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Sample records for amblyopia

  1. Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain favors one eye, usually due to poor vision in the other eye. Another word for amblyopia ... to see very well and can have very poor vision. Sometimes this kind of amblyopia can affect both ...

  2. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Lenses Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) By James Garrity, MD, Mayo Clinic NOTE: ... or methyl alcohol), antifreeze, or certain drugs. A nutritional deficiency or toxic substance is often the cause ...

  3. [Functional amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual system that represents unilateral or bi-lateral reduction of visual acuity in which an organic cause cannot be detected. The illness represents a syndrome of visual deficits, not only a deterioration of visual acuity. This syndrome includes: presence of crowding phenomena, contrast sensitivity deterioