,74%的弱视、斜视患儿有社区护理需求,且社区内有54%的护理人员对弱视、斜视患儿的规范护理措施知晓é结论目前社区内弱视、斜视患儿对社区护理的需求率较高,因而有必要强化社区对弱视、斜视儿童患儿的护理模式,提升社区护理质量é%Objective To explore the current status of the implementation of community nursing for children with amblyopia and strabismus. Methods Using the questionnaire of nursing needs of our 200 children with amblyopia and strabismus were investigated, and the current community nurses from 50 nursing status investigation and analysis. Results After the survey, 74% of the children with amblyopia and strabismus of community nursing needs and community awareness of standardized nursing care personnel of 54% children with amblyopia and strabismus. Conclusion The community of amblyopia and stra-bismus in children with community nursing demand rate is higher, so it is necessary to strengthen the nursing mode of com-munity of amblyopia and strabismus of children, improve the quality of community nursing.

  11. 目前我国弱视临床防治中亟待解决的问题%Problems to be resolved urgently on amblyopia diagnosis and prevention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵堪兴; 郑曰忠

    2009-01-01

    多年来,矫正视力低于0.9(≤0.8)一直是我国眼科临床诊断弱视的视力标准,没有不同年龄儿童正常视力的参考值,出现了弱视诊断扩大化的现象.目前在弱视诊断中存在两个"单一"弊病:忽视形成弱视的诸多相关因素,只考虑视力单一因素;忽视视觉发育规律,不分年龄大小只用0.9一个视力标准诊断弱视.因此.对学龄前不同年龄组儿童应采用不同的视力标准,同时强调诊断弱视须具有弱视形成的相关因素.%For many years, the best corrected vision less than 0.9 was an unique amblyopia diagnostic criteria in the clinical practices in China.Because of no different visual acuity criteria for younger-aged children, the amblyopia prevalence was increased.In clinical practice, two phenomenons exist in the amblyopia diagnosis and prevention.One is that ignores the risk factors for amblyopia development and only considers the factor of visual acuity.The other is that only uses a corrected visual acuity of 0.9 as diagnostic criteria and ignores the visual development with ages.Therefore, it should be taken the different visual acuity criteria for amblyopia diagnosis in younger-aged children.And it should be emphasized on the co-existed risk factors in the amblyopia diagnosis.

  12. 基于互联网的感视知觉学习治疗弱视的疗效观察%Based on the internet perception study treatment of amblyopia clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志兵; 徐峻; 吴军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Mental Imagery Perceptual Learning System for the treatment of amblyopia. Methods 197 children(317 eyes) with amblyopia were recruited. Spectacles were prescribed based on atro-pine ointment cycloplegic refraction. Patients were assigned to receive either occlusion therapy or " Mental Imagery" perceptual learning according to their best corrected acuity . The following indices were analyzed : type of amblyopia , depth of amblyopia, age and treatment efficiency. Results With patients who received average 4 months "Mental Imagery" perceptual learning , amblyopia cured in 77% and improved in 30. 28% . The gross treatment efficiency was 88. 96% . Conclusion Mental Imagery Perceptual Learning System is an effective way for treating amblyopia .%目的 评价"脑力影像"感视知觉学习系统在弱视治疗中的效果.方法 对197例(317只眼)弱视儿童阿托品眼膏散瞳验光配镜,并根据矫正视力情况,给予相应的遮盖,利用"脑力影像"感知觉学习系统进行弱视治疗,对以下指标进行分析:弱视的类型、弱视的程度、患者的年龄与治疗效果.结果 平均接受4个月弱视治疗,总有效率88.96%,其中基本治愈58.67%,有进步30.28%.结论 "脑力影像"感知觉学习系统治疗弱视是一种有效的方法.

  13. Effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia around visual maturity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachee Vasant Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia in the age group of 4-13 years. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial, which included patients who were randomly divided into two groups. Both the groups received patching therapy till plateau was achieved in phase 1 of the study. Then in phase 2, group I received citicoline plus patching and group II continued to receive only patching. Outcome Measures: Outcome was measured by the visual acuity in logMAR every month in phase 1 till plateau was achieved and then for 12 months in phase 2. Results: No significant difference was found in the mean visual acuities in these two groups in phase 1 till plateau was reached. In phase 2, for the initial four months, there was no significant difference in the visual acuities in these two groups, at the respective intervals. However, five months onward, up to 12 months, there was a significant difference in the visual acuities in these groups.The result was the same in younger patients ( seven years of age. In phase 2, the mean proportional improvement in group I was significantly more than that in group II, at two months and onward, at the respective intervals. Conclusion: The improvement in visual acuity with citicoline plus patching was significantly more than that with patching alone, in one year of treatment.

  14. 综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的远期疗效分析%Analysis of Long-term Efficacy of Comprehensive Therapy for the Treatment of Amblyopia in Chil-dren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云; 谭星平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的远期疗效。[方法]对557例(967眼)儿童弱视进行屈光矫正,遮盖及行红闪(激光)、光刷、多光谱、视觉刺激、视觉定位、精细目力训练等综合治疗1~5年。[结果]治愈率79.42%,有效率96.59%,屈光不正性弱视疗效优于斜视性弱视和屈光参差性弱视,弱视程度越低、年龄越小、治疗时间越长效果越好。[结论]弱视治疗效果与弱视类型、弱视程度、治疗时间、治疗年龄有关,综合疗法可以提高治愈率。%[Objective] To explore the long-term efficacy of comprehensive therapy for the treatment of ambly-opia in children .[Methods] A total of 557 pediatric patents (967 eyes) with amblyopia received comprehensive therapy such as refraction correction ,cover ,red flash light(laser) ,light brush ,multi-spectrum ,visual stimula-tion ,visual positioning and fine eyesight training for 1~5 years .[Results]The therapeutic efficacy was satisfacto-ry .The curative rate was 79 .42% and effective rate was 96 .59% .The therapeutic efficacy of ametropic amblyopia was better than that of strabismus amblyopia and anisometropia amblyopia .The lower the degree of amblyopia , the smaller the age and the longer the treatment time ,the better the results .[Conclusion]The therapeutic efficacy of amblyopia is related with the type and degree of amblyopia ,treatment time and patients'age .Comprehensive therapy can improve the curative rate .

  15. 单眼远视性弱视儿童黄斑区结构的光学相干扫描分析%Macular structure analysis in children withmonocular amblyopia by optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔乐

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the macular structure of amblyopia eyes and non-amblyopia eyes in children with monocular hyperopic amblyopia and in normal children by optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Fifty-six children with monocular hyperopic amblyopia and 75 normal children were selected. The macular retinal thickness and the macular retinal volume were measured by OCT. Data was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The thinnest part of retina was at the center retina, and the thickest part was the inner ring , while the outer ring was thinner than the inner ring in the amblyopia eyes group. Among the four quadrants of the inner ring, the thickest quadrant was the nasal quadrant (335. 58 ± 17. 42μ m) , and the thinner part was superior quadrant (326. 42 ± 15. 36μ m), the next was the inferior quadrant ,the thinnest part was the temporal quadrant. The trend of outer ring was the same as the inner ring. The quadrant differences of non - amblyopia eyes and normal eyes were same with amblyopia eyes. The center 1mm of macula, nasal quadrant and superior quadrant retinal thickness of inner ring were thicker in amblyopia eyes group than that in non- amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group ( P 0. 05). The other quadrant retinal thickness was not different in amblyopia eyes group, non- amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group (P> 0. 05). In amblyopia eyes group, non- amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group, the smallest retinal volume was macular retinal volume, the biggest volume was nasal retinal volume of inner ring, then was superior retinal volume and inferior retinal volume ,the smallest was temporal retinal volume. The change of retinal volume in outer ring was same as inner ring. The difference of central 1mm macular retinal volume, nasal quadrant and superior quadrant retinal thickness of inner ring in amblyopia eyes group was statistically significant compared with non - amblyopia eyes group and normal eyes group (P0. 05). CONCLUSION: OCT can

  16. Ambliopia por estrabismo: estudo retrospectivo de pacientes em hospital universitário Strabismic amblyopia: a retrospective study on patients from a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Salerno Costa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão ao tratamento, da gravidade da ambliopia e da idade de início do tratamento em pacientes com ambliopia por estrabismo submetidos à terapia oclusiva. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 569 prontuários de pacientes com ambliopia por estrabismo atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP no período de 1983 a 2000. Os critérios de exclusão foram: perda de seguimento, idade maior que 12 anos, presença de nistagmo e outras doenças oculares. Todos foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo com avaliação da motilidade ocular, divididos por faixas etárias e classificados quanto ao tipo de estrabismo, gravidade da ambliopia e adesão ao tratamento. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo método de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 198 pacientes (34,8%. Não houve diferença de adesão nos diversos grupos etários. A taxa de sucesso foi maior nos pacientes com boa adesão independente da gravidade da ambliopia. Porém a adesão ao tratamento foi menor no grupo com ambliopia grave, que foi o mais freqüente e obteve menor taxa de sucesso em nossa amostra. Não houve relação entre idade e sucesso terapêutico. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstrou que a adesão ao tratamento oclusivo desempenha papel fundamental na eficácia terapêutica. Com isto, idade de início do tratamento isoladamente não teve influência no sucesso terapêutico, uma vez que foi possível obter boa adesão a despeito da idade. Além disto, os resultados foram piores nos casos de ambliopia grave, nos quais a adesão foi menor.PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of compliance with treatment, severity of amblyopia and age at the beginning of treatment in patients with strabismic amblyopia submitted to patching. METHODS: The data were selected from medical records of 569 patients seen at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo during the period of 1983 to 2000. Exclusion criteria: loss of

  17. Evaluation of stereopsis in different type of ametropic amblyopia children%不同类型屈光不正性弱视儿童的立体视觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 黄馨慧; 邱斌; 叶晗; 戴锦晖

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解屈光不正性弱视儿童立体视觉的状况.方法 对4~8岁,平均(5.2±1.8)岁,205例屈光不正性弱视儿童(其中散光性弱视65例、近视性30例、远视性110例),应用颜少明等随机立体检查图及同视机,检测不同类型屈光不正性弱视儿童远融合范围、远近立体视、近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差立体感知度.结果 轻、中度屈光不正性弱视三种类型近零视差差异有统计学意义,远视性弱视较小,近视性次之,散光性最差(P均<0.05);远立体视有显著差异,远视性较好散光性较差(P均<0.05);重度弱视3型近零视差和远立体视均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);远融合范围3型差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).弱视程度对弱视患者三级视功能有明显影响(P<0.05),程度越重影响越大.结论 弱视影响儿童期立体视觉建立,散光性弱视对立体视觉的影响大于近视性、远视性弱视儿童.%Objective To evaluate the stereopsis in different types of ametropic amblyopic children.Methods A total of 205 children between 4-8 years old with recovered ametropic amblyopia, including 65 of astigmatic amblyopia and 30 of myopic and 110 of hypermetropic, were involved in the subject. Using Yan's stereogram random dot synptophore stereogram and synoptophore, the distance fusion range, distance stereoacuity, approximationg zero disparity of these children were observed separately. Results In mild and moderate amblyopia there was significant difference in approximationg zero disparity and distance stereoacuity among astigmatic amblyopia and myopic and hypermetropic, within which astigmatic amblyopia the worst and hypermetropic amblyopia the best (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the distance fusion range (P>0.05). Different type of ametropic amblyopic led no significant difference in severe amblyopia (P>0.05) which caused worse influence to the stereopsis than mild and moderate degree (P

  18. Long term efficacy of comprehensive treatment for children with amblyopia in new standard of diagnosis%新诊断标准下儿童弱视的远期疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 郑煜; 林世斌; 公为芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析新的诊断标准下,综合疗法治疗弱视的远期疗效及相关因素的影响。方法以2011年弱视诊断专家共识,作为研究的入选标准,对72例(116眼)弱视儿童按年龄,弱视类型及程度分类,进行综合疗法治疗,随访5年,对比分析其疗效及其相关因素。结果在72例(116眼)弱视儿童中,5年综合治疗后,总有效率为90.5%,总痊愈率为72.4%。其中屈光不正性弱视的基本痊愈率为97.8%,与屈光参差性弱视(57.1%)和斜视性弱视(54.3%)组间差异有显著性(P<0.05)。轻度弱视的基本痊愈率为98%,与中度弱视(68.9%)和重度弱视(15%)相比,组间差异有显著性(P<0.05)。4~7岁组基本痊愈率(88.2%)与8~14岁组(42.5%)相比,差异有显著性( P<0.05)。结论儿童弱视的疗效与治疗的时间、弱视类型、程度、年龄等因素有关。其痊愈率也可能受其入选标准影响。%Objective In new standard of diagnosis, to investigate the long term efficacy of comprehensive treatment for amblyopia in children and the effect factors.Methods According to the expert consensus of amlbyopia diagnosis in 2011, totally 72 cases (116 eyes) were classified by the type of amblyopia, degree of amblyopia, and age, treated with correction of refractive error,occlusion therapy, family fine eyesight training and red light therapy, comprehensive therapeutic apparatus, and followed up 5 years.Results Follow up 5 year,the total effective rate is 90.5% , the total cure rate is 72.4%.Ametropic amblyopia ( 97.8%) was significantly higher than the anisometropic(57.1%), strabismic amblyopia(54.3%) in the cure rate.Mild amblyopia(98%) was significantly higher than the moderate(68.9%) and severe amblyopia(15%) in the cure rate.The younger treatment of amblyopia, the better efficacy.The 4 to 7-year-old group ( 88.2 %) was significantly higher

  19. 新诊断标准下儿童弱视的远期疗效分析%Long term efficacy of comprehensive treatment for children with amblyopia in new standard of diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 郑煜; 林世斌; 公为芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective In new standard of diagnosis, to investigate the long term efficacy of comprehensive treatment for amblyopia in children and the effect factors.Methods According to the expert consensus of amlbyopia diagnosis in 2011, totally 72 cases (116 eyes) were classified by the type of amblyopia, degree of amblyopia, and age, treated with correction of refractive error,occlusion therapy, family fine eyesight training and red light therapy, comprehensive therapeutic apparatus, and followed up 5 years.Results Follow up 5 year,the total effective rate is 90.5% , the total cure rate is 72.4%.Ametropic amblyopia ( 97.8%) was significantly higher than the anisometropic(57.1%), strabismic amblyopia(54.3%) in the cure rate.Mild amblyopia(98%) was significantly higher than the moderate(68.9%) and severe amblyopia(15%) in the cure rate.The younger treatment of amblyopia, the better efficacy.The 4 to 7-year-old group ( 88.2 %) was significantly higher than 8 to 14-year-old group(42.5 %) .Conclusions Amblyopia treatment efficacy is closely related to type of amblyopia, degree of amblyopia, age of starting treatment, the duration of treatment, and it may be influenced by the standard of the diagnosis.%目的:分析新的诊断标准下,综合疗法治疗弱视的远期疗效及相关因素的影响。方法以2011年弱视诊断专家共识,作为研究的入选标准,对72例(116眼)弱视儿童按年龄,弱视类型及程度分类,进行综合疗法治疗,随访5年,对比分析其疗效及其相关因素。结果在72例(116眼)弱视儿童中,5年综合治疗后,总有效率为90.5%,总痊愈率为72.4%。其中屈光不正性弱视的基本痊愈率为97.8%,与屈光参差性弱视(57.1%)和斜视性弱视(54.3%)组间差异有显著性(P<0.05)。轻度弱视的基本痊愈率为98%,与中度弱视(68.9%)和重度弱视(15%)相比,组间差异有显著性(P<0.05)。4~7

  20. An investigation and analysis of the amblyopia status of preschool children in the Yangpu District of Shanghai%上海市杨浦区学龄前儿童弱视调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦清; 童念庭; 王佳; 邹聪; 黄骁倩; 陈潞; 杨珺; 陈佩媛; 陈洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 对上海市杨浦区学龄前儿童进行弱视情况调查,并分析在新的诊断标准下学龄前儿童中弱视的患病率及分布情况.方法 横断面调查研究.抽取上海市杨浦区96所幼儿园3~6岁儿童13 288名,进行视力、屈光状态检测.采用2011年新的弱视诊断标准来评价学龄前儿童弱视患病率,采用卡方检验和趋势卡方检验进行统计学分析,评价该研究人群弱视的分布情况.结果 按照2011年的弱视诊断标准,上海市杨浦区学龄前儿童弱视患病率为0.91%,显著低于按照1996年弱视诊断标准所计算出的63.52%的弱视患病率(McNemar检验统计值为8320,P<0.01).在所有弱视患儿中,屈光不正性弱视占72.7%,屈光参差性弱视占14.5%,斜视性弱视占9.1%,形觉剥夺性弱视占3.6%.4~5岁年龄段学龄前儿童弱视患病率较高(x2=27.52,P<0.01),而不同性别间弱视患病率没有差异(x2=0.41,P>0.05).结论 上海市杨浦区学龄前儿童弱视的主要原因分别为屈光不正、屈光参差、斜视和形觉剥夺.新的诊断标准将年龄纳入了学龄前儿童的弱视诊断中,考虑到了幼儿视力发育规律在弱视诊断中的重要性,从而避免弱视诊断扩大化及过度治疗.%Objective To investigate the amblyopia status of preschool children in the Yangpu district of Shanghai,and to analyze the incidence and distribution of amblyopia based on a new diagnostic standard.Methods Using a cross-sectional investigation method,13 288 children aged 3 to 6 years who were enrolled in 96 kindergardens in the Yangpu District of Shanghai were included in this investigation.Visual acuity and refractive status were examined,and the incidence of amblyopia was evaluated using a new diagnostic criteria.Subsequently,the distribution of amblyopia was evaluated by a chi-square test and trend chi-square test.Results The incidence of amblyopia was much higher when using the old criterion compared to the new

  1. Update on binocular form deprivation amblyopia: mechanisms and treatment%提高对双眼形觉剥夺性弱视发病机制和治疗进展的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阴正勤; 余涛

    2010-01-01

    弱视的发生、发展与视觉发育可塑性关键期密切相关,而形觉剥夺所致视皮层功能异常引起的弱视最严重,错过一定治疗时机将很难治愈.近年来关于双眼形觉剥夺对视皮层可塑性机制影响的研究为成年弱视治疗提供了理论基础.%The onset and development of the amblyopia is related to the critical period of the visual cortex plasticity, while the form deprivation amblyopia is the most serious. Amblyopia of elder children and adults can not be cured if the best timing is missed. Recent researches on the mechanisms of visual cortical plasticity and binocular form deprivation have given a hint for adult amblyopia treatment.

  2. New progress in the treatment of amblyopia and related binocular visual impairment%弱视及弱视相关双眼视功能损害治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 付晶

    2016-01-01

    人眼在视觉发育期由于单眼斜视、未矫正的屈光参差、高度屈光不正及形觉剥夺引起的单眼或双眼最佳矫正视力低于相应年龄的视力为弱视;或双眼视力相差2行及以上,视力较低眼为弱视。弱视在视觉敏感期给予正确治疗可治愈,然而一旦错过治疗时机则会造成终生视力低下;且弱视还会影响双眼视觉功能。因此,弱视的治疗一直是眼科研究的热点问题。目前,弱视的主要方法包括屈光矫正、遮盖疗法、药物治疗、压抑疗法、手术治疗(针对形觉剥夺性弱视)、综合治疗等。近年来,双眼视功能的重建在弱视治疗评价中也逐渐受到重视。本文中笔者在回顾国内外相关文献的基础上,对弱视的治疗方法及最新进展做一综述。%The best corrected visual acuity of monocular or binocular vision in patients with amblyopia is lower than that in normal eyes .It is in visual development period ,as a result of the monocular strabismus,uncorrected anisometropia, highly refractive errors, form deprivation induced.In addition, binocular vision is a difference of 2 lines, low vision eye is amblyopia .Amblyopia in the visual sensitive period to give the correct treatment can be cured , but once missed the opportunity of treatment will cause lifelong amblyopia;and the amblyopia will affect the binocular visual function .Therefore , the treatment of amblyopia has been a hot issue in the Department of Ophthalmology .At present, the main methods of amblyopia including refractive correction , cover therapy , medicine therapy , depression therapy , surgical treatment ( for form deprivation amblyopia ), comprehensive treatment, and so on.In recent years, the reconstruction of binocular visual function has been paid more and more attention in the treatment of amblyopia .On the basis of reviewing domestic and foreign literatures , the author reviewed the treatment methods and the latest

  3. 综合治疗在小儿弱视方面的应用效果分析%Analysis on the Effect of Comprehensive Therapy on Pediatric Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓姿峰; 郭燕; 肖志刚; 向剑波; 唐璟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨综合治疗在小儿弱视治疗中的应用效果. 方法 将我院接诊的135例弱视患儿 (243眼) 作为研究对象,所有患儿均行综合治疗, 观察本组患儿的治疗效果, 并分析临床疗效与患儿年龄、 注视性质、 弱视程度的关系. 结果 本组患儿治愈191眼, 好转51眼, 无效1眼, 治疗总有效率为99.59% (242/243). 其中2 ~6岁患儿的治愈率为92.98%, 显著高于7 ~10岁和11~13岁患儿, 7~10岁患儿的治愈率又显著高于11~13岁患儿, P<0.05. 轻度弱视患儿的治愈率显著高于中度和重度弱视组, 中度弱视患儿的治愈率也显著高于重度弱视组, P<0.05. 中心注视患儿的治愈率为91.13%, 旁中心注视患儿的治愈率为15.00%, 组间比较有显著性差异 (P<0.05). 结论 综合治疗小儿弱视具有较高的治愈率, 但临床疗效会受到患儿年龄、 注视性质、 弱视程度的影响, 年龄越小、 弱视程度越轻及中心注视者的治疗效果更好.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of comprehensive therapy on pediatric amblyopia. Methods 135 cases (243 eyes) of pediatric amblyopia admitted to our hospital were selected. All cases were given comprehensive therapy. The curative effect was observed, and the relationships with age, classification of fixation and degree of amblyopia were analyzed. Results 191 eyes were cured, 51 eyes were improved and one eye was ineffective, with the total effective rate of 99.59%(242/243). The curative rates of children aged from 2 to 6, children aged from 7 to 10, and children aged from 11 to 13 were 92.98%, 77.14%and 16.67%respectively, with statistically significant difference between different age groups (P<0.05). The curative rates of mild amblyopia, moderate amblyopia and severe amblyopia were 94.59%, 78.77%and 26.09%respectively, with statistically significant difference between different degrees of amblyopia (P <0.05). The curative rate of centric fixation was 91.13%, significantly

  4. 182例儿童弱视综合治疗临床观察%Clinical outcome of 182 cases of Amblyopia in Children after Combined Modality Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林媚; 张至菲; 关翠柳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical outcome of amblyopia in children after 3 years of treatment.To compare effectiveness of treatment among different age groups,types and severity groups of amblyopia.Methods 182 cases(276 eyes) aging from 3 years old to 13 years old,male 95 cases(157 eyes),female 87 cases(119 eyes).All of the patients were given 1%Atropine sulfate eye ointment for mydriatic refractometry and proper correction of refractive errors.Every 6 to 12 months,all the patients underwent a mydriatic refractometry and were given proper combination of the following management including occlusion treatment,medication,optical penalization and photic stimulation.Patients were followed up from 18 months to 36 months(ave. 24 months) with eyesight check up every month.Results The overall therapeutic efficacy in this group of patients was as high as 90.22%,cure rate 57.61%,improvement rate 32.61%and no effect 9.78%.Among which,age 3 to 6 years old group had an overall therapeutic efficacy as high as 95.92%while the 7 to 13 years age group had one only at 76.25%(P<0.05);mild amblyopia group had a therapeutic efficacy of 98.79%,moderate amblyopia group had a therapeutic efficacy of 82.95%,both of which were much higher than the severe group with a therapeutic efficacy only at 56.52%(P<0.05);group amblyopias had a therapeutic efficacy of 94.76%while group anisometropic amblyopia’s therapeutic efficacy was 90.62%,both of which were higher than that of group strabismic amblyopia at 73.58%(P<0.05);central fixation group’s therapeutic efficacy was 99.45% which was much better than that of eccentric fixation 72.04%(P<0.05). Conclusion To achieve optimal outcome,early diagnosis,early interference with aggressive combined therapy is highly recommended to cure amblyopia in children.%目的:总结分析一组弱视儿童3年综合治疗随访结果,观察不同年龄、不同类型、不同程度弱视治疗的疗效。方法:182例(276眼)3~13

  5. Analysis of 54 cases of amblyopia of children treated by using Huaiqihuang Granules combined with Auricular Point Pressing%槐杞黄颗粒合耳穴贴压治疗儿童弱视54例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建玲; 余凤慈; 梁淑贞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the therapy of using Huaiqihuang Granules combined with Auricular Point Pressing for children in amblyopia. Methods Amblyopia in children of our clinic as a treatment group (54 cases, total 88 eyes), the treatment group was treated by using Huaiqihuang Granules combined with Auricular Point Pressing. The control group was treated by using SI LI BA combined with major amblyoscope (46 cases, total 76 eyes). And analysing the amblyopia type, the degree of amblyopia, the nature of amblyopia watch. Results The basic cure rate and total effective rate in treatment group were 65.9% and 95.5%, and its in control group were 50% and 84.2%. Between two groups,the basic cure rate of treatment group was significantly better than that in control group (P< 0.05). The effect of treatment was better for the ametropic and anisometropic amblyopia, center fixation, but it was poor in strabismic amblyopia, paracentral fixation. The lighter degree of amblyopia had the better effect. Conclusions Compared with western medicine, traditional chinese medicine shows outstanding advantages in treatment, Huaiqihuang Granules combined with Auricular Point Pressing is an safe and effective TCM therapy for the children with amblyopia, the therapy has convenient usage, fast and remarkable effect, which is worth clinical application and further study.%目的 观察槐杞黄颗粒合耳穴贴压治疗儿童弱视的疗效.方法 2006年1月至2009年6月本院门诊确诊为弱视的儿童共计100例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组54例(88眼),采用槐杞黄颗粒联合耳穴贴压治疗.对照组46例(76眼),采用思利巴联合同视机治疗.分析比较两组弱视的类型、弱视程度、弱视注视性质.结果 治疗组基本治愈率和总有效率为65.9%、95.5%,对照组基本治愈率和总有效率为50%、84.2%.两组比较,治疗组的基本治愈率明显优于对照组(P<0.05).临床显示屈光不正性和屈光参差

  6. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™ implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouzian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Amir Pirouzian1,3, Kenneth C Ip2, Henry S O’Halloran31The Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAPurpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the reduction of clinically significant (>-8 D myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses.Design: Retrospective interventional case series.Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean <20/400. All patients underwent Verisyse™ phakic IOL implantation in the more myopic eye by one surgeon (AP. Pre- and post-operative visual acuity, anterior/posterior segment examination, stereoacuity, axial biometry measurements, cycloplegic refraction, and endothelial cell counts were performed in all patients whenever feasible.Results: The age of patients ranged from 5–11 years. The mean post-operative follow-up time was six months from the time of IOL insertion. Improvement in visual acuity >6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months. Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing. Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted

  7. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean 6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months). Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing). Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted. Discussion: Irreversible or intractable amblyopia secondary to severe anisometropic myopia is a serious medical concern in the pediatric population. Failure of compliance with contact lens therapy consistently leads to visual loss. Anterior chamber phakic IOLs may provide a safe alternative in treatment of noncompliant anisometropic myopic patients who do not accept spectacle wear or contact lens therapy. Conclusion: To reduce or eliminate highly significant anisometropic myopia in children who are noncompliant with traditional medical treatment, phakic anterior chamber IOL implantation may be considered as an alternative modality of treatment. PMID:19668592

  8. Learn new version of Preferred Practice Pattern to further standardize the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia%学习新版临床指南进一步规范弱视诊断治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵堪兴; 史学锋

    2014-01-01

    眼科临床指南(PPP)的引入,使我国眼科医师有机会接触和了解国际眼科PPP的制定原则、方法和应用价值,对快速提高我国眼科临床的诊疗水平,推动我国眼科临床诊疗规范化,促进国际交流起到了显著作用.由赵家良教授主译的PPP中译本第2版于2013年11月正式出版.新版PPP弱视分册采用了最新的证据分级和推荐意见标准,在循证基础上突出实用性;在弱视的定义方面,根据近年来国际研究的最新进展增加了新的解释;在弱视的诊断标准方面,对不同年龄段双眼弱视的最佳矫正视力标准有了新的界定;在弱视的检查方面,提供了从视力的定性评估方法、视力表的选择到睫状肌麻痹剂的使用等全面而实用的建议;在弱视的治疗方面,不仅根据最新的多中心临床随机对照试验的研究成果给出了强烈的建议,而且也明确地指出某些治疗措施尚缺乏足够证据支持;强调了停止弱视治疗后仍然需要定期随诊的必要性;在弱视的预防方面,指出了开展弱视的早期筛查的重要性,明确健康保健保险计划应当覆盖弱视的筛查、治疗和监察复发.本文就新版PPP弱视内容进行择要解读,以期与国内眼科同道一起进一步促进我国弱视诊断治疗的规范化.%The introduction of Preferred Practice Patterns (PPP) into China has given ophthalmologists in China more opportunities to acquaint themselves with international clinical guidelines for eye care,including its developing principles,methods and the application value.It had brought significant effects on the fast improvement of clinical eye care and standardization of diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases in China,and promoted the international academic exchanges.The 2nd Chinese version of PPPs translated by Prof.Jialiang Zhao was officially published in November,2013.The new version of PPP for amblyopia adopted the newest standard for grading of evidence

  9. Analysis of amblyopia in refractive error and its pathogenic factors with 5174 cases of children%少年儿童屈光不正5174例弱视临床调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐翠萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究3~16岁少年儿童屈光特征,斜视弱视及近视的致病因素.方法 对2006年1月至2011年8月在庆阳市人民医院眼科门诊就诊的少年儿童(年龄3~16岁),采用屈光检测仪及客观验光检测其屈光度数,同时采用角膜映光法、遮盖去遮盖法、交替遮盖法测定眼位,确定其屈光状态.结果 筛查出5174人少年儿童存在不同程度的屈光不正,或伴有斜视弱视.其中单纯近视2396人、远视1360人,复性屈光不正1418人.有134人同时伴有弱视,所占比例为2.6%.其中,屈光不正性弱视55人,屈光参差性弱视46人,斜视性弱视33人.各年龄段弱视屈光状态比较:7~12岁学龄儿童与13~16岁少年弱视的屈光状态之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),3~6岁学龄前儿童与7~12岁学龄儿童及13~16岁少年弱视的屈光状态之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 少年儿童弱视发病人群及屈光特征为:(1) 3~6岁儿童弱视主要表现为屈光参差性和斜视性弱视.(2) 7~16岁少年儿童弱视主要表现为屈光不正性弱视.(3) 3~16岁屈光不正少年儿童中弱视的患病率为2.6%.根据少年儿童的屈光特征及早采取近视预防、矫正、弱视训练等干预措施,降低近视和弱视发病率.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and interventions of refractive error,manifest deviation and amblyopia and its risk factors in children of 3 to 16 years old.Methods Diopter was measured by the phoropter and objective refraction,while refractive status was detected by the hirschberg test,cover-uncover test and altemate cover test for children of 3 to 16 years old from January 2006 to August 2011.Results All 5174 cases of refractive error with amblyopia or manifest devitation were found,of which 2396 cases of myopia,1360 cases of hyperopia and 1418 cases of compound refractive error were found respectively.Out of 134 cases of amblyopia (2.6%),there were 55 cases of ametropic

  10. Microfluctuation change of eye accommodation and efficacy of dominant eye in adolescents with ametropic amblyopia under same amount comprehensive amblyopia treatment%青少年屈光不正性弱视在同量综合弱视治疗下眼调节微波动的变化及主视眼疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强

    2016-01-01

    AlM:To explore the microfluctuation change of eye accommodation in adolescents with ametropic amblyopia under same amount comprehensive amblyopia treatment and the efficacy for dominant eye. METHODS: Teenagers who took routine physical examination were chosen as the research object. Copper card method was used to identify the dominant eye and the main eye in adolescents with ametropic amblyopia which was the observation group, 63 cases with 63 eyes each. Sixty subjects with emmetropia were as the normal group. The research objects underwent mydriasis optometry, computer optometry and streak retinoscopes to determine the diopter. The patients with ametropic amblyopia were treated with same amount comprehensive amblyopia treatment, and wearing glasses. There was not any treatment for normal group. The curative effect of same amount comprehensive amblyopia treatment were tested between the observation group and the control group when treating at 1,3,6 and 12mo respectively. Microfluctuation changes when reading at the distance of 25, 33 and 50cm(5min for every distance) of the two groups were tested. Then the low frequencies ( LFC ) of microfluctuation change was calculated and analyzed. The whole eye aberration of the normal group and the observation group were tested with i-Trace Wave Scan Wavefront, and the corneal aberration was collected and calculated with Humphrey corneal topographer. Microfluctuation changes of the two groups were compared and the relation between the accommodation index and the wavefront aberration was analyzed. RESULTS:Through statistical analysis, the LFC value of the observation group at 25, 33 and 50cm respectively was 0. 086± 0. 022, 0. 057 ± 0. 032 and 0. 041 ± 0. 028D2/Hz, which was significantly higher than the LFC value of the normal group which was 0. 047 ± 0. 023, 0. 037 ± 0. 021, 0. 027 ± 0. 011D2/Hz(P CONCLUSlON:Under the same amount treatment, the short-term curative effect of dominant eyes in children with ametropic

  11. 弱视儿童训练致眼外伤103例临床分析%Analysis of ocular trauma caused by amblyopia training in 103 children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄焱

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause of ocular trauma in training of amblyopic children. Methods Analyze the type and treatment effect of ocular trauma caused by amblyopia training. Results 103 eyes of 106 cases amblyopia children were injured. The vision improved quickly after the treatment. Conclusions The trauma caused by amblyopia training is not severe, but the attention should be paid during amblyopic training.%目的:探讨弱视患儿在进行弱视综合训练时致眼外伤的原因及预防。方法对近4年所接诊的弱视患儿在进行弱视综合训练过程中所致外伤的类型和治疗效果进行分析。结果103例(106眼)弱视患儿角膜擦伤较多,经对症治疗后,基本治愈。结论103例弱视患儿在进行弱视综合训练时致眼外伤均不严重,但也应做好防范工作。

  12. Research Advances in Relationship between Preschool Amblyopia and Trace Elements%学龄前儿童弱视与微量元素关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟蓉; 徐克前

    2012-01-01

      There is increasingly attention to the relationship between amblyopia and trace elements(Zn、Se、Cu、Fe、Mn etc)in recent years. Attention and timely correction in preschool exception of trace elements is of great help to improve the treatment of amblyopia and to reverse amblyopia. The papers refer to the latest literature and take comprehensive overview.%  近年来弱视与微量元素(锌、硒、铜、铁、锰等)的关系,日益受到眼科工作者的关注,重视并及时纠正学龄前儿童微量元素的异常,对提高弱视患儿的治疗效果、逆转弱视有很大帮助。本文参考国内外最新文献,对此进行了较全面的综述

  13. 不同类型及不同程度弱视儿童的立体视觉损害现状分析%Analysis of Different types and varying degrees of amblyopia Situation in Childrenˊs stereoscopic visual impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爽; 尹明; 苏丽萍; 明霞; 路凤妮

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同类型及不同程度弱视儿童的立体视觉损害情况。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年1月初诊的不同类型弱视儿童共142例,按照弱视类型将患儿分为屈光不正性弱视78例、屈光参差性弱视39例和斜视性弱视25例三组。每组类型弱视根据不同程度分为轻度、中度和重度。采用颜少明立体视觉检查图测定三种不同类型、不同程度弱视儿童的近零视差、交叉视差和非交叉视差的发生情况。结果屈光不正性弱视组、屈光参差性弱视组与斜视性弱视组比,患儿的近零视差、交叉视差和非交叉视差存在率的差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05),斜视性弱视组的立体视觉存在率最低,屈光不正性弱视组最高。随着弱视程度的加重,立体视也随之损害加重,非交叉视差在三种类型弱视组及不同程度弱视组的存在率最低。结论儿童弱视可影响其立体视觉发育,影响程度随着屈光不正性弱视、屈光参差性弱视和斜视性弱视的顺序而加重,随着弱视程度的加重,立体视也随之损害加重。%Objective To analyze the damage the status in different types and varying degrees of amblyopia stereoscopic for children. Methods A retrospective analysis of 142 cases of newly diagnosed children amblyopia from January 2012 to January 2014 was included into this study. Yan Shao - ming was applied to evaluate children amblyopia. Results The cases of zero disparity,crossed disparity and uncrossed dispari-ty in refractive amblyopia,anisometropia and strabismus amblyopia groups had statistically significances( P ﹤ 0. 05). Three - dimensional strabis-mus amblyopia group visual was the least. The refractive amblyopia group was the highest. Three - dimensional damage increased as the severity of amblyopia. Conclusion Children with amblyopia may affect three - dimensional visual development,by the order of refractive amblyopia

  14. 四川省乐山市夹江县第一小学小儿斜弱视流行病学调查分析%Epidemiological investigation and analysis of children with strabismus and amblyopia in No. 1 primary school of Jiajiang County, Leshan, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卜丹; 杜慧斌; 税丹; 李雪; 曾莉; 郝更生

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解小学生斜弱视的流行病学及相关因素,为制定防治策略提供指导。  方法:对四川省乐山市夹江县第一小学600例学生进行视力、屈光及眼位等进行筛查,比较不同性别、年龄阶段的斜视患病率、弱视患病率,并统计不同弱视或斜视种类患儿的弱视程度及有无立体视。  结果:弱视患病率与斜视患病率分别为4.0%,2.5%;各年龄段、不同性别的学生斜视患病率、弱视患病率对比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);屈光不正性是主要的弱视类型,占55.6%,且主要的弱视程度为轻、中度;屈光不正性弱视、屈光不正性弱视及外斜视大多数有立体视,而大部分的斜视性弱视及全部的内斜视均无立体视。  结论:屈光不正性弱视是小学生主要的弱视类型,其斜弱视的患病率与性别的关系不明显,但斜弱视的治疗效果、立体视的建立等与年龄、眼位存在密切的关系,应早发现、早治疗。%AIM: To understand the epidemiology and related factors of strabismic amblyopia of students of primary school, and to provide guidances for the prevention and control strategy. METHODS: A total of 600 cases of primary school students of Leshan City, Jiajiang County were given vision, oblique incidence and ocular and other screening. The prevalence rate of poor eyesight of strabismus, amblyopia prevalence rate of different sexes, ages were compared, and the degree of amblyopia and strabismus of children with different types of amblyopia and whether or not had stereoscopic vision were counted. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of amblyopia and strabismus prevalence rate were respectively 4. 0% and 2.5%;With the growth of all age, low vision of students was significantly decreased, the difference of comparison of low vision rate of each age had statistical significance (P0. 05 );Ametropic amblyopia was the main type, accounting for 55. 6%, and the degree of amblyopia

  15. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisamos libros de texto reconocidos y utilizando MEDLINE, artículos representativos relacionados con el tema y mostramos un panorama general que incluye aspectos básicos de anatomía de los músculos extraoculares, nomenclatura y terminología empleada en estrabismo, aspectos de fisiología motora, pruebas clínicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico, generalidades sobre los principales tipos de estrabismo y manejo. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. MedUNAB 2011;14:108-120]. _____________________________________________________________________________________Strabismus and amblyopia are seen quite frecuently in the general population. Amblyopia is responsable for more unilaterally reduced vision of childhood onset than all other causes combined. There are severeal causes of strabismus while amblyopia is caused by three phisiopathologic states. We pretend to provide the primary care physician a general and up date review on this subject. In this article we reviewed recognized textbooks and, using MEDLINE some representative articles on this subject. We provide an overview of anatomical concepts, abbreviated designations for types of strabismus, some aspects on motor physiology, diagnostic techniques for strabismus and amblyopia, general concepts on various endodeviations and exodeviations and the management of each type. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in

  16. Examination of macula in amblyopia children without obvious cause using optical coherence tomography%无明显病因弱视儿童黄斑光学相干断层成像检查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路素华; 刘慧; 王戈平

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究无明显病因弱视儿童黄斑中心凹厚度的变化,并与正常眼比较。方法对25例(49眼)无明显病因弱视儿童(研究组)及18例(36眼)正常儿童(对照组)分别进行光学相干断层扫描(OCT)检查,记录黄斑中心凹视网膜厚度,将两组数据进行比较。结果研究组和对照组儿童的黄斑中心凹厚度分别为217.43±12.44μm和222.12±16.22μm。两者相比,差异有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论无明显病因弱视儿童的黄斑中心凹视网膜厚度更薄。%Objective To assess the thickness of the fovea in amblyopia children without obvious cause by optical coherence tomography (OCT)and compare them with normal children . Methods OCT was performed on 25 amblyopia children (49 amblyopia eyes)with no obvious cause and 18 normal children (36 normal eyes).We The thickness of the macular fover was measured and compared with each other. Results The thickness of macular fovea in the n amblyopia group and the normal group were 217.43±12.44μm and 222.12±16.22μm respectivelyand a significant difference was found between the two groups ( <0.05).Conclusions The thickness of macular fovea of the amblyopia eyes with no ob-vious cause is thinner than that of normal eyes.

  17. Observation of the effect of children amblyopia with virtual technology combined afterimage therapy%虚拟技术与后象联合治疗儿童弱视的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the curative effect of children amblyopia with virtual technology combined afterimage therapy. Methods The analysis was done from 2009. 10 to 2010. 12 for 91 amblyopic children( 163 eyes) who had been treated with virtual technology combined afterimage therapy in my hospital. Results The total effective rate of 163 eyes was 95.09% , in which 118 eyes (72. 39% ) were cured basically ,37 eyes (22. 70% ) were effective,37 eyes (4. 9% ) were ineffective. Conclusion (Dthe degree of amblyopia is lighter ,the effect is better;?The effect of centre watch children is better than that of those who watched beside the center;?The type of refractive error has the best effect in all types of amblyopia;@The treatment age of amblyopia is younger ,the effect is better. The therapy of virtual technology combined afterimage therapy has exact effect in children amblyopia.%目的 观察虚拟技术与后象联合治疗儿童弱视的疗效.方法 我院眼科2009年10月~2010年12月采用虚拟技术与后象联合治疗儿童弱视91例163眼.结果 163只眼总有效率为95.09%,其中基本治愈118眼(72.39%)有效37眼(22.70%),无效37眼(4.9%).结论 ①弱视程度越轻其疗效越好;②中心注视者的疗效较旁中心注视者疗效好;③各种类型弱视的疗效以屈光不正性最好;④弱视治疗年龄越小越好.虚拟技术与后象联合治疗儿童弱视效果确切.

  18. An investigation on binocular summation response of visual evoked potential in children with hyperopia amblyopia%弱视儿童双眼总和视觉诱发电位变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春红; 廖瑜俊; 杨洋; 邓燕; 彭小维; 鄢涛; 殷小龙

    2009-01-01

    Objective Conventional examination for vision function adopts subjective psychophysics methods.Pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) binocular summation response is a new objective way for the test of vision function.But its clinical value in evaluating vision function of amblyopia children is still in controversy.This study was to explore the binocular vision and the feature of P-VEP binocular summation in children with amblyopia and evaluate the significance of P-VEP binocular summation in binocular vision.MethodsThis is a case-controlled study.P-VEP binocular summation response and single ocular P-VEP response was respectively recorded in 151 hyperopia amblyopia children and 80 age- and gender-matched normal children.P-VEP response from children with hyperopia amblyopia was recorded under the corrected vision.The hyperopia amblyopia was diagnosed based on the standard of National Children Amblyopia and Strabismus Prevention and Treatment Working Group.The feature of P-VEP binocular summation was further analyzed and compared with monocular VEP response.Informed consent was obtained from each subject or custodian prior to the trail.ResultsNo significant difference was found in latency between P-VEP binocular summation response and monocular P-VEP response whether amblyopia children or normal children(P>0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value in amblyopia children was lower than that in normal children(P<0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value in mild or moderate amblyopia children was higher than that in severe amblyopia children(P<0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value was significantly reduced in the children with binocular vision than in the children without binocular vision (P<0.05).ConclusionP-VEP binocular vision,acting as an evaluation factor,could impartially reflect the function of binocular vision of amblyopia children.%目的 探讨弱视儿童双眼视功能及总和图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)反应的特

  19. Resultados do tratamento da ambliopia com levodopa combinada à oclusão Results of amblyopia treatment with levodopa associated with occlusion therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Procianoy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a melhora da acuidade visual com levodopa/benzerazida combinada à oclusão parcial e seguida por oclusão total, em pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo experimental aberto, envolvendo 37 pacientes entre 7 e 40 anos de idade, com ambliopia por estrabismo ou anisometropia, durante 9 semanas. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com levodopa (0,70 mg/kg/dia e benzerazida 25% associada à oclusão de 4 horas/dia do olho dominante por 5 semanas e, nas 4 semanas seguintes foi realizada somente a oclusão total (24 h do olho dominante. A acuidade visual foi medida na tabela do ETDR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy com escala logMAR (logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução antes de iniciar o tratamento e após 1, 3, 5 e 9 semanas de tratamento. As adesões ao tratamento de oclusão e a ingesta do me-dicamento foram verificadas por meio de questionário e pela contagem das cápsulas. Os efeitos adversos foram avaliados por exame clínico e questionário. RESULTADOS: Após 9 semanas de tratamento, a acuidade visual média melhorou em logMAR de 0,58 ± 0,16 para 0,23 ± 0,16 (melhora de 4 linhas na tabela ETDR. CONCLUSÃO: Levodopa, na dose de 0,70 mg/kg/dia, é bem tolerada e associada à oclusão produz melhora significativa na acuidade visual de pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível.PURPOSE: To evaluate visual acuity improvement with levodopa/benzerazide associated with partial occlusion and followed by total occlusion therapy in patients with amblyopia considered irreversible. METHODS: A 9-week experimental open study was performed involving 37 patients, between 7 and 40 years old, with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. All patients were treated with levodopa (0.70 mg/kg/day and 25% benzerazide associated with 4-hour/day occlusion of the dominant eye for 5 weeks. In the last 4 weeks, only the total occlusion (24 h of the dominant eye was performed. Visual acuity

  20. Análise do custo do tratamento da ambliopia para o paciente em hospital universitário A cost analysis of therapy for amblyopia for an outpatient at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ottaiano Cerântola de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os custos do tratamento da ambliopia para o paciente pela oclusão do olho dominante, assim como seu resultado visual. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo prospectivo para avaliar o custo do tratamento de ambliopia por oclusão no Setor de Estrabismo do Hospital São Paulo - Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Crianças portadoras de ambliopia entre 3 e 7 anos de idade foram incluídas no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a partir do diagnóstico até três retornos consecutivos. Ao diagnóstico prescreveram-se óculos se necessário e oclusão total, direta e contínua do olho dominante. Nos retornos coletaram-se dados referentes ao tratamento e ao custo do tratamento da ambliopia. Para análise dos resultados os custos foram divididos em diretos (óculos e oclusor e indiretos (transporte e desconto do dia de trabalho do acompanhante. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 14 pacientes com idade média de 5,21 anos, sendo 7 (50% do sexo masculino e 7 (50% do sexo feminino. Observou-se melhora da acuidade visual em 71,43% dos pacientes. O custo médio mensal do tratamento da ambliopia foi de R$ 59,49 e o custo médio anual de R$ 714,47. O custo médio mensal do tratamento da ambliopia equivale a 12,20% da renda familiar mensal média dos pacientes neste estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento de oclusão da ambliopia é eficiente e melhorou a acuidade visual do olho amblíope em 71,43% dos casos. O custo mensal deste tratamento é de R$ 59,49 e representa 12,20% da renda familiar mensal dos pacientes avaliados.PURPOSE: To analyze the costs of therapy for amblyopia for an outpatient using occlusion of the normal sighted eye and its visual results. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to evaluate the costs of therapy for amblyopia at the Strabismus Sector of the Hospital São Paulo - Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Children with amblyopia ranging in age from 3 to 7 years were

  1. TREATMENT EXPERIENCE OF USING PHARMACOLOGICAL PENALIZATION OF WEARING CALLEIDIC CONTACT LENS FOR ANISOMETROPIC AMBLYOPIA IN 42 ELDER CHILDREN%42例临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志刚; 刘博; 廖慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of using pharmacological penalization of wearing calleidic contact lens for anisometropic amblyopia in elder children. Methods In this retrospective case-series study, 42 cases of anisometropic amblyopic children aged from 8 to 15 were treated with pharlogical penalization of wearing calleidic contact lens based on the treatment of refractive correction and refined eyesight examination. All the patients were followed up above two years. Results The basically cured rate was 50. 00% and the total effective rate was 85. 71%. The effective rate in mild, moderate and severe amblyopic was 100. 00% , 85. 71% , 25. 00% ( P < 0. 01) respectively, and the effective rate in children aged from 8 to 12 and aged from 13 to 15 were 91. 12% and 62. 50% ( P < 0.01) . Conclusion It is a feasible method that pharmacological penalization of wearing calleidic contact lens can be used based on the treatment of spectacle correction and refined eyesight examination for anisometropic amblyopia in elder children. The method is worthy of being studied further.%目的 观察采用医用美容片压抑治疗大龄儿童屈光参差性弱视的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析在屈光矫正、精细作业治疗基础上配戴医用美容片进行压抑治疗8~15岁大龄儿童屈光参差性弱视42例,随访2年以上.结果 基本治愈率50.00%,总有效率85.71%,轻、中、重度弱视有效率分别为100.00%、85.71%、25.00%(P<0.01 ),年龄8~12岁、13~15岁有效率分别为91.12%、62.50%(P<0.01).结论 在屈光矫正、精细作业治疗基础上配戴医用美容片压抑治疗大龄儿童屈光参差性弱视,方法可行,值得临床再进一步研究.

  2. P-VEP games aided combined treatment of amblyopia in children%P-VEP游戏辅助综合疗法治疗儿童弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峥; 李小影; 邝英桥; 李婷; 黄慕贞; 夏旭光

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy for amblyopia in children by making use of pattern visual evoked potential ( P-VEP) game. METHODS: This was a prospective case control study. These asthenopic children were divided into two groups. The control group ( 66 eyes of 49 patients ): occlusive therapy with glasses, cover, precision work, red light treatment and so on, later the stereo vision training was added. The experimental group (72 eyes of 52 patients):conventional methods mentioned above with P - VEP games. RESULTS: The total effective rate and cure rate of experimental group in 6mo were higher than those of control group. The overall effective rate was 94. 4% in the experimental group and 83. 3% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between them (P CONCLUSION: The comprehensive therapy by making use of P-VEP game is an individualized effective new way in treating amblyopia.%目的:评价图形视觉诱发电位( pattern visual evoked potential,P-VEP )游戏辅助综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效。  方法:采取前瞻性病例对照研究。设立试验组(个性化P-VEP电脑游戏辅助综合疗法)52例72眼和对照组(综合疗法组)49例66眼。对照组采用戴镜,遮盖+精细用目作业疗法,以及弱视红光治疗等生理刺激综合疗法,后期再加入立体视觉训练。试验组在综合治疗上辅助个性化P-VEP电脑游戏弱视训练。  结果:两组患儿治疗周期6 mo。试验组的疗效优于对照组,试验组中有效率达94.4%,对照组有效率为83.3%。差异有统计学意义。  结论:P-VEP电脑游戏辅助综合疗法是一种个性化的有效治疗儿童弱视的新方案。

  3. 屈光参差性弱视儿童治愈后的双眼视觉研究%Binocular vision in cured anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 王京辉; 孙省利; 董芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the binocular vision change in cured anisometropic amblyopic children and normal children. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 74 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 74 normal children. Methods Binocular vision of 74 anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity ≥0.9 and 74 normal children were tested with synoptophore and stereogram designed by Yan Shao-ming. Main Outcome Measures Simultaneous perception, distance fusion range, distance qualitative stereopsis and near zero disparity. Results (1) Distance qualitative stereopsis in cured anisometropic amblyopic children was worse than normal children(χ2=11.331 ,P=0.001), simultaneous perception (χ2=1.855 ,P=0.173) and distance fusion range (χ2=1.012,P= 0.603) had little difference between them. (2) Near zero disparity in cured anisometropic amblyopic children was obviously worse than normal children (χ2=27.759,P=0.000). (3) The milder the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the improvement of the near zero disparity (χ2=17.116,P=0.009). While simultaneous perception (x2=0.879,P=0.644),distance fusion range(χ2=7.930,P= 0.094), distance qualitative stereopsis (χ2=2.854, P=0.240) had little difference. Conclusion Anisometropic amblyopia affects the development of stereoacuity critically. The stereoacuity of anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity ≥0.9 after treatment is still worse than normal children. The more severe the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the effect of the near zero disparity.%目的 了解屈光参差性弱视儿童治愈后双眼视觉状况.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象屈光参差性弱视儿童74例,正常儿童74例.方法 采用同视机和颜少明《立体视觉检查图》对74例经治疗矫正视力已≥0.9的屈光参差性弱视儿童和74例正常儿童的双眼视觉功能进行检测.主要指标同时知觉、远融合范围、定性

  4. Observation on the curative effect of visual perceptual learning for juvenile ametropic amblyopia%视知觉学习治疗大龄屈光不正性弱视效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泉; 刘伟民; 肖信

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较基于互联网的视知觉学习系统和传统综合训练方法治疗大龄儿童弱视的疗效,分析其视力的变化,摸索儿童弱视有效的治疗方法.方法:选取广西壮族自治区人民医院收治的弱视患儿84例(160眼),应用基于互联网的视知觉学习系统和传统综合训练方法对大龄弱视儿童进行治疗,具体训练方案由医师基于患儿视觉表现的初始状态、功能低下的严重程度以及训练治疗过程中的进步来设计,视知觉学习系统组给予提高视觉噪声和轮廓整合、位置噪声等视觉训练方案,传统训练组采取红光、精细目力训练等治疗.观察两种方法在弱视治疗后1个月、3个月、9个月、12个月的视力变化.结果:视知觉训练系统组的总体疗效高于传统综合疗法组,不同程度屈光不正性弱视视知觉学习组的总体疗效高于传统综合疗法组,差异均有统计学意义.视知觉感知组视力提升速率明显高于传统组,视知觉感知组在疗程第6个月已有50%的患儿进入基本治愈的平台期,而传统组50%的患儿进入基本治愈平台期在第12个月.视知觉训练组治疗屈光不正性弱视平均训练17.14 h可提高一行视力,其中重度弱视所需时间最短(12.00h),轻度弱视所需时间最长(25.12 h).结论:基于互联网的视知觉学习系统提供了强烈的、活跃的、有反馈的个性化视觉刺激,对超过视觉发育敏感期的大龄儿童屈光不正性弱视的疗效优于传统综合疗法,缩短了视功能障碍治疗的周期.此新方法能在较短时间达到最佳治疗效果,为弱视的临床治疗提供了新的可行的途径.%Objective; To compare the curative effects of perceptual learning based on internet and traditional comprehensive training in treatment of juvenile amblyopia, analyze the change of visual acuity, explore an effective therapy for children with amblyopia. Methods; 84 children (160 eyes) were selected

  5. Stereoacuity and Amblyopia and Strabismus of Children in China%中国儿童的弱视、斜视与立体视锐度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙禄

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study is to discover a developing status of stereoacuity of normal Chinese pre-school children and the relationship between stereoacuity and sex (part l), and to observe the impairment of stereopsis of patients with amblyopia and strabismus in detail (part 2). Methods: In part 1, the random sampling were used. The stereoacuity of 473 normal children(232 boys and 241 girls)were studied. The subjects were tested with five screening items. In part 2, 122 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of amblyopia and strabismus seen in a ophthalmology clinic were enrolled. The general routine eye examination wereperformed. The Chinese Random-dot Stereograms were used in the study. Results: In part1 465 children (98.3%)passed the 120″level and 402(85.0%)passed the 60″tlevet. There wasno noticeable difference in the stereoacuity between the male and female pre-school children(p0.05). It is observed that_theimpairment of stereopsis due to concomitant esotropia is more severe than that due toconcomitant exotropia(p<0.01).Conclusion: The developing status of stereoaeuity of normalChinese pre-school children are good. The impairment of stereopsis of patients with amblyopiaand strabismus are severe.%目的:为中国正常学龄前儿童立体视功能发育提供重要的基本数据,并了解立体视与性别的关系;揭示弱视与斜视患者立体视损害的规律.方法:随机抽样测定473名(男232人,女241人)4~6岁正常儿童的立体视锐度.同时无选择地测定122例弱视与斜视门诊患者的立体视.结果:473名儿童中,465人(98.3%)通过120",402人(85%)通过60″,且无性别差异.122例患者中100人(82%)为立体视盲,弱视愈深,立体视愈差,其立体视损害与注视性质及斜视的发生有关(P<0.05),单、双眼弱视间无显著性差异(P>0.05),共同性内斜视患者的立体视损害较共同性外斜视者更重(P<0.01).结论:我国正常

  6. The comparision of clinical effect for two different combined therapy in myopic amblyopia%近视弱视两种综合治疗方法疗效对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲华; 任兵; 刘秀琴; 曹小鹏; 李明; 张燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of two different combined therapy which minimal occlusion + Haidinger brush + flicker red light +training at near activity and occlusion + flicker red light + training at near activity in treating children's myopic amblyopia. Methods 92 children (172eyes) with myopic amblyopia were treated, 46 children (87eyes) in Group A aged 4~10y (5.65±1.57y) were treated with minimal occlusion + Haidinger brush + flicker red light + training at near activity and 46 children (85eyes) in Group B aged 3~9y (5.57±1.36y) were treated with occlusion + flicker red light + training at near activity. The patients with mild myopic, moderate myopic and high myopic were 23,45 and 19eyes in group A and 25,43 and 17 eyes in group B (χ2=0.2l7 ,P>0.05), The patients with low amblyopia, medium amblyopia and severe amblyopia were 20,35 and 32eyes in group A and 18,36 and 31 eyes in group B (χ2=0.H2,P>0.05). All patients were followed up 24 months, To compare and analysis the clinical effect of the two different combined therapy. Results The recovery rate, effective rate and inefficacy rate was 57.47%, 27.59% and 14.94%, respectively in Group A. And 38.82%, 40.00% and 21.18%, respectively in Group B ( χ2 = 5.99,P<0.05). Conclusions there are a better effect for the combined therapy of minimal occlusion + Haidinger brush + flicker red light + training at near activity in treating myopic amblyopia children and the combined therapy can be regarded as one of the appropriate treatment for myopic amblyopia.%目的 对比分析短小遮盖+海丁格刷+闪烁红光+近距离功能训练和完全遮盖+闪烁红光+近距离功能训练两种综合治疗方法在近视性弱视治疗中的疗效.方法 选择近视性弱视患儿甲、乙两组共92例172只眼,甲组46例87只眼,年龄4~10岁(5.65±1.57岁),乙组46例85只眼,年龄4~9岁(5.57±1.36岁),其中甲组轻度、中度、高度近视眼分别为23只眼、45只眼、19只眼;乙组为25

  7. 口服叶黄素治疗低龄单眼弱视儿童的疗效观察%The effect of oral lutein treatment in young children with unilateral amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大卫

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察综合治疗联合口服叶黄素对轻、中度单眼弱视低龄儿童的临床疗效。方法将轻、中度单眼弱视患儿随机分为两组。实验组除进行综合治疗外,同时口服叶黄素;对照组只进行配戴眼镜、健眼单眼遮盖及弱视眼精细目力训练的综合治疗。结果治疗后1个月,实验组视力提高的有效率为36.36%,高于对照组的30.43%,但差异无显著性(χ2=0.178,=0.673)。治疗后6个月视力变化比较,实验组有效率81.82%,高于对照组的64.95%,但差异无显著性(χ2=1.585,=0.208)。结论综合治疗联合口服叶黄素对轻、中度单眼弱视低龄儿童更为有效。%Objective To observe the effect of complex treatment combined with oral lutein in young children with mild and moderate unilateral amblyopia. Methods Young children with unilateral amblyopia were divided into two groups randomly, complex treatment combined with oral lutein in experimental group and complex treatment in control group which included wearing glasses, healthy eye cover and fine eyesight training for amblyopic eye. Results Effective rate of VA(visual acuity)improvement in the experimental group was 36.36%, higher than 30.43%of the control group after one month treat-ment, but there was no significant difference (χ2=0.178, =0.673).After six months treatment, VA improvement rate in the experimental group was 81.82%, higher than 64.95%of the control group, but there was no significant difference (χ2=1.585,=0.208). Conclusions Complex treatment combined with oral lutein was more effetive than complex treatment in young children with mild and moderateunilateral amblyopia.

  8. Avaliação da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e mácula em pacientes com ambliopia Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, macular thickness, in patients with amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mitre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em olhos amblíopes e comparar com olhos normais e certificar se há correlação com a redução da acuidade visual. Além disso, este estudo se propõe avaliar a eficácia e eficiência em uma série de casos do protótipo de um equipamento nacional de magnificação para leitura. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 pacientes na faixa etária entre 9 e 80 anos (17 do sexo masculino. Foi desenvolvido um aparelho portátil, patenteado pela Unifesp (PI#020050145260, com um sistema de captura de imagens acoplado a um monitor de 5,6 polegadas proporcionando um aumento de 15 x. Foram analisadas a eficácia da acuidade visual e a eficiência de leitura após a utilização do protótipo proposto. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes (20% apresentaram AV 8M, 12 pacientes (40% apresentaram AV 6M, 7 pacientes (23,3% apresentaram 5 M, 5 pacientes (16,7% apresentaram 4M. A média de acuidade visual antes da utilização do SLP medida pela tabela LHNV-1 logMAR foi de 5,75M e após a utilização 100% dos pacientes atingiram a eficácia de AV J1. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo do SLP mostrou-se um recurso alternativo no processo de inclusão social das pessoas com baixa visão com diferentes níveis de resíduo visual. Também pode proporcionar incentivo psicológico, permitir conforto, mobilidade e independência àqueles que necessitam de uma leitura mais prolongada e maior distância de trabalho.OBJECTIVE: To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFLand the macular thickness of the amblyopic eye with those of the non-amblyopic eye in patients with unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT. METHODS: OCT was performed for13 patients with unilateral amblyopia who had no neurologic disease. Nine male andfour female patients, whose ages ranged from 23 to 63 years, were enrolled in the study. The RNFL thickness average analysis program was used to evaluate mean

  9. Clinical efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia%眼部穴位按摩在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丽娇; 何碧华; 谢祥勇

    2013-01-01

    目的观察按摩眼部穴位在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的作用及疗效。方法对纳入标准的弱视儿童120例(224眼),按就诊日期单双号分为对照组60例(110眼),观察组60例(114眼)。两组均用1%阿托品滴眼后验光配镜,并采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗作为基础治疗。对照组采用补肝益肾、养血明目中药方眼部离子导入,每次导入15 min。观察组在中药眼部离子导入同时,予以眼部穴位按摩,10 min/次。两组均以3个月为1个疗程,治疗期间监测两组视力、起效时间及疗程长短。结果观察组总有效率为95.6%,对照组总有效率为91.8%,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但观察组起效时间快,疗程短于对照组。结论眼部穴位按摩配合基础治疗加中药眼部离子导入疗法,具有促进弱视眼视功能恢复的作用。%Objective To observe the efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia.Methods One hundred and twenty amblyopia patients (224 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 60 patients(110 eyes) and observation group with 60 patients(114 eyes).Both of two groups were got their eyeglasses by mydriatic refractometry after 1% atropine, and treated with occlusion and penalization .At the same time,control group were iontophoresed Chinese drugs each time 15 min, observation group were massaged the eye point each massage time 10 min after iontophoresing Chinese drugs , observing for 2 courses and 3 months made up of a course.The eyesight, onset time and duration were compared between the two groups .Results The effective rate for observation group was 95.6%,the control group 91.8%,showing that was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two groups.But the onset time and duration of observation group were better than that of control group . Conclusion Eye point massage has similar action with Chinese drug

  10. 硬性透气角膜接触镜矫治儿童弱视的临床观察%Clinical effects of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses on amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱进; 杨冠; 徐玉红; 史建明; 熊国强; 祝鋆; 陈忆伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of using Rigid Gas-permeable( RGP ) contact lens in curing amblyopia in children. Methods 83 children who had been treated with amblyopiatrics for more than one year with no improvement were divided into two groups called RGP group & eyeglass frame group. RGP group with 41 amblyopia children 18 eyes of male,23 eyes of female, average age( 9.5 ± 3.1 )] wore RGP lenses while eyeglass frame group with 42 amblyopia children 20 eyes of male,22 eyes of female, average age( 9.3 ± 3.3 )] continued to wear eyeglass frames. Amblyopia therapy was given to both group. The effects of the treatment methods of three years were then compared. Results After three years, the corrected vision in both groups had improved. RGP group improved with an effective rate of 47.36% ( 27 eyes with 5.0 ) while eyeglass frame group improved with an effective rate only of 10% ( 6 eyes with 5.0 ). Results differed significantly between the two groups ( P <0.001 ). The vision of 26 eyes in RGP group had progressed with 4.58 line average, 92.98 % total effective rate while the vision of 24 eyes in eyeglass frame group were 1.96 line average,50% total effective rate. Results differed significantly between the two groups( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion Usine RGP provides a more effective way of treatment than wearing eyeglass frame.%目的 探讨硬性透气角膜接触镜(RGPCL)对儿童弱视的矫治作用.方法在明确诊断为弱视并已配戴框架眼镜辅以遮盖等其他方法治疗1年以上无效者中选取两组对象,其弱视主要原因为屈光因素,41例(57只眼)作为RGPCL配戴组,其中男18例,女23例,平均年龄为(9.5±3.1);同期42例(60只眼)继续配戴框架眼镜作为对照组,其中男20例,女22例,平均年龄为(9.3±3.3)岁;两组戴镜后继续辅以遮盖等弱视综合治疗,历时三年,观察其戴镜前后的矫正视力,比较两组疗效.结果 3年后两组病例的矫正视力都有提高,RGP组有27

  11. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  12. Changes of thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer and central fovea of macula in children with ametropic amblyopia%屈光不正性弱视儿童视网膜神经纤维层和黄斑中心凹厚度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金守梅; 冯运红; 谢静; 郑小媚; 陈兆升; 许锦芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and central fovea of macula in children with ametropic amblyopia. Methods A total of 25 children (50 eyes) with ametropic amblyopia and 24 normal children (48 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness of RNFL and central fovea of macula of all subjects were measured by the Optical Coherence Tomography and compared and analyzed. Results The average thickness of the RNFL of the ametropic amblyopia group 121.32±8.06μm was significantly higher than that of the normal group 104.63±6.24μm, 0.05. The average thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber layer had a negative correlation with the axis in normal eyes,=-0.42, 0.05,而正常组患者的视网膜神经纤维层平均厚度与眼轴呈明显相关,r=-0.42,P<0.05。结论屈光不正性弱视可影响患者的视网膜神经纤维层厚度。

  13. Alexia and quadrant-amblyopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2006-01-01

    and prone to error, but recognition of single letters was preserved. Single word reading was accurate, but slower than normal. On perimetric testing NT initially showed an upper right quadrantanopia, but by attending covertly to this quadrant he could achieve luminance detection except in a small scotoma...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  3. Visual cortical functional mediating stereopsis in children anisometropic amblyopia: evidence from fMRI%儿童屈光参差性弱视立体视觉中枢区激活的fMRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 燕振国; 马强华; 叶建军

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用血氧水平依赖性功能性磁共振成像(BOLD-fMRI)技术评价屈光参差性弱视儿童在规范弱视训练后,立体觉映射的脑皮层功能区的恢复情况.方法 自身前后对照研究.选择11例屈光参差性弱视初诊患儿,行任务态组块式(Blocks)设计的fMRI实验,在弱视治疗后1周、2周及4周时复查BOLD-fMRI.采用基于Matlab 7.12.0.635的SPM8软件包进行图像后处理,采用随机效应法分别获得各组脑皮层激活的矩阵数据,利用假设驱动法对各治疗阶段结果进行自身前后配对t 检验,获得治疗前后各组视皮层激活的差异数据.立体图像为计算机生成的随机点立体视觉检查图,通过配戴红蓝眼镜观察立体视图像,当识别立体视图像后迅速点按反馈键.结果 弱视训练至4周时,左侧枕叶(BA18)、枕中回(BA19)、边缘叶(BA19)及右侧枕叶舌回(BA17)和双侧顶上小叶(BA7)激活范围不同程度扩大,与治疗前的平均激活强度差异t值分别是1.636、1.902、1.727、1.350与1.777(P<0.01),但增进幅度偏小,且与随机点立体视图的恢复不平行.结论 儿童屈光参差性弱视对立体觉映射的脑皮层功能损害严重、短期恢复困难.%Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery about the visual cortex function of stereopsis in anisometropic amblyopia after regular amblyopia treatment with blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI techniques (BOLD-fMRI).Methods In this study,selfcontrolled study before and after treatment was used,and blocks-designed fMRI was performed on 11 children with first amblyopic treatment,and review BOLD-fMRI inspection after regular amblyopia treatment 1 week,2 weeks and 1 month.Functional MRI data were processed by using SPM8 which based on the MATLAB7.12.0.635.Random effect group analysis was performed in each group to acquire average cerebral cortex activated functional images data.Through the hypothesis drive method

  4. 中药离子导入配合穴位按摩对儿童弱视的图形视觉诱发电位的影响%The Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis plus Eye Point Massage for Change of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in Amblyopia Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧华; 谢祥勇; 韦丽娇; 唐勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on the change of pattern visual evoked potential P-VEP ) in amblyopia children. Methods One hundred and seventeen amblyopia patients( 198 eyes ) were randomly divided into control group with 58 patients( 97 eyes:79 eyes with ametropic amblyopia ,4 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 14 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ) and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 59 patients( 101 eyes:84 eyes with ametropic amblyopia,5 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 12 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise. The treatment group was given self-made Chinese herbs( pericarpium citri reticulatae viride, Semen Cassiae, chrysanthemum, borneol, Olibanum, Spearmint, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry, flowers carthami, Angelica sinensis,butterflybush flower,the root of red-rooted salvia,the seed of Chinese dodder,prepared rehmannia root ) iontophoresis plus eye point massage besides the methods mentioned above. Both groups were treated continually for 6 months. Results Before treatment, three types of amblyopia showed no significant difference in the PI 00 wave amplitude ( P100-A ) and latencyv P100-L ) of P-VEP between two groups( P >0. 05 ). After treatment, the increase of P100-A in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P <0.05 ),but P100-L shortened significantly compared with the controls( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage for amblyopia children can make P-VEP-P100 wave latency shortened and amplitude increased, and it is an effective method for the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 观察中药离子导入配合眼周穴位按摩对儿童的图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)的影响.方法 弱视儿童117例(198只眼)按随机数字表法分为对照组58例(97只

  5. Evaluating the parameters in OCT characteristics of the macula in adolescent with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia%青少年屈光参差性弱视黄斑区视网膜参数的OCT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 史春; 张靖华; 应坚; 蔡季平; 徐惠娣; 丁蕙

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the retinal macular thickness and macular volume between amblyopic eyes and non -amblyopic eyes in adolescent with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia by optical coherence tomography ( OCT) . METHODS: Thirty -one juveniles with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia were selected.Macular retinal thickness and macular volume were measured by OCT with both eyes in all participants, and the differences between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes were compared.Axial length ( AL ) was measured by A-ultrasound.The relationship between AL and the factors of macula was analyzed. RESULTS: The central sector region and the nasal inner region in amblyopic eyes were thicker than those in normal eyes ( P=0.0358, 0.0003 ), but there was no significant difference in any other region between amblyopic eyes and normal eyes ( P >0.05 ). No significant difference was found in macular volume between amblyopic eyes and normal eyes (P>0.05).The factors of the macula in both eyes were not significantly related to the AL. CONCLUSION: There exists some difference in structure of macula between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes in adolescent with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia.%目的:通过光学相干断层扫描( optical coherence tomography ,OCT)检查比较屈光参差性单眼弱视青少年弱视眼与非弱视眼黄斑区视网膜厚度( macular retinal thickness ,MRT)、黄斑容积的差异,研究弱视眼视网膜黄斑参数的特征。  方法:选取屈光参差性单眼弱视青少年31例,利用OCT技术分别检测双眼黄斑视网膜厚度和容积,比较同一受检者弱视眼与非弱视眼的差异。并用A超测量眼轴长度,分析黄斑厚度、黄斑容积与眼轴的关系。  结果:弱视眼黄斑中心凹1 mm区域及鼻侧内圈厚度比正常眼厚( P=0.0358,0.0003),而黄斑部位其它分区厚度及黄斑总容积弱视眼和正常眼相比差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。

  6. More focal retinal electric diagram application in amblyopia animal model%多焦视网膜电图在弱视动物模型建立中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚月蓉; 王晗敏; 忽俊; 唐建明

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过建立不同病因幼猫弱视模型,探讨多焦视网膜电图在弱视模型建立中的应用价值及其在弱视研究中的作用。方法:3~4周龄健康幼猫22只,随机建立正常对照组,单眼形觉剥夺组,单眼斜视组及屈光参差组模型4组,16周龄时行图形视觉诱发电位鉴定造模成功,并采用多焦视网膜电图记录各组动物的P1波振幅密度值及潜伏期值。结果:各弱视眼的mERG的3D地形图中心峰明显下降,颜色较同龄正常对照组深暗,而正常对照组中心峰正常、色调偏暖。弱视眼与正常眼第一环P1波振幅密度值差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01),第二环P1波振幅密度值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),第三至第五环P1波振幅密度值无统计学差异。弱视眼与正常眼各环P1波潜伏期值均无统计学差异。3种不同病因弱视眼间第一环P1波振幅密度差异无统计学意义。结论:弱视眼中mERG波形的发生了显著改变,提示弱视眼的视网膜存在明显损害,且中央区重于周边区。mERG在弱视模型的建立及其评价中具有一定的应用价值。%Objective:To evaluate the effect and value of multifocal electroretinogram (mERG) in the creation of amblyopia cat models.Methods:Twenty two 3 to 4 week-old healthy domestic cats were included.Eighteen of them were used to establish models of monocular deprivation (6 cats)、monocular strabismus (6 cats) and anisometropia.The other four cats were used as controls.Their visions were detected by P-VEP and mERG when they were 16 weeks old, and the latency and the amplitude density value of P1 waves were recorded by mERG.Results:Compared to the normal eyes, the mERG 3D graphics in amblyopic eyes show that the center peak was lower and the hue was darker. The amplitude density value of P1 wave in the first and the second ring of amblyopic eyes were lower ( P<0.05) than normal eyes, but not in third to fifth ring

  7. 经MRI研究屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度%MRI study on the cortical thickness of occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜寒剑; 王健; 黎川; 张久权; 陈利; 刘波

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study cortical thickness of the occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia by using MRI technique and the FreeSurfer software.MethOds Nine children with ametropic amblyopia were included in the amblyopic group and 8 normal children were included in the control group.All the children underwent brain MRI on the Siemens Avanto 1.5 T scanner.For the cortical thickness analysis,3-demensional MPRAGE images were collected and analyzed with FreeSurfer software package.Cortical thickness of related regions in the occipital lobe (including the cuneus,later occipital,lingual,and pericalcarine gyri) were recorded and compared. Results The cortical thickness of the lingual,pericalcarine gyri on the left hemisphere and the cuneus,lateraloccipital,lingual gyri on the right hemisphere in amblyopic group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Morphological changes existed in the occipital lobe in ametropic amblyopic children.The analysis technique with the FreeSurfer package has a potential value in the clinical application.%目的 探讨屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度改变.方法 以1.5 T MR仪对9例屈光不正性弱视患儿及8名视力正常儿童进行全脑扫描,应用三维磁化准备快速梯度回波(3D MPRAGE)序列扫描,采集3D解剖数据,采用FreeSurfer软件进行处理分析.观察指标为双侧半球枕叶4个部位即楔叶、舌回、枕外侧叶和距状沟周边区的皮质厚度.结果 屈光不正性弱视患儿双侧半球舌回、左侧距状沟周边区、右侧半球楔叶及枕外侧叶皮质厚度与对照组相比均明显变薄(P<0.05).结论 屈光不正性弱视儿童枕叶皮质存在形态学改变;通过对MR的3D解剖数据分析可以无创性衡量屈光不正性弱视患儿视觉相关枕叶皮质发育情况,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  8. Amblyopia after unilateral infantile cataract extraction after six weeks of age Ambliopia no pós-operatório de catarata congênita unilateral operada após seis semanas de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ejzenbaum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine interocular grating acuity difference in children treated for unilateral infantile cataract. METHODS: A group of 27 children previously treated for unilateral infantile cataract, had their monocular visual acuity measured by sweep visual evoked potentials. Interocular grating acuity difference was calculated as the absolute subtraction of monocular acuity scores. Lens status, opacity severity and eye alignment were considered for analysis. RESULTS: Mean interocular grating acuity difference obtained from unilateral cataract patients was 0.58 ± 0.20 logMAR. This result was significantly larger than 0.10 logMAR used as normative data. Children with severe opacities had a more pronounced amblyopia than the moderate ones. No significant correlation between amblyopia and strabismus or aphakia was found. CONCLUSIONS: Interocular acuity difference in this group of unilateral congenital cataract was more pronounced than previous reports, mainly because of delay in diagnosis, surgery and optical correction.OBJETIVOS: Determinar a diferença interocular da acuidade visual de resolução de grades em crianças operadas de catarata congênita unilateral. MÉTODOS: Um grupo de 27 pacientes operados de catarata congênita unilateral tiveram mensurada sua acuidade visual monocular pelo potencial visual evocado de varredura. A diferença interocular foi calculada pela subtração absoluta das acuidades monoculares. A intensidade da opacificação, implante ou não de lente intraocular e presença de estrabismo foram consideradas para análise. RESULTADOS: A média da diferença interocular foi de 0,58 ± 0,20 logMAR. Esse resultado foi significantemente maior que 0,10 logMAR, valor considerado como média normal nos estudos normativos. Crianças com opacidades intensas tiveram ambliopia mais pronunciada que os casos moderados. Não houve correlação significante entre a intensidade da ambliopia com estrabismo e afacia. CONCLUSÕES: A

  9. 压抑与遮盖在视感知疗法治疗学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视中的疗效比较研究%Comparison of the effect between penalization and occlusion in the perceptu al learning for treatm ent of scholo-age children with ani sometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔旻; 林泉; 赵武校; 刘伟民

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较研究视感知疗法在学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视中使用压抑与遮盖法的疗效。方法将78例(155眼)学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视患者,分别行压抑(43例,85眼)和遮盖(35例,70眼)法矫正视力较好眼,使用视感知疗法治疗1年后应用统计学分析疗效。结果压抑法的疗效优于遮盖法(P<0.05),总有效率也高于遮盖法(P<0.05),在轻、中度弱视患者中,压抑法的疗效均优于遮盖法(P<0.05),而在重度患者中,两组疗效比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论在采用视感知疗法治疗学龄儿童屈光参差性弱视患者中,压抑法矫正视力的效果比遮盖法要好。%Obej ctive To compare the effect between penalization and occlusion in the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia .Methods In the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia ,85 eyes of 43 patients received the penalization ( penalization group) and 70 eyes of 35 patients received the occlusion(occlusion group).After 1 year researching was analyzed. Results The effects of the penalization group were better than the occlusion′s,the effects in both slight and moderate amblyopia of the penalization group also better than occlusion′s,their difference had the statistical significance ( P0.05 ) .Conclusion In the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia ,u-sing the penalization may have higher total effect than using the occlusion .

  10. Clinical Curative Effect Observation of Posterior Chamber Iol Implantation in Treatment of Adult Amblyopia%后房型人工晶体植入术治疗成人弱视临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珊容; 李元朝

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨有晶体眼成人屈光不正(弱视)患者植入后房型人工晶体术后的临床疗效。方法:15例(28只眼)成人高度近视弱视眼患者(屈光度球镜-8.50~21.5 D,柱镜-1.00~2.50 D),表面麻醉后行后房型人工晶体植入术,术后3个月随访观察。结果:术前角膜内皮计数(3121±135)个/mm2,眼压(15.0±4.5)mm Hg,术后角膜内皮计数(3100±151)个/mm2,眼压(20.0±2.5)mm Hg。100%术眼的最佳矫正视力保持不变或增加≥1行,术后裸眼视力≥1.0者为7.14%(1例,2只眼),术后裸眼视力较术前最佳矫正视力提高2行以上者为64.29%(18只眼),术后裸眼视力等同术前最佳矫正视力者为28.57%(5例,8只眼)。结论:后房型有晶体眼人工晶体植入是一种安全、有效的治疗成人高度近视弱视眼的手术方法。%Objective:To investigate clinical efficacy of implanted posterior chamber intraocular lens surgery in treatment of the adult phakic refractive errors(amblyopia).Method:15 cases(28 eyes)adult amblyopia patients with high myopia(spherical diopter-8.50-21.5 D,cylinder-1.00-2.50 D)were given intraocular lens implantation after topical anesthesia ,then followed up three months.Result:Preoperative corneal endothelial count was(3121±135)/mm2,intraocular pressure was(15.0±4.5)mm Hg, corneal endothelial count was(3100±151)/mm2,intraocular pressure was(20.0±2.5)mm Hg.100%best corrected visual acuity eye surgery remain unchanged or increase≥1 line,postoperative uncorrected visual acuity≥1.0 were 7.14%(n=1,2 eyes), postoperative uncorrected visual acuity compared with preoperative best corrected visual acuity improved 2 those above the line for 64.29%(18 eyes),postoperative uncorrected visual acuity before surgery best corrected visual acuity equal to 28.57%(5 cases, 8 eyes). Conclusion:Chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective surgical method for treating high

  11. 氦氖激光联合综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of He-Ne Lasers Combined with Comprehensive Therapy in the Treatment of Amblyopia in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and research the clinical effect of he-Ne Lasers combined with comprehensive therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Methods 106 cases of amblyopia children treated from September 2013 to October 2014 were selected and divided into two groups according to the treatment method, the control group (50 cases) received red light flashing method and fine eyesight training treatment, the observation group (56 cases) received He-Ne Lasers com-bined with comprehensive therapy and the method and effect of which were compared. Results In the observation group, the basic cure rates of mild, moderate and severe were 77.3%, 63.3%and 46.2%respectively, the basic cure rates at the age of 4-7, 8-11 and 12-15 were 66.7%,58.0%and 20.0%respectively, in the control group, the basic cure rates of mild, moder-ate and severe were 55.0%, 46.4% and 40.9% respectively, the basic cure rates at the age of 4-7, 8-11 and 12-15 were 60.5%,30.8%and 16.7%, the lower the degree of illness, the more obvious the effect, the younger the age, the more obvious the effect, the basic cute rate of central fixation(58.7%) was better than that of non-central fixation(10.0%), the difference was statistically significant, P<0.05. There were no complications during the period of statistics and treatment. Conclusion He-Ne Lasers combined with comprehensive therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children has obvious effects, and we should find it in time.%目的:分析研究氦氖激光联合综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的临床效果。方法研究对象为该院从2013年9月—2014年10月收治的106例弱视儿童,依据治疗方法不同划为两组,对照组50例采用红光闪烁方法以及精细目力训练治疗,观察组56例采用氦氖激光联合综合疗法,对比分析方法疗效。结果观察组病情轻度、中度、重度基本治愈率分别为77.3%、63.3%、46.2%,47岁、811岁、1215岁基本治愈率分别为66.7%、58.0%、20.0%,对照

  12. Analysis on the curative effect of occlusive therapy combined with synoptophore therapy in treatment of children with amblyopia of central fixation%遮盖加同视机疗法治疗中心注视性儿童弱视的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁昌亮; 胡燕妮

    2012-01-01

    目的:寻找有效治疗中心注视性弱视的方法.方法:对165例中心注视性弱视患儿按弱视程度分别采用遮盖疗法、同视机疗法、遮盖加同视机疗法治疗.结果:6个月后,遮盖加同视机疗法治疗双眼弱视,轻度弱视治愈率为100.00%,与遮盖疗法比较差异有统计学意义(x2=8.250,P<0.01),与同视机治疗法比较差异有统计学意义(x2=4.889,P<0.05);中度弱视治愈率为90.91%,与遮盖疗法和同视机治疗法分别比较差异均有统计学意义(x2=7.071,P<0.01;x2=5.238,P<0.05).轻、中度弱视遮盖疗法与同视机治疗法比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.733,P>0.05;x2=0.188,P>0.05),但同视机疗法轻、中度弱视治愈率(63.64%、45.45%)均较遮盖疗法(45.45、36.36%)高.遮盖加同视机疗法治疗单眼弱视治愈率分别是轻度90.91%、中度81.82%、重度63.64%,与遮盖疗法和同视机治疗法分别比较差异均有统计学意义(x2 =5.238,P<0.05;x2=7.071,P<0.01;=4.701, P<0.05;x2=6.60,P<0.05;x2=7.071,P<0.01;x2=4.701,P<0.05).结论:同视机疗法与遮盖疗法比较,治疗双眼弱视时疗效好;遮盖加同视机疗法能显著提高单眼和双眼弱视眼视力.%Objective; To find out effective therapies for the children with amblyopia of central fixation. Methods-, A total of 165 children with amblyopia of central fixation were treated with simple occlusive therapy, simple synoptophore therapy, and occlusive therapy combined with synoptophore therapy according to the degree of amblyopia. Results: The children with binocular amblyopia were treated with occlusive Iherapy combined with synoptophore therapy for six months, the curative rate of mild amblyopia was 100. 00% , compared with simple occlusive therapy and simple synoptophore therapy, respectively, there were significant differences (x2 =8. 250, P 0. 05; X2 =0. 188, P>0.05), but the curative rates of mild and moderate amhlyopia treated with simple synoptophore

  13. Analysis of the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials in different age groups of children with ametropic amblyopia%年龄对屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓东; 邸悦; 唐小菁

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位(PVEP)检测结果的特点及年龄对其的影响.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.等效球镜为远视的屈光不正性弱视患儿92例(184眼),按最佳矫正视力0.8~0.6、0.5~0.2、≤0.1三个级别分为轻度弱视组108眼,中度弱视组65眼,重度弱视组11眼.每组又以6岁为界进行分组,分为<6岁组和≥6岁组.采用视觉电生理检查系统检测PVEP,对弱视组间差异行单因素方差分析,同一程度弱视组中的不同年龄组间行独立样本t检验,比较不同弱视程度组间及不同年龄组间P100波潜伏期(LP100)及振幅(AP100)的差异.结果 随弱视程度加重,PVEP的LP100延长,三组间差异有统计学意义(F=151.30,P<0.01),两两间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).三组间AP100差异有统计学意义(F=13.59,P<0.05),两两比较示,重度组的AP100明显较其余两组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),中度组较轻度组低,但差异无统计学意义.轻度组中,年龄≥6岁组与<6岁组比较,LP100明显延长,AP100降低,差异有统计学意义(t=5.08、7.45,P<0.01);中度组也呈类似表现(t=4.68、4.27,P<0.01);重度组结果类似,但由于例数少,未进行统计分析.结论 PVEP的LP100、AP100可作为衡量儿童屈光不正性弱视严重程度的客观指标,同时对结果进行分析时应充分考虑年龄的影响.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEPs) and the effect of age in children with ametropic amblyopia.Methods Ninety-two children (184 eyes) with hyperopic amblyopia (spherical equivalent refractions) were analyzed retrospectively.Subjects were categorized into three groups based on the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA): mild amblyopia group (0.8-0.6),108 eyes; moderate amblyopia group (0.5-0.2),65 eyes; severe amblyopia group (BCVA≤0.1),11 eyes.Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on age: <6 years

  14. 3~6岁弱视集体儿童在幼儿园的治疗和护理干预%3 to 6 Years old Amblyopia Collective Treatment and Care of Children in Kindergarten Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬玲; 孙莹莹; 曾路执

    2013-01-01

      Objective Discuss the treatment and nursing care methods of amblyopia children group in kindergarden. Methods Cooperation with the regular kindergarden with《clinical waste disposal permit》in our city, establish amplyopia treatment health clinic. Choice 96 cases ampliyopia children in the kindergarden be the experimental group, and the 98 cases ampliyopia children in hospital outpatient department be the control group. According the children’ condition of visual function, make corresponding treatment and nursing care plan for each of group. Result After careful treatment and nursing care, two groups all have progress, but had difference, the effect of 3~4 year old children is obviously better than the 5~6 year old children. Conclusion The high quality of treatment and nursing has important implications to promote the recovery of visual function and ampliyopia cure of ampliyopia children.%  目的探讨3~6岁弱视集体儿童在幼儿园的治疗与护理干预方法。方法与我区持有《医疗许可证》的正规幼儿园合作,在幼儿园建立弱视治疗保健室,选择合作中幼儿园的96例弱视儿童作为实验组,在医院门诊进行治疗的98例患儿作为对照组,根据患儿的视功能情况,分别为实验组和对照组的患儿制定出相应的治疗方案与护理计划。结果经过精心的治疗与护理,两组均有进步,但相比有差异,3~4岁的治疗效果比5~6岁明显。结论高质量的幼儿园集体集中治疗与护理,对于促进弱视患儿的视功能恢复,对于儿童弱视的治愈有着重要的意义。

  15. 不同注视性质弱视治愈前后立体视的变化%CHANGES OF STEREOPSIS IN PATIENTS WITH AMBLYOPIA OF DIFFERENT FIXATION PATTERN BEFORE AND AFTER THE CURE OF VISUAL ACUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凤; 刘桂香

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of stereopsis in patients with amblyopia of different fixation pattern (ADFP) before and after the cure and the association between fixation pattern and the recovery of stereopsis. Methods YAN's near stereoscopic chart and random dot synoptophore stereogram were used to examine the near and far stereoacuity, respectively, in 281 children with ADFP before and after the cure of the disease. Results After the cure, both near and far stereoacuity were significantly improved (x2 = 6.116-40.772, P<0.01 ) ; both before and after the cure, the detection rate of far stereoacuity was higher than that of the near stereoacuity (x2 = 9.599, 20. 894;P<0.05). The difference of recovery of near and far atereoacuity among different ADFP was not significant (x2 =0. 350,0. 096;P>0. 05). Conclusion During the course of therapy for patients with ADFP, functional exercise for both eyes should be carried out, the prognosis of stereoacuity was not obviously different among different fixation pattern.%目的 探讨不同注视性质的弱视治愈前后立体视变化以及注视性质与立体视恢复关系.方法 采用颜少明和同视机随机点立体视图片(定性画片),检测281例不同注视性质弱视病儿治愈前后近立体视和远立体视.结果 弱视治愈后近、远立体视均有明显的改善(X2=6.116~40.772,P0.05).结论 不同注视性质的弱视在治疗过程中均需积极进行双眼视功能锻炼.其立体视觉预后没有明显不同.

  16. Expression of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex in visual developing normal cat and strabismic amblyopia cat%NogoA在视觉发育期正常猫和斜视性弱视猫视皮层21a区的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭珍; 刘冰; 林锦镛; 赵堪兴

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of the molecular mechanism of visual plasticity is helpful for the explaining and prevention of strabismus and amblyopia.The effect and significance of NogoA in the strabismus and amblyopia formation are attracting more attention. Objective The present study was to investigate the expression of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex in strabismic-induced amblyopia cats and explore the possible molecular mechanism of strabismic-induced amblyopia. Methods Sixteen 4-week old clean cats were randomizedly divided into normal group and strabismic-induced amblyopia group and eight for each group.The strabismic-induced amblyopia models were created by cutting off the external rectus in 8 cats.Pattern visual evoked potentials ( P-VEP ) were recorded 1 week after operation and compared with normal cats,and depression of amplitude and prolongation of implied time of P100 wave were as the successful criterion of model.The 200 ml paraformaldehyde was infused via heart to fax the brain under the deep anesthesia and then the cats were sacrificed and the brain cortex sections were prepared.The morphology of 21a zone of cat visual cortex was examined by haematoxylin and eosin staining,and the expressions of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antiNogoA antibody.The use of the animals complied with the Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by State Science and Technology Commission. Results The implied time and amplitude ratio of VEP P100 wave were (98.10±7.07)ms and (0.83±0.14) in normal group,and those in strabismic-induced amblyopia group were (108.50±6.95 )ms and (0.35 ±0.09 ),showing significant differences between two groups (t=4.450,P=0.005 ; t =5.970,P =0.005 ).The numbers of neurons were similar in 21a area of visual cortex between the two groups,but the volume of the neurons was lessen in strabismic-induced amblyopia group.The positive cell densities for Nogo

  17. Tratamento do coloboma de pálpebra superior pela técnica de Cutler-Beard e sua associação com ambliopia: relato de caso Upper eyelid coloboma treatment with the Cutler-Beard technique and its association with amblyopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bezerra de Menezes Reiff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato é apresentado um caso de coloboma congênito de pálpebra superior reconstruído por meio de retalho de transposição de pálpebra inferior (retalho de Cutler-Beard, com bom resultado estético e funcional. A paciente apresentou como complicação o desenvolvimento de ambliopia por privação de imagem (em função do período de oclusão visual, entre a primeira e a segunda intervenção cirúrgica, que respondeu adequadamente à terapêutica instituída. Realizou-se revisão bibliográfica, comentando-se os princípios que regem a reconstrução de defeitos da pálpebra superior, mostrando vantagens e desvantagens de cada técnica e levantou-se discussão quanto ao melhor método de reconstrução nos recém-nascidos, em função dos riscos da ocorrência de ambliopia.The authors present a case of a large congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid which was reconstructed through a transposition flap from the lower eyelid (Cutler-Beard technique, with good esthetic and functional result. The patient presented as a complication, development of deprivation amblyopia, (as a result of the time of visual axis occlusion between the first and second operation, which was solved utilizing appropriate therapy. A bibliographic review was made and the principles that rule the treatment of upper eyelid defects were commented, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Discussion was raised about the best method of reconstruction in newborns, facing the risks of occurrence of amblyopia.

  18. Vision-related theory-based design of vision detection system for dysopsia features in amblyopic patients New pathway for amblyopia screening%基于视觉相关理论设计的视知觉检测系统——理解弱视视觉缺陷特征:弱视筛查新途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟民; 赵武校; 林泉; 杨佳

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that amblyopic patients have a variety of dysopsia compared with normal people.Engineered visual system could find amblyopia through detection of human visual system.OBJECTIVE:To screen sensitive indexes for amblyopia through visual function examination to establish a intemet-based amblyopia screening method.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Randomized,blinded,and controlled experiment.The study was performed at Department of Optometry,People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from September to November 2008.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 80 volunteers undergoing visual examination in Department of Optometry,People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were selected,aged 4-19 years.All people had no organic diseases of eyes.They were divided into normal group (n=40) and ambiyopic group (n=40) according to their corrected visual acuity (whether > 4.9).METHODS:Using vision system,the various visual function indexes of each participant were examined.The data from single eye and both eyes were collected and analyzed using Fisher.The sensitive indexes were selected to establish identification function for amblyopia screening.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Age,visual noise,orientation identification and contour integration of participants were examined.RESULTS:Results showed that age,visual noise,orientation identification and contour integration were clinically significant indexes,and cross validation suggested that the identification correct rate was 92.5%.The discriminant function of amblyopia was Y1=1.175X1+0.786X2+0.928X3+1.061X4-0.225X5+2.547X6+1.313X7-18.651;the discdminant function of normal vision was Y2=1.369X1+ 1.728X2+1.779X3+1.549X4-1.912X5+2.665X6+0.387X7 26.640.CONCLUSION:Visual noise,orientation identification and contour integration in vision detection system could be used to screen amblyopia in children,in particular with assistance of internat.%背景:既往的研究揭示,与正常人相比,弱视患者存

  19. Detection of amblyopia utilizing generated retinal reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. H.; Hay, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation confirmed that GRR images can be consistently obtained and that these images contain information required to detect the optical inequality of one eye compared to the fellow eye. Digital analyses, electro-optical analyses, and trained observers were used to evaluate the GRR images. Two and three dimensional plots were made from the digital analyses results. These plotted data greatly enhanced the GRR image content, and it was possible for nontrained observers to correctly identify normal vs abnormal ocular status by viewing the plots. Based upon the criteria of detecting equality or inequality of ocular status of a person's eyes, the trained observer correctly identified the ocular status of 90% of the 232 persons who participated in this program.

  20. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    This study of amblyopic children shows an increased accommodative error during monocular viewing of naturalistic targets with the amblyopic eye compared to nonamblyopic and control eyes. These errors could degrade retinal image quality in the amblyopic eye during patching therapy.

  1. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    utilizado para avaliar o estado de visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVES: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ; and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods ( ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  2. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVE: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods (ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  3. Expression of mGluR1 at primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat and the observing of ultrastructure%代谢性谷氨酸受体1在单眼形觉剥夺弱视大鼠视皮质17区的表达及超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗青; 刘向玲; 穆雅林; 刘爱琴; 李晓鹏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the regulation of expression of mGluR1 and the changes of neuron ultrastructure at primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat within cortical period.Methods Taking randomized concurrent controlled trail.Establishing the model of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat.After proving the model successful by PVEP,all of the rats were randomly divided into three groups:normal visual cortex,experimental visual cortex and experimental opposite visual cortex.Immunocytochemical technology,electron microscope,photography microscope,computer image analysis,SPSS 11.5 and ANOV were used to get the resuhs.Results Compared with the layer Ⅳ of normal visual cortex and experimental opposite visual cortex,the area of immunopositive neurons in layer Ⅳ of experimental visual cortex are deficiency.there is significant difference between them(P<0.01).There are no significant differences between the other four corresponding layers(P>0.05).Morphological abnormals were found in layer Ⅳ of experimental visual cortex by observing of ultrastructure.Conclusion The expression of mGluR1 in layer Ⅳ of primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia is reduced.There are morphological abnormals happened in layer Ⅳ of primary visual cortex of monocular derivation amblyopia.Reduced afference of nerve pulse because of monocular deprivation leads to the expression difficiency of mGluR1 in layer Ⅳ of the primary visual cortex,then synaptic plasticity happened,then neurons atrophy occurred may be one of the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia.%目的 探讨视觉形成关键期内单眼形觉剥夺弱视大鼠初级视皮质17区中代谢性谷氨酸受体1(mGluR1)的表达规律及神经元超微结构变化,为临床上揭示弱视的病理机制及防治提供依据.方法 随机对照同期动物实验.方法是建立大鼠单眼形觉剥夺弱视模型,经图形视觉诱发电位检测证实造模成功后,与正常对照组大鼠一起灌注

  4. 单眼弱视儿童视网膜神经纤维层和黄斑中心凹厚度分析%Thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer and central fovea of macula in children with unilateral amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅扬; 唐敏; 孙晓东; 许迅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer ( RNFL) and central fovea of macula between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes in children with unilateral amblyopia. Methods Twenty-three children with unilateral amblyopia were selected, the thickness of RNFL around optic disk ( superior, temporal, inferior and nasal quadrants) and mean thickness of RNFL were measured by optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) , the mean thickness of central fovea of 1 mm in diameter and the smallest thickness of cental fovea of macula were examined, and the differences between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes were compared. Results The thickness of RNFL in the temporalquadrant in amblyopic eyes was smaller than that in non-amblyopic eyes (t = -4.671, P =0.000 1), while there was no significant difference in the thickness of RNFL in the superior, inferior or nasal quadrants and the mean thickness of RNFL between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes (P >0.05) . There was no significant difference in the mean thickness of fovea of 1 mm in diameter between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes (t = 0. 082 3, P = 0. 935 1) , while the smallest thickness in central fovea of macula in amblyopic eyes was smaller than that in non-amblyopic eyes (t = -2. 371 0, P = 0.026 9). Conclusion There exist differences in peripapillary RNFL and structure of macula between amblyopic eyes and non-amblyopic eyes in children with unilateral amblyopia.%目的 比较单眼弱视儿童弱视眼与非弱视眼的视盘周围神经纤维层(RNFL)和黄斑中心凹厚度的差异.方法 选取单眼弱视儿童23人,利用光学相干断层扫描(OCT)技术分别检测双眼视盘上方、颞侧、下方、鼻侧4个象限RNFL厚度及RNFL平均厚度,检测黄斑中心凹1 mm直径区域平均厚度和黄斑中心凹最小厚度,比较同一受检者弱视眼与非弱视眼的差异.结果 弱视眼视盘颞侧象限RNFL厚度小于非弱视眼(t=-4.671,P=0.000 1),而视盘

  5. Assessment of diagnostic value of age for meridional amblyopia with Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve%应用Logistic回归和ROC曲线评价患者年龄对儿童子午线性弱视诊断的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 许江涛; 蒋晓明; 周莹

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用Logistic多元回归分析和ROC曲线探讨年龄因素对诊断儿童子午线弱视有无影响.方法:研究对象为2008/2011年间在我院眼科门诊就诊,以散光为主要屈光异常并排除屈光参差及斜视的4~8岁儿童共1 005例1 910眼.采用Logistic多元回归分析年龄、性别、柱镜绝对值程度、球镜绝对值程度、散光类型对诊断子午线性弱视的影响,通过ROC曲线下面积(area under the ROC curve,AUC)分析进一步明确患者年龄因素对诊断子午线弱视的影响.结果:分别建立Logistic 回归模型1(包括性别、柱镜绝对值程度、球镜绝对值程度、散光类型四个变量)和模型2(前四个变量再加上年龄).两个模型的Logistic 回归分析都提示柱镜绝对值程度是诊断子午线性弱视的影响因素,模型2 的Logistic 回归分析同时提示年龄是诊断子午线性弱视的影响因素.模型1的AUC为0.64,模型2的AUC为0.74,两者比较有统计学差异(Por = 1. 00D and sphere < or = 3. 00D were present in one or both eyes. The difference of sphere between both eyes was less 1. 50D. The difference of astigmatism between both eyes was less 1. 00D. All astigmatism was calculated by the absolute value. By analyzing age, sex, astigmatism type, diopter of cylinder and diopter of sphere with Logistic regression, two mathematical models were established. Then the diagnostic efficacy of the model was assessed using the ROC curve.RESULTS: The model 1 included 4 parameters (sex, astigmatism type, diopter of cylinder and diopter of sphere). The model 2 included 5 parameters (the 4 parameters of the model 1 adding age). Using Logistic regression, the diopter of cylinder had an influence on the diagnosis of meridional amblyopia in two models. In model 2, age was another influencing factor on the diagnosis of meridional amblyopia. The model 1 area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0. 64, and the model 2 was 0.74. The area of model 2 was greater than the model 1

  6. 胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视随机对照临床研究文献的Meta分析%A Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢家铭; 盛雪燕; 马重兵; 朱田田; 韩雅迪; 赵中亭; 严兴科

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的有效性。方法计算机检索1999年~2014年间中国期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)、万方全文数据库、美国医学文摘数据库(PubMed)中关于胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的临床文献,纳入胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视与单纯物理治疗比较的随机对照试验(RCT)和临床对照试验(CCT),按照循证医学(Cochrane)系统评价的方法,逐一评价纳入研究的质量,并根据改良后Jadad评分量表对纳入文献进行评分,提取有效数据,采用RevMan5.1统计软件进行Meta分析。结果10篇文献符合纳入标准,共计1363例病例。Meta分析显示胞二磷胆碱治疗弱视与临床其他治疗方法总有效率比较,差异具有统计学意义[合并OR(固定效应模型)=4.22,95%可信区间(3.26,5.47),Z=10.96,P<0.00001]。结论胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的总有效率优于物理疗法,所以可以初步认为,胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视有效。但鉴于缺乏高质量的随机对照研究支持,且文献发表偏倚的存在,尚需要更多设计良好的临床随机对照试验来进一步证实其效果。%OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence of efficacy of Citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia. METHODS Computer searched trials published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) that evaluated the effect of citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia compared with conventional treatment were identified in 1999~2014 China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Wanfang, and PubMed. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed based on the Jadad scale. Data synthesis was facilitated using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS Ten trials involving 1363 participants satisfied the minimum criteria for meta-analysis. The evidence showed that the total effective rate of

  7. Efficacy of stereoscopic vision training in refractive amblyopic eye's visual function recovery after ambly-opia cure restoration%双眼同时视训练在屈光不正性弱视治愈后双眼视功能恢复中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁莹; 周园; 郭立云; 李跃祖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy of stereoscopic vision training in refractive amblyopic eyes visu-al function recovery after amblyopia cure restoration. Methods 122 refractive amblyopic children with corrected vi-sual acuity>0.9 after treatment were randomly divided into experimental group (61cases) and control group (61cas-es) . All patients were examined far stereo vision inspection with regard machine random dot stereogram, checked the stereo vision inspection by Yan Shao-ming " random three-dimensional control chart", and checked near-zero parallax, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity various stereopsis. The experimental group accepted the stereoscopic vision training by intelligent multi-dimensional training system for 3months. Control group conduct no stereoscopic vision training. Compared and analysised stereo visual function of two groups. Results The far stereopsis, near-zero parallax, crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity various stereopsis of the experimental group were significantly better than that of control group, P0.9的屈光不正性弱视患儿作为研究对象,随机分为试验组和对照组各61例,两组患者均应用同视机随机点立体图进行远立体视觉检查,颜少明《随机立体检查图》进行近立体视觉检查,并分别检测近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差各项立体视功能.试验组采用智能化多维训练系统进行立体视训练,治疗3月.对照组不进行立体视训练.对比两组患者的立体视功能情况.结果 试验组患儿的远立体视、近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差的各项指标,均显著优于对照组, P交叉视差>近零视差>非交叉视差.

  8. The effect of prolonged monocular occlusion on latent nystagmus in the treatment of amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractWe recorded eye movements in 5 patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after 2 days of occlusion of the better eye. The slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was in general, before occlusion, lower when the better eye fixated but, after occlusion, lower when the worse eye fixate

  9. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  10. Interferon-alfa treatment of facial infantile haemangiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C.; Illum, N.; Jensen, H.;

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging......ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging...

  11. Ambliopia

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, António Filipe; Cardoso, Ana Maria Veloso

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia has a prevalence between 1.6% and 3.6% in countries where health care is good. These numbers are higher in countries where eye care is less effective than in wealth societies. Staying updated with the latest developments in amblyopia is fundamental for the every day practice of any eye care practitioner because amblyopia is mostly treatable when detected in time. Amblyopia is curable and that makes appropriated management, referral and prevention critical steps to avoid permanent vi...

  12. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None ...

  13. Multifocal electroretinogram in concomitant esotropic amblyopia%共同性内斜视弱视眼的多焦视网膜电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房学军; 谷丽英; 赵霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 与正常人多焦视网膜电图进行比较分析并探讨共同性内斜视弱视眼多焦视网膜电图特征.方法 采用德国Roland公司生产的RETI Scan多焦视觉电生理检查系统对13例20眼共同性内斜视弱视眼(研究组),10例20眼正常眼(正常对照组)进行检测,记录一阶反应的波形与数值,分析其5个环形视网膜区域的反应.结果 研究组3个环形视网膜区域环1、环2、环3的平均反应密度(75.06±22.68)nV·deg-2、(45.96±15.12)nV·deg-2、(32.24±9.49)nV·deg-2,低于正常组(136.15±29.08)nV·deg-2、(65.51±12.33)nV·deg-2、(43.15±11.02)nV·deg-2,振幅(1.12±0.41)μV、(0.89±0.27)μV、(0.89±0.38)μV、低于正常组(1.75±0.49)μV、(1.33±0.29)μV、(1.19±0.29)μV;潜伏期较正常人明显延长[研究组:(47.49±3.54)ms、(43.24±2.91)ms、(41.29±3.59)ms;对照组:(39.92±1.93)ms、(38.01±1.36)ms、(36.24±1.25)ms],2组环1、环2、环3相比差异有统计学意义(P均0.01),共同性内斜视弱视眼的视网膜损伤主要发生在黄斑区中心凹处.结论 共同性内斜视弱视眼的多焦视网膜电图反应密度与振幅均降低,潜伏期延长,黄斑中心凹处最为明显,说明共同性内斜视弱视的视网膜损害主要发生在黄斑区中心凹处,存在黄斑抑制,是中心视力损害的因素之一.

  14. The application of functional imaging technology in amblyopia research%功能性影像技术在弱视研究中的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁平; 王秦令

    2006-01-01

    利用影像学中功能性神经影像技术研究弱视的发病机制是近几年新兴的技术,它的发展将有关弱视发病机制的研究向前推进了一大步.现在的脑功能成像技术包括脑磁图(magnetoencephalography,MEG)、单光子发射计算机断层显像(single photon emission computed tomography,SPECT)、正电子发射型计算机断层显像(positron emission tomography,PET)以及功能磁共振(functional magnetic resonance imaging,fMRI)等.研究发现弱视患者的中枢的各项技术检测指标和正常人相比具有一定差异,袁明这些技术对于弱视中枢的研究具有一定价值,其应用是切实可行的,但现有的功能性神经影像技术还不能精确定位弱视中枢,现对这些影像技术作一综述.

  15. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Amir Pirouzian1,3, Kenneth C Ip2, Henry S O’Halloran31The Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAPurpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>-8 D) myopic anisometropia in childre...

  16. 屈光不正性弱视治愈前后立体视觉的临床初步观察%Stereopsis of ametropic amblyopia before and after orthoptic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成娟娟; 卢炜

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解屈光不正性弱视儿童在治疗前和治愈后立体视觉状况.方法 对43例屈光不正性弱视儿童分别在治疗前和治愈后采用颜少明检测其立体视锐度以及同视机三级功能的检测.结果 (1)弱视患者治愈前(矫正视力0.1~0.8)后(矫正视力0.9~1.5)黄斑视锐度和周边立体视锐度的结果在统计学上的差异有显著性(P<0.05),(2)弱视患者治愈前后融合范围和定性远立体视的结果在统计学上均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 (1)屈光不正性弱视不仅影响视力发育同时也影响整体立体视的发育.(2)随着视力的治愈整体立体视锐度也有显著的改善.(3)在弱视的诊断治疗中注意整体立体视的变化.

  17. The investigation of Multifocal Visual Evoked Potentials in ametropic amblyopia of 36 children%36例屈光不正性弱视儿童多焦视诱发电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满晓飞; 林发森; 韩晓丽; 洪金针; 侯丽枫; 何青; 辜智强

    2002-01-01

    目的应用临床视觉电生理的方法对屈光不正性弱视眼视野各部位的视功能的损害进行探讨.方法采用德国Roland公司的RETIscan33-15多焦视觉电生理仪,选用Pattern-LT刺激方式,刺激图形选用CRT Combs,由61个六边形组成,每个六边形内均由黑白相间的小区填充,在刺激时作黑白翻转,每个六边形的刺激翻转分别由一个二极伪随机时间序列(m序列)控制,是随机和相互独立的,用RETI多焦电生理仪的分析软件提取FOK(一阶反应).共记录和分析了36例屈光不正性弱视儿童72眼,并与正常对照组儿童作比较.结果弱观眼N1-P1波振幅密度平均值和P1-N2波振幅平均值较正常组儿童在中央视野有下降,周边部分无明显异常,P1波潜伏期王均值与正常对照组儿童比较在视野各部分无明显异常.结论屈光不正性弱视眼在中央视野,部分视功能下降.

  18. 斜视性弱视儿童多焦视觉诱发电位的研究%A study of multifocal visual evoked potentials in strabismic amblyopia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世斌; 万小钢; 林发森

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究斜视性弱视多焦视觉诱发电位特征,探讨弱视发病机制.方法 采用德国Roland公司的RETI scan3.15多焦视觉电生理仪,记录和分析了斜视性弱视儿童80眼,外斜43眼,内斜37眼,并与正常对照组儿童60眼作比较.结果 弱视眼N1 -P1波振幅密度平均值和P1-N2波振幅平均值较正常组儿童在中央视野有下降,随离心度增加,这种现象呈下降趋势.P1波潜伏期平均值无明显异常.正常组和各斜视性弱视组N1 -P1波振幅密度平均值:颞侧鼻侧.结论 斜视性弱视mfVEP中心区损害重于周边区,波形异常程度与弱视程度无关.内斜性弱视波形异常程度大于外斜性弱视.

  19. 通过调查探讨色盲、色弱与正常色觉的遗传关系%A genetic correlation between color blindness, color amblyopia and normal color perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明祥

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州省贞丰县一个满族色盲家系的调查和分析,简单探讨了色盲、色弱与正常色觉的遗传关系,提高对此类遗传病进一步的认识,以及用于生物学教学.

  20. 儿童近视性屈光参差弱视LASIK治疗新进展%New progress of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with myopia anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖情; 冯光强

    2013-01-01

    文献检索近10年来在Pubmed,Embase,the Cochrane library等数据库发表LASIK治疗儿童屈光参差弱视的中英文文献,探讨国内外LASIK治疗儿童近视性屈光参差弱视的新进展,通过研究发现LASIK对儿童近视性屈光参差弱视治疗有明显矫治效果,LASIK是治疗儿童近视性屈光参差弱视的一种安全有效的方法.

  1. Investigation of Axial Length-Disc Area Ratio in Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.%远视性屈光参差性弱视眼轴/视盘面积比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 徐梅; 张萌

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨远视性屈光参差性弱视患者眼轴长度(AXL)、视盘面积(DA)及眼轴(AXL)/视盘面积(DA)比.方法 选择2006年1月至2007年1月来我院门诊就诊的单眼远视性屈光参差性弱视惠儿28例及同期正常儿童20名为研究对象,分为正常儿童组(组1),40眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼的对侧眼组(组2),28眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼组(组3),28眼,行AXL测量和眼底照相及DA测量.计算AXL/DA比并进行比较.结果 组1 AXL为(22.4±1.0)mm,DA为(2.8±0.6)mm2,AXL/DA为(9.2±2.3)mm-1:组2 AXL为(21.6±1.1)mm,DA为(2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AXL/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视功能受损的一个重要因素.2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AX/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视

  2. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavioral problems, learning disabilities and neurocognitive disorders affecting IQ (mild to severe) occur in association with FAS ... are the eye problems in FAS treated? Strabismus, amblyopia, and the need for glasses (refractive error) can ...

  4. The evaluation of stereopsis in different types and degrees of amblyopic children%不同类型及程度弱视患儿的立体视觉现状评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾仁攀; 梁小琼; 王国平

    2009-01-01

    Objective Amblyopia is common disease in children. It can cause visual suppression that damage binocular vision function especially to the development of stereopsis. The objective of this study was to investigate the stereoscopic vision in children with different types and degrees of amblyopia. Methods This is a clinical retrospective comparative analysis. 178 children with amblyopia from Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospitial CAPF were enrolled in this study. Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity were examined with Yan' s stereogram. The classification of stereogram based on the criteria of Okuda. The degree of amblyopia was graded based on the corrected vision acuity. Results The differences in the eyes and percentage of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity among refractive amblyopia group, anisopia amblyopia group and strabismic amblyopia group were statistically significant, respectively(χ~2 =13. 979, P =0. 001; χ~2 = 15. 198, P = 0. 001 ; χ~2 =6. 974, P = 0. 031) . Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity in mild amblyopia were better than of medium amblyopia in ametropic amblyopic children (P < 0. 05) . No statistically significant difference in the eye number and percentage of uncrossed disparity was found between mild and moderate refractive ametropia (P > 0. 05) . The same outcomes also were seen in approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity between mild and medium anisopia amblyopia (P > 0. 05) . No statistically significant differences in the eye number and percentage of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity were found between mild and moderate strabismic amblyopia (P >0. 05) . Conclusion Amblyopia affects the development of stereoacuity. Amblyopia is aggravated with the increase of amblyopia degrees. The influence of amblyopia on stereoscopic vision is most mild in refractive ametropic and most serious in strabismic amblyopia.%目的 了解

  5. Lazy Eye Might See a Bright World, Even after Age of Eight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is a developmental disorder of spatial vision in the absence of any detectable structural or pathologic abnormalities that cannot be corrected by refractive means.

  6. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry ... and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  7. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  8. 小儿弱视斜视与微量元素关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜为礼; 李晓林

    2004-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relationship between microelement and amblyopia and strabismus in children,in order to explore new methods to prevent and cure these diseases in early stages. Methods The levels of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Se in the hairs of 600 children of amblyopia and strabismus were examined by the Japan Hitachi 180-80 Zeeman polarization atom absorption spectrophotometer. By software SPSS8.0, all datas were checked by ttest to determine the notability and relativity of difference of all index between before and after treatment. Results Se and Zn contents in hairs of children of amblyopia and strabismus were lower respective than the controlled remarkably. That indicated that Se and Zn metabolism was abnormal in suffering children. Conclusions The results showed that Se and Zn contents were distinctly low in the amblyopia and strabismus children of this area. Through the respective relativity analysis in Se,Zn and the degree of amblyopia,it was found that the levels of Se,Zn and the degree of amblyopia were obviously positively related.

  9. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

    2014-05-05

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to

  10. 屈光参差性弱视Brodmann17、18、19区的功能磁共振研究%Blood oxygen level dependent-fMRI study of Brodmann 17, 18, 19 in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传明; 王健; 余琼武; 汪辉; 周杨; 谢兵; 邱明国

    2006-01-01

    目的利用血氧水平依赖性功能性磁共振成像(blood oxygenlevel dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging,bold-fMRI)技术,探索屈光参差性弱视对不同级别大脑视觉皮层功能的影响.方法以1.5 T磁共振成像系统采集10例屈光参差性弱视及8例正常志愿者枕叶视皮层兴趣区BOLD-fMRI数据,比较屈光参差性弱视组弱视眼与对侧眼,及弱视眼屈光矫正前后皮层神经元活动范围的不同,并与正常组对比,分析其改变特点及机制.结果弱视眼皮层神经元的活动范围在Brodmann17、18、19区均明显小于对侧眼.弱视眼矫正屈光不正后皮层活动水平明显增高,激活范围明显增大.结论屈光参差性弱视矫正屈光不正可部分提高弱视眼所属视觉皮层的活动能力,但其应高级别纹周皮层、纹旁皮层及低级别纹状皮层仍存在明显的功能损害.

  11. The Few Penalization Treats the Amblyopia Child to Regard the Vision to Return to Draws Back the Clinical Obser-vation Weakly%微量压抑法治疗儿童弱视视力提高后回退临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄焱

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨微量压抑法及无微量压抑治疗法治疗儿童弱视视力在提高后回退的效果。方法将102例患儿随机分为两组,观察组采用微量压抑法训练,对照组采取无微量压抑的治疗方法。结果观察组总有效率为98.04%,对照组为66.67%,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组经治疗后立体视觉正常为50眼(占98.04%),对照组为34眼(占66.67%),两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论微量压抑法用于解决儿童弱视治疗后视力在提高后回退及建立三级视功能,特别是人类的高级视功能立体视觉是有效的,有优势的。%Objective The observation discusses two kind of training methods to treat the child weakly to regard the effect which the vision returns draws back. Methods Divides into 2 groups stochastically 102 example troubles,the observation group uses the few penalization,the control group no uses the few penalization the method of treatment. Results Total effective rate of observation group was 98. 04%,66. 67% in the control group,there was significant difference between two groups(P<0. 05). The observation group after treatment,normal stereopsis in 50 eyes(98. 04%),the control group for 34 eyes(66. 67%),there was sig-nificant difference between two groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion The few penalization can use in solving the child to regard the treatment back sight strength to return weakly draws back and establishes three levels of apparent work to be able to be effective, has certain superiority.

  12. 扩散张量成像对屈光参差性弱视儿童视觉通路白质结构的研究%Study on the structure of visual pathway white matter in children with anisometropic amblyopia by diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖满意; 徐静; 李亚军; 魏欣; 彭晓娟; 贺忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用扩散张量成像(DTI)技术检查屈光参差性弱视儿童大脑白质的发育情况,从而探讨其发病机制.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象 15例屈光参差性弱视儿童(均为左眼弱视)及14例年龄、性别相匹配正常儿童.方法 利用DTI技术进行检查,用基于体索(Voxel)的形态学测量对病例组与对照组的各向异性分数(FA)图像中的所有Voxel进行逐个比较;用感兴趣区(ROI)方法定位于视放射,计算左右视放射的FA平均值和Voxel数目,比较其在两组研究对象中的差异,分析屈光参差性弱视患者视放射的发育情况.主要指标视觉通路白质结构的FA值和Voxel数目.结果 左眼弱视患者的右侧枕叶、顶下小叶、颞叶回下及左侧岛叶FA值较正常者降低,差异有统计学意义(P均=0.00);而双侧丘脑、叶下神经核团外、额叶,右侧枕中回、中央前回、豆状核、壳核,扣带回FA值较正常者升高.差异有统计学意义(P均=0.00).左眼弱视患者左右两侧视放射的Voxel数目,平均FA值和总FA值较对照组均下降,右侧差异具有统计学意义(P均<0.05),双侧总Voxel数目和FA值均低于正常对照组.差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05),双侧平均FA值也较正常组降低,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).病例组和对照组组内双侧视放射比较发现左侧视放射Voxel数目,平均FA值和总FA值均高于右侧,除对照组平均FA值外,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 屈光参差性弱视患者存在多个视觉相关脑区白质FA值的下降,提示屈光参差性弱视存在着视觉通路神经网络结构的异常;屈光参差性弱视患者双侧视放射FA值和Voxel数目下降,提示此类患者存在双侧视放射的发育不良.

  13. Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for myopic anisometropic amblyopia in adults%有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石明华; 蒋海翔; 何晓阳; 周伟; 王静

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体又称可植入式接触镜(implantable contact lens,ICL)植入术治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视的效果和安全性.方法 2010年9月到2012年9月在汉口爱尔眼科医院行ICL植入术的伴有弱视的高度近视性屈光参差患者共11例,随访6个月以上.记录患者术前、术后裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力、眼压、角膜内皮细胞计数以及术后的Titmus立体视情况.结果 术前患者弱视眼平均屈光度为13.55 D(等效球镜),术后为0.33 D.术前最佳矫正视力为0.50±0.18,术后1周裸眼视力为0.72 ±0.23,末次随访时裸眼视力进一步提升到0.78±0.22,较术前最佳矫正视力平均提高2行,差异有显著统计学意义(t=-9.87,P<0.001).术前角膜内皮细胞计数为(2678±155)个·mm-2,术后1周为(2466±214)个·mm-2,末次随访时为(2410±142)个·mm-2.术后Titmus立体视检查2例斜视患者没有立体视,其他患者均有立体视,立体视为157″±102″.所有术眼术中、术后均未见严重并发症发生.结论 ICL植入术是治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视安全有效的方法,其能明显提高患者的视功能,改善患者的生活质量.

  14. 低强度半导体激光治疗少年儿童弱视逐米观察法的疗效检验%To Test Curative Effect of Zhumi Observation Method with which the Amblyopia of Youngster and Children are Treated by Lose Intension Semiconductor Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁立刚; 丁锟; 孙佳英; 杨忠伟; 马桂芬

    2002-01-01

    通过对6~16岁少年儿童四种类型弱视经过三个疗程的低强度半导体激光的照射治疗,利用医用统计学方法中的秩和检验方法对其疗效进行检验及统计推断,治疗效果显著.

  15. Efficacy of strengthened occlusion therapy combined comprehensive treatment in children with monocular am-blyopia%强化遮盖综合治疗儿童单眼弱视疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯霖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of strengthened occlusion therapy combined comprehensive treat-ment in children with monocular amblyopia. Methods A total of 216 cases out-patient pediatric patients (216 eyes) with monocular amblyopia,according to the different causes of amblyopia, were treated with strengthened occlusion therapy combined comprehensive treatment such as refractive correction,red filter treatment and afterimages.The treatment effect were observed for 12~36 months. Results In 216 eyes,the cure rate is 67.13%,progress is 28.70% and invalid is 4.17%. The younger amblyopia age,the better the treatment effect.The treatment effect was better for ametropia amblyopia, mild amblyopia, central gazing amblyopia. Conclusions The efficacy of amblyopia is closely related to the amblyopia age, type,gazing nature and degree. Strengthened occlusion therapy combined comprehensive treatment is efficiency.%目的:探讨强化遮盖综合疗法治疗儿童单眼弱视的疗效。方法对确诊为儿童单眼弱视的216例216眼门诊儿童患者,按弱视病因,分别给予以强化遮盖治疗为主,联合屈光矫正、红光闪烁、后像等综合治疗,随访观察12~36个月,分析其疗效。结果216例216眼,治愈率67.13%,进步28.70%,无效4.17%;初诊年龄越小,治疗效果越好;屈光不正性弱视、轻度弱视、中心注视性弱视治疗效果更好。结论弱视的疗效与患儿的年龄、弱视的类型、弱视的性质、弱视的程度密切相关,强化遮盖综合疗法治疗儿童单眼弱视疗效显著。

  16. The effect of 245 amblyopial cases with comprehensive treatment in children%综合疗法治疗儿童弱视245例疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈文静; 胡怡芳

    2001-01-01

    Objectives Study the result of comprehensive treatment method in amblyopia children.Methods The results of comprehensive treatment method in 245 cases (440 eyes)of amblyopia children were reported.Results The total recovery rate was 61.36%,while the minimal degree of amblyopia was 83.87%,ametropic amblyopia 71.47%,anisometropic amblyopia 50.00%,strabismic amblyopia 26.00%,form vision deprivation and congenital amblyopia 0.Conclusions There is a strong correlation with age,degree,fixation character and type of amblyopia.The ametropic amblyopia was the best in response to treatment.The central Fixation was better than anisometropic.%目的探讨综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效。方法选用综合疗法治疗儿童弱视245例,440眼。结果治愈率:轻度83.87%,中度59.08%,重度29.55%;中心注视型78.26%,非中心注视型42.86%;屈光不正性71.47%,屈光参差性50.00%,斜视性26.00%,形觉剥夺性及先天性弱视治愈率 0。总治愈率61.14%。结论弱视的疗效与弱视的程度、类型、注视性质及年龄有关。弱视程度越轻效果越好,尤以屈光不正性疗效最好。中心注视型者优于非中心注视型者。在弱视治疗的同时应重视对较小患儿家长的宣教工作。

  17. Relevance of visual acuity measurement using two visual acuity charts in amblyopic children%两种视力表检测弱视患儿视力的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 肖信; 刘伟民; 洪华丽; 毛合娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价两种视力表检测不同类型弱视患儿视力结果的相关性.方法 选取不同类型弱视患儿119例(213眼),其中屈光不正性弱视40例(80眼)、屈光参差性弱视41例(58眼)、斜视性弱视38例(75眼),分别使用标准对数视力表和视觉噪声双视力表检测患儿的最佳矫正视力;使用Spearman相关分析评价两者的相关性.结果 屈光不正性弱视患儿、屈光参差性弱视患儿、斜视性弱视患几分别经标准对数视力表与视觉噪声双视力表检测,两种视力表所测得结果之间存在相关性.结论 标准对数视力表与视觉噪声双视力表在三类弱视患儿中检测结果均存在较好的线性关系,但不同弱视类型的相关性强弱存在差异:相关性在屈光参差性弱视中最高,在屈光不正性弱视中最低.%Objective To evaluate the correlation of visual acuity measured using two different types of eye chart in children with amblyopia.Methods 119 cases (213 eyes) amblyopia patients were selected,including 40 cases (80 eyes) of refractive amblyopia,41 cases (58 eyes) of anisometropia amblyopia,and 38 cases (75 eyes) of strabismus amblyopia were selected.Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were determined using standard visual chart and visual noise dual chart and the correlation between the two visual acuity result were explored using Spearman's correlation analysis.Results The visual acuity in refractive amblyopia,anisometropia amblyopia and strabismus amblyopia determined by standard visual chart was statistically correlated with that determined by visual noise dual visual acuity chart.Conclusions The visual acuity measured by standard vision chart showed satisfactory linear relationship with that measured by visual acuity chart double among three types of amblyopia,however,the strength of correlation coefficient between different types of amblyopia were different:correlation coefficient in anisometropic amblyopia was the highest,and the

  18. Spectacle correction of heterophoria in hyperopic amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi; LI Yu-min; LI Yang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To test the effects of corrective spectacles in hyperopic amblyopic children with heterophoria. Methods:Visual acuity, refraction and the amount of heterophoria on near (33 cm) fixation were measured before and after 3 weeks of spectacle-wearing in 30 hyperopic amblyopic children with heterophoria. The control group consisted of 20 emmetropic children age-matched to the patients. Results: Uncorrected eyes displayed hyperopic amblyopia accompanied by heterophoria. Corrective spectacles not only attenuated the hyperopia and amblyopia, but also changed the heterophoria to orthophoria. The amount of heterophoria before wearing spectacles was significantly different from that in emmetropic children; but after correction with spectacles, it was the same as that in the emmetropic controls. Conclusion: Correction with spectacles is effective for the treatment of heterophoria in hyperopic children with amblyopia.

  19. The Indication of Surgical Treatment and Visual Rehabilitation in the Congenital Cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Keklikçi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataracts constitute an important part of blindness in childhood. It’s a curable disease which is one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Main treatment is surgical operation. Timing of surgery, appropriate and rapid post sur- gery visual rehabilitation have a major effect on prognosis. Surgery should be perfor-med as soon as possible after the diagnosis in order to prevent amblyopia.Visual rehabi- litation of congenital cataract includes optical correction and amblyopia treatment. The most effective treatment of amblyopia is occlusion therapy. In this article congenital cataracts were evaluated in the light of recent literature and the importance of the timing of surgery and visual rehabilitation were attempted to be emphasized.

  20. 弱视儿童的视知觉研究进展%Research advances in visual perception of amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 毛金铭; 魏建兰

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a relatively common eye disease, which is a group of poor vision syndrome caused by abnormal visual experience of the sensitive period of visual development characterized by space vision damage. This paper reviews the previous research on amblyopia children' s visual perception. Main content include the influence of spatial frequency characteristics for amblyopia children' s shape detection, the influence of stimulus orientation for amblyopia children' s stereoacuity, the influence of spatial object for amblyopia children' s visual perception,amblyopia children' s abnormal performance on characteristics of different target motion and related brain mechanism research.%弱视是较为常见的眼病,是视觉发育敏感期异常视觉经验所导致的以空间视力损害为特征的一组视力不良综合征.本文通过整理以往研究,对弱视儿童视知觉的研究作了综述,主要包括空间特征对弱视儿童形状知觉的影响、空间方位对弱视儿童立体视觉的影响、空间目标对弱视儿童视知觉的影响、不同的目标运动特征对弱视儿童视觉运动觉的影响,以及弱视儿童视知觉相关的脑机制研究.

  1. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ann Tay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  2. 不同类型弱视儿童立体视觉状况的临床观察%Clinical research on stereoscopic vision in different types of amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑜琳; 陶利娟; 杨俊芳; 罗俊; 杜芬; 肖志刚; 邓姿峰; 唐璟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解不同类型弱视儿童立体视觉状况及危害,为提高临床弱视治愈率提供依据。  方法:选取321例在我院门诊确诊为不同类型弱视的儿童,应用同视机随机点立体图行远立体视觉检查,颜少明随机立体检查图行近立体视觉检查,分别检测其近零视差立体视锐度、交叉视差及非交叉视差立体感知度,并对资料数据进行统计分析。  结果:屈光不正性弱视组、屈光参差性弱视组与斜视性弱视组及形觉剥夺性弱视组比较,患儿的近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差及远立体视存在率的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。其中斜视性弱视组及形觉剥夺性弱视组患儿的立体视觉存在率最低,但两者之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),屈光不正性弱视组患儿立体视觉存在率最高,屈光参差性弱视组患儿立体视觉存在率较屈光不正性弱视组低。  结论:不同类型的弱视均可导致儿童立体视觉的发育障碍,其中斜视性弱视及形觉剥夺性弱视对立体视觉影响最大,屈光不正性弱视影响较小,重视立体视觉的重建是巩固儿童弱视治疗的关键。%AIM:To investigate the stereoscopic vision and its damage in children with different types of amblyopia, in order to improve the curative ratio of amblyopia in clinic. METHODS: Totally 321 children with different types of amblyopia from Hunan Children's Hospital were enrolled in this study.Distance stereoacuity was examined with synoptophore and random dot stereogram. Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity were examined with Yan's stereogram.All the datum were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The differences of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity and distance stereoacuity among each type of amblyopia group was statistically significant ( P 0.05 ) . The prevalence of

  3. 研究弱视眼瞳孔直径变化探讨其视觉通路的功能%Study on function of visual pathway among amblyopes through analysis of pupil size variance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 陈洁; 吕帆

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较弱视儿童的弱视眼与对侧健眼的瞳孔直径在不同光照条件下的变化差异,分析其视觉通路功能与对侧健眼的差异.方法 随机选择30例单眼弱视儿童,包括屈光参差性弱视17例、屈光不正性弱视8例以及斜视性弱视5例,其中中度弱视13例,轻度弱视17例.所有患者弱视眼矫正视力0.2~0.8,所有患者对侧健眼矫正视力0.9~1.2.应用照相机拍摄法在普通光照条件、直接对光条件、间接对光条件及夜间环境条件下,让受试者分别注视远距和近距E视标,来测量弱视眼与对侧健眼的瞳孔直径,比较其差异.结果在四种不同光照条件下,受试者在注视远距及近距E视标时,其弱视眼组的瞳孔直径均大于对侧健眼组(P<0.05),弱视眼在看远看近两种状态下,直接对光反射时的瞳孔直径均大于间接对光反射时的瞳孔直径;弱视眼在间接对光反射时的瞳孔直径均大于健眼直接对光反射时的瞳孔直径;弱视眼直接对光反射时的瞳孔直径均大于健眼间接对光反射时的瞳孔直径,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 弱视眼视网膜功能较对侧健眼要降低,弱视眼的近反射中枢(枕叶视皮质)功能可能较对侧健眼下降,并且E-W核功能下降是弱视眼瞳孔直径异于对侧健眼的主要原因,从而推断弱视在发生发展的过程中,弱视眼的视网膜、视觉传导通路及视皮层均存在损害.%Objective Under different four illumination conditions,comparing the variance of pupil size between the amblyopia eyes and the contralateral normal eyes in monocular amblyopia children to analyze the variance in function of visual pathway of the amblyopia eyes. Methods 30 monocular amblyopia children were selected in random which is including 17 anisometropic amblyopia children,8 ametropia amblyopia children and 5 strabismic amblyopia children,in which of them,there 're 13 Moderate amblyopia and 17 mild amblyopia

  4. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  5. 77 FR 38381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER... vision in his right eye due to trauma sustained in childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his... amblyopia in his left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is 20/30,...

  6. Prevalence of myopia among school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Hittalamani

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Early diagnosis and visual rehabilitation of myopic students can be achieved by periodic eye examination at regular intervals by school teachers and basic health workers and this can help in preventing the development of amblyopia thereby reducing the burden of morbidity due to myopia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2786-2790

  7. 77 FR 19749 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the FDMS published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http.... Qualifications of Applicants Robert J. Abbas Mr. Abbas, age 62, has had amblyopia in his left eye since birth... perform the driving tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Abbas reported that he...

  8. 77 FR 10610 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the FDMS published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http.... Qualifications of Applicants Robert J. Abbas Mr. Abbas, age 62, has had amblyopia in his left eye since birth... perform the driving tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Abbas reported that he...

  9. Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.-J. Li (Ling-Jun); J. Liao (Jie); Q. Fan (Qiao); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. Methods. In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 2008 to 2010, a total of 727 partic

  10. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  11. Interocular Shift of Visual Attention Enhances Stereopsis and Visual Acuities of Anisometropic Amblyopes beyond the Critical Period of Visual Development: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Increasing evidence shows that imbalanced suppressive drive prior to binocular combination may be the key factor in amblyopia. We described a novel binocular approach, interocular shift of visual attention (ISVA, for treatment of amblyopia in adult patients. Methods. Visual stimuli were presented anaglyphically on a computer screen. A square target resembling Landolt C had 2 openings, one in red and one in cyan color. Through blue-red goggles, each eye could only see one of the two openings. The patient was required to report the location of the opening presented to the amblyopic eye. It started at an opening size of 800 sec of arc, went up and down in 160 sec of arc step, and stopped when reaching the 5th reversals. Ten patients with anisometropic amblyopia older than age 14 (average age: 26.7 were recruited and received ISVA treatment for 6 weeks, with 2 training sessions per day. Results. Both Titmus stereopsis (z=-2.809, P=0.005 and Random-dot stereopsis (z=-2.317, P=0.018 were significantly improved. Average improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.74 line (t=5.842, P<0.001. Conclusions. The ISVA treatment may be effective in treating amblyopia and restoring stereoscopic function.

  12. Application of OCT inamblyopia%OCT 在弱视研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 蔡季平

    2014-01-01

    弱视是较为常见的眼病,弱视的研究方法涉及临床和基础多个不同的学科。相干光学断层扫描( optical coherence tomography ,OCT)是一种重要的眼科检查手段,能直观、便捷地检查视网膜结构,近年越来越多地应用于弱视眼视网膜的检查。本文就OCT在弱视眼的应用作一综述。%Amblyopia is a kind of commonly encountered disease.The research method of amblyopia is associated with various clinical and basic subjects. Optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) is an important ophthalmic examination technique.It is an objective and easy-to-operate means to assess the structure of retina. In recent years, OCT has been frequently used in the retinal examination in amblyopia. This application of OCT in amblyopia is reviewed in this article.

  13. 78 FR 62935 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... System (FDMS) published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... in a CMV. Chase L. Larson Mr. Larson, 42, has had amblyopia in his left eye since birth. The visual... optometrist noted, ``In my professional opinion Mr. Larson has the vision sufficient to operate a...

  14. 78 FR 24798 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... System (FDMS) published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... crashes and no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Clarence Jones Mr. Jones, 62, has had amblyopia... no crashes and no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Thomas Ward Mr. Ward, 66, has had...

  15. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  16. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  17. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  18. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  19. Environmental enrichment promotes plasticity and visual acuity recovery in adult monocular amblyopic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Tognini

    Full Text Available Loss of visual acuity caused by abnormal visual experience during development (amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults. In some occasions, amblyopic patients loose vision in their better eye owing to accidents or illnesses. While this condition is relevant both for its clinical importance and because it represents a case in which binocular interactions in the visual cortex are suppressed, it has scarcely been studied in animal models. We investigated whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE is effective in triggering recovery of vision in adult amblyopic rats rendered monocular by optic nerve dissection in their normal eye. By employing both electrophysiological and behavioral assessments, we found a full recovery of visual acuity in enriched rats compared to controls reared in standard conditions. Moreover, we report that EE modulates the expression of GAD67 and BDNF. The non invasive nature of EE renders this paradigm promising for amblyopia therapy in adult monocular people.

  20. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  1. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  2. Pleoptic and orthoptic training for visually impaired children in preschool age.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTOČKOVÁ, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical part of this bachelor's paper is aimed at the development of visual perception since the child{\\crq}s birth until pre-school age, and further at pleoptic and orthoptic training. The paper also mentions the anatomy of the organ of vision, and the eyesight impairments of childhood. The theoretical part examines in more detail binocular vision, as pleoptic and orthoptic training are aimed exactly at binocular vision impairments (strabismus and amblyopia). The practical part prese...

  3. Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangzhi Meng; Ou Lin; Fang Wang; Yuzheng Jiang; Yan Song

    2014-01-01

    Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training signif...

  4. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits alon...

  5. Axial myopia in computed and magnetic resonance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Goerich, J.; Gamroth, A.

    1987-08-01

    The case of a 44-year old woman suffering from amblyopia on the left eye with unilateral proptosis caused by axial (progressive) myopia is presented. The clinical and radiological findings were discussed in reference to the literature. The diagnosis was established by ruling out neoplastic, inflammatory or endocrine causes for the exophtalmos. CT and MR scans revealed an enlarged left globe without evidence of orbital masses. The findings were regarded as typical for the diagnosis at axial myopia.

  6. Visual Impairment Secondary to Congenital Glaucoma in Children: Visual Responses, Optical Correction and Use of Low Vision Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad; Marcos Wilson Sampaio; Ernst Werner Oltrogge; Newton Kara-José; Alberto Jorge Betinjane

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of...

  7. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  8. The KwaZulu-Natal Child Eye Care Programme: Delivering refractive error services to primary school learners

    OpenAIRE

    Y. I. Mahraj; K. S. Naidoo; R. Dabideen; P. Ramson

    2011-01-01

    Globally, over 300 million people are estimated to be visually impaired. Uncorrected refractive error is the primary cause of almost half of all visual impairment, resulting in the global economy losing $269 billion in productivity annually. There is a definitive level of urgency in the treatment of refractive error in children as uncorrected refractive error results in the failure of normal visual maturation, termed amblyopia, which cannot be corrected in adult life. In South Africa, the lac...

  9. Survey of Paralytic Strabismus: A Regional Survay

    OpenAIRE

    Medghalchi Abdolreza

    2009-01-01

    One of the important causes of strabismus in all ages is extraocular muscles paralysis due to 3rd, 4th and 6th cerebral nerve palsies. Exact and on-time treatment can result in improvement of deviation, am-blyopia and abnormal head posture. We studied epidemiological characteristics of extraocular muscles paralysis. This retrospective study performed on 131 subjects (58% male). Records of patients with diagnosis of paralytic strabismus referred to private clinics between 1995 and 2005 were st...

  10. Anesthesic Management for Escobar Syndrome: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Hande Arpaci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Escobar syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by growth retardation, axillary, antecubital, popliteal digital, and intercrural joint flexion contracture, pterygium in the eyes, cleft palate, decreased lung capacity, genital abnormalities, and spinal deformity. In this case, we presented the anesthesic management of a 2-year-old child undergoing frontal sling operation for ptosis and amblyopia etiology exploration.

  11. Evaluating the Perceptual and Pathophysiological Consequences of Auditory Deprivation in Early Postnatal Life: A Comparison of Basic and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Jonathon P.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research in visual system development have shown that degraded or imbalanced visual inputs can induce a long-lasting visual impairment called amblyopia. In the auditory domain, it is well established that inducing a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in young laboratory animals is associated with a panoply of central auditory system irregularities, ranging from cellular morphology to behavior. Human auditory deprivation, in the form of otitis media (OM), is tremendous...

  12. Costs and methods of preventive visual screening and the relation between esotropia and increasing hypermetropia

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsz, Huib; Grosklauser, B.; Leuppi, B.

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAtkinson has shown that early correction of hypermetropia reduces the incidence of esotropia. If esotropia is reduced by prescribing glasses early, the rate of esotropia-induced amblyopia can be similarly reduced; this would have important economic consequences. We have studied (1) how costs compare to benefits in early visual screening, (2) how videorefraction as used by Atkinson compares to retinoscopy, and (3) whether esotropia is more likely to occur in children who have incre...

  13. Natural history of infantile anisometropia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, M.; Sjöstrand, J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: In a previous study longitudinal changes of anisometropia were investigated. It was shown that anisometropia arises and vanishes during the emmetropisation process and that the associated risk for amblyopia is low. The aim of this study was to follow acuity and refraction longitudinally in children with marked anisometropia at 1 year of age. METHODS: Refractive errors and visual acuity were estimated every sixth month for a selected group of 20 children with marked anisometro...

  14. Periocular capillary hemangioma: management practices in recent years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jo Anne Hernandez,1,3,4 Audrey Chia,2 Boon Long Quah,1,2 Lay Leng Seah1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kandang Kerbau Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Cardinal Santos Medical Center, San Juan, Manila, Philippines Purpose: To present a case series on the management options for capillary hemangiomas involving the eyelid and orbit. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of clinically diagnosed capillary hemangioma cases involving the periocular region treated at two local eye institutions. The patients' demographics and clinical presentation – including visual acuity, refractive error, periorbital and orbital examinations, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings – were reviewed. The clinical progression, modalities of treatment, and treatment outcomes were studied. Results: Sixteen cases of capillary hemangiomas involving the eyelid and orbit were studied. The mean age at consultation was 9.6 months (range: 1 month–72 months. The majority were females (75%, with 50% presenting as upper-eyelid hemangiomas and the remaining as lower-eyelid (38% and glabellar (12% lesions. Combined superficial and deep involvement was common (64%. Cases whose lesions were located at the upper eyelid or superior orbit led to amblyopia (25%. Fifty-six percent of cases (9/16 were managed conservatively, and 44% (7/16 underwent treatment with either single-agent (n = 4 or combined treatments (n = 3. Conclusion: Close monitoring of visual development and prompt institution of amblyopia therapy for children with periocular capillary hemangiomas generally preserve vision. Extensive lesions that affect the visual axis require local and systemic treatments, alone or in combination, in order to reduce the size and impact of lesions on the eyeball, to reduce induced refractive error and

  15. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  16. A Study of Essential Infantile Esotropia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential infantile esotropia is an entity in squint that requires particular attention because of its varied etiology and variable associated findings and that it most of the times requires early surgical intervention. Aims and Objectives: Our aim is to study incidence of occurrence, associated findings and binocular status of these patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 50 cases of Essential infantile esotropia who attended squint clinic of a tertiary referral center between September 2009 to September 2012 & were studied for their age of presentation, squint, cycloplegic refraction, binocular status and amblyopia. Results: Amongst 50 cases 46% were male and 54% were female patients. Most i.e. 62% cases presented between 1 to 2 years of age. 76% patients had unilateral deviation. Incidence of amblyopia was 76%. 2% cases had myopia, 90% had mild to moderate hypermetropia, and 8% cases had high hypermetropia. 52% patients had inferior oblique over-action, 28% had nystagmus, 8% had head posture, 8% had Dissociated Vertical Deviation. Stereopsis was not present in a single case. Conclusion: Our study assesses that the age of presentation is between 1 to 2 years. Amblyopia is commonly associated with unilateral deviation. Moderate hypermetropia is common. Inferior oblique over action is the most common association.

  17. Relationship of Visual Cortex Function and Visual Acuity in Anisometropic Amblyopic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li, Lin Cheng, Qiongwu Yu, Bing Xie, Jian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect the functional deficit of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique, and investigate the relationship between visual acuity and visual cortex function.Methods: Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI was performed in ten monocular anisometropic amblyopia children and ten normal controls. fMRI images were acquired in two runs with visual stimulation delivered separately through the sound and amblyopic eyes. Measurements were performed in cortical activation of striate and extrastriate areas at the occipital lobe. The relationship between cortex function and visual acuity was analyzed by Pearson partial analysis.Results: The activation areas of both the striate and extrastriate cortices in the amblyopic eyes were significantly lower than that of the sound fellow eyes. No relationship was found between the striate and extrastriate cortex activation. No relationship was found between the visual cortical activation of striate, extrastriate areas and visual acuity of anisometropic amblyopes.Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI revealed the independent striate and extrastriate cortical deficits in anisometropic amblyopes. In addition, the visual acuity lesion and the striate and extrastriate cortical deficits were not parallel, and results of fMRI examination have much potential value in the evaluation of amblyopia.

  18. Sight-Threatening Ocular Diseases Remain Underdiagnosed Among Children Of Less Affluent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua D; Andrews, Chris; Musch, David C; Green, Carmen; Lee, Paul P

    2016-08-01

    Sight-threatening eye diseases such as strabismus (misaligned eyes) and amblyopia (lazy eye) develop during childhood. The earlier in life these diseases are diagnosed and effectively treated, the greater the chance of preventing irreversible long-term sight loss. Using 2001-14 claims data for nearly 900,000 US children with health insurance, we followed a cohort for up to fourteen years from birth, to assess whether household net worth affected rates of visits to ophthalmologists and optometrists or rates of diagnoses of strabismus and amblyopia. We found considerably lower use of eye care services among children in less affluent families than among those in more affluent ones, resulting in estimates of nearly 13,000 missed strabismus diagnoses and over 5,000 missed amblyopia diagnoses in a ten-year period. Despite ongoing efforts to improve screening rates for serious childhood ocular disorders, more attention should be directed to overcoming economic barriers that keep children from obtaining necessary eye care services. PMID:27503958

  19. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  20. Not only amblyopic but also dominant eye in subjects with strabismus show increased saccadic latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara K; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Ober, Jan K

    2016-08-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of vision usually associated with the presence of strabismus and/or anisometropia during early childhood. Subject literature has shown that both the amblyopic and fellow eyes (especially in strabismic subjects) may manifest a variety of perceptual and oculomotor deficits. Previous studies using simple saccadic responses (pro-saccades) showed an increased saccadic latency only for the amblyopic eye viewing conditions. So far, there have appeared no saccadic latency studies in strabismic amblyopia for more complex volitional saccades. In order to maximize the contribution of the central retina in the process of saccade initiation, we decided to use delayed saccadic responses in order to test the hypothesis about saccadic latency increase in both eyes in strabismic amblyopes. The results from our study have shown that saccadic latency is increased both in the dominant and amblyopic eyes. In addition, the amblyopic eye in the strabismic group showed greater increase in saccadic latency compared to an amblyopic eye in the anisometropic group from our previous study. The observed increase in saccadic reaction time for the dominant eye is novel and provides further evidence that the visual pathway associated with the dominant eye might be also impaired in strabismic amblyopia. Since an abnormal binocular input during visual system development may affect gaze stability in both eyes, we speculate that unsteady fixation accompanied with subtle perceptual deficits contribute to an increase in saccadic latency that is observed in the dominant eye. Moreover, it appears that the cortical processes related to saccade decisions are delayed both for amblyopic and fellow eyes in strabismic subjects. PMID:27559718

  1. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej ePerdziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  2. Comparison Between Posterior Pole Analysis and Macular Thickness Measurement Mode Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Unilateral Anisometropic Amblyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ulaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the optical coherence tomography (OCT measurements using posterior pole analysis (PPA and macular thickness measurement mode in pediatric cases with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia. Ma te ri al and Met hod: This study included 74 eyes of 37 patients aging between 6-17 years with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia. PPA and macular thickness measurement mode OCT scans were performed, and measurements of amblyopic and fellow eyes were evaluated. All OCT scans were performed by a single experienced doctor without pupil dilation within one session. Measurement sequence was randomly assigned for PPA and macular thickness measurement mode for amblyopic and fellow eyes. Retinal thickness measurements by using PPA and macular thickness measurement mode were compared using the paired samples ttest. Statistical analyses of retinal thickness differences between the amblyopic and fellow eyes were determined using the independent samples t-test. Re sults: PPA and macular thickness measurement mode results of the amblyopic eyes did not reveal any statistically significant difference for all studied segments (p-values for all segments were over 0.10. PPA and macular thickness measurement mode results of the fellow eyes did not reveal any statistically significant difference for all studied segments (p-values for all segments were over 0.16, except for the temporal segment (p=0.04. There was no statistically significant difference between macular thickness of the amblyopic and fellow eye for both measurement modes. Dis cus si on: Macular thickness measurements using different scanning modes of OCT revealed similar retinal thickness in amblyopic and fellow eyes of patients with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia, but temporal macular segment measurements should be evaluated cautiously. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 113-7

  3. Development and evaluation of a patching treatment questionnaire for Chinese amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jinling; Lu Qun; Huang Ying; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Jie; Yu Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common disease for children.The main treatment approach for amblyopia is to patch the normally sighted eye and force the use of the amblyopic eye.However,patching treatment in children may negatively impact psychological well-being of both the child and family.At present,no specific questionnaire is available to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of amblyopic treatment for children and their families in China.The purpose of our study was to develop a Chinese version of patching treatment questionnaire,and evaluate its reliability and validity.Methods The original patching treatment questionnaire of amblyopia treatment index (ATI) was translated into Chinese.Amblyopic patients aged 4-9 years receiving patching 4-8 hours per day or full-time were recruited.The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire were determined by internal consistency,test-retest reliability,item-scale correlations,and construct validity.The associated baseline factors and the questionnaire responses were assessed.Results One hundred and nine children with amblyopia treated with patching were enrolled.Distribution of response options for individual items and correlation with the respective subscale were calculated.Factor analysis revealed that 16 of the 21 items were loaded in the three subscales as follows:"adverse effects" of treatment,“difficulties with compliance" and "social stigma" of treatment.Intemal consistency values measured by Cronbach's a coefficient (0.768) and split-half coefficient (0.790) were satisfactory for the total scales.The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.998.No significant difference was found between the overall questionnaire scores and children's age,sex,baseline visual acuity of amblyopic eyes,improvement of the amblyopic eye,or patching time.Conclusions We developed a Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire with satisfactory

  4. Long-term visual results in eyes cured for retinoblastoma by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbek, S.; Ehlers, N. (Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four eyes from 18 patients cured for retinoblastoma by radiation on an average 12 years previously, were re-examined with respect to visual performance. The macular functions, i.e. visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity demonstrated performances predictable from tumour localization and radiation dose to the macula. The rod functions, i.e. visual field and dark adaptation were found to be relatively resistant to the radiation treatment. A special problem encountered in two-eyed patients was the unavoidable amblyopia dut to unequal handicaps in the two eyes at the vulnerable age. (author).

  5. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition. PMID:27483333

  6. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Atsushi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  7. [NERVOUS SYSTEM LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH RELAPSING POLYCHONDRITIS: ANALYSIS OF ORIGINAL OBSERVATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, V I; Savel'ev A I; Men'shikova, I V; Pogromov, A P

    2016-01-01

    Three clinical cases are described including two of relapsing polychondritis with lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system (one of long-standing aseptic lymphocytic meningitis and one of cranial neuropathy of 2, 5, 7, and 8 pairs) and the third case of the optic nerve lesion with amblyopia. The two former cases were successfully treated with high doses of corticosteroids, the third one with moderate doses of the same medications. The data from the current literature concerning variants of clinical manifestations, methods for diagnostics and treatment of neurologic manifestations of relapsing polychondritis are discussed. PMID:27459759

  8. A new apparatus for visual field testing with binocular fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa,Eiichi

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available A new instrument for visual field examination with binocular fixation is described. The binocular vision was dissociated with polarizing plates. Only the point of fixation was visible to both eyes while the testing chart (Amsler chart was visible to one eye in the use of this apparatus. The examination was done with both the patient's eyes open. With the use of this apparatus, not only was the visual line fixed steadily in order to detect various changes of the central visual field due to maculopathy or optic neuropathy and these changes were detected accurately and quickly, but also suppression scotoma associated with amblyopia or squint could be detected quantitatively.

  9. Intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas

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    Derrick P Smit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periocular infantile capillary hemangiomas do not always respond well to conventional treatment modalities such as systemic or intralesional corticosteroids, radiotherapy or debulking surgery. The authors describe the use of intralesional bleomycin injections (IBIs to treat potentially amblyogenic lesions in two cases where other modalities have failed. In both cases monthly IBIs successfully cleared the visual axis of the affected eye before the age of 1 year thus preventing permanent sensory deprivation amblyopia. A total of five and nine injections, respectively, were used and no significant side effects were noted. IBI appears to be a useful alternative in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas refractory to more conventional modalities.

  10. White light interferometry in amblyopic children--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Hardman-Lea, S; Rubinstein, M P; Snead, M P

    1990-01-01

    Interferometric acuity using the IRAS white light interferometer was compared with Snellen acuity in nine amblyopic children between the ages of five and nine years, and nine aged matched controls. All of the amblyopic eyes achieved better grating acuities than Snellen acuities. Fifty-seven per cent of the amblyopes with a best corrected Snellen acuity of 6/18 or less in their amblyopic eye, achieved grating acuities indistinguishable from normal. The hand held white light interferometer may have a role in the assessment of meridional amblyopia and in children with high astigmatic errors.

  11. Evaluation and management of Periocular Capillary Hemangioma: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review the salient features of periocular capillary hemangioma, provide the ophthalmologist with clinical, diagnostic and histological features characteristic of the tumor and discuss various methods of management. Methods were literature review of periocular capillary hemangioma, diagnostic evaluation with emphasis on treatment through the presentation of illustrative clinical cases. Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign vascular tumor found on the head and neck area including eyelids and orbit. The lesion typically manifests within the first few weeks of life, grows rapidly in the first year during the proliferative phase, then invariably and slowly regresses over the next 4 to 5 years during the involutional phase. The lesion may resolve without leaving any significant cosmetic sequelae in vast majority of patients, however, the functional defects in the form of amblyopia, squint, facial disfigurement and rarely optic atrophy may persist long after complete resolution of the tumor. The diagnosis of the capillary hemangioma requires a combination of clinical and imaging studies such as ultrasonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography in selected cases. With the advent of less invasive diagnostic techniques, the need for biopsy in capillary hemangioma has decreased. Nevertheless, it should be differentiated from other periocular tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphangioma, chloroma, neuroblastoma, orbital cyst, and orbital cellulites. Treatment is indicated to prevent amblyopia or cosmetic disfigurement. If indicated, intra-lesional corticosteroids may be used to enhance resolution of the tumor. Other forms of treatment tried with variable success include systematic and topical corticosteroids, radiation, surgical excision and intravenous embolization of the tumor. Indecent years, laser ablation of the tumor has been found effective in some cases. Interferon-u has been utilized effectively in cases of capillary

  12. Severe penetrating ocular injury from ninja stars in two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, B H; Steinemann, T L; Henry, P; Brodsky, M C

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of penetrating ocular trauma in children resulting from ninja stars. In the first case, despite a scleral laceration, loss of iris tissue, and a vitreous hemorrhage, the child had a good result with a final best corrected visual acuity of 20/20. Unfortunately, the child in the second case did not fare as well. In this case, the child suffered a large corneal laceration and traumatic cataract. He ultimately required a penetrating keratoplasty, and he is currently being treated for amblyopia, strabismus, and elevated intraocular pressures. His best corrected visual acuity is 20/70. PMID:11475403

  13. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harun; akmak; Tolga; Kocatürk; Sema; Oru; Dündar

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare surgically induced astigmatism(SIA)following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the "hang-back" technique and conventional recession technique.·METHODS: Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique(Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique(Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1stwk, 1stand in the 3rdmo after surgery using the SIA calculator.·RESULTS: SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups.·CONCLUSION: The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia.Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia.

  14. Vision screening programme among school children--evaluation of the outcome in a selected urban locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Ketaki; Sarkar, Subhra Nag; Chattopadhyaya, Tutul; Dan, Amit

    2008-05-01

    To determine the profile of the visual acuity status, refractive error and other ocular morbidities and to asses the performance at different stages following a vision screening programme in school a retrospective analysis of the data obtained from the programme register for school vision screening programme conducted from April 2003 to March 2006 was done. The data was plotted age and genderwise. Statistical analysis was done to find out disease prevalence with 95% confidence Interval and Z-test was applied for comparison. There were 45,087 students for 239 primary and secondary schools who were examined; 1856 students (4.11%) found having visual acuity .5 or less in either or both eyes. Refractive error was evident in 4.03% students and was the aetiology of compromised vision in 98%. Myopia topped the list with the prevalence of 2.85%; 1733 students (3.84%) were provided with spectacles. Correction of refractive error improved the visual disability in 3.93% of students while amblyopia was found in 0.10%. Average student load per teacher for initial screening was 229. The vision screening programme in school helps to detect refractive error and other causes of compromised vision among large section of children between 5 and 15 years age group. Use of correct spectacles prevents amblyopia considerably. Constraints arising in the programme can be removed by proper planning. PMID:18839632

  15. [Excessive medical problems in the treatment of common eye diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L H

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, some typical excessive medical problems in the treatment of common eye diseases in children were listed as follows: unnecessary examinations carried out for children with little or no corresponding complaints; prescription for spectacles for physiological hyperopia or astigmatism in children; over-diagnosis, over-or nonstandard-treatment for amblyopia; strabismus surgeries performed in children with esotropia but without full optical correction of hyperopic refractive error, in children with monocular strabismus and amblyopia but without standard cover therapy, in children with intermittent exotropia but without optical correction of myopic refractive errors and myopic anisometropia, and without evaluation of their fusional control ability; exaggerated the harm of myopia and the curative effect of Orthokeratology contact lenses without considering the patient's compliance; cataract surgery performed in infants with partial opacity of the lens that has little effect on the vision. Every ophthalmologist should work based on evidence-based preferred practice pattern, professional standards and expert consensus to promote the standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of children's common eye diseases in China. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 561-564). PMID:27562274

  16. GABAergic inhibition in visual cortical plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Experience is required for the shaping and refinement of developing neural circuits during well defined periods of early postnatal development called critical periods. Many studies in the visual cortex have shown that intracortical GABAergic circuitry plays a crucial role in defining the time course of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. With the end of the critical period, neural plasticity wanes and recovery from the effects of visual defects on visual acuity (amblyopia or binocularity is much reduced or absent. Recent results pointed out that intracortical inhibition is a fundamental limiting factor for adult cortical plasticity and that its reduction by means of different pharmacological and environmental strategies makes it possible to greatly enhance plasticity in the adult visual cortex, promoting ocular dominance plasticity and recovery from amblyopia. Here we focus on the role of intracortical GABAergic circuitry in controlling both developmental and adult cortical plasticity. We shall also discuss the potential clinical application of these findings to neurological disorders in which synaptic plasticity is compromised because of excessive intracortical inhibition.

  17. Prevalence of refractive errors and ocular disorders in preschool and school children of Ibiporã - PR, Brazil (1989 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimiti Rui Barroso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To establish the prevalence of refractive errors and ocular disorders in preschool and schoolchildren of Ibiporã, Brazil. Methods: A survey of 6 to 12-year-old children from public and private elementary schools was carried out in Ibiporã between 1989 and 1996. Visual acuity measurements were performed by trained teachers using Snellen's chart. Children with visual acuity <0.7 in at least one eye were referred to a complete ophthalmologic examination. Results: 35,936 visual acuity measurements were performed in 13,471 children. 1.966 children (14.59% were referred to an ophthalmologic examination. Amblyopia was diagnosed in 237 children (1.76%, whereas strabismus was observed in 114 cases (0.84%. Cataract (n=17 (0.12%, chorioretinitis (n=38 (0.28% and eyelid ptosis (n=6 (0.04% were also diagnosed. Among the 614 (4.55% children who were found to have refractive errors, 284 (46.25% had hyperopia (hyperopia or hyperopic astigmatism, 206 (33.55% had myopia (myopia or myopic astigmatism and 124 (20.19% showed mixed astigmatism. Conclusions: The study determined the local prevalence of amblyopia, refractive errors and eye disorders among preschool and schoolchildren.

  18. Pediatric Patient with Oculocutaneous Albinism: A Case Report

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    Casandra Solis, OD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA is a rare genetic disorder that occurs due to a mutation in one of the genes that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway. OCA is autosomal recessive and affects people of all ethnic backgrounds. Oculocutaneous albinism often presents with nystagmus and pale coloring of the skin and hair. The patient with OCA has normal development, intelligence, fertility, and lifespan. Case Report: A two-month-old female presented with a new-onset intermittent nystagmus. A complete vision exam resulted in a diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism with nystagmus secondary to foveal hypoplasia. The findings were discussed with the parents, and a follow-up was scheduled. At the five-month follow-up, the patient was progressing well and had a reduction in the amplitude of her nystagmus. Conclusion: Oculocutaneous albinism is often discovered first with a visit to the eye care professional due to a recent onset of nystagmus. Foveal hypoplasia causes an onset of nystagmus between two and three months. Additional ocular manifestations include reduced visual acuity, strabismus, high refractive error, amblyopia, increased decussation of visual fibers, color vision defects, photophobia, transillumination, and hypopigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium. Assistance for the child with OCA consists of correcting the refractive error; amblyopia treatment when necessary; and concurrent physical, occupational, and low vision therapy. Communication and collaboration with other medical specialties is warranted throughout life.

  19. The Case of the Missing Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Silbert Aumiller, OD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital absence of the superior oblique (SO is a rare cause of strabismus. It should be suspected in a patient with a presumed diagnosis of SO palsy presenting with amblyopia, an unusually large vertical deviation, and a significant horizontal deviation. Case Report: We report a case of an infant presenting at five months of age with a significant right head tilt since birth and significant vertical and horizontal strabismus. The patient was not meeting developmental milestones. The infant was referred for surgery, where it was discovered that she had a congenital lack of SO muscles. After surgery, the patient was treated with amblyopia therapy and vision therapy and followed for six years. Surgical and non-surgical intervention led to a good visual outcome, enhanced achievement of developmental milestones, and improved cosmesis. Conclusion: Although absence of SO muscles is a rare etiology for torticollis and strabismus, it should be considered in cases of early and significant ocular misalignment. The presence of horizontal and vertical strabismus in a patient with a presumed congenital SO palsy should raise suspicion of an absent SO. Early intervention can make a significant difference for the patient in terms of both visual outcome and cosmesis. This patient is the youngest documented case of SO aplasia and the first published case using surgery and vision therapy in combination.

  20. Temporal Instabilities in Amblyopic Perception: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Aylin; Iftime, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the temporal characteristics of spatial misperceptions in human amblyopia. Twenty-two adult participants with strabismus, strabismic, anisometropic, or mixed amblyopia were asked to describe their subjective percept of static geometrical patterns with different spatial frequencies and shapes, as seen with their non-dominant eye. We generated digital reconstructions of their perception (static images or movies) that were subsequently validated by the subjects using consecutive matching sessions. We calculated the Shannon entropy variation in time for each recorded movie, as a measure of temporal instability. Nineteen of the 22 subjects perceived temporal instabilities that can be broadly classified in two categories. We found that the average frequency of the perceived temporal instabilities is ∼1 Hz. The stimuli with higher spatial frequencies yielded more often temporally unstable perceptions with higher frequencies. We suggest that type and amount of temporal instabilities in amblyopic vision are correlated with the etiology and spatial frequency of the stimulus.

  1. Managing elevated intraocular pressure in a patient with optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Marcovitch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Karina Marcovitch, Joseph SowkaNova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Davie, FL, USABackground: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital optic disc anomaly, often manifesting with visual deficits.Case: A 51-year-old woman with a history of bilateral amblyopia was referred for glaucoma evaluation due to elevated intraocular pressure. The patient demonstrated the classic nerve head appearance of bilateral ONH with “double ring sign” and indistinguishable cupping. Despite demonstrating functional and structural measurements consistent with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, it was felt that these deficits were more likely longstanding and secondary to ONH. Additionally, in the absence of any amblyogenic factors, it was also concluded that the patient’s bilateral “amblyopia” was the result of ONH. In that the patient presented with a significant and modifiable risk factor for glaucomatous development and pre-existing retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field defects, the patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications. Conclusion: Diagnosing glaucoma in patients with concurrent anomalies is a clinical conundrum. This report provides a review of ONH with emphasis on the common misdiagnosis of amblyopia in these patients as well as presenting a strategy for diagnosing and managing glaucoma in patients with preexisting, confounding conditions. Keywords: optic nerve hypoplasia, glaucoma, visual field loss, scanning laser polarimetry, threshold automated perimetry

  2. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  3. Relieving the attentional blink in the amblyopic brain with video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Ngo, Charlie V; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Video game play induces a generalized recovery of a range of spatial visual functions in the amblyopic brain. Here we ask whether video game play also alters temporal processing in the amblyopic brain. When visual targets are presented in rapid succession, correct identification of the first target (T1) can interfere with identification of the second (T2). This is known as the "attentional blink". We measured the attentional blink in each eye of adults with amblyopia before and after 40 hours of active video game play, using a rapid serial visual presentation technique. After videogame play, we observed a ~40% reduction in the attentional blink (identifying T2 200 ms after T1) seen through the amblyopic eye and this improvement in performance transferred substantially to the untrained fellow sound eye. Our experiments show that the enhanced performance cannot be simply explained by eye patching alone, or to improved visual acuity, but is specific to videogame experience. Thus, videogame training might have important therapeutic applications for amblyopia and other visual brain disorders.

  4. 高度近视性弱视儿童视盘周围视网膜神经纤维层厚度分析%Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and the relevant factors in high myopia amblyopic Chinese children eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娟; 田彧; 谢燕文

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析高度近视性弱视儿童视盘周围视网膜神经纤维层厚度特点,并探讨与眼轴、年龄的关系。  方法:选择收集2014-01/07间在我院眼科门诊就诊的儿童35例59眼,平均年龄9.59±2.90岁,所有受检眼排除眼底的疾病和眼前节的病变。根据扩瞳验光的结果,分成高度近视性弱视组(22眼)、高度近视组(15眼)、正视眼组(22眼),运用频域OCT对视盘周围视网膜神经纤维层进行检测,通过A超测量出所有受检者眼轴长度。对各组视盘周围各方位视网膜神经纤维层厚度进行比较分析,探讨视盘周围各方位视网膜神经纤维层与眼轴、年龄的关系。  结果:高度近视性弱视组视盘颞侧RNFL厚度薄于高度  近视组,厚于正视眼组;视盘鼻侧、上方、下方、周围平均RNFL厚度与高度近视组、正视眼组相比均最薄,其中视盘下方及周围平均RNFL厚度与高度近视组相比变薄,有统计学差异(P  结论:高度近视性弱视儿童视网膜结构存在异常。%AIM: To research the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer ( RNFL ) thickness change in high myopia amblyopic children and to discuss the relationships among RNFL thickness, axial length and age. METHODS:Thirty-five Chinese children (59 eyes) with a mean age of ( 9. 59 ±2. 90 ) years were recruited. All eyes were ruled out the pathological changes of fundus diseases and front section. By atropine optometry after they were divided into: high myopia amblyopia group (22 eyes), high myopia group (15 eyes), normal group (22 eyes) . RNFL scans were obtained for all eyes using optical coherence tomography and axial length was also surveyed by A - ultrasound. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate RNFL thickness at each location with axial length and age. RESULTS:The peripapillary RNFL thickness in temporal of high myopia amblyopia group was thinner than that in high myopia group, and thicker than that in

  5. 多巴胺在眼科相关领域中的研究进展%An updated view on dopamine in ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瀛娟

    2014-01-01

    多巴胺是中枢神经递质之一,在人体内与相应的膜受体结合后可激活或抑制环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)的活性,从而调控细胞的钙信号;同时多巴胺也是视网膜中一种主要的神经递质与调质,在整个视觉通路中参与视觉系统的信号传递与调控过程,如视网膜、外侧膝状体、视皮层等.近年来研究发现,多巴胺量的变化影响弱视、近视眼的形成,此外,它还通过与受体结合参与眼压的调控,这些研究对眼科临床上弱视的治疗、近视的预防和眼压的控制等方面提供了新的思路.就视网膜中多巴胺在调控形觉剥夺、光学离焦诱导的近视眼形成、眼压的调节、眼轴的发育及弱视的形成与治疗等方面的研究进展进行综述.%Dopamine is one of neurotransmitters of the central nervous system,and it can activate or inhibit cAMP by binding the corresponding membrane receptor and further regulate calcium signals.Dopamine is also primary neurotransmitter and modulator in retina,and it plays very important roles over the entire visual pathway including retina,lateral geniculate body and visual cortex.Recent study showed that dopamine participates in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and myopia.In addition,it is also involved in the regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP).These studies offered some new clues for the treatment and prevention of amblyopia and myopia as well as the regulation of IOP.Hence,this paper describes the new progress of retinal dopamine in the form deprivation myopia,myopic defocus,the regulation of IOP,the eye growth and the treatment of amblyopia.

  6. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base. PMID:26982644

  7. Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, H K; Prigatano, G P; Pollay, M; Biscoe, C B; Smith, R V

    1985-01-01

    Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second year for strabismus, amblyopia and visual acuity. Their medical records were reviewed for history of ocular motility and/or acuity abnormalities. Hydrocephalic children with normal range IQ were found to have lower verbal IQ, memory, and fine motor skills compared to controls. A history of ocular motility and acuity abnormalities was associated with impaired visuospatial and verbal problem-solving skills. PMID:4005882

  8. Acute exacerbation of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Keishi; Gocho, Kyoko; Kikuchi, Naoshi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Uekusa, Toshimasa; Homma, Sakae

    2016-03-01

    A 30-year-old male smoker with congenital amblyopia and oculocutaneous albinism was admitted to our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnea on exertion. Chest computed tomography images revealed diffuse reticular opacities and honeycombing in the bilateral lower lobes with sparing of the subpleural region along with emphysema predominantly in the upper lobes. Lung biopsy specimens showed a mixture of usual interstitial pneumonia and a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern with emphysema. Of note, cuboidal epithelial cells with foamy cytoplasm on the alveolar walls and phagocytic macrophages with ceroid pigments in the fibrotic lesions were observed. The patient was diagnosed with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) associated with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Six years following the patient's initial admission to our hospital, he died from acute exacerbation (AE) of CPFE associated with HPS. This is one of only few reports available on the clinicopathological characteristics of AE in CPFE associated with HPS. PMID:26839694

  9. Management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoids.

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    Pirouzian, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the data in the published literature (PubMed from 1937 to 2011) concerning the medical and surgical management of pediatric limbal dermoids. Current standard medical treatment for grade I pediatric limbal dermoids (ie, with superficial corneal involvment) is initially conservative. In stages II (ie, affecting the full thickness of the cornea with/without endothelial involvement) and III (ie, involvement of entire cornea and anterior chamber), a combination of excision, lamellar keratoplasty, and amniotic membrane and limbal stem cell tranplantation are advocated. Combinations of these approaches seem to yield better and more stable long-term ocular surface cosmesis and fewer complications in comparison with traditional methods of excision and lamellar keratoplasty. Management of amblyopia (i.e. occlusion treatment, chemical penalization with/without spectacle wear, etc) must continue after surgical excision to yield optimal results when or if the surgery is done at a younger age. PMID:23576860

  10. Approach to diagnosis and management of optic neuropathy

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    Sharik Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual loss consequent to anterior visual pathway involvement can occur in a variety of clinical settings. In a tropical country like India, apart from the usual suspects, nutritional, infective, and toxic amblyopia have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The mode of onset (acute/chronic, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, accompanying occular pain or the lack of it, and pattern of visual loss are some of the pointers which help to differentiate optic neuropathy clinically. The presence of concurrent neurological deficits, evidence of other systemic illnesses, and the results of serological and radiological investigations help to confirm the diagnosis. This article briefly describes the important causes of optic neuropathy in the Indian context and outlines a practical approach to management.

  11. Plasticity in the Human Visual Cortex: An Ophthalmology-Based Perspective

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    Andreia Martins Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to reorganize the function and structure of its connections in response to changes in the environment. Adult human visual cortex shows several manifestations of plasticity, such as perceptual learning and adaptation, working under the top-down influence of attention. Plasticity results from the interplay of several mechanisms, including the GABAergic system, epigenetic factors, mitochondrial activity, and structural remodeling of synaptic connectivity. There is also a downside of plasticity, that is, maladaptive plasticity, in which there are behavioral losses resulting from plasticity changes in the human brain. Understanding plasticity mechanisms could have major implications in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases, such as retinal disorders, cataract and refractive surgery, amblyopia, and in the evaluation of surgical materials and techniques. Furthermore, eliciting plasticity could open new perspectives in the development of strategies that trigger plasticity for better medical and surgical outcomes.

  12. Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum: Report of two cases

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    Chandana Chakraborti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by partial or complete adhesion of upper and lower eyelids, usually seen as an isolated finding but often associated with other anomalies or a well-defined syndrome. We report two cases of AFA who presented at a tertiary eye care center of West Bengal. Family history of consanguinity was absent. One baby had abnormal tuft of hair over the small of the back. No other congenital abnormalities were detected in any of them. The adhesions of the eyelids were divided by a number 15 blade after crushing with mosquito forceps in both cases without any anesthesia. Subsequent ocular examinations following separation and during follow-up revealed normal eyelid function, ocular motility, and fundus. In a case of AFA, timely separation of the eyelids is crucial to avoid the development of occlusion amblyopia. Cases of AFA reported in the literature are reviewed.

  13. Screening eye diseases in babies: an italian experience on 5000 healthy, consecutive newborns

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    Roberto Perilli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visual performance of eyes with congenital pathologies is conditioned by an early diagnosis. Families having problems in accessing health services risk to delay or miss both an early diagnosis and an early treatment and amblyopia (lazy eye prevention. METHODS: In our hospital, all full-term, healthy newborns are thoroughly examined by an ophthalmologist in the maternal ward, 1 to 3 days after birth. RESULTS: Among the first 5000 newborns examined, a high incidence of congenital pathologies compared to international literature was reported, with differences between Caucasians and non-Caucasians. CONCLUSION: Performing an early in-hospital thorough eye examination in all newborns as a screening would be an effective way to miss none and to start an early and effective pathway of disease treatment.

  14. Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report

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    Zhale Rajavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Case report: A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion: This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia.

  15. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

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    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  16. A Case of Congenital Retinal Macrovessel Crossing the Foveola

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    Cem Özgönül

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital retinal macrovessel is generally the presence of unilateral aberrant vessel crossing over the horizontal raphe through the macula. Typically, visual acuity is unaffected, although in rare cases, macular hemorrhage, foveolar cysts, foveal contour impairment, and the presence of anomalous vessel in the foveola can affect the vision. In our case, visual acuity of the right eye was counting fingers at 3 meters. He had four diopter oblique astigmatism, esotropia, and dissociated vertical deviation. Fundoscopy revealed a aberrant vein crossing the foveola. Spectral OCT examination showed hiperreflectivity of the vessel and fluorescein angiography showed no leakage of the vessel. Although in the literature it is specified that the aberrant vein crossing the fovea is a factor of lowering visual acuity, in our case we thought, low visual acuity is due to deep amblyopia. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 154-5

  17. Outcomes of Surgery for Posterior Polar Cataract Using Torsional Ultrasound

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to report outcomes of surgery for posterior polar cataract using torsional ultrasound. Material and Method: Medical records of 26 eyes of 21 consecutive patients with posterior polar cataract who had cataract surgery using the torsional phacoemulsification were evaluated retrospectively. The surgical procedure used, phacoemulsification parameters, intraoperative complications, and postoperative visual outcome were recorded. Results: Of the 26 eyes, 24 (92.3% had small to medium posterior polar opacity. Two eyes had large opacity. All surgeries were performed using the torsional handpiece. Posterior capsule rupture occurred in 4 (15.3% eyes. The mean visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.001. The postoperative visual acuity was worse than 20/20 in 5 eyes. The cause of the low acuity was amblyopia. Discussion: Successful surgical results and good visual outcome can be achieved with phacoemulsification using the torsional handpiece. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 345-7

  18. Effects of cortical damage on binocular depth perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic depth perception requires considerable neural computation, including the initial correspondence of the two retinal images, comparison across the local regions of the visual field and integration with other cues to depth. The most common cause for loss of stereoscopic vision is amblyopia, in which one eye has failed to form an adequate input to the visual cortex, usually due to strabismus (deviating eye) or anisometropia. However, the significant cortical processing required to produce the percept of depth means that, even when the retinal input is intact from both eyes, brain damage or dysfunction can interfere with stereoscopic vision. In this review, I examine the evidence for impairment of binocular vision and depth perception that can result from insults to the brain, including both discrete damage, temporal lobectomy and more systemic diseases such as posterior cortical atrophy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269597

  19. Strategies for the Management of Congenital Iris Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shabana; Shoaib, Khawaja Khalid; Hing, Stephen; Smith, James

    2016-06-01

    Iris cysts can arise from iris pigment epithelium or stroma. We present 3 cases of iris cysts which have been managed in different ways. In a one-month neonate, cyst was punctured with keratome and gentle diode laser endophotocoagulation was applied to the base. A2.5-month infant presented with watering and blepharospasm since birth. Clear fluid was aspirated from the cyst with a 27-gauge needle and Ethanol 96% (ETOH) was injected into the cyst and then aspirated. It was followed by injection/aspiration of 0.3 ml of balanced salt solution thrice. Cyst wall was excised. A13-month toddler presented with 4-month history of intermittent irritation and photophobia. The cyst was aspirated with a 25-gauge needle and the cyst walls were nibbled with 20-gauge vitrectomy cutter. Excision is better than injection of sclerosing solutions. The aim is to remove the whole cyst to avoid recurrence and to prevent amblyopia. PMID:27376231

  20. Ocular Problems Related to Television Falls in Childhood

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    Esra Savku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV falls cause serious morbidity and mortality in children. Head trauma is frequently seen, and cranial nerve palsies ( 6th and 7th nerves are more frequently affected are associated with head trauma. Strabismus surgery can be performed in cases not resolving with conservative treatment, however, the delay in treatment related to associated traumas and systemic problems may result in amblyopia. There is no previous report in the literature about ocular findings accompanied by body and head trauma in children after television falls. In order to share our experience, we retrospectively evaluated the records of three patients that were admitted to our clinic with the history of TV-related injuries. The visual acuities of patients, anterior segment and fundus findings as well as the characteristics of the television (tube or LCD, size of the screen, height of the easel were recorded. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 451-4

  1. Novel occurrence of axenfeld: Rieger syndrome in a patient with blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome

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    Bhavin M Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES is a complex eyelid malformation characterized by the classical tetrad of blepharophimosis, telecanthus, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus. It has been reported to be associated with other ocular anomalies such as euryblepharon, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, microphthalmos, lacrimal drainage apparatus abnormality, extra ocular muscle abnormalities, microcornea, trabecular dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasias, and colobomas of the optic disk. We describe a case of BPES with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, a neurocristopathy characterized by maldevelopment of the anterior segment with predisposition to development of glaucoma. Interestingly, both syndromes are caused by mutations in the same class of genes, namely the winged-helix/forked transcription factors (FOX involved in a variety of developmental processes.

  2. Association of extensive myelinated nerve fibers and high degree myopia: Case report

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    Elvan Yalcın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral extensive myelination of the peripapillary nerve fibers may be associated with anisometropic myopia, strabismus, and reduced vision. Myelination of optic nerve fibers terminate at lamina cribrosa. Yet in some patients, myelination progresses into the peripapillary retinal nerve fibers and may affect the visual acuity. In this report, we described 4 patients. All patients presented extensive peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers associated with myopic anisometropia. After routine ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, all patients underwent treatment for amblyopia through correction with spectacles, contact lenses, and the occlusion of the good eye. Corrected visual acuity improved in 1 patient, but 3 patients had no increase in visual acuity despite treatment with full cycloplegic refraction and appropriate patching. Probably because of structural abnormalies of the macula, visual results are often disappointing with appropriate correction of the refractive error and occlusion.

  3. Factors Influencing the Surgical Success in Patients with Infantile Esotropia

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    Fatma Gül Yılmaz Çınar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the factors that influence the surgical success in patients with infantile esotropia and to evaluate the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence. Material and Method: We retrospectively investigated the records of 188 patients with infantile esotropia who were operated on. The surgical success rate, the factors that influence the surgical success, and the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence deficiency were evaluated. Successful outcome was defined as deviation amount lower than 10 prism diopters postoperatively. Results: The mean age of the 188 patients included in the study at presentation was 54.9±56.8 (5-276 months, and the mean surgical age was 60.7±54.8 (7-276 months. Success was provided in 70.7% of patients after the first surgery and in 86.7% of patients after repeated surgeries. It was seen that gender, surgical age, refractive error, surgical procedure and the presence of fusion before surgery did not affect surgical success. Residual esotropia was found more frequently in patients with large-angle preoperative deviation, whilst both residual esotropia and consecutive exotropia were found more frequently in patients with amblyopia. It was observed that augmented bilateral medial rectus recession did not cause an increase in postoperative convergence deficiency. Discussion: Since the presence of amblyopia affects the surgical success negatively, it must be identified and treated preoperative. Residual esotropia is more frequently seen in patients with large-angle deviation preoperative, and more than one surgery may be required to provide orthophoria. In these cases, augmented bilateral medial rectus recession is a safe and effective method that rescues the patient from repeated surgeries and may be preferred to three-or four-muscle surgeries. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 413-8

  4. Vision Therapy/Orthoptics among Three to Seven Year Old Children

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    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision Therapy/Orthoptics(VT/O is a package of treatments that enables patients to achieve the maximum level of visual performance.The aim was to determine the effect of three months vision therapy/orthoptics on best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, fusion, stereopsis and ocular alignment in 3-7 year old children.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 children with amblyopia and/or non-paralytic horizontal deviations were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Intervention group was treated by vision therapy/orthoptics for three months. These modalities included patch, red filter, sector patch, over minus lens, prism and synoptophore exercises. Controls were treated by only patching for the same period. Pre and post-treatment BCVA, fusion, stereopsis and alignment were compared. Visual performance was classified as excellent (BCVA≥20/30, deviation≤10pd and stereopsis≤70sec/are, acceptable (BCVA≥20/30, deviation ≤10pd and stereopsis 70 to 3000sec/are and unsatisfactory (BCVA<20/30, deviation>10pd and no stereopsis.Results: A total of 80 cases (56 girls and 24 boys with the mean age of 5.6±1.4 years entered the study. Although more improvement of fusion and stereopsis was seen in the intervention group (P<0.001 for both groups, there was no significant differences in BCVA and alignment between two groups. Also the difference of visual performance was not statistically significant between two groups, whereas the improvement was significant in each group (P<0.001, for both groups.Conclusion: Vision therapy/orthoptics treatment can be effective for improving sensory status in 3 to 7 year old children with amblyopia and/or strabismus. Further studies with larger sample sizes and focusing on accommodation and fusional amplitude are warranted.

  5. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531

  6. [A survey of the prevalence and causes of eye disorders in primary school children in Antananarivo].

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    Auzemery, A; Andriamanamihaja, R; Boisier, P

    1995-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of ocular abnormalities in children, we performed a cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling in Madagascar in Antananarivo primary schools in October 1994. Our other aim was to sensitize the sanitary authorities and the students of ophthalmology to the notion of public health ophthalmology in a country where a national blindness prevention program is being established. 1,081 children aged from 8 to 14 years (mean age 10.6 years) were examined. 51, or 4.7%, were diagnosed as having ocular abnormalities. These abnormalities were distributed as follows: 22 cases or 2% of the sample had refractive errors including 0.74% with myopia of less than 6 dioptrics, 0.18% with myopia of more than 6 dioptrics, 0.83% with hypermetropia of less than 6 dioptrics, and 0.28% with hypermetropia of more than 6 dioptrics; 15 cases or 1.4% of the sample had unilateral amblyopia including 0.9% with anisometropia, 0.37% with strabismus, and 0.09% with macular pathology; 8 cases or 0.74% of the sample had strabismus without amblyopia; and 6 cases or 0.57% of the sample had simple medical pathology. The results showed that 29 children were supposed to have an optic correction, including surgical treatment for 12 and medical treatment for 6. The same low frequencies of ocular abnormalities, mainly concerning refractive errors, were found in the literature. However, children suffering from important visual impairment do not attend school, and we cannot generalize the above results for the whole population. PMID:7640899

  7. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

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    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  8. Cyclopentolate as a cycloplegic drug in determination of refractive error

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    Bolinovska Sofija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycloplegia is loss of the power of accommodation with inhibition of a ciliary muscle. We obtain in this way the smallest refraction of the lens and make it possible to determine the presence and size of the particular refractive error in cycloplegia by using cyclopentolate. Cyclopentolate is a synthetic anticholinergic drug and antagonist of the muscarine receptors. If applied in the eye, it blocks the effect of cholinergic stimulation on the sphincter pupillae muscle and ciliary muscle. It provokes severe mydriasis (dilation of the pupil and cycloplegia (paralysis of the accommodation. Cyclopentolate has been used occasionaly in diagnostic purposes: defining ocular refraction and in ophthalmoscopy. This is the prospective study which included 200 children (400 eyes aged 3-18 years, carried out in one ambulatory ophthalmological examination. The results were analysed using standard statistical methods. The most often refractive error in the examined group of children is hyperopia with hyperopic astigmatism, then myopia with myopic astigmatism and mixtus astigmatism are the most often in the oldest group of children. The mean value of corneal astigmatism on the right eye was 1.24 D, on the left eye 1.23 D. Anisometropy was found in 40% children. The presence of myopia, myopic and astigmatism mixtus tended to increase, and hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism tended to decrease toward older groups of children. Refractive error could result in a poor development of visual acuity, causing amblyopia and strabismus, and because of that represents an important public health problem. As one of amblyogenic risk factors in children, it can be prevented with screening program and appropriate treatment, thus providing prevention of amblyopia as one form of blindness.

  9. Experience-induced interocular plasticity of vision in infancy

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    Wayne eTschetter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal model studies of amblyopia have generally found that enduring effects of monocular deprivation (MD on visual behavior (i.e. loss of visual acuity are limited to the deprived eye, and are restricted to juvenile life. We have previously reported, however, that lasting effects of MD on visual function can be elicited in adulthood by stimulating visuomotor experience through the non-deprived eye. To test whether visuomotor experience would also induce interocular plasticity of vision in infancy, we assessed in rats from eye opening on postnatal day (P15, the effect of pairing MD with daily threshold measurements of opto-kinetic tracking (OKT. Combining MD with OKT experience up to P25 led to a ~60% enhancement of the spatial frequency threshold through the non-deprived eye for OKT during the MD, which was followed by loss of function (~60% below normal through both eyes when the deprived eye was opened. Strictly limiting the period of deprivation to infancy, by opening the deprived eye at P19, resulted in comparable loss of function. Thresholds recovered by P30 unless binocular OKT experience was stimulated through both eyes from P25-P30, which was sufficient to maintain the lost function indefinitely. The ability to generate the plasticity, as well as to maintain lost function, was dependent on visual cortex. Animals with reduced visuomotor thresholds also exhibited significantly reduced visual acuity, measured independently in a discrimination task. Thus, a form of interocular plasticity, in which the stimulation of visual experience during MD can induce amblyopia, is present before the beginning of juvenile life.

  10. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues.

  11. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  12. Fractality of sensations and the brain health: the theory linking neurodegenerative disorder with distortion of spatial and temporal scale-invariance and fractal complexity of the visible world

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    Marina Vladimirovna Zueva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory that ties normal functioning and pathology of the brain and visual system with the spatial-temporal structure of the visual and other sensory stimuli is described for the first time in the present study. The deficit of fractal complexity of environmental influences can lead to the distortion of fractal complexity in the visual pathways of the brain and abnormalities of development or aging. The use of fractal light stimuli and fractal stimuli of other modalities can help to restore the functions of the brain, particularly in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders or amblyopia. Nonlinear dynamics of these physiological processes have a strong base of evidence, which is seen in the impaired fractal regulation of rhythmic activity in aged and diseased brains. From birth to old age, we live in a nonlinear world, in which objects and processes with the properties of fractality and non-linearity surround us. Against this background, the evolution of man took place and all periods of life unfolded. Works of art created by man may also have fractal properties. The positive influence of music on cognitive functions is well-known. Insufficiency of sensory experience is believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and age-dependent diseases. The brain is very plastic in its early development, and the plasticity decreases throughout life. However, several studies showed the possibility to reactivate the adult's neuroplasticity in a variety of ways. We propose that a non-linear structure of sensory information on many spatial and temporal scales is crucial to the brain health and fractal regulation of physiological rhythms. Theoretical substantiation of the author's theory is presented. Possible applications and the future research that can experimentally confirm or refute the theoretical concept are considered.

  13. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

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    Danish Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs, psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs and functional subscale scores (FSSs following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20 questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT], back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009 and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009. OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001. Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02, on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01. The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02. Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04, largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week.

  14. Asynchrony Detection in Amblyopes

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    Pi-Chun Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality of visual cortex. Although amblyopes experience perceptual deficits in spatial vision tasks, they have less temporal sensitivity loss. We investigated whether their temporal synchrony sensitivity is impaired. In experiment 1, four Gaussian blobs, located at the top, bottom, left, and right of a presentation screen, were flickering in 3 Hz and one of them was flickering in out-of-phase fashion in time. Participants needed to tell which blob was different from the other three and contrast threshold of the blobs was measured to determine the synchrony detection threshold. We found the thresholds were not correlated with the contrast thresholds for detecting the flickering blobs, suggesting synchrony detection and temporal detection threshold are processed by different mechanisms. In experiment 2, synchrony thresholds were measured as participants' ability to tell if one of the four high contrast Gaussian blobs was flickering asynchronously in time. Three temporal frequencies (1, 2, and 3 Hz and two element separations (1.25 and 5 deg were compared. We found that the amblyopic group exhibited a deficit only for the 1.25 deg element separation in amblyopic eye but was normal for the other configurations compared to controlled participants. It suggests amblyopes have deficits in temporal processing but only for foveal vision. We also found the sensitivity for the non-strabismic anismetropia group is reduced for all three temporal frequencies whereas for the strabismic anisometropia group it was reduced at 3Hz only, suggesting the impairment in temporal synchrony might be different for different types of amblyopia.

  15. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

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    Jian Feng Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D, high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7% children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI:36.0,38.0 increased (P<0.001 from 1.7 ± 1.2% (95%CI:0.0,4.0 in the 4-years olds to 84.6 ± 3.2% (95%CI:78.0,91.0 in 17-years olds. Myopia was associated with older age (OR:1.56;95%CI:1.52,1.60;P<0.001, female gender (OR:1.22;95%CI:1.08,1.39;P = 0.002 and urban region (OR:2.88;95%CI:2.53,3.29;P<0.001. Prevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2% increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3 in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9 in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;P<0.001 and urban region (OR:3.11;95%CI:2.08,4.66;P<0.001. Astigmatism (≥ 0.75D (36.3 ± 0.6%;95%CI:35.0,38.0 was associated with older age (P<0.001;OR:1.06;95%CI:1.04,1.09, more myopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97 and urban region (P<0.001;OR:1.47;95%CI:1.31,1.64. BCVA was ≤ 20/40 in the better eye in 19 (0.32% children. UCVA ≤ 20/40 in at least one eye was found in 2046 (34.05% children, with undercorrected refractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9% children. Amblyopia

  16. 随机点立体图与Titmus立体图检测法的应用评价%The comparative study of Random-Dot and Titmus Stereotest

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    江洋琳; 赵堪兴; 郑曰忠; 刘菊

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较随机点整体立体视检测法与Titmus局部立体视检测法在临床中的应用.方法 从天津市以人群为基础的"3~15岁少年儿童斜视、弱视及屈光不正流行病学调查"资料中分层随机抽取正常视力儿童409名.弱视儿童210名;应用整体立体视检测法和Titmus局部立体视检测法测定立体视锐度,比较正常视力儿童及弱视儿童应用这两种方法的立体视锐度分布.结果 正常视力儿童的中心凹立体视:随机点法为74.3%,Titmus法为86.3%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=18.79,P=0.000);弱视儿童组中心凹立体视分别为38.6%和51.9%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=11.87,P=0.008).弱视儿童立体视盲的检出率分别为12.4%和6.2%(X~2=11.87,P=0.008).结论 正常视力儿童立体视锐度值随机点整体立体视检测法高于Titmus局部立体视检测法,应用随机点整体立体视检测法能更准确地评价弱视患者的立体视功能.%Objective To study the clinical value of Random-Dot Stereotest (global stereopsis) and Titmus Stereotest (local stereopsis).Methods All cases were randomly selected from "The Epidemiology of 3-15 year old Children with Strabismus,Amblyopia and Refractive Error in Tianjin',including 409 children with normal vision and 210 children with amblyopia.The children's stereopsis was evaluated using Random-Dot Stereograms (RDS) for global stereopsis,and Titmus for local stereopsis.Results from both groups were compared of two forms of the stereopsis distribution of children with normal vision and children with amblyopia.Results The foveal stereopsis of children with normal vision measured with RDS was 74.3%,Titmus 86.3%,and the difference was statistically significant (X~2=18.79,P=0.000).The foveal stereopsis of amblyopic children measured with RDS was 38.6%,Titmus 51.9%,and the difference was statistically significant (X~2=11.87,P=0.008).The detection rate of blindness of stereopsis in amblyopic children with RDS was 12

  17. Prevenção à cegueira em crianças de 3 a 6 anos assistidas pelo programa de saúde da família (PSF do Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro Blindness prevention on 3 to 6 years old children at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro

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    Giancarlo Cardoso Jeveaux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho visou fazer um levantamento da prevalência de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos em crianças com idade pré-escolar em áreas assistidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família no Morro do Alemão-RJ. MÉTODOS: Crianças com idade entre 3 e 6 anos foram submetidas a exame de triagem visual. Os resultados positivos foram confirmados por exame oftalmológico realizado sob cicloplegia na própria unidade de saúde. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados aos acompanhantes das crianças e aos membros de todas as equipes de saúde da unidade. RESULTADOS: De 559 crianças convocadas para triagem, 265 (47,4% compareceram e, destas, 127 (48% foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico completo. Tiveram o exame ocular normal 138 (52% das crianças examinadas pela triagem. Compareceram para exame especializado 81 (63,7% crianças. Destas, 9 (4,1% crianças tiveram diagnóstico de ambliopia. Quatro (1,8% por estrabismo, uma (0,46% por privação de estímulo, uma (0,46% por anisometropia e três (33,3% por erros refracionais isometrópicos. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos pela triagem seguida de exame ocular especializado executada na unidade de atenção primária à saúde (PSF do Morro do Alemão-RJ, mostraram que os exames de triagem realizados são relevantes para a detecção de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos e para a promoção da saúde ocular infantil.PURPOSE: The study objective is to determine the prevalence of amblyopia and amblyopiogenic factors in children from 3 to 6 years old at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão-RJ. METHODS: A preschool children ocular evaluation cross sectional study will be submitted to an ophthalmic screening exam.The positive results were confirmed by oftalmologic examination under cicloplegia inside of the health centre. Were applied a semi-structure questionnaire to the health members of the health centre team and to all children accompanist. RESULTS

  18. Amblyopic reading is crowded.

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    Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

    2007-10-26

    We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the

  19. EARLY DETECTION OF LAW VISION WITH PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN TRHOUG SYSTEMATIC CHECK-UPS AT THE AGE OF 3 AND 5 IN BITOLA

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    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of the law vision of pre-school children has been carried out through systematic check-ups by an ophthalmologist sent by the Department for preventive protection-Advisory Division at the Medical Center since 1977.The children are invited by the Advisory Center and during the systematic check-ups they are sent to the Cabinet for orthoptics and pleoptics for the ophthamologic check-up.The parents are motivated for the check-up and are explained how to prepare the child for cooperation during the examination. The findings are recorded in the child record card in the Advisory Center together with the findings of the psychologist, blood test, urine, faecal test of parasites and some other necessary tests.The records of the examination were obtained from the evidence on systematic check-ups at the Cabinet for orthoptics and pleoptics.From 1987 till August this year, 5.414 children-3.609 at the age of 3 and 1.805 at the age of 5 came for systematic check-ups at the Cabinet.Among the examined children, 5.7% were with echophobia, 2.3% were with astigmatism, 1.6% with amblyopia, 1.4% with hypermetropia, 0.9% with strabismus and 0.2% with miopia.Among the children with sight problems, the echophobia is present with 47.3%, astigmatism with 18.8%, amblyopia with 13.2%, hypermetropia with 11.9%, strabism with 7.2% and miopia with 1.8%.Children whose parents, brothers and sisters wear glasses were sent for check-ups at the age of 18 to 3 years. The earliest findings of sight difficulties are obtained with children who cooperate during the check-ups.As soon as the low vision is discovered, the defectologist-orthoptic therapist starts the necessary exercises and the sight is corrected with the glasses.At this age, children easily adapt to wearing glasses and they do not oppose them as the children whose sight correction started at the school age.

  20. Cataract surgery: factors influencing decision to treat and implications for training (south-east Scotland 2008–2014

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    Sniatecki JJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan J Sniatecki, Caroline Styles, Natalie Boyle, Roshini Sanders Cataract Unit, Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline, Fife, UK Purpose: To describe the population referred for cataract surgery, identify factors that influenced decision to treat, and patients suitable for ophthalmic training. Patients and methods: A total of 2,693 consecutive referrals over 6 years were interrogated using Business Objects software on cataract electronic patient records. Results: A total of 2,693 patients were referred for cataract surgery (group A. Of these patients 2,132 (79% had surgery (group B and 561 (21% did not (group C. Age for group B vs group C: 672 (32% vs 115 (20% ≤69 years, P<0.001; 803 (38% vs 225 (40% 70–79 years, P=0.48; 586 (27% vs 203 (36% 80–89 years, P<0.05; 71 (3% vs 18 (3% ≥90 years, P=1.0. Visual acuity, group B vs group C: 556 (26% vs 664 (59% 6/12 or better; 1,275 (60% vs 367 (33% 6/18–6/60; 266 (12% vs 64 (6% counting fingers or worse, P<0.05. Medical history for group B vs C: cognitive impairment: 55 (2.6% vs 29 (5.2%, P<0.05; cardiovascular accident: 158 (7.4% vs 60 (10.7%, P<0.05; diabetes: 372 (17.4% vs 96 (17.1%, P=0.87; COPD/asthma: 382 (17.9% vs 93 (16.6%, P=0.53; heart disease: 535 (25.1% vs 155 (27.6%, P=0.35; hypertension: 971 (45.5% vs 263 (46.9%, P=0.73. Ocular history for group B vs C was significant (P<0.05 for age-related macular degeneration 255 (12.0% vs 93 (16.6%, other macular pathology 38 (1.8% vs 25 (4.5%, corneal pathology 92 (4.3% vs 36 (6.4%, amblyopia 37 (1.7% vs 22 (3.9%. Detailed data on presenting complaint, ophthalmic history, and social status is discussed. Conclusion: We observed that surgery at a younger age with good levels of visual acuity was a factor in deferring cataract surgery. Cognitive impairment, cardiovascular accident, amblyopia, corneal and macular pathology significantly affected decision not to operate. We estimate that 80% of patients would be suitable for ophthalmic training

  1. Intraocular correction of high-degree ametropia using individual multifocal LentisMPlus IOL

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    I.S. Fedorova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background. For surgical correction of high-degree ametropia aggravated with astigmatism the following options are available: excimer laser correction; phakic lens implantation; bioptika – a combination of ablating the transparent crystalline lens (ATL with implantation of multifocal toric diopter IOL of standard series and LASIK for the correction of a residual refractive error, ATL using 2 IOLs according to the Technology «Piggy Back»; additional meniscus IOL implantation «Add-On»; ATL with implantation of an individual multifocal toric IOL. Purpose. To show a possibility of intraocular correction of high ametropia aggravated with astigmatism using toric multifocal custom IOLs. Material and methods. We observed two patients: the first female patient, 39 years old with a diagnosis of OU: high myopia, compound myopic astigmatism, initial complicated cataract, moderate amblyopia, peripheral chorioretinal degeneration (PCRD. On admission the distance visual acuity was vis OD=0.01 sph (- 15.5 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.6; vis OS=0.01 sph (- 18.0 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.5. The second patient was a 35-year woman with a diagnosis of OU: high hyperopia, compound hyperopic astigmatism, moderate amblyopia. Distance visual acuity on admission was OD=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 1.5 D ax 95°=0.5; OS=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 0.75 D ax 75°=0.6. Individual multifocal toric IOLs were implanted in both patents after the removal of the lens phacoemulsification. All standard ophthalmic examinations were used as well as the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Results. In the follow-up: 6 months after the surgery in the first patient the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was far vis OD=0.6, vis OS=0.5, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.4. The second patient 3 months after surgery had the UCVA far vis OD=0.5, vis OS=0.6, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.2, vis OS=0.3. The maximum possible distance visual acuity

  2. Long-Term Results of Cataract Surgery in Patients with Unilateral Childhood Cataract

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    Suzan Güven Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the long-term visual outcome and to determine the surgical complications after cataract surgery in patients with unilateral childhood cataract. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 cases with unilateral childhood cataract who had undergone cataract surgery before the age of seven. Primary intraocular lens (IOL implantation was made in children who were older than 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was made after 18 months in children who were operated before the age of 1 year and were left aphakic. Occlusion therapy was performed to all children for amblyopia postoperatively. Visual acuity and complications were evaluated in a mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. Re sults: The mean age of the 18 patients (9 female/9 male at the time of surgery was 43.6±33.7(1-84 months. Eleven (61% patients had cataract surgery after 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was performed at mean 28th month in 4 of 7 aphakic patients (57% who had cataract surgery before one year of age. In 3 (43% aphakic patients, secondary IOL implantation could not be performed because of ocular pathologies such as microophthalmia. Final visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 7 eyes (39%, between 0.1 and 0.5 in 6 eyes (33%, and worse than 0.1 - in 5 eyes (28%. Of 5 eyes that had visual acuity worse than 0.1, 4 (80% had at least one additional ocular pathology such as microphthalmia, strabismus and nystagmus. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed at mean 8th month in 7 of 8 (87% children whose posterior capsules were left intact at surgery. Dis cus si on: Favorable visual outcomes can be achieved with surgical intervention and complementary amblyopia treatment in children with unilateral cataract. Preoperative microphthalmia, nystagmus and strabismus are not entirely an obstacle to visual development, but they are important factors leading to low visual acuity. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 103-10

  3. Intelligence Quotient (IQ in Congenital Strabismus

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    Abbas Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods: All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results: During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63 years were included. Educational status in most patients (80% was less than high-school. Most patients (80% lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2% had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127, performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111 and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120. Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (P0.05 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

  4. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (Pamblyopia and alternate deviation had lower IQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus. PMID:23943689

  5. Acuity assessment of non-verbal infants and children: clinical experience with the acuity card procedure.

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    Mohn, G; van Hof-van Duin, J; Fetter, W P; de Groot, L; Hage, M

    1988-04-01

    The acuity card procedure was used to assess the visual acuity of 510 neurologically normal and abnormal infants and children. Acuity estimates were obtained for 93 per cent of 842 binocular and 279 monocular tests. The observed development of binocular acuity of normal fullterm and preterm infants agreed well with previous reports using the traditional forced-choice preferential looking technique. Monocular tests seemed to support earlier suggestions that grating acuity may be relatively insensitive to strabismic amblyopia. Infants at risk of later neurological deficits but developing normally had only a slight delay in development of acuity, but there was a high incidence of acuity deficits (54 per cent) among those with severe neurological defects. The great majority of a group of multiply handicapped children had low acuity for age. Repeat tests showed a high degree of test-retest consistency. The acuity card procedure was a successful and useful method for assessing the acuity of infants and children who cannot be tested with standard ophthalmological methods. PMID:3384203

  6. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide in the management of severe chronic pain.

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    Smith, Howard S; Deer, Timothy R

    2009-06-01

    Ziconotide is a conopeptide intrathecal (IT) analgesic which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of severe chronic pain. It is a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the venom of the fish-eating marine cone snail and provides analgesia via binding to N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. As ziconotide is a peptide, it is expected to be completely degraded by endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Phase I hydrolytic enzymes) widely located throughout the body, and not by other Phase I biotransformation processes (including the cytochrome P450 system) or by Phase II conjugation reactions. Thus, IT administration, low plasma ziconotide concentrations, and metabolism by ubiquitous peptidases make metabolic interactions of other drugs with ziconotide unlikely. Side effects of ziconotide which tend to occur more commonly at higher doses may include: nausea, vomiting, confusion, postural hypotension, abnormal gait, urinary retention, nystagmus/amblyopia, drowsiness/somnolence (reduced level of consciousness), dizziness or lightheadedness, weakness, visual problems (eg, double vision), elevation of serum creatine kinase, or vestibular side effects. Initially, when ziconotide was first administered to human subjects, titration schedules were overly aggressive and led to an abundance of adverse effects. Subsequently, clinicians have gained appreciation for ziconotide's relatively narrow therapeutic window. With appropriate usage multiple studies have shown ziconotide to be a safe and effective intrathecal analgesic alone or in combination with other intrathecal analgesics. PMID:19707262

  7. Lensectomy for complicated cataract in juvenile chronic iridocyclitis.

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    Kanski, J J

    1992-02-01

    Experience with the removal of complicated cataract by lensectomy in patients with juvenile chronic iridocyclitis (JCI) has so far been limited. The results of lensectomy were reviewed retrospectively in 131 patients with JCI (187 eyes). The mean follow up period was 5 years 4 months. The main operative complication was accidental loss of lens material into the vitreous cavity. The postoperative complications were glaucoma (23 eyes, 15%), phthisis (14 eyes, 8%), secondary pupillary membranes (11 eyes, 6%), and retinal detachment (six eyes, 3%). The incidence of postoperative phthisis was related to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of surgery. Twenty four per cent of hypotonous eyes and 4% of eyes with normal or elevated IOP became phthisical. Visual acuity was improved in 77%, was worse in 13%, and unchanged in 10% of eyes. The main causes of a postoperative visual acuity of 6/60 or less were glaucoma, amblyopia, and phthisis. Lensectomy did not appear to alter the course of uveitis.

  8. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India.

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    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group. PMID:22910628

  9. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery. PMID:27009616

  10. Duane Syndrome. Presentation of a case.

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    Pedra Palmero Aragón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an observational descriptive prospective longitudinal study including the period from march 2008 till june 20, 2008 in the Ophthalmology Service of the Provincial Educational Pediatric Hospital: “José Martí Pérez” in Sancti Spiritus, with the objective to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a patient with Duane Syndrome who went to consultation without receiving previous ophthalmological attention, the diagnosis age was determined, which was tardy, bracket the most affected eye and the kind of Duane, and also if there was any refractive defect and the presence of amblyopia , identifying the criteria for being operated, for collecting data a format was completed by the specialists, which included observation, interrogatory, ophthalmological medical record of the ill person and pictures, these elements allowed us to make a correct analysis. With the previous information we arrived as a conclusion that is all about a patient with 28 years of age who lives in Sancti Spiritus Municipality, with White skin, male, carried on the Duane Syndrome type I, unilateral left. A light Hypermetropia was presented in both eyes as a refractive defect, accompanied by a light bilateral amplyopia in the right eye and moderate in the left eye. It is necessary to stay that the patient was under surgical criterium by esotropia of more than 15 degrees in PPM and unacceptable torticollis although the time of evolution; there were no difficulties related to the surgical act. The postoperative picture can reflect the result of the surgery.

  11. 婴儿先天性白内障摘除一期人工晶状体植入的研究进展%Primary intraocular lens implantation after extraction of congenital cataract in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘馨; 罗怡

    2012-01-01

    近年来,婴儿先天性白内障摘除后一期植入人工晶状体受到越来越多眼科医生的认可,并在临床实践中逐步开展.25G玻璃体切除系统在婴儿白内障手术中的应用,大大降低了术后并发症的发生;新型屈光度计算公式和近视漂移预测公式的发展,提高了人工晶状体屈光度选择的准确性;更适合婴幼儿的人工晶状体和弱视训练方法的发展,提升了术后视功能重建的效果.%Primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after extraction of congenital cataract in infants has been accepted and gradually applied to clinic by an increasing number of ophthalmologists in recent years.Incidence of postoperative complications has largely reduced after application of the 25-gauge vitrectomy system in cataract surgery in infants.Accuracy of IOL power calculation has been increased because of the developments of new generation of I0L power calculation formula and prediction formula of myopia shift.Visual rehabilitation has improved due to the developments of the infants-suitable IOLs and the means of amblyopia training.

  12. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  13. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

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    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  14. Síndrome de Noonan: relato de caso Noonan's syndrome: case report

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    Vanderson Glerian Dias

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de síndrome de Noonan em criança de 14 anos de idade, diagnosticada por meio de exame genético-clínico, demonstrando alterações oftalmológicas como hipertelorismo, alterações da fenda palpebral, hipotropia direita com pequena anisotropia em V, nistagmo, ptose palpebral bilateral e ambliopia do olho direito. Discute-se a importância do oftalmologista para esta síndrome e a necessidade do acompanhamento por equipe médica multidisciplinar.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old child with Noonan´s syndrome, diagnosed by clinical genetic examination, demonstrating ophthalmologic alterations such as: hypertelorism, eyelid fissue changes, right hypotropia with a small V anisotropy, nystagmus, bilateral eyelid ptosis and amblyopia in right eye. The importance of the ophthalmologist in this syndrome and the need for a follow-up by a multidisciplinary medical group are discussed.

  15. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva, Ivayla I

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes. All available literature until April 2015 was reviewed using PubMed and the following keywords: "photobiomodulation AND retina", "low level light therapy AND retina", "low level laser therapy AND retina", and "FR/NIR therapy AND retina". In addition, the relevant references listed within the papers identified through PubMed were incorporated. The literature supports the conclusion that the low-cost and non-invasive nature of PBM, coupled with the first promising clinical reports and the numerous preclinical-studies in animal models, make PBM well-poised to become an important player in the treatment of a wide range of retinal disorders. Nevertheless, large-scale clinical trials will be necessary to establish the PBM therapeutic ranges for the various retinal diseases, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action.

  16. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

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    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  17. A 1.6-Mb microdeletion in chromosome 17q22 leads to NOG-related symphalangism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability.

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    Xiuhong Pang

    Full Text Available Microdeletions in chromosome 17q22, where the NOG gene resides, have been reported leading to the NOG-related symphalangism spectrum disorder (NOG-SSD, intellectual disability and other developmental abnormalities. In this study we reported a dominant Chinese Han family segregating with typical NOG-SSD symptoms including proximal symphalangism, conductive hearing loss, amblyopia and strabismus, but not intellectual disability. Sanger sequencing identified no pathogenic mutation in the coding regions of candidate genes NOG, GDF5 and FGF9. SNP genotyping in the genomic region surrounding NOG identified loss of heterozygosity in the affected family members. By array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we identified and mapped the breakpoints of a novel 1.6-Mb microdeletion in chromosome 17q22 that included NOG and twelve other genes. It is the first microdeletion reported in chromosome 17q22 that is associated with NOG-SSD only but not with intellectual disability. Our results may help identifying the dosage sensitive genes for intellectual disability and other developmental abnormalities in chromosome 17q22. Our study also suggested that genomic deletions in chromosome 17q22 should be screened in the NOG-SSD patients in which no pathogenic mutation is identified by conventional sequencing methods.

  18. Surgical management of third nerve palsy

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    Anupam Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell′s phenomenon, superior oblique (SO overaction, and lateral rectus (LR contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%, trauma (20%, inflammation (13%, aneurysm (7%, and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles.

  19. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269607

  20. Improvement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and contrast sensitivity (UCCS with perceptual learning and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS in individuals with mild myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCamilleri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning has been shown to produce an improvement of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS both in subjects with amblyopia and refractive defects such as myopia or presbyopia. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has proven to be efficacious in accelerating neural plasticity and boosting perceptual learning in healthy participants. In this study we investigated whether a short behavioural training regime using a contrast detection task combined with online tRNS was as effective in improving visual functions in participants with mild myopia compared to a two-month behavioural training regime without tRNS (Camilleri et al., 2014. After two weeks of perceptual training in combination with tRNS, participants showed an improvement of 0.15 LogMAR in uncorrected VA (UCVA that was comparable with that obtained after eight weeks of training with no tRNS, and an improvement in uncorrected CS (UCCS at various spatial frequencies (whereas no UCCS improvement was seen after eight weeks of training with no tRNS. On the other hand, a control group that trained for two weeks without stimulation did not show any significant UCVA or UCCS improvement. These results suggest that the combination of behavioural and neuromodulatory techniques can be fast and efficacious in improving sight in individuals with mild myopia.

  1. Surgical management of third nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Bahuguna, Chirag; Nagpal, Ritu; Kumar, Barun

    2016-01-01

    Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell's phenomenon, superior oblique (SO) overaction, and lateral rectus (LR) contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%), trauma (20%), inflammation (13%), aneurysm (7%), and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles. PMID:27433033

  2. Parenteral corticosteroids followed by early surgical resection of large amblyogenic eyelid hemangiomas in infants

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    El Essawy R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rania El Essawy,1 Rasha Essameldin Galal21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of early surgical resection of large amblyogenic subdermal eyelid hemangiomas in infants after prior short-term parenteral administration of corticosteroids.Methods: Sixteen infants were given dexamethasone 2 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for three consecutive days prior to scheduled surgical excision of large eyelid hemangiomas. The lesions were accessed via an upper eyelid crease, subeyebrow incision, or a lower eyelid subciliary incision.Results: In all cases, surgical excision of the entire lesion was possible with no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. The levator muscle/aponeurosis complex was involved in 31.25% of cases and was managed by reinsertion or repositioning without resection. A satisfactory lid position and contour with immediate clearing of the visual axis was achieved in all but one case (93.8%.Conclusion: Parenteral corticosteroids helped in reducing volume and blood flow from the hemangiomas, allowing for very early total excision of large subdermal infantile hemangiomas without significant intraoperative hemorrhage. This resulted in immediate elimination of any reason for occlusion amblyopia. Long-term follow-up of visual development in these patients would help to demonstrate the effectiveness of this strategy compared with more conservative measures.Keywords: large eyelid hemangiomas, early surgical resection, parenteral corticosteroids

  3. The use of in vivo, ex vivo, in vitro, computational models and volunteer studies in vision research and therapy, and their contribution to the Three Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Shah, Atul B

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about mammalian vision, and considerable progress has been achieved in treating many vision disorders, especially those due to changes in the eye, by using various therapeutic methods, including stem cell and gene therapy. While cells and tissues from the main parts of the eye and the visual cortex (VC) can be maintained in culture, and many computer models exist, the current non-animal approaches are severely limiting in the study of visual perception and retinotopic imaging. Some of the early studies with cats and non-human primates (NHPs) are controversial for animal welfare reasons and are of questionable clinical relevance, particularly with respect to the treatment of amblyopia. More recently, the UK Home Office records have shown that attention is now more focused on rodents, especially the mouse. This is likely to be due to the perceived need for genetically-altered animals, rather than to knowledge of the similarities and differences of vision in cats, NHPs and rodents, and the fact that the same techniques can be used for all of the species. We discuss the advantages and limitations of animal and non-animal methods for vision research, and assess their relative contributions to basic knowledge and clinical practice, as well as outlining the opportunities they offer for implementing the principles of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). PMID:27494623

  4. The improving outcomes in intermittent exotropia study: outcomes at 2 years after diagnosis in an observational cohort

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    Buck Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate current patterns of management and outcomes of intermittent distance exotropia [X(T] in the UK. Methods This was an observational cohort study which recruited 460 children aged Results At follow-up, data were available for 371 children (81% of the original cohort. Of these: 53% (195 had no treatment; 17% (63 had treatment for reduced visual acuity only (pure refractive error and amblyopia; 13% (50 had non surgical treatment for control (spectacle lenses, occlusion, prisms, exercises and 17% (63 had surgery. Only 0.5% (2/371 children developed constant exotropia. The surgically treated group was the only group with clinically significant improvements in angle or NCS. However, 8% (5 of those treated surgically required second procedures for overcorrection within 6 months of the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up 21% (13 were overcorrected. Conclusions Many children in the UK with X(T receive active monitoring only. Deterioration to constant exotropia, with or without treatment, is rare. Surgery appears effective in improving angle of X(T and NCS, but rates of overcorrection are high.

  5. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

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    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  6. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269604

  7. The effect of distance visual training through reading red visual acuity chart in children with myopic ambly- opia%红色视力表远距离视功能训练在近视性弱视治疗中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲华; 任兵; 高晓唯; 张燕; 李明

    2013-01-01

    目的:对比观察分析红色视力表远距离视功能训练在近视性弱视治疗中的疗效。方法近视性弱视患儿甲、乙两组共112例212眼,甲组62例117眼,年龄4-12岁(5.71±1.78岁),乙组50例95眼,年龄3-12岁(5.96±1.83岁);其中甲组轻度、中度、高度近视眼分别为21眼(17.95%)、67眼(57.26%)、29眼(24.79%),乙组为18眼(18.95%)、55眼(57.89%)、22眼(23.16%)(χ2=0.09,P>0.05);甲组轻度、中度、重度弱视眼分别为30眼(23.15%)、64眼(54.70%)、23眼(19.66%);乙组为24眼(25.26%)、54眼(56.84%)、17眼(17.89%)(χ2=0.133,P>0.05);甲组病例采用短小遮盖+近距离视功能训练;乙组病例采用短小遮盖+红色视力表远距离视功能训练,所有病例治疗随访时间17个月,对比分析两种治疗方法在近视性弱视治疗中的疗效。结果甲组基本治愈率为39.32%,有效率为43.59%,无效率为17.09%;乙组基本治愈率为47.37%,有效率为36.84%,无效率为15.79%,统计学检验差异无显著性(χ2=1.434,P>0.05);甲乙两组治疗后轻、中、高度近视眼数分别为:4眼(3.42%)、65眼(55.56%)、48眼(41.03%)和5眼(5.26%)、67眼(70.53%)、23眼(24.21%)统计学检验差异有显著性(χ2=6.734,P0.05).The patients with low amblyopia, medium amblyopia and severe amblyopia were 30, 64 and 23 eyes in group A and 24, 54 and 17 eyes in group B (χ²=0.133 , P>0.05). All patients were followed up 17 months. To observe the clinical effect of the two different combined therapy. Results The recovery rate, effective rate and inefficacy rate was 39.32%, 43.59%, 17.09%, respectively in Group A. and 47.37%, 36.84%, 15.79%, respectively in Group B (χ²=1.434 , P>0.05);The patients with mild myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia were 4, 65 and 48 eyes in group A and 5, 67 and 23 eyes in group B after therapy (χ²=6.734 , P

  8. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.

  9. Antimetropia in a 10-year-old boy with unilateral tilted disc syndrome

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    Makino S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinji MakinoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Antimetropia is a condition in which one eye is myopic, while the fellow eye is hyperopic. This report describes a case of antimetropia associated with unilateral tilted disc syndrome. A 10-year-old boy presented with the complaint of diminished vision for distant objects in his right eye for several months. His uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.15 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 1.0, with -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D in the left eye. The cover test revealed right esotropia and hypertropia. Bifoveal fixation was achieved using a 14 prism diopter (PD base at 220° in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a tilted disc with inferior staphyloma in the right eye, but no abnormal findings were observed in the left eye. In addition, the patient occasionally experienced diplopia under casual viewing conditions. A cycloplegic refraction revealed -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D/-2.00 D 5° in the left eye. Thus, prism glasses were prescribed. While wearing the prism glasses, the patient has shown no diplopia and maintains good binocular function.Keywords: amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, staphyloma

  10. Intraocular lenses and clinical treatment in paediatric cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ribeiro Koch Pena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is the most common treatable cause of blindness in children. Prevalence, etiology and morphology vary with the socioeconomic development. The treatment goal is to reduce amblyopia, being difficult management especially in unilateral cases. The decision on aphakia or primary intraocular lens should be individualized as well as correction with contact lens or spectacles. The intraocular lens single-piece hydrophobic acrylic are the most implanted in children and the preferably is in the capsular bag. The Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T stressing that is described as more predictable, following Holladay I and SRK II and the recommendation is to under correction +6.0 or +8.0 dioptrias expecting the growth of the eye. The posterior capsule opacity is the most frequent complication and varies with the material choice of the lens. Glaucoma is the most serious postoperative complication and depends on the timing of the surgery, primary lens implantation and time of post surgical follow-up. The adherence to occlusion therapy with patching is critical to the visual prognosis and is determined by the child’s age and laterality of the cataract. There was significant improvement in the surgery and in IOLs, however the final visual prognosis is still not desirable.

  11. Management of hypertension emergencies.

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    Elliott, William J

    2003-12-01

    Although they have become less common, hypertensive emergencies occur with an incidence of approximately 1 to 2/100,000 people per year. Our knowledge about this problem, its pathophysiology, risk factors, and appropriate treatment options has expanded during the past decade. A hypertensive emergency can be declared when an elevated blood pressure is associated with acute target-organ damage. Rapid evaluation and treatment (typically with an intravenously administered agent) should be instituted, usually in an intensive care unit setting, and the patient should be observed carefully during acute blood-pressure lowering. When properly treated, the prognosis for these patients is not nearly as dismal as it was more than 60 years ago, and the initial level of function of target organs (brain, heart, kidneys) is more indicative of an emergency than the actual level of blood pressure. Therapeutic options include the time-tested sodium nitroprusside (which has toxic metabolic products and is contraindicated in pregnancy, tobacco amblyopia, and Leber's optic atrophy); fenoldopam mesylate; and nicardipine. When properly treated, "malignant hypertension" need be considered malignant no longer. PMID:14594569

  12. Prevalence of Vitamin-A deficiency AND refractive errors in primary school-going children

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    Rupali Darpan Maheshgauri

    2016-03-01

    To assess refractive errors in primary school-going children. To critically analyze the need for supplementation of Vitamin A, to children of low socioeconomic strata. Methods: Students were examined from 2 primary schools. Visual acuity was tested using Snellen's chart, Pictogram and Landolt C chart. Detailed anterior and posterior segment examination using Binocular loop, Ophthalmoscope and Streak retinoscope. RESULTS: Total no of 560 children of age 3 to 13yr were screened from 2 primary schools.Statistically significant difference was found in the age of the study subject and presence of refractive errors. Percentage of students having Refractive error: myopia (29.64% is the major cause of refractive error, followed by astigmatism (4.28% hypermetropia (3.25% and amblyopia (1.25%. Conclusion: It was observed that many children had high refractive error and were undiagnosed. The possible reason could be ignorance on the part of teachers and parents, even when the children have vision related complains. Also the children in the younger age-group lack the acumen to judge whether they can see clearly or not. Prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency appears reduced in urban areas. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 23-27

  13. Surgical management of third nerve palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Bahuguna, Chirag; Nagpal, Ritu; Kumar, Barun

    2016-01-01

    Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell's phenomenon, superior oblique (SO) overaction, and lateral rectus (LR) contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%), trauma (20%), inflammation (13%), aneurysm (7%), and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles. PMID:27433033

  14. Theater for Development Methodology in Childhood Cataract Case Finding

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    Roseline Ekanem Duke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The key informant methodology for case finding for childhood cataract  was utilized  in a rural population in Nigeria to identify suitable children who would benefit surgically from intervene for cataract and restore vision such children. It was however noticed that some parents who had children with cataract did not bring their children to the primary health center for examination and recommendation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits of using the theatre for development approach in childhood cataract case finding. The delay in identification and referral of children with cataract at an appropriate age for surgical intervention and optical rehabilitation is the main cause of poor vision following surgery for the condition as amblyopia results. Therefore early presentation, identification, referral and surgical intervention as well as appropriate optical rehabilitation is the key to successful surgical outcome of childhood cataract and good visual prognosis. The theater for development (TfD approach methodology was implemented in a community in Akpabuyo local government are of Cross River state, Nigeria as a means to enhance community participation, health promotion and education and to complement the key informant methodology in case finding for childhood cataract. Three children with cataracts were referred by the community following the TfD intervention, for cataract surgery and uptake of follow up care after surgery. The TfD approach appears to be a useful method for encouraging community participation in the case finding of childhood cataract.

  15. PETER’S TYPE II ANOMALY ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DEFECT: RARE CASE REPORT

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    Darshan Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reporting a case of Peters’ type II with congenital heart defect a rare form of anterior segment dysgenesis in which abnormal cleavage of the anterior chamber occurs. It is characterized by central corneal opacification secondary to defects in a posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium. Majority of cases are sporadic, bilateral , and associated with other systemic malformations. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A18 year old female presented with a history of bilateral cloudy corneas and diminution of vision since early child hood. Visual acuity was RE 6/60, LE 6/60 with PH improvement in B E 6/36 . Slit lamp examination showed BE micro cornea with central and paracentral macular grade opacity with lenticulo - irido - corneal adhesions. Iris was found to be fused with the posterior s urface of the peripheral cornea with poor formation of the anterior chamber with coloboma of iris. Lens was cataractous. Fundus examination in the left eye showed no abnormality. She was diagnosed as Peters’ type II anomaly. Systemic examination revealed congenital heart defects. Echocardiography showed congenital bicuspid aortic valve, grade 3 aortic regurgitation. RESULT: Patient require penetrating keratoplasty with combined procedure ( C ataract extraction with trabeculectomy. CONCLUSION: Early detectio n of the disease will help in early treatment, with good vision development to combat amblyopia.

  16. Barriers to follow-up for pediatric cataract surgery in Maharashtra, India: How regular follow-up is important for good outcome. The Miraj Pediatric Cataract Study II

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular follow up and amblyopia treatment are essential for good outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery. Aim: To study the regularity of follow-up after cataract surgery in children and to gauge the causes of poor compliance to follow up. Subjects: 262 children (393 cataracts who underwent cataract surgery in 2004-8. Materials and Methods: The children were identified and examined in their homes and a "barriers to follow-up" questionnaire completed. Demographic data collected, visual acuity estimated, and ocular examination performed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Of the 262 children, only 53 (20.6% had been regularly following up with any hospital, 209 (79.4% had not. A total of 150 (57.3% were boys and the average age was 13.23 years (Std Dev 5 yrs. Poor follow up was associated with the older age group ( P 1 line with regular follow-up. Conclusion: Regular follow-up is important and improves vision; eye care practitioners need to take special efforts to ensure better follow-up.

  17. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions.

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    Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909

  18. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva, Ivayla I.

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes. All available literature until April 2015 was reviewed using PubMed and the following keywords: “photobiomodulation AND retina”, “low level light therapy AND retina”, “low level laser therapy AND retina”, and “FR/NIR therapy AND retina”. In addition, the relevant references listed within the papers identified through PubMed were incorporated. The literature supports the conclusion that the low-cost and non-invasive nature of PBM, coupled with the first promising clinical reports and the numerous preclinical-studies in animal models, make PBM well-poised to become an important player in the treatment of a wide range of retinal disorders. Nevertheless, large-scale clinical trials will be necessary to establish the PBM therapeutic ranges for the various retinal diseases, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action. PMID:26949625

  19. Refractive errors in Cameroonians diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism

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    Eballé AO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,3, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Christelle Noche4, Marie Evodie Akono Zoua2, Andin Viola Dohvoma21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon, 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Yaoundé Gynaeco-obstetric and Paediatric Hospital. Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Université des Montagnes. Bangangté, CameroonBackground: Albinism causes significant eye morbidity and amblyopia in children. The aim of this study was to determine the refractive state in patients with complete oculocutaneous albinism who were treated at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon and evaluate its effect on vision.Methods: We carried out this retrospective study at the ophthalmology unit of our hospital. All oculocutaneous albino patients who were treated between March 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011 were included.Results: Thirty-five patients (70 eyes diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism were enrolled. Myopic astigmatism was the most common refractive error (40%. Compared with myopic patients, those with myopic astigmatism and hypermetropic astigmatism were four and ten times less likely, respectively, to demonstrate significant improvement in distance visual acuity following optical correction.Conclusion: Managing refractive errors is an important way to reduce eye morbidity-associated low vision in oculocutaneous albino patients.Keywords: albinism, visual acuity, refraction, Cameroon

  20. TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF THE EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS FOR UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERROR AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN MEERUT.

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    A Davey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyes are the best God gift to our body as vision is important in development as it allows interaction with the environment. Appropriate correction prevents the development of childhood amblyopia and enables better performance at school. Later in life carrier of the youth is very much dependent on the visual acuity. Therefore study aims to find the prevalence of the uncorrected refractive error among school children in the age group of 13-16 years and factors contributing to the refractive error. Methods: It is institutional based crossed sectional study in English medium private school children in the age group 13-16 years. For one week they were screened for visual acuity from a Standard Snellen Chart. On pre-informed date educational intervention was conducted; they were followed up after one week of intervention for final assessment. Results: Prevalence of the uncorrected refractive error was 14.8% Distance for watching TV less than 3 m and computer less than 1 m were highly significant. Prolonged duration of TV watching for more than 4 hours in a day and indulgence in computers for more than one year were also significant. In follow up after education intervention, all the children with uncorrected refractive error except 2 had paid visit to ophthalmologist. Conclusion: Community based screening through school is most appropriate strategy to detect early any visual impairment, but school based approach must include teachers orientation also for prevention of eye disease.

  1. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery.

  2. Systemic and Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Iris Coloboma

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    Sevda Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Ocular coloboma is a rare malformation resulting from defective closure of the embryonic optic fissure. It can affect iris, retina, choroid, optic disc or ciliary body. This study reviews the clinical diagnosis and the accompanying ocular and systemic abnormalities in cases of iris coloboma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Sixteen eyes of ten patients referred to our clinic and diagnosed as iris coloboma were included in the study and were reviewed retrospectively. Re sults: Seven cases were sporadic, and three cases were familial. Isolated iris coloboma was present in only one case, and chorioretinal involvement was present in all the others. Seven cases had involvement of the optic disc. Other ocular anomalies were unilateral microphthalmia in 3 cases, unilateral anophthalmia in 1 case, and unilateral microcornea in one case. Strabismus was present in the familial cases. Dis cus si on: In patients, diagnosed with iris coloboma, routine eye examination should be completed, refractive errors should be corrected, and these patients must be follewed for amblyopia. If strabismus is concominant, surgery can be performed. For potential complications, patients should be checked at regular intervals. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 19-22

  3. Management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoids

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    Pirouzian A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amir Pirouzian1,21Tayani Institute, Division of Ophthalmology and Cornea, Mission Viejo in affiliation with Children’s Hospital of Orange County at Mission Hospital, CA, USA; 2Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: This paper reviews the data in the published literature (PubMed from 1937 to 2011 concerning the medical and surgical management of pediatric limbal dermoids. Current standard medical treatment for grade I pediatric limbal dermoids (ie, with superficial corneal involvment is initially conservative. In stages II (ie, affecting the full thickness of the cornea with/without endothelial involvement and III (ie, involvement of entire cornea and anterior chamber, a combination of excision, lamellar keratoplasty, and amniotic membrane and limbal stem cell tranplantation are advocated. Combinations of these approaches seem to yield better and more stable long-term ocular surface cosmesis and fewer complications in comparison with traditional methods of excision and lamellar keratoplasty. Management of amblyopia (i.e. occlusion treatment, chemical penalization with/without spectacle wear, etc must continue after surgical excision to yield optimal results when or if the surgery is done at a younger age.Keywords: limbal dermoid, amniotic membrane, surgical management, tissue adhesive

  4. Recovery of cortical binocularity and orientation selectivity after the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity.

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    Liao, David S; Krahe, Thomas E; Prusky, Glen T; Medina, Alexandre E; Ramoa, Ary S

    2004-10-01

    Cortical binocularity is abolished by monocular deprivation (MD) during a critical period of development lasting from approximately postnatal day (P) 35 to P70 in ferrets. Although this is one of the best-characterized models of neural plasticity and amblyopia, very few studies have examined the requirements for recovery of cortical binocularity and orientation selectivity of deprived eye responses. Recent studies indicating that different mechanisms regulate loss and recovery of binocularity raise the possibility that different sensitive periods characterize loss and recovery of deprived eye responses. In this report, we have examined whether the potential for recovery of binocularity and orientation selectivity is restricted to the critical period. Quantitative single unit recordings revealed recovery of cortical binocularity and full recovery of orientation selectivity of deprived eye responses following prolonged periods of MD (i.e., >3 wk) starting at P49, near the peak of plasticity. Surprisingly, recovery was present when binocular vision was restored after the end of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity, as late as P83. In contrast, ferrets that had never received visual experience through the deprived eye failed to recover binocularity even though normal binocular vision was restored at P50, halfway through the critical period. Collectively, these results indicate that there is potential for recovery of cortical binocularity and deprived eye orientation selectivity after the end of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity.

  5. Eye diseases in children in jourdan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate eye diseases in children in Jordan and to see whether it is necessary to conduct a visual screening programme. Methods: The study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2012 at four Royal Medical Service hospitals located in northern, eastern, middle and southern parts of Jordan. Children aged (6-14 years) attending paediatric clinics for various reasons were enrolled. Ophthalmologic assessment included visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examination. Patients with visual acuity of less than 20/20 underwent refraction under cyclopegia. Results: Of the 3200 children in the study ocular abnormalities were found in 366 (11.4%); 312 (9.8%) had visual acuity less than 20/20 in one or both eyes. Refractive error was seen in 286 (8.9%); while vernal catarrh was the second most common ocular abnormality with 51 (1.6%) patients followed by squint 16(0.5%). Four (0.12%) patients had severe visual impairment and one (0.03%) patient was blind. Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive error was high in school children in the study area. It is important to conduct a visual screening programme in early school years in order to prevent amblyopia. (author)

  6. Beyond photography: Evaluation of the consumer digital camera to identify strabismus and anisometropia by analyzing the Bruckner′s reflex

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    Sadat A. O. Bani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia screening is often either costly or laborious. We evaluated the Canon Powershot TX1 (CPTX1 digital camera as an efficient screener for amblyogenic risk factors (ARF. We included 138 subjects: 84-amblyopes and 54-normal. With the red-eye-reduction feature off, we obtained Bruckner reflex photographs of different sized crescents which suggested anisometropia, while asymmetrical brightness indicated strabismus; symmetry implied normalcy. Eight sets of randomly arranged 138 photographs were made. After training, 8 personnel, marked each as normal or abnormal. Of the 84 amblyopes, 42 were strabismus alone (SA, 36 had anisometropia alone (AA while six were mixed amblyopes (MA. Overall mean sensitivity for amblyopes was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89 and specificity 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93. Sub-group analyses on SA, AA and MA returned sensitivities of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.69, while specificities were 0.85 for all three. Overall Cohen′s Kappa was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62-0.71. The CPTX1 appears to be a feasible option to screen for ARF, although results need to be validated on appropriate age groups.

  7. 儿童视力残疾因素及防治对策%Children with Visual Disability Factors and Countermeasures

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    李华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童视力残疾因素,据此提出防治对策。方法:采取随机抽样方法抽取笔者所在市0~6岁儿童进行儿童盲和低视力抽样调查,由专业医师检查视力,筛查诊断原因并提出治疗措施。结果:140例视残儿童中,85例表现为低视力,占总数的60.7%,55例为不同程度的儿童盲,占39.3%。男童视力残疾比例普遍高于女童。导致儿童低视力的主要因素是弱视(57.6%),其次是先天性白内障(24.7%);而致盲的主要病因是先天及遗传性眼部疾病,如先天性白内障、先天性小眼球、先天性青光眼等。结论:0~6岁儿童视力残疾以低视力为主,而弱视系导致低视力的主要原因;先天和遗传因素是致儿童盲的首要因素。对弱视等视力残疾可通过早期治疗可脱残。%Objective:Children explore the factors of visual disability , pursuant to propose countermeasures .Methods:I take a ran-dom sampling method where city children 0-6 years old children sample survey of blindness and low vision , visual inspection by a profes-sional physician, screening and diagnosis of the cause and proposed treatment .Results:Depending disabled children 40 cases, 85 cases showed low vision, accounting for 60.7%of the total, 55 cases of varying degrees of blindness in children , accounting for 39.3%.The proportion of boys than girls in general visual disability .The main factors that cause low vision children are amblyopia (57.6%), followed by congenital cataracts (24.7%);while the main cause of blindness is congenital and hereditary eye diseases , such as congenital cata-racts, congenital eye , congenital glaucoma .Conclusion:0-6 years old children with low vision -based visual disabilities , and the lead-ing cause of low vision in the amblyopic Department of; congenital and genetic factors are the primary factor in the cause of childhood blindness .For amblyopia and other visual

  8. Correção cirúrgica da esotropia em portadores de fixação excêntrica Surgical correction of esotropia in eccentric fixation patients

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    Andréa Alejandra González Martinez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado da correção cirúrgica da esotropia em pacientes com fixação excêntrica e compará-lo com o de pacientes esotrópicos operados que não possuíam essa alteração sensorial. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo do resultado da correção cirúrgica da esotropia essencial de 19 pacientes com fixação excêntrica do Serviço de Motilidade Ocular Extrínsica da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Como grupo-controle, foram estudados 17 pacientes esotrópicos com ambliopia estrábica e fixação central e 16 pacientes esotrópicos sem ambliopia. O teste estatístico utilizado foi aplicação de variância para proporções (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Nos 3 grupos estudados prevaleceu a subcorreção, 12 (63,2% casos no grupo I, 13 (76,5% casos no grupo II e 13 (81,3% pacientes no grupo III. O sucesso cirúrgico (desvios ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the result of the surgical correction of esotropic patients with eccentric fixation and to compare it with operated on esotropic patients who did not have this sensorial disorder. METHODS: A retrospective study of the result of the surgical correction of essential esotropia in 19 patients with eccentric fixation of the "Santa Casa de São Paulo". As group controls, 17 esotropic patients with strabismic amblyopia and central fixation and 16 esotropic patients without amblyopia who had been operated on. The statistical test was application of variance for proportions (ANOVA. RESULTS: In the 3 studied groups undercorrection prevailed, 12 (63,2% cases in group I, 13(76,5% cases in group II and 13 (81,3% patients in group III. The surgical success occurred in 7 (36,8% patients of the group with eccentric fixation, of whom 4 cases were overcorrected and 3 of orthotropia. In group II, of the 7 cases of surgical success, 3 (17,6% had orthotropia and 1 (5,9% case presented with overcorrection. In group III, we had 5 (31,3% cases of surgical success, 1 (6,3% of them with orthotropia. Among the 36

  9. Achados oculares em crianças de zero a seis anos de idade, residentes na cidade de São Caetano do Sul, SP Ocular findings in children between 0 and 6 years of age, residing in the city of São Caetano do Sul, SP

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    Sandra Maria Canelas Beer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de erros refrativos, estrabismo, ambliopia e anisometropia nas crianças pertencentes à população em estudo, utilizando dois métodos de rastreamento (triagem na escola e triagem durante o dia da vacinação contra a poliomielite. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 2.640 crianças, residentes da cidade de São Caetano do Sul, entre zero e seis anos de idade, divididas em duas amostras (A e B. A amostra A consistiu de 476 crianças que foram examinadas por dez oftalmologistas e onze técnicos oftálmicos, durante o Dia Nacional de Vacinação (20 de junho de 1998 contra a Poliomielite. A amostra B consistiu de 2.164 crianças que freqüentavam escolas municipais, entre quatro e seis anos de idade e foram examinadas por dois oftalmologistas durante o ano de 1998. RESULTADOS: Na amostra A, a prevalência de estrabismo foi de 3,36% e de anisometropia foi de 1,26%. O principal tipo de erro refrativo encontrado foi a hipermetropia PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of refractive errors, strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia, among children in a population, using two methods of screening (at school and at the National Polio Vaccination Day. METHODS: We examined 2,640 children, between 0 and 6 years of age. The children, residents of the city São Caetano do Sul, were divided into two groups (A and B. Group A: 476 children, with an age range of a few months to 6 years, had their eyes examined by 10 ophthalmologists and 11 ophthalmology technicians, during the National Polio Vaccination Day (June 20,1998. Group B: 2,164 children attending municipal schools (EMEIs and EMIs, between 4 and 6 years of age, who had their eyes examined by two ophthalmologists during the year of 1998. RESULTS: In group A, the prevalence of strabismus was 3.36% and that of anisometropia was 1.26%. The most common type of refractive error was hypermetropia £ 2D and 14.11% required optical prescription. In group B, the prevalence of strabismus

  10. Study on the functional deficit of brain cortex in human ametropic amblyopla by fMRI based on different task design modals.%屈光不正性弱视皮层功能损伤的磁共振成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明霞; 张云亭; 张权; 李威

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究屈光不正性弱视患者皮层功能损伤情况.方法 分别利用组块任务模式及事件相关任务模式,对屈光不正性弱视组及正常对照组在不同颜色棋盘格刺激下的脑皮层活动进行了BOLD-fMRI研究.结果 组块任务模式的棋盘格刺激主要激活视觉皮层区;事件相关任务模式的棋盘格刺激还可激活额叶、扣带回、海马旁回、中央前回、颞叶等与视觉注意和视觉意识有关的脑功能区,弱视组与对照组在视皮层及这些视觉注意及意识调控区的激活强度存在显著差异;屈光不正性弱视患者对不同颜色的敏感性减弱,但程度不同.结论 屈光不正性弱视患者视觉皮层及视觉注意和意识调控区的激活减弱可能与这些区域神经细胞的同步放电活动减弱有关.%Objective To investigate the functional deficit of brain cortex in human ametropic amblyopia.Methods The regional brain activation in ametropic amblyopia and healthy subjects evoked by visual stimuli of red-black and green-black chessboard patterns were detected by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging based on block-design and event-related design.Results For block-design modal,the major active regions during visual stimuli were in the visual cortex;for event-related design modal,activation were seen in the areas implicated in visual attentional and conscious modulation such as frontal,cingulated,parahippocampal,precentral,temporal regions as well as visual fields.And the activation intensity in ametropic amblyopic group was lower significantly than that in normal group.The sensitivity of ametropic amblyopic eyes to colors decreased,but with different level to different color.Conclusions The decreased activation in visual cortex and regions related to visual attention and consciousness may be associated with the reduced synchronization among activity neurons in these brain areas.

  11. Leber's遗传性视神经病变患者的线粒体DNA检测%Diagnostic and differential diagnostic potent6ial of mitochondrial DNA assessment in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

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    冯雪梅; 濮伟; 高殿文; 伊佐敷靖; 大庭纪雄

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the primary mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associated with Leber′s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients with optic neuropathy. Methods Seventy-nine patients with a variety of bilateral optic neuropathy were examined. Mutations at np 3 460, np 11 778 and np 14 484 of mtDNA were tested by PCR-restriction fregment length polymorphism technique to detect DNA in peripheral blood. The samples were taken from 16 cases of clinically diagnosed LHON, 44 cases of suspected LHON, two cases of alcohol amblyopia, four cases of multiple sclerosis, five cases of autosomal dominant hereditary optic atrophy, 4 cases with primary open-angle glaucoma, three cases of spinocerebellar degeneration, and one case of ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy. Results The mutation at np 11 778 was identified in 31 cases (39.2%), consisting of all the 16 clinically diagnosed LHON cases, thirteen cases (29.5%) of the suspected LHON, and the two cases of alcohol amblyopia. The remaining 48 cases were negative for mtDNA mutations at np 3 460, np 11 778, or np 14 484. Conclusion Assessment of mtDNA provides a useful diagnsotic aid in confirming and excluding the diagnosis of LHON, particularly useful in cases without a family hereditary history and cases with cause unknown bilateral optic neuritis.%目的探讨与Leber's遗传性视神经病变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)相关的线粒体DNA原发位点突变在视神经疾病中的诊断意义。方法 79例各种原因引起的双侧视神经疾病中,16例为临床诊断的LHON患者,44例为可疑LHON患者,2例为酒精性弱视患者,4例为多发性硬化症患者,5例为常染色体显性遗传的视神经萎缩患者,4例为原发性开角型青光眼患者,3例为脊髓小脑退行性变和1例乙胺丁醇引起的视神经萎缩患者。用聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)及限制性片段长度多态性技术,检测外

  12. The Decompensated Monofixation Syndrome (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

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    Siatkowski, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features and response to treatment of patients with decompensated monofixation syndrome (MFS) and to propose a hypothesis for a decompensation mechanism in such patients. Methods Fourteen adults with MFS who had been symptomatically stable for a mean duration of 25 years developed diplopia in the absence of neurologic or orbital disease. After retrospective chart review, they underwent detailed orthoptic testing. Results from this cross-sectional analysis were compared with similar data from 16 control subjects with stable MFS. Results Compared to stable MFS patients, decompensated subjects had significantly poorer horizontal fusional amplitudes but greater torsional fusional amplitudes; they were also more likely to have a small vertical strabismus and to have received initial treatment later. Stable subjects, however, also had subnormal horizontal as well as torsional fusional amplitudes. There was no difference between groups with respect to refractive error, amblyopia, type or prior treatment of strabismus, stereoacuity, or angle of deviation. After treatment, all patients regained monofixational alignment, but up to one-third had continued diplopia. Symptoms recurred in two patients whose treatment was initially successful. Conclusions Patients with MFS lose fusional amplitudes over time. In some cases this results in development of sensory torsion with secondary decompensation and diplopia. The rate of decompensation averages 7% per year from ages 20 to 70. Treatment for decompensation offers excellent motor results, but sensory symptoms may persist and recurrent symptoms may develop. Monitoring and maintenance of fusional vergence amplitudes should be part of the routine care for patients with MFS. PMID:22253490

  13. About the correctness of laser refractive surgery in children

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    V. V. Kurenkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of refraction are one of the most urgent problems of pediatric ophthalmology. Late and incomplete correction of refractive errors leads to the development of amblyopia, disturbances of binocular vision, the appearance of strabismus. Such complications reduce the quality of life, drastically limit the choice of professional child. Pediatric Ophthalmology always face a choice: many drugs and technologies are not approved for use in pediatric patients, practitioners are forced to use their «off-label», but such situations require great care and strict medical indications. For example, refractive surgery has worked well in adults, but its use remains controversial in children for security reasons and unpredictable effects. Several authors have described the use of laser refractive surgery in children under the age of 18 years, but there are no results of a multicenter, controlled study evaluating the safety, efficacy, and especially long-term results. In all the studies, the calculation was performed on adult nomograms ablation, while not proved how they are accurate for children. Long-term results and data on the endothelial cell density, corneal curvature changes in catamnesis are presented no longer than two years. Despite the fact that currently there is insufficient information about the results of remote application keratorefractive laser surgery in children, and there are no indication system and contraindications, modern achievements in medicine should be used in pediatric patients, and our successful track record proves it clearly. Undoubtedly, the positive experience of the laser surgery use in a child with clouding of the cornea in the outcome of herpetic keratitis, which provided a positive result: high visual acuity, binocular vision and lack of infection relapses for 2 years, requires study, evidence multicenter studies, and possibly expansion of indications for refractive laser surgery.

  14. Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Xiangzhi Meng

    Full Text Available High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese.To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia.These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on

  15. Vision screening in children with developmental delay can be improved: analysis of a screening programme outside the ophthalmic clinic.

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    Nielsen, Lisbeth Sandfeld; Skov, Liselotte; Jensen, Hanne

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new vision-screening programme in detecting ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay (DD; IQIQ. A group of 467 children with an IQIQ>80 (85 males, 38 females; age range 3-16y; mean age 10y 5mo [SD 3y 2mo]) had an examination that included new vision-screening items: distance and near visual acuity and stereopsis for near objects (Lang stereo test II). A full ophthalmological examination was also conducted to determine the effectiveness of the new screening items. The previous screening programme consisted of only monocular visual acuity at distance. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the tests were calculated with regard to the following ophthalmic disorders: hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anistometropia, amblyopia, low vision, and strabismus. Overall, the prevalence of ophthalmic disorders was 33.4% in children with DD and 11.4% in typically developing children. With the use of the new programme, the effectiveness of vision screening in both groups of children was improved. In children with DD, sensitivity increased from 49.4 to 80.1%, specificity decreased from 98.1 to 83.3%, PPV decreased from 92.8 to 70.6%, and NPV increased from 79.4 to 89.3%. In typically developing children, sensitivity improved from 50.0 to 85.7%, specificity declined from 98.2 to 87.2%, PPV decreased from 77.8 to 46.2%, and NPV increased from 93.9 to 97.9%. We conclude that the currently used vision-screening programme can be significantly improved. The speed and simplicity of the proposed screening programme makes it suitable for use by school nurses. The improvements were most prominent in children with DD. PMID:17593122

  16. Asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome: response to authors

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    Gupta A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aditi Gupta, Rajiv Raman, Tarun SharmaShri Bhagwan Mahavir Department of Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, IndiaWe read with great interest the recent article by Kashima et al,1 in which the authors report a case of asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome. We want to highlight some concerns regarding this report. Previous reports have described many systemic and local factors associated with the development of asymmetric diabetic retinopathy.2,3 These include myopia ≥5 D, anisometropia >1 D, amblyopia, unilateral elevated intraocular pressure, complete posterior vitreous detachment, unilateral carotid artery stenosis, ocular ischemic syndrome, and chorioretinal scarring.2,3 In any suspected case of asymmetric diabetic retinopathy, it is prudent to rule out the abovementioned factors first. In the present case, although the authors clearly mention the absence of internal carotid and ophthalmic artery obstruction on magnetic resonance angiography, it would have been more informative if the authors had also provided the refractive error, intraocular pressure, and posterior vitreous detachment status of both the eyes.Likewise, it would have been useful to note the arm-retina time and retinal arteriovenous filling time in both the eyes on fundus fluorescein angiography, which is usually used to diagnose ocular ischemic syndrome by monitoring extension of the retinal circulation time, including time of blood circulation from the arm to the retina and the retinal arteriovenous filling time.4,5 The mere absence of internal carotid obstruction on magnetic resonance angiography cannot rule out the presence of ocular ischemic syndrome because, rarely, ocular ischemic syndrome can also occur secondary to other causes, such as arteritis.6,7 Comparing the arm-retina time and retinal arteriovenous filling time on fundus fluorescein angiography in both the eyes would be more helpful to rule out ocular

  17. PREVALENCE OF MYOPIA AMONG URBAN SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Sandeep

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Refractive error is the second leading cause of treatable blindness . 46 . 69% of all ocular morbidity in the country is directly attributed to refractiv e errors and myopia is the commonest type of refractive error . School age children constitute a particularly vulnerable group because uncorrected refractive errors may lead to amblyopia , subnormal binocularity or strabismus resulting in permanent visual lo ss . Studies have shown that there has been an increase in the proportion of myopia among students . In view of the importance of detecting the eye defects in school children in our region where staple food and socio - demography is different from rest of the country an effort has been made in the present study to find out the extent of problem of refractive errors particularly Myopia among school children . OBJECTIVES : To study and evaluate Myopia among School children . METHODS : A cross - sectional study on rando m control sample of school children of 7 - 15 year was carried out in the Hubli city . Visual acuity tests were done all students . Students with 6/6 ( p or less vision were subjected for slit lamp examination , retinoscopy , fundus examination , keratometry and A - scan . RESULTS : 13 . 5% of children had refractive errors . 4 . 54% had Myopia . Myopia was more common in females with a peak in 13 - 15 year group . CONCLUSION : Significant proportion of children of this area had uncorrected refractive errors . Regular screening and correction of refractive error will help to improve vision , prevent further deterioration and hence irreversible changes in the visual system .

  18. A STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF OCULAR MORBIDITIES IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN A RURAL DISTRICT OF MANIPUR

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    Rajkumari Bigyabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Children are affected by various eye disorders like refractive error, eye infections, and squint. Uncorrected refractive errors are a common, but avoidable problem. The presence of uncorrected refractive error in children has a considerable impact on their physical, mental, and behavioural development. Early detection and timely intervention can improve a child’s potential tremendously during the formative years. AIM To find out the magnitude of ocular morbidities among school children of Thoubal, a rural District of Manipur and the type of refractive error prevalent in that region. METHODS A cross sectional study was conducted among school children of Thoubal, a rural area of Manipur. Excluding absentees and non-responders, students were examined by trained Ophthalmologists and Ophthalmic Assistants. Visual acuity was assessed in all students using Snellen’s chart and refraction performed when required. Patients with no improvement by the above method were further examined at the tertiary hospital. Data was tabulated and analysed. RESULTS A total of 1700 students aged from 5 to 15 were examined out of which 53% were boys and 47% girls. Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 17.7% of which refractive error was found in 16.4%, cataract in 0.1%, squint in 0.1%, corneal opacity in 0.1%, chalazion/stye in 0.4%, conjunctivitis in 0.3%, and blindness in 0.1%. A significant proportion of girls suffer from refractive error (57% as compared to boys (43%. Refractive errors prevail highest among the age group 10-12 years. Astigmatism was the most common refractive error (48% followed by Myopia (34% and Hypermetropia (18%. CONCLUSION The study concludes that vision screening in school children is very useful in early detection of refractive errors and other ocular morbidities leading to early treatment and prevention of development of visual disability and amblyopia as most of the children were unaware of the problem.

  19. The Historical and Contemporary Reflection on the Women’s Self-worth%女性自身价值的历史考究及其当代反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2015-01-01

    社会在其演进过程中对男女赋予了众多刻板印象,以及历史社会对女性地位的弱视综合导致了当代女性社会地位现况。对女性社会地位现况的考究及其历史原因的追踪将有助于引发广大女性关于对自身价值的深思,从而倾力于自我灵魂的改造和自我价值的提升。最终为社会主义现代化建设的伟大事业增添一份不可代替的力量,为中华民族的伟大复兴展现自身内在的价值。%The society in the course of its evolution to the men and women gave many stereotypes ,and the social his‐tory of the status of women has led to the current situation of amblyopia comprehensive contemporary women’s social status .The situation of the social status of women is elegant and historical reasons of tracking will help cause the majority of women on the value of their own thinking ,thus to transform from self soul and self value promotion .Finally add airre‐placeable contribution to the great cause of socialist modernization construction ,to show their intrinsic value for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation .

  20. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide in the management of severe chronic pain

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    Howard S Smith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Howard S Smith,1 Timothy R Deer21Albany Medical College, Department of Anesthesiology, Albany, New York, USA; 2The Center for Pain Relief, Clinical Professor, West Virginia, University, Charleston, West Virginia, USAAbstract: Ziconotide is a conopeptide intrathecal (IT analgesic which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the management of severe chronic pain. It is a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the venom of the fish-eating marine cone snail and provides analgesia via binding to N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. As ziconotide is a peptide, it is expected to be completely degraded by endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Phase I hydrolytic enzymes widely located throughout the body, and not by other Phase I biotransformation processes (including the cytochrome P450 system or by Phase II conjugation reactions. Thus, IT administration, low plasma ziconotide concentrations, and metabolism by ubiquitous peptidases make metabolic interactions of other drugs with ziconotide unlikely. Side effects of ziconotide which tend to occur more commonly at higher doses may include: nausea, vomiting, confusion, postural hypotension, abnormal gait, urinary retention, nystagmus/amblyopia, drowsiness/somnolence (reduced level of consciousness, dizziness or lightheadedness, weakness, visual problems (eg, double vision, elevation of serum creatine kinase, or vestibular side effects. Initially, when ziconotide was first administered to human subjects, titration schedules were overly aggressive and led to an abundance of adverse effects. Subsequently, clinicians have gained appreciation for ziconotide’s relatively narrow therapeutic window. With appropriate usage multiple studies have shown ziconotide to be a safe and effective intrathecal analgesic alone or in combination with other intrathecal analgesics.Keywords: pain, ziconotide, intrathecal analgesics, safety, patient

  1. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria.

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    Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children. PMID:17200795

  2. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis.

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    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  3. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  4. Visual function of Egyptian children with low vision and the demographic determinants

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    El Byoumi Boshra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire (LVP-FVQ could be used to assess self-reported visual function and quality of visual life in Egyptian school aged children. Materials and Methods: The LVP-FVQ was used to assess the quality of visual function in school-age children. All subjects were students at the time of assessment. Subjects underwent a visual function assessment that included distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision and visual field examination where possible. Data analysis were for both descriptive and inference statistics. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty children aged 11.28 ± 3.5 years (range, 5 years to 18 years with moderate-to-severe visual impairment most of their lives were enrolled. Twenty-two subjects (44% had albinism, 18 (36% subjects had hereditary retinal dystrophy, 6 (12% subjects had cone dystrophy, 2 (4% subjects had bilateral amblyopia and 2 (4% subjects had congenital coloboma without other disabilities. The four most difficult tasks were related to the following daily activities alluded to in the questionnaire such as reading a textbook at arms length, copying from the blackboard, seeing somebody across the road and identifying colors. There was no statistically significant association between the demographic variables and the level of visual functioning, sex, age, type of school, family history or consanguinity (P > 0.05 for all variables. Conclusion: LVP-FVQ can be used to screen Egyptian children with visual impairment. Input and integration of the parents and the school teachers to evaluate the child s behavior at home and the school is essential to developing a balanced questionnaire.

  5. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

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    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  6. Implications of CI therapy for Visual Deficit Training

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    Edward eTaub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We address here the question of whether the techniques of CI therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP, multiple sclerosis (MS, other CNS degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia.The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a transfer package to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies.CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the grey matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNC in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the diminished neural connections. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing (BSR. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment of

  7. Visual evoked potentials (VEP and visual acuity improvement after cytidine 52 -diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline therapy in amblyopic patient

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    Regina Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Citicoline may be used in many neurological disorders. Combined treatment of citicoline with patching in amblyopia has previously been researched. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of citicoline in non-patching amblyopic patient. A 11-year-old amblyopic boy underwent complete ophthalmological examinations, including VEP with flash and pattern stimulus. Two averages of 100 sweep were performed for flash stimulus. Pattern reversal stimulus obtained with high contrast was performed with 60', 30' and 15' checks stimuli. The VEP was repeated 90 days later after a therapy with citicoline and vitamin and the results compared with the responses of the previous recording session. The visual acuity (VA was 0,7 in the RE and 1,0 in the LE. The VEP pattern amplitude was normal in both eyes. Delayed in latency was detected for all spatial frequency stimulus (SFS in the RE. Delay in latency was detected only for high SFS in the LE. After the treatment, the VA was 1,0 in both eyes. The latency was normalized with low SFS on the RE and with high SFS on the LE. The flash VEP was normal before and after the therapy. In conclusion, the citicoline demonstrated that it was effective in the treatment of amblyopic eye without patching. The VA and the VEP latency improvement demonstrated that the citicoline enhance the transmission of the electric impulse from retina to visual cortex. Further research is required to understand the immediate and long-term effect of coline treatment in amblyopic patients.

  8. Fisiologia da visão binocular Physiology of binocular vision

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    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A visão binocular de seres humanos resulta da superposição quase completa dos campos visuais de cada olho, o que suscita discriminação perceptual de localizações espaciais de objetos relativamente ao observador (localização egocêntrica bem mais fina (estereopsia, mas isso ocorre em, apenas, uma faixa muito estreita (o horóptero. Aquém e além dela, acham-se presentes diplopia e confusão, sendo necessária supressão fisiológica (cortical para evitá-las. Analisa-se a geometria do horóptero e suas implicações fisiológicas (o desvio de Hillebrand, a partição de Kundt, a área de Panum, assim como aspectos clínicos da visão binocular normal (percepção simultânea, fusão, visão estereoscópica e de adaptações a seus estados afetados (supressão patológica, ambliopia, correspondência visual anômala.The binocular vision of human beings is given by the almost complete superimposition of the monocular visual fields, which allows a finer perceptual discrimination of the egocentric localization of objects in space (stereopsis but only within a very narrow band (the horopter. Before and beyond it, diplopia and confusion are present, so that a physiologic (cortical suppression is necessary to avoid them to become conscious. The geometry of the horopter and its physiologic implications (Hillebrand's deviation, Kundt's partition, Panum's area, stereoscopic vision are analyzed, as well as some clinical aspects of the normal binocular vision (simultaneous perception, fusion, stereoscopic vision and of adaptations to abnormal states (pathologic suppression, amblyopia, abnormal retinal correspondence.

  9. Síndrome de Möbius: achados clínicos e cirúrgicos em 7 pacientes Möbius syndrome: clinical and surgical findings in 7 patients

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    Galton Carvalho Vasconcelos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o quadro clínico, as anormalidades gestacionais e de parto e os resultados na cirurgia de estrabismo em pacientes com síndrome de Möbius. Métodos: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 7 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Möbius, dos quais 6 foram submetidos à cirurgia de estrabismo. Resultados: Além dos achados clássicos que caracterizam a síndrome, em todos os casos estudados observaram-se alterações gestacionais ou de parto. Em 2 pacientes encontrou-se no per-operatório, inserção posteriorizada do reto medial. Graças à fixação cruzada, esses pacientes geralmente não desenvolvem ambliopia. Conclusão: A cirurgia, quando indicada, deve constar apenas dos retrocessos musculares e acredita-se que o planejamento cirúrgico deva ser menor do que o feito em casos de paralisia isolada do nervo abducente de mesmo valor.Purpose: To evaluate clinical features, pregnancy and labour abnormalities and the results of strabismus surgery in patients with Möbius syndrome. Methods: The authors studied retrospectively 7 patients with Möbius syndrome, of whom 6 were submitted to strabismus surgery. Results: In addition to the classical findings that characterize the syndrome, pregnancy and labour insults were observed in all cases. In 2 patients a posterior medial rectus insertion was found during surgery. Due to cross-fixation, these patients usually do not develop amblyopia. Conclusions: Surgery should consist of muscle recessions, but recessing them less than it would be done for similar isolated abducens palsy.

  10. Ocular manifestation and treatment in Lowe syndrome%Lowe综合征的眼部表现及其诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭健文; 赖一凡

    2014-01-01

    Lowe syndrome also known as oculocerebrorenal syndrome.The aetiology is related to mutation of OCRL1 (Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) gene in the chromosome Xq26.1,reulting in a deficiency of OCRL1 protein or a reduction of phosphatase activity is responsibility for the disease.Lowe syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterised by anomalies affecting the eye,the nervous system and the kidney.Most of affected individuals is male,female carriers may be presence of bilateral cataract without other systemic abnormities.The common ocular disease in Lowe syndrome including bilateral congenital cataract,glaucoma,keloid,amblyopia and retinal atrophy.The mainly ocular treatments contain phacoemulsification,glaucoma filtering operation,topical medication.%Lowe综合征又称眼-脑-肾综合征(Oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome),主要是位于染色体Xq26.1的OCRL1基因突变导致所编码的OCRL1蛋白缺乏或磷酸酶活性丧失而致病,是一种能引起双眼白内障(中央核性白内障为主)、神经系统和肾脏等多系统异常的全身性疾病.此病绝大多数见于男性,女性携带者仅表现为双眼白内障而不伴其他系统的异常.Lowe综合征常见的眼部表现包括双眼先天性白内障、青光眼、角结膜瘢痕瘤、弱视、视网膜萎缩等.眼部治疗主要包括白内障摘除术、青光眼滤过性手术、局部药物治疗等.

  11. Developmental changes in GABAergic mechanisms in human visual cortex across the lifespan

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    Joshua G A Pinto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional maturation of visual cortex is linked with dynamic changes in synaptic expression of GABAergic mechanisms. These include setting the excitation-inhibition balance required for experience-dependent plasticity, as well as, intracortical inhibition underlying development and aging of receptive field properties. Animal studies have shown developmental regulation of GABAergic mechanisms in visual cortex. In this study, we show for the first time how these mechanisms develop in the human visual cortex across the lifespan. We used Western blot analysis of postmortem tissue from human primary visual cortex (n=30, range: 20 days to 80 years to quantify expression of 8 pre- and post-synaptic GABAergic markers. We quantified the inhibitory modulating cannabinoid receptor (CB1, GABA vesicular transporter (VGAT, GABA synthesizing enzymes (GAD65/GAD67, GABAA receptor anchoring protein (Gephyrin, and GABAA receptor subunits (GABAA∝1, GABAA∝2, GABAA∝3. We found a complex pattern of changes, many of which were prolonged and continued well into into the teen, young adult, and even older adult years. These included a monotonic increase or decrease (GABAA∝1, GABAA∝2, a biphasic increase then decrease (GAD65, Gephyrin, or multiple increases and decreases (VGAT, CB1 across the lifespan. Comparing the balances between the pre- and post-synaptic markers we found 3 main transitions (early childhood, early teen years, aging when there were rapid switches in the composition of the GABAergic signaling system, indicating that functioning of the GABAergic system must change as the visual cortex develops and ages. Furthermore, these results provide key information for translating therapies developed in animal models into effective treatments for amblyopia in humans.

  12. Interaction of axial and oblique astigmatism in theoretical and physical eye models.

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    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between oblique and axial astigmatism was investigated analytically (generalized Coddington's equations) and numerically (ray tracing) for a theoretical eye model with a single refracting surface. A linear vector-summation rule for power vector descriptions of axial and oblique astigmatism was found to account for their interaction over the central 90° diameter of the visual field. This linear summation rule was further validated experimentally using a physical eye model measured with a laboratory scanning aberrometer. We then used the linear summation rule to evaluate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism to the total astigmatism measured across the central visual field. In the central visual field, axial astigmatism dominates because the oblique astigmatism is negligible near the optical axis. At intermediate eccentricities, axial and oblique astigmatism may have equal magnitude but orthogonal axes, which nullifies total astigmatism at two locations in the visual field. At more peripheral locations, oblique astigmatism dominates axial astigmatism, and the axes of total astigmatism become radially oriented, which is a trait of oblique astigmatism. When eccentricity is specified relative to a foveal line-of-sight that is displaced from the eye's optical axis, asymmetries in the visual field map of total astigmatism can be used to locate the optical axis empirically and to estimate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism at any retinal location, including the fovea. We anticipate the linear summation rule will benefit many topics in vision science (e.g., peripheral correction, emmetropization, meridional amblyopia) by providing improved understanding of how axial and oblique astigmatism interact to produce net astigmatism. PMID:27607493

  13. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

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    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  14. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS

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    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 × magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  15. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal Indian pediatric population measured with optical coherence tomography

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    Neelam Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in normal Indian pediatric population. Subjects and Methods: 120 normal Indian children ages 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. RNFL thickness was measured with stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT. Children with strabismus or amblyopia, with neurological, metabolic, vascular, or other disorders and those with abnormal optic discs were excluded. One eye of each subject was randomly selected for statistical analysis. The effect of age, refraction and gender on RNFL thickness was investigated statistically. Result: OCT measurements were obtained in 120 of 130 (92.3% subjects. Mean age was 10.8 ± 3.24 years (range 5-17. Average RNFL thickness was (± SD 106.11 ± 9.5 μm (range 82.26-146.25. The RNFL was thickest inferiorly (134.10 ± 16.16 μm and superiorly (133.44 ± 15.50 μm, thinner nasally (84.26 ± 16.43 μm, and thinnest temporally (70.72 ± 14.80 μm. In univariate regression analysis, age had no statistical significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.7249 and refraction had a significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.0008. Conclusion: OCT can be used to measure RNFL thickness in children. Refraction had an effect on RNFL thickness. In normal children, variation in RNFL thickness is large. The normative data provided by this study may assist in identifying changes in RNFL thickness in Indian children.

  16. Automated and simultaneous fovea center localization and macula segmentation using the new dynamic identification and classification of edges model.

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    Onal, Sinan; Chen, Xin; Satamraju, Veeresh; Balasooriya, Maduka; Dabil-Karacal, Humeyra

    2016-07-01

    Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space. Second, the fovea center is identified, and the macula region is segmented using the proposed dynamic identification and classification of edges (DICE) model. The performance of the method was evaluated using 1200 fundus images obtained from the relatively large, diverse, and publicly available Messidor database. In 96.1% of these 1200 cases, the distance between the fovea center identified manually by ophthalmologists and automatically using the proposed method remained within 0 to 8 pixels. The dice similarity index comparing the manually obtained results with those of the model for macula segmentation was 96.12% for these 1200 cases. Thus, the proposed method displayed a high degree of accuracy. The methodology using the DICE model is unique and advantageous over previously reported methods because it simultaneously determines the fovea center and segments the macula region without using any structural information, such as optic disc or blood vessel location, and it may prove useful for all populations, including infants. PMID:27660803

  17. Retinal detachment after laser In Situ keratomileusis

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    Saba Al-Rashaed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To report characteristics and outcome of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopia. Materials and Methods : A retrospective chart review of patients who presented with RRD after myopic LASIK over a 10-year period. Results : Fourteen eyes were identified with RRD. Of these, two of 6112 LASIK procedures were from our center. The mean age of patients with RRD was 35.43 years. The mean interval of RRD after LASIK was 37.71 months (range, 4 months to 10 years. The macula was involved in eight eyes and spared in six eyes. Retinal breaks included a macular hole in two eyes, and giant tear in two eyes. Multiple breaks (>2 breaks occurred in 6 cases. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV was performed in 3 (21.4% eyes, a scleral buckle (SB was performed in 4 (28.5% eyes and 7 (50% eyes underwent combined PPV and SB. Mean follow-up was 15.18 months (range, 1 month to 7 years. The retina was successfully attached in all cases. The final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 7 (50% eyes, 20/40 to 20/60 in 4 (28.5% eyes, and 20/200 or less in 3 (21.4% eyes. Poor visual outcome was secondary to proliferative vitreoretinopathy, epiretinal membrane, macular scar and amblyopia. Conclusion : The prevalence of RRD after LASIK was low at our institute. Anatomical and visual outcomes were acceptable in eyes that were managed promptly. Although there is no cause-effect relationship between LASIK and RRD, a dilated fundus examination is highly recommended before and after LASIK for myopia.

  18. 视觉发育过程中神经网络的可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡浩然(综述)

    2014-01-01

    视觉系统的神经网络是由许多神经元通过突触联系而形成的。遗传因素为年幼个体的突触联系奠定了良好的基础,而网络中的突触联系又是在内、外界环境因素的影响下,不断地发育和完善,因而突触联系便有了可塑性和敏感期,而且与一些疾病(如:弱视)的发病机理密切相关。随着电生理(尤其是膜片钳方法)和分子生物学技术的迅猛发展,近年来对这些课题进行了更深入的研究,本文综述国内外在这方面的一些新观念和所取得的新成果。%Neural network in visual system consists of many neurons through synaptic connections. Genetic factors had well the fundamental synaptic connections in juvenile individuals, however, these synapses have been pro-gressively modifying and perfecting, so the connections of synapses have plasticity, which occurs during the sensitive period of visual development. The plasticity is also related closely with pathogenesis of some diseases (e.g. amblyopia). Following the rapidly developing of electrophysiological (especially the patch-clamp methods) and molecular-biological techniques, this subject has being studied widely. In this short review, the progress of the study will be introduced.

  19. Layer- and cell-type-specific subthreshold and suprathreshold effects of long-term monocular deprivation in rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Paolo

    2011-11-23

    Connectivity and dendritic properties are determinants of plasticity that are layer and cell-type specific in the neocortex. However, the impact of experience-dependent plasticity at the level of synaptic inputs and spike outputs remains unclear along vertical cortical microcircuits. Here I compared subthreshold and suprathreshold sensitivity to prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) in rat binocular visual cortex in layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids (4Ps and 2/3Ps) and in thick-tufted and nontufted layer 5 pyramids (5TPs and 5NPs), which innervate different extracortical targets. In normal rats, 5TPs and 2/3Ps are the most binocular in terms of synaptic inputs, and 5NPs are the least. Spike responses of all 5TPs were highly binocular, whereas those of 2/3Ps were dominated by either the contralateral or ipsilateral eye. MD dramatically shifted the ocular preference of 2/3Ps and 4Ps, mostly by depressing deprived-eye inputs. Plasticity was profoundly different in layer 5. The subthreshold ocular preference shift was sevenfold smaller in 5TPs because of smaller depression of deprived inputs combined with a generalized loss of responsiveness, and was undetectable in 5NPs. Despite their modest ocular dominance change, spike responses of 5TPs consistently lost their typically high binocularity during MD. The comparison of MD effects on 2/3Ps and 5TPs, the main affected output cells of vertical microcircuits, indicated that subthreshold plasticity is not uniquely determined by the initial degree of input binocularity. The data raise the question of whether 5TPs are driven solely by 2/3Ps during MD. The different suprathreshold plasticity of the two cell populations could underlie distinct functional deficits in amblyopia.

  20. Research on subfoveal choroidal thickness of the children with hyperopic refractive errors%远视性屈光不正儿童黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝军生

    2014-01-01

    制有待进一步探讨.%Objective To observe the subfoveal choroidal thickness of the children with hyperopic refractive errors.Methods A total of 92 cases (184 eyes) of the hyperopia group and 48 cases (96 eyes) of the normal group in the same age segment were scanned horizontally and vertically on the fovea by enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT),the value of subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured.Between hyperopia and normal group,the difference of the subfoveal choroidal thickness values was compared using t test of two independent samples.The average thickness of the eyes between the different types was compared using the paired-t-test.The average values of difference diopter group; amblyopia group and non-amblyopia group between the thickness of macular subfoveal choroidal and macular retina was compared using Univariat Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA).Changes in each group were assessed using LSD-t test.The relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and gender,age,logMAR BCVA,spherical equivalent,macular retinal thickness in the hyperopia group was compared using linear correlation analysis.P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The average thickness of subfoveal choroidal of the hyperopia group was thicker than the normal group.The difference was statistically significant (t =-6.097,P <0.05).The average thickness of subfoveal choroidal of the right eyes,the left eyes,the man,the woman in the hyperopia group were all thicker than that in the normal group.The difference was statistically significant (t =3.638,5.184,4.647,5.235,P <0.05).The average subfoveal choroidal thickness of the hyperopia group was thicker than that in the normal group,whatever the right eyes or left eyes,between the male and the female.The difference was statistically significant (t =2.676,4.098,3.601,3.592,P <0.05).In the mild,moderate,severe hyperopia group,the subfoveal choroidal thickness was all thicker than the normal group,the difference

  1. Practitioners’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles

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    K. C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study to determine optometrists’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles. Ninety-seven optometrists completed a questionnaire pertaining to ametropia and ocular diseases among these patients. The questionnaire contained information regarding patient demographics, ocular pathology, ocular ametropia and the regulatory and public health aspects of ready-made readers.Ninety-five percent of respondents stated that they had seen patients with ready-made readers in their practice and 62% of these stated that they had found the presence of ocular pathology in these patients. The pathologies most commonly reported as seen by practitioners were dry eye (86% of practitioners, cataracts (80% and diabetic retinopathy (54%. In addition, 39% of practitioners reported seeing patients with anisometropia. The majority of practitioners (71% stated that they sold ready-made readers in their practice. Sixty-three percentof practitioners indicated that they would be prepared to offer a service whereby a reduced consultation fee and a pair of ready-made readers could be incorporated into an indigent “package”. An overwhelming 88% of the practitioners felt that the sale of ready-made readers should be more regulated and 74% of practitioners felt that the Professional Board for Optometry and Dispensing Opticians should be responsible for monitoring their sale. The research suggests that wearers of ready-made readers should be screened for ocular pathology, reduced visual acuity and amblyopia. Current regulations should be tightened and a public awareness education campaign should be initiated. The use of ready-made reading spectacles, in deference to an eye examination by an optometrist, appears to be largely as a result of the perceived costs of pri-vate practice combined with ignorance and apathy

  2. O uso do "photoscreening" no estudo de fatores ambliopigênicos na população infantil The use of Photoscreening in the study of the amblyopigenics factors in children

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    Pedro Paulo Leite dos Reis

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a precisão do aparelho "MTI Photoscreener" na triagem de uma população infantil, identificando fatores ambliopigênicos como ametropias, anisometropias, estrabismos e cataratas congênitas e opacidades dos meios transparentes. Métodos: Durante o projeto "Veja Bem Brasil" os autores examinaram com uma máquina de "photoscreening" (MTI Photoscreener, 107 crianças, com idade variando entre 6 e 15 anos, comparando estes resultados com aqueles encontrados em posterior exame oftalmológico completo. Resultados: Ao final encontraram 31 (28,97% crianças com alguma patologia oftalmológica e 76 (71,02% dentro da normalidade. As análises estatísticas da precisão do aparelho revelaram os seguintes valores: sensibilidade 90,32%; especificidade, 96,05%; valores preditivos positivos e negativos de 90,32% e 96,05%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados acima citados demonstraram a confiabilidade do teste de "Photoscreening" na triagem de pacientes em idade escolar.Purpose: To study the accuracy of the MTI Photoscreener in the screening of an infantile population, for amblyopia causing factors such as ametropias, anisometropias, strabismus, congenital cataracts and opacities of the media. Methods: During the execution of a study project "Veja Bem Brasil" ("See Well Brazil", the AA used the MTI Photoscreener to examine 107 children, with ages varying from 6 to 15 years, and compared these results with those of a following complete ophthalmic examination. Results: The end results gave us 31 (28.97% children with an ophthalmic pathology and 76 (71.02% within normal limits. Statistical analysis showed the following values: sensivitity, 90.32%; specificity, 96.05%; positive predictive values and negative predictive values of 90.32% e 96.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The above results showed the "photoscreening" test to be reliable to screen young patients of school age.

  3. Functional MRI, DTI and neurophysiology in horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

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    Haller, Sven; Wetzel, Stephan G. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland); Luetschg, Juerg [University Children' s Hospital (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is an autosomal recessive disease due to a mutation in the ROBO3 gene. This rare disease is of particular interest because the absence, or at least reduction, of crossing of the ascending lemniscal and descending corticospinal tracts in the medulla predicts abnormal ipsilateral sensory and motor systems. We evaluated the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the first time in this disease and compared it to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and neurophysiological findings in the same patient with genetically confirmed ROBO3 mutation. As expected, motor fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were dominantly ipsilateral to the stimulation side. DTI tractography revealed ipsilateral ascending and descending connectivity in the brainstem yet normal interhemispheric connections in the corpus callosum. Auditory fMRI revealed bilateral auditory activation to monaural left-sided auditory stimulation. No significant cortical activation was observed after monaural right-sided stimulation, a hearing defect having been excluded. Prosaccades fMRI showed no activations in the eye-movement network. Motor fMRI confirmed the established findings of DTI and neurophysiology in the same patient. In suspected HGPPS, any technique appears appropriate for further investigation. Auditory fMRI suggests that a monaural auditory system with bilateral auditory activations might be a physiological advantage as compared to a binaural yet only unilateral auditory system, in analogy to anisometropic amblyopia. Moving-head fMRI studies in the future might show whether the compensatory head movements instead of normal eye movements activate the eye-movement network. (orig.)

  4. Severe visual Impairment and blindness in infants: Causes and opportunities for control

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood blindness has an adverse effect on growth, development, social, and economic opportunities. Severe visual impairment (SVI and blindness in infants must be detected as early as possible to initiate immediate treatment to prevent deep amblyopia. Although difficult, measurement of visual acuity of an infant is possible. The causes of SVI and blindness may be prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal. Congenital anomalies such as anophthalmos, microphthalmos, coloboma, congenital cataract, infantile glaucoma, and neuro-ophthalmic lesions are causes of impairment present at birth. Ophthalmia neonatorum, retinopathy of prematurity, and cortical visual impairment are acquired during the perinatal period. Leukocoria or white pupillary reflex can be cause by congenital cataract, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, or retinoblastoma. While few medical or surgical options are available for congenital anomalies or neuro-ophthalmic disorders, many affected infants can still benefit from low vision aids and rehabilitation. Ideally, surgery for congenital cataracts should occur within the first 4 months of life. Anterior vitrectomy and primary posterior capsulotomy are required, followed by aphakic glasses with secondary intraocular lens implantation at a later date. The treatment of infantile glaucoma is surgery followed by anti-glaucoma medication. Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferation of the retinal vasculature in response to relative hypoxia in a premature infant. Screening in the first few weeks of life can prevent blindness. Retinoblastoma can be debulked with chemotherapy; however, enucleation may still be required. Neonatologists, pediatricians, traditional birth attendants, nurses, and ophthalmologists should be sensitive to a parent′s complaints of poor vision in an infant and ensure adequate follow-up to determine the cause. If required, evaluation under anesthesia should be performed, which includes funduscopy, refraction

  5. Pediatric cataract: challenges and future directions

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    Medsinge A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagha Medsinge,1,2 Ken K Nischal1,2 1Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus, and Adult Motility, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, (UPMC 2University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. Keywords: children, pediatric cataract, infantile

  6. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

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    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. METHODS: Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion. RESULTS: All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of

  7. Pediatric open globe injury: A review of the literature

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    Xintong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injury (OGI is a severe form of eye trauma estimated at 2-3.8/100,000 in the United States. Most pediatric cases occur at home and are the result of sharp object penetration. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition by conducting a systematic literature search with inclusion of all case series on pediatric OGI published between 1996 and 2015. Diagnosis of OGI is based on patient history and clinical examination supplemented with imaging, especially computed tomography when indicated. Few prospective studies exist for the management of OGI in pediatric patients, but adult recommendations are often followed with success. The main goals of surgical management are to repair the open globe and remove intraocular foreign bodies. Systemic antibiotics are recommended as medical prophylaxis against globe infection, or endophthalmitis. Other complications are similar to those seen in adults, with the added focus of amblyopia therapy in children. Severe vision decline is most likely due to traumatic cataracts. The ocular trauma score, a system devised to predict final visual acuity (VA in adults, has proven to be of prognostic value in pediatric OGI as well. Factors indicating poor visual prognosis are young age, poor initial VA, posterior eye involvement, long wound length, globe rupture, lens involvement, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. A thorough understanding of OGI and the key differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis between adults and children is critical to timely prevention of posttraumatic vision loss early in life.

  8. Long-term visual outcome of dense bilateral congenital cataract

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    YE He-hua; DENG Da-ming; QIAN Yi-yong; LIN Zhi; CHEN Wei-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Dense congenital cataracts often cause severe visual impairment. The results of long-term follow-up of dense bilateral congenital cataract in China have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term visual function in children who underwent cataract extraction for dense bilateral congenital cataract in southern part of China.Methods Medical records of children who underwent surgery of dense bilateral congenital cataract between January 1992 and December 2000 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University were retroactively reviewed. In 38 children available for current follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoscopic vision, as well as nystagmus, strabismus, and other complications, were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 107.6 months (range 60 to 167 months).Results The mean age of cataract extraction and secondary intraocular lens implantation were 5.6 months (range 3 to 12 months) and 4.2 years (range 2.4 to 15 years), respectively. The mean BCVA was 0.25 in the better eye and 0.16 in the fellow eye. Stereoscopic vision was absent in all patients, and 3 children had simultaneous perception. Nystagmus was detected in all cases and strabismus in 35 cases. A high correlation was found between timing of cataract extraction and final BCVA of the better eye (r=-0.55, P=0.00). A statistically significant difference was found in BCVA between postand pre-treatment of amblyopia (t=5.65, P=0.00).Conclusions Long-term visual function in children with dense bilateral congenital cataract was poor when cataract surgery was performed at age of 3 months or later. Earlier cataract surgery with adequate optical rehabilitation contributed to better visual outcome.

  9. Peters Anomaly in Twins: A Case Report of a Rare Incident with Novel Comorbidities

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    Hashem S. Almarzouki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peters anomaly is a rare developmental malformation involving the anterior segment of the eye, which culminates in amblyopia or congenital blindness. Multiple ocular and/or systemic malformations have been observed with this anomaly, and novel comorbidities continue to be reported. Case Presentation: The probands were monozygotic twin boys (twin I and twin II born to consanguineous parents at 36 weeks of gestation. Coarse facial features and deep-seated eyes were noted at birth. At 6 months, ophthalmic examination revealed that both twins were unable to blink in response to light, or to fixate and follow a moving object. Both twins had prominent horizontal nystagmus. Slit-lamp examination demonstrated varying degrees of central leukoma (corneal opacity associated with iridocorneal adhesion, which is characteristic of type I Peters anomaly. No cataractous changes were observed. Normal intraocular pressure and disorganized retina were observed. Pupillary abnormalities included bilaterally underdeveloped pupils and bilateral absence of pupils was noted. Ocular MRI showed bilateral microphthalmia and optic nerve hypoplasia, with a small optic chiasm in both twins. At this age, the diagnosis of Peters anomaly was made. At 16 months of age, both twins developed deep venous thrombosis and purpuric skin lesions. Investigations revealed a hereditary thrombophilia secondary to a homozygous mutation causing protein C deficiency, which is a rare thrombotic condition. Ocular ultrasonography revealed bilateral vitreous hemorrhaging linked to altered coagulation. One twin developed bilateral inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism. Conclusion: The novel concordance of Peters anomaly in these monozygotic twins sharing a mutation in PROC gene provides further evidence that this anomaly has a genetic basis. Hypoplasia of the optic nerves and optic chiasm, along with severe protein C deficiency and bilateral absence of the pupils, are associated

  10. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a "transfer package" to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment

  11. 儿童内斜视矫正术后双眼单视的建立及影响因素%Factors influencing binocular vision in children with successful surgical alignment for esotropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇; 孔香云; 王利华

    2012-01-01

    -up period from Nov 2008 to Sept 2011 in the Eye Center of Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University.The Worth 4 dots flashlight test was used to evaluate the central and peripheral fusion of the children after successful surgical alignment for esotropia,and a titmus stereogram was used to evaluate stereoacuity.A Chi-square test was used to compare the status of postoperative peripheral binocular fusion for differeut types of esotropia.A logisitic regression analysis with odds ratios comparison was used to investigate the influence of the type of esotropia:the duration of the treatment for amblyopia,age at the time of the operation,the anisometropic equivalent of the two eyes and alignment at the last follow-up on the re-establishment of postoperative peripheral fusion.Results Of the 111 children with successful surgical alignment for esotropia,sixty-eight (61.3%) achieved peripheral fusion,six (5.4%) achieved central fusion,and fifty-six (50.5%)achieved different degrees of stereoacuity.The age at the time of the operation (b=-0.842,P<0.001),the treatment duration of the amblyopia (b=-0.135,P<0.05),and the alignment at the last follow-up (b=-1.305,P<0.05) showed negative correlations with the postoperative peripheral fusion.There was no significant correlation between anisometropic equivalent of the two eyes and postoperative peripheral fusion (b=-19.670,P>0.05).This was statistically significant (x2=15.977,P<0.01) since differences in postoperative peripheral fusion were achieved for different types of esotropia.Patients with congenital esotropia were least likely to achieve peripheral fusion (OR=1.0),followed by non-accommodative esotropia (OR=3.008),partially accommodative esotropia (OR=4.475),and high AC/A ratio esotropia (OR=82.217).Conclusion The earlier the age at the time of surgery,the more likely that surgical alignment is successful.The shorter the duration of the treatment for amblyopia and the smaller the angle of orthotropia after

  12. 先天性白内障术后无晶状体眼RGPCL矫正的临床效果观察%Clinical effects of infants aphakia corrected by rigid gas permeable contact lens after congenital cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建兰; 谢培英; 王丹; 常勇; 刘营

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨硬性透气性接触镜(CRGPCL)在先天性白内障患儿术后无晶体眼的视力矫正及视功能改善的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2010年5月至2012年10月7例先天性白内障术后无晶体眼的患儿验配Meni-con ZRGPCL,并观察戴镜后1个月、3个月、6个月、1年的戴镜视力及视功能提高的情况。结果1年观察期内均未出现严重的并发症而导致停戴。所有患儿配戴RGPCL1年时矫正视力均较框架镜矫正有提高,双眼视功能检查有部分改善。结论 RGPCL为先天性白内障术后无晶体眼的患儿在视力提高及视功能改善方面提供了一个良好的矫正方式,规范配戴与定期复查也同时降低了戴镜风险。%Objective To investigate clinic effects of corrected visual acuity and visual function using by Rigid Gas Permeable Contact lens(RGPCL) in infant aphakia after Cataract surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of 7 cases infants aphakia who fitted Menicon Z RGPCL in our center. We inspected the corrected visual acuity and visual function during periods of wearing RGPCL 1m,3m,6m and 1y. Results All children’s RGPCL corrected visual acuity and partial visual function were improved at 1st year. With the schedule of parents lens care, standard lens wearing,regular lens check and amblyopia training,there were no serious applications in 7 cases. Conclusions Infants aphakia corrected by RGPCL after Cataract surgery which obtains good corrected visual acuity and visual function and standard lens wearing and regular lens check reduce risks of lens use.

  13. The KwaZulu-Natal Child Eye Care Programme: Delivering refractive error services to primary school learners

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    Y. I. Mahraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, over 300 million people are estimated to be visually impaired. Uncorrected refractive error is the primary cause of almost half of all visual impairment, resulting in the global economy losing $269 billion in productivity annually. There is a definitive level of urgency in the treatment of refractive error in children as uncorrected refractive error results in the failure of normal visual maturation, termed amblyopia, which cannot be corrected in adult life. In South Africa, the lack of appropriatechild eye care strategies has posed a serious problem to the visual health of children. In 2006, the International Centre for Eye Care Education (ICEE conducted a situational analysis of child eye care services in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. The findings of this analysis indicated a dire need for comprehensive services in the province. Stakeholders (the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Healthand the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education were advised on the value of a short-term strategy as the underpinning of a long-term sustainable approach. This resulted in the formation of a trialliance to implement the KZN Child Eye Care Programme. Eighty (80 individuals who were previously volunteers for the KZN Department of Health were trained in vision screening. These vi-sion screeners screened 239 606 primary school children from February 2007 to May 2008. Seven percent (15 944 of the children failed the vision screening and were referred for optometric assessments. Of the 15 944 children that failed the vision screening, 10 707 children were examined by optometrists and 1083 were found to have a refractive error and were therefore supplied with spectacles. The study indicates that a short-term programme to address a backlog of services can reach many underserved children. This programme identified many challenges of implementing a vision screening programme such as poor uptake of refractive services by learners in the absence of an appropriate

  14. A comparison of the visual status of dyslexic and non-dyslexic schoolchildren in Durban, South Africa

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    S. O. Wajuihian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Reading difficulties constitute an impediment to the learning process and in the educational achievement of a child. Consequently, several studies examined the visual status of dyslexic children in the Caucasian populations. Such studies are lacking in the African populations.Aim: To determine the prevalence of vision defects and investigate if there is an association between dyslexia and vision in a South African population of dyslexic school children.  Methods:  This comparative study assessed the visual function of 62 children (31 dyslexic and 31 normally-reading children, mean age 13 ± 1.42 years and 11.90 ± 0.93 years respectively. The participants were matched for gender, race and socio-economic status. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used were: visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refraction (static retinos-copy, ocular alignment (cover test near point of convergence (RAF rule, accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, amplitude of accommodation (push-up method relative accommodation(trial lenses accommodation posture (monocular estimation technique and vergence reserves (prism bars. Results:   In the following, results are  provided for the dyslexic versus control:  Refractive errors: (hyperopia 6.5% vs 3%, (myopia 6.5% vs 6.5%, (astigmatism 10% vs 13%, (anisometropia 6.5% vs 6.5% (amblyopia 6.5% vs 0%, (remote NPC 33% vs 48% (esophoria at near 3%  vs 0% (exophoria at near 9.5% vs 0%, (accommodative infacility at near  54% vs 33%, lag of accommodation 39.28% vs 41,93%,  (poor positive fusional amplitude at near, 25% vs 16%. Only the binocular accommodative facility at near was significantly associated with dyslexia (p=0.027. Conclusion: The prevalence of vision defects was similar between the dyslexic and non-dyslexic participants, which suggest that an association between dyslexia and vision variables investigated, cannot be inferred.  This study provides a research perspective on the

  15. Application of intraocular lens in infant cataract surgery%IOL在婴幼儿白内障手术中的应用

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    祁锦艳; 肖伟; 王明玥; 濮伟

    2015-01-01

    Cataract extraction and the intraocular lens ( IOL ) implantation are the first choice to cure children cataract both domestic and overseas so far. However, IOL implantation in the eyes of children, especially in infant, has always been cared by ophthalmologists. Timely implanting IOL after the cataract extraction has played a significant role in terms of the refractive correction, the establishment of visual function, the prevention of amblyopia and the reconstruction of binocular vision. However, on the issue of IOL implantation after cataract extraction, there is always controversy on cataract treatment programs for children, and the focus of the controversy is when the IOL should be implanted. Theoretically, the principle of pediatric cataract surgery is the sooner the better, aiming to remove deprivation factor, open the visual pathway, implant IOL timely, and promote the visual development. How to find both“early” and safe IOL implantation time point is undoubtedly helpful for the rehabilitation of visual function of these children. The issues on the IOL implantation after children cataract extraction both at home and abroad are summarized below.%目前,国内外已将白内障摘除和人工晶状体( intraocularlens, IOL)植入作为治疗儿童白内障的首要选择。但是,儿童眼特别是婴幼儿眼的IOL植入一直是眼科界关注的问题。适时的白内障摘除术后IOL植入对于屈光矫正、视功能建立、预防弱视和双眼视功能重建都有极大的作用。然而,有关婴幼儿白内障摘除术后IOL植入问题,在儿童白内障治疗方案上始终存在争议,争议的焦点主要集中在IOL植入的时机问题上。理论上讲,儿童白内障的手术治疗原则是越早越好,目的是去形觉剥夺因素,打开视觉通路,及时植入IOL,促进视觉发育。但如何找到既“早”又安全的IOL植入时间点无疑对患儿视功能的康复是大有益处的,本文就国内外儿童

  16. The level of health in Elementary School Students in Training and Research Areas and Evaluation of School Screening Examination Results

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    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The research was planned in order to evaluate the level of health’s elementary schools located in Eskisehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine Public Health Department Training and Research Areas and the school health services they have been receiving for the last eight years. METHOD: 1st, 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students studying in 12 elementary schools located in the Training and Research Areas in 2009-2010 academic year were enrolled to the study. On days of the screenings, a total of 1405 students available (1405/1569: %89.5 in the schools were reached. Growth, seeing, hearing, mouth-teeth health, systemic physical examination and by consulting to the teachers, state of mind and existence of chronic diseases were researched. For each child, information containing the existence of school enrolment examination, the number of periodic examinations that have been conducted on the child, and also the results of the examination of the same year was inquired. RESULTS: 1.0 % of the students were detected as very weak, 4.8 % as weak, 75.9 % as normal, 15.8 % as overweight and 2.5 % as obese. In eye examinations, 10.5% of the students had refractive error, 6.2 % had amblyopia and 3.1% had diplopia. In the ear examination, it was determined that 48.7 % of the students had plug, 2.5 % had perforated tympanum, and 3.1 % had hearing loss. In mouth and teeth examination, it was detected that 64.8% of the students had tooth decay. All of the students who were claimed to have undergone school enrolment examination were first grade students and that examinations included examination results of this year. Health forms containing the results of school enrolment examination and periodic examinations of 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students were not found. School screening were conducted only in two district elementary schools. The eye examination results reported in the records appeared to be inconsistent with screning results. CONCLUSION: It was shown

  17. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

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    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  18. Surgical Results in Cases of Sensory Strabismus

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    Ayfle Yeflim Oral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine horizontal deviation type and to evaluate the correlation between deviation type/etiology and surgical results for sensory strabismus. Patients and Methods: The reports of 29 patients operated for sensory strabismus (12 female, 17 male whose mean age was 22.17±11.52 (range: 4-57 years were evaluated retrospectively. Sixteen cases (55.2% had exotropia (XT and 13 cases (44.8% had esotropia (ET. Etiologies, ages during surgeries, and preoperative/postoperative deviation amounts were noted for the total of the patients as well as for ET and XT groups separately. The results for ET and XT groups were compared statistically using t test. The mean follow-up time was 4.27±3.5 years (range: 4 months-12 years and deviation in ±10 prism diopters (PD in the last visit was considered as success. Results: Etiologies in all cases examined were as follows: anisometropia in 13 (44.8%, trauma in 10 (34.5%, congenital cataracts in 2, and congenital glaucoma, keratoconus, choroidal coloboma, and hypoplastic optic disc in one case each. The visual acuity of the squinting eyes ranged from no light perception to 0.8 logMAR. The mean preoperative deviation was 46.24±19.29 PD, and the mean postoperative deviation decreased to 9.55±11.86 PD in the last visit. When the ET and XT groups were compared, the congenital causes were more common in the ET group (30.75% compared to the XT group (6.25%, otherwise, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of mean age, preoperative and postoperative deviation amounts and follow-up time between the two groups (p>0.05. In contrast, while the surgical success rate was found to be 75.9 % for all cases and 87.5% for the XT group, it was 61.5% for the ET group. Discussion: Despite the deep amblyopia in sensory strabismus, satisfactory surgical results are achieved; nevertheless, the success may be more limited in sensory esotropia particularly due to congenital causes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011

  19. Incidence of the refractive errors in children 3 to 9 years of age, in the city of Tetovo, Macedonia

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    Ejup Mahmudi; Vilma Mema; Nora Burda; Brikena Selimi; Sulejman Zhugli

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of refractive errors at children 3 to 9 years of age in the area of Tetovo, Macedonia in rural and urban population. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional samples of children 3 to 9 years in rural and urban population were obtained through full ophthalmologic examination, and they underwent slit-lamp examination, ocular motility and refraction. They were presenting uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, along with refractive error under topical cycloplegia. Children 3 to 6 years of age with a visual acuity of 20/40 or worse and those 6 to 9 years of age with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse underwent a complete ophthalmic examination to determine the cause of visual impairment. A spherical equivalent of-0.5 diopter (D) or worse was defined as myopia, +2.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was considered astigmatism plus or minus. Results:The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/45 or worse in the better eye of 119 children, 59 male / 60 female (5.1% of participants). According to results of cycloplegic refraction, 1.6% of the children were myopic, 7.3% were hyperopic and the incidence rate of astigmatism was approximately 0.7%. In the multivariate logistic regression myopia and hyperopia were correlated with age (P = 0.040 and P < 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The study showed a considerable prevalence rates of refractive errors myopia , hypermethropia , astigmatism and amblyopia at children of 3-9 years of age in Tetovo. There was no correlation between sex of the children’s and the refractive errors founds. There was a correlation with the need for corrective spectacles and the refractive errors they represent. Refractive errors was registered in high percentage at rural area than in urban area. Although with best corrected vision the prevalence of impairment was less in urban than in rural populations, blindness remained nearly twice as high in the rural

  20. Assessment of a modification of Brückner′s test as a screening modality for anisometropia and strabismus

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    Abadan Khan Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current amblyopia screening methods are not cost effective. Aim : To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a modified Brückner test (MBT for amblyopiogenic risk factors. Materials and Methods : We applied the MBT using the streak retinoscope to identify anisometropia and strabismus by noting an inter-ocular difference in movement and glow, from children who failed 6/9 Snellen on community vision screening, followed by comprehensive eye examination. Statisitics : Data were analyzed by 2 Χ 2 tables for diagnostic test parameters (95% CI. Results : From 7998 children vision-screened, 392 failed 6/9 VA and were referred. Since 34 failed to reach the centers, and 15 were excluded due to poor/ no glow, data from 343 was analyzed. The prevalence of anisometropia of 0.5D was 17%, of 1D was 11% and of strabismus 5%. For the MBT the accuracy was ≥ 90% (95%CI 89% to 97% over the three outcomes. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV and +LR for anisometropia of 0.5D were: 0.57 (0.48, 0.64, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98, 0.92 (0.90, 0.93 and 18 (9.7, 35; for 1D: 0.74(0.60, 0.82, 0.95 (0.94, 0.97, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98 and 16 (9.3, 28; and for strabismus: 0.5 (0.32, 0.66, 0.98 (0.97, 0.98, 0.97 (0.96, 0.98 and 20 (9.1, 42. Conclusion : Our data suggests that the MBT is highly accurate and useful for ruling in anisometropia and strabismus in children who fail 6/9 Snellen. The MBT needs further validation, both by different care givers and on differing populations. It offers an affordable, portable, and clinically useful tool to detect anisometropia and strabismus. We suggest that performing an MBT prior to uniocular retinosocpy should be a routine practice.

  1. Effects of synaptophysin on plasticity of visual cortex neurons after rich environment and reverse suture treatment in critical period%丰富环境及反转缝合治疗后突触素对关键期内视皮质神经元可塑性的影响

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    蔺静静; 刘向玲; 王圆月; 宋子宣; 李靳; 张锐

    2015-01-01

    neurons and participate in the plasticity of visual development,which were one of the key moleculars in the mechanism of amblyopia pathogenesis.The cover treatment and enriched environment may partially reverse the neural activity of deprived amblyopia in the visual cortex during the critical period.%目的 探讨关键期内单眼形觉剥夺性弱视大鼠模型经反转缝合及丰富环境治疗前后视皮质突触素(synaptophysin,SYP)的表达规律,及SYP对视皮质神经元可塑性的影响.方法 36只14d龄SD大鼠随机分为6组,每组6只,其中NCI组、NCII组为正常对照组;MDI组、MDII组、反转缝合(reverse suture,RS)组和RS+丰富环境(enriched environment,EE)组分别行右眼眼睑缝合,RS组、RS+ EE组于28 d龄打开剥夺眼,同时缝合对侧眼睑行遮盖治疗,RS组放于标准环境中饲养、RS+ EE组放于EE中饲养;NCI组、MDI组于28 d龄,NCII组、MDII组、RS组、RS+ EE组于42 d龄行图形视觉诱发电位检测,同时采用HE染色和免疫组织化学法检测分析各组大鼠视皮质SYP蛋白表达水平的变化.结果 图形视觉诱发电位示形觉剥夺眼P100波的波形稳定性差、潜伏期延长、振幅降低.HE染色示各组大鼠视皮质神经元均未见明显异常.免疫组织化学法检测可见RS组视皮质SYP阳性神经元密度较MDII组高,RS+ EE组视皮质SYP阳性神经元密度较MDII组、RS组高,MDI组大鼠视皮质SYP阳性神经元密度较NCI组低,MDII组、RS组大鼠视皮质SYP阳性神经元密度均较NCII组及RS+EE组低,定量分析显示以上各组SYP免疫标记的平均光密度值间差异均有统计学意义(均为P<0.05),但NCII组和RS+EE组两组间平均光密度值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 SYP影响视皮质神经元可塑性,且参与了视觉发育视皮质可塑性的变化过程,是弱视发病的重要分子机制之一;关键期内RS+ EE治疗对弱视视皮质神经元功能状态的恢复有促进作用.

  2. Abordagem da Catarata Congênita: análise de série de casos Approach to Congenital Cataract: case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soares Viegas Moura Rezende

    2008-02-01

    êm para o prognóstico visual funcional.INTRODUCTION: Congenital cataract is an important cause of poor visual acuity and amblyopia, with an incidence of 0,4%. Surgical approaches in children present many advances through the years, such as intraocular lenses implantation and others thechniques, wich results in better visual outcomes and prevention of amblyopia. PURPOSE: To report the early outcomes of a series of cases submited to different surgical techiniques for pediatric cataract, in the Tadeu Cvintal Ophthalmology Institute, from January 2004 to January 2005. METHODS: Retrospective study in 19 children (32 eyes with congenital cataract.The surgical management was separated in three series: pars plana lensectomy, phacoaspiration with or without intraocular lenses; and also separated in patients who had been submitted to posterior capsulotomy.Visual acuity has been tested with four months of follow up. RESULTS: Lensectomy was performed on eight cases, phacoaspiration with intraocular lenses implantation on 13, phacoaspiration without intraocular lenses on 11. Ten eyes had primary posterior capsulotomy, 13 had secondary posteior capsulotomy one month after initial surgery, nine did not need secondary surgery for capsular opacification. The only observed complication was capsule opacification in 60% of the cases. Fourteen (14 eyes (43% had visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/40 (LoGMAR +0.0 to + 0.3, from which eight were operated on bilateral cataract. The mean age in the group with best visual acuity was 7 yrs old. Seven eyes from this group (50% had phacoaspiration with intraocular lenses implantation, and five (35% with secondary capsulotomy. CONCLUSIONS: This series showed good visual and functional early outcomes, even with a small and heterogeneous sample. A longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the different prognosis for each surgical technique .

  3. 视力检查在眼病筛查中的作用%Practising appropriate vision check scheme in eye diseases mass screening works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海东; 朱剑锋

    2011-01-01

    Vision check is the first step of mass screening works of most blinding diseases. In recent China, the primary childhood vision check is mainly conducted by hygiene teachers in educational institutions, following the Chinese traditional poor vision classification system, which is based on uncorrected distance visual acuity. However, this classification system does not meet childhood vision developmental mechanism, and may lead to massive unnecessary repetitive screening, diagnosis and treatment of corrected ametropia. In some Chinese communities and villages, the vision check is still based on uncorrected distance visual acuity during eye diseases mass screening procedures in adults. The critical point of preschool children vision impairment screening is then suggested to follow novel Chinese amblyopia diagnostic criteria.Combination of uncorrected, presenting and corrected visual acuity indexes may be used for children' vision check. Collaboration of children health care workers, pediatric ophthalmologists and optometrists in children eye diseases screening projects should be realized as soon as possible. In the adult population, presenting vision is suggested to be used in vision impairment screening works, and appropriate vision check scheme should be adopted in specific eye diseases screening works.%视力检查是许多致盲性眼病基层筛查工作的第一步。目前我国儿童人群视力损伤的初步筛查主要由教育机构中的保健老师完成,一直沿用的是以裸眼远视力检查结果为基础的视力不良标准。但该标准并不符合儿童视力发育规律,且可能导致大量已接受正确屈光矫正的患儿重复筛查、诊断和治疗,不符合筛查试验的基本原理。在成年人群基层眼病筛查工作中仍存在只检查裸眼视力的状况。建议对学龄前儿童的视力筛查界值参考我国新的弱视诊断标准而制订;综合裸眼、日常和矫正视力指标来全面了解儿童视

  4. Application of 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy through the transparent cornea incision in posterior capsule opacification%透明角膜切口23G 微创玻璃体手术在后发性白内障的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯会芳; 刘亚东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of 23_G minimally invasive vitrectomy through the transparent corne_a incision in the posterior capsule opacification(PCO). Methods A retrospective analysis of 31 patients in yellow river central hospital which could not accept posterior capsulotomy with Nd:YAG laser was made. They were treated with posterior capsuloto_my and anterior vitrectomy through the transparent cornea incision,23_G vitreous cutter was used. The intraoperative and postop_erative complications,postoperative visual acuity recovery and patient satisfaction was observed. Results Among all patients (34 eyes),the visual acuity of 28 eyes(82. 35% )were significantly improved,and the visual acuity of 6 eyes(6 ∕ 34, 17. 65% )remains unchanged. Two of the unchanged eyes revealed retinopathy post_operation,and the other 4 eyes are postoper_ative congenital cataract,patients had formed amblyopia. Intraocular lens(IOL)damage occurred in 1 case due to improper sur_gical incision location select. There were no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications in the remaining patients.They got faster and smoothly recovery. The patient satisfaction degree was high. Conclusion For denser PCO with 23_G mini_mally,invasive vitrectomy through the transparent cornea incision is secure and effective.%目的:观察透明角膜切口23G 微创玻璃体手术在后发性白内障处理中的效果和安全性。方法回顾性分析黄河中心医院31例无法行 Nd:YAG 激光后囊膜切开的患者,行透明角膜切口,23G 玻璃体切割器进行晶状体后囊膜切开及前部玻璃体切除术,观察术中、术后并发症,术后视力恢复情况及患者满意度。结果31例患者中28眼(82•35%)视力明显提高,6眼(17•65%)视力保持不变。视力无变化者中2眼术后检查发现存在眼底病变,其余4眼属先天性白内障术后,患儿已形成弱视,视力提高欠佳;所有患者中除1例因

  5. Status analysis on visual disability population in Yuzhong district of Chongqing%重庆市渝中区视力残疾人群现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗霁菡; 匡毅

    2015-01-01

    , cataract, amblyopia, agnogenic, methysis, trachoma, and the others ( hyperpyrexia) .CONCLUSlON: The diagnosis and treatment of juvenile in Yuzhong district must be strengthened, also include retina and pigment membrane disease, to reduce the visual disability caused by these diseases.

  6. 广东省肇庆市端州区病残儿病因分析、预防现状及建议%Analysis of etiological factor,situation of prevention and proposal for disabled children in Duanzhou district,Zhaoqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁照; 陆秀棠; 高新梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 减少肇庆市端州区出生缺陷,提高人口素质.方法 对1998年~2007年我区经市病残儿鉴定小组鉴定的234例病例进行病因分析,结合预防现状提出合理性的预防建议.结果 肇庆市端州区病残儿遗传性及先天性疾病病种位于前五位的从高到低依次为先天性心脏病,智力低下,先天性弱视、斜视、屈光不正,地中海贫血,先天性血管瘤;所占比例依次为13.68%,7.69%,5.56%,3.85%,3.42%.非遗传性疾病病种位于前五位的从高到低依次为脑瘫,癫痫,脑发育不全,孤独症、新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病后遗症和外伤致残(三种病种并列第四位),肾病综合征:所占比例依次为10.68%,9.83%,6.48%,3.42%,2.99%.结论 要降低我区病残儿的发病率,必须预防为主,做好孕前、孕期、围产期保健,加强产前、产时监护,预防早产儿、低出生体重儿和出生时窒息,提高复苏水平,减少缺血缺氧性脑病及颅内出血等并发症.%Objective; Reduce birth defects and improve population quality in Duanzhou district, Zhaoqing City. Methods; 234 disabled children in Duanzhou district identified by Zhaoqing disabled children identification of groups in 1998 ~2007 were analysed, combined with the situation of prevention, put forward reasonable prevention recommendations. Results: The top five congenital and hereditary disease among disabled children were congenital heart disease, mental retardation, congenital amblyopia, strabismus, refractive error, Mediterranean anemia, congenital hemangioma. Share were 13.68% , 7. 69% , 5. 56% , 3. 85% , 3.42%. The top five non-genetic diseases were cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cerebral hypoplasia, autism, sequelae of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopa-thy, disabling injury, nephrotic syndrome. Share were 10.68% , 9.83% , 6.48% , 3.42% , 2.99%. Conclusion-. To reduce morbidity of disabled children in our district, prevention is the best way, perinatal health care can prevent preterm

  7. Elevation deficiency after anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle%下斜肌后徙转位术后的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海华; 甘晓玲; 李巧娴; 田桂芬

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过比较下斜肌(Inferioroblique IO)后徙术与IO后徙转位术,术后至少3年的疗效,评价IO后徙转位术的安全性.方法 比较IO后徙术组(22例33只眼)和IO后徙转位术组(27例33只眼)病例手术后IO运动程度和眼球上转程度,分析可能的相关因素.结果 (1)IO后徙转位术组左右眼手术后远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度均明显低于IO后徙术组,差别有统计学意义,P<0.001.(2)术后IO运动程度不足与手术年龄、有无弱视、屈光状态、是否同时行水平斜视手术、术前IO功能亢进程度和斜视度均无关.(3)IO后徙转位术组术后远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度均低于近期(1周至1个月),有明显统计学差异,P<0.001.术后中期(3~6个月)与远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度之间差异无统计学意义,P>0.05.结论 IO后徙转位术式存在术后眼球上转功能不足,IO功能不足的缺点,并且在术后持续存在.%Objective Through compared the effect of anterior transposition and recession of inferior oblique (IO), to study the security of anterior transposition of the inferior oblique. Methods A retrospective case control study. Compare the ocular elevation and the IO function after anterior transposition versus reces sion of the IO. Results The comparison of elevation and the IO function of anterior transposition versus recession of IO group yielded significant difference at long-term follow-up, P <0.001. The deficiency of IO function after surgery had no relationship with the age of surgery, amblyopia, refraction error, accompany horizontal strabismus surgery, the degree of IOOA and oblique angle. In anterior transposition of IO group, the ocular elevation and the IO function had significant difference at long term follow-up versus early follow-up, P <0.001, but had no difference at long term follow-up versus intermediate follow-up. Conclusions Anterior transposition of the IO may cause a limitation of

  8. The Analysis of Abnormal Refraction in Children by Using Suresight Hand-held Autorefractor%Suresight手持式自动验光仪筛查儿童屈光异常情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康映红; 李丽红; 李娜; 董俊媚; 姜轶; 卢军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out timely the condition of ametropia beyond normal ranges that might affect the eye vision by screening and analyzing the abnormal situation of children with ametropia in Kunming so as to make the diagnosis and treatment for amblyopia.Methods Refractive screening was performed among 1880 children aged 3 to 6 years old with Suresight hand-held autorefractor and cycloplegic refraction optometry was performed for those back to hospital so as to make a definite diagnosis.Results The screening indicated 261 of them coming to 381 eyes were with ametropia.The detection rate of ametropia eyes was 10.13%.The incidences of the ametropia in children aged 3,4,5 and 6 years old were 8.44%,10.32%,10.53% and 11.90% respectively.The chi-square test showed no statistical difference.Compared the ametropia results of Suresight hand-held autorefractor screening under the natural conditions with cycloplegic refraction,relatively spherical correlation coefficient was r=0.535 (P < 0.01) and cylindrical lens correlation coefficient was r=0.762 (P < 0.01).The correlation was statistically significant.Conclusion Refractive screening with Suresight hand-held autorefractor is suitable for preschool children.Static refractive examination should be conducted on those with ametropia as soon as possible so as to make a clear diagnosis.There exists obviously abnormal refraction in children aged 3,and the incidence of abnormal refraction increases with age continuously.%目的 筛查分析昆明市区儿童屈光异常情况,及时发现超出正常范围可能影响视力的屈光异常,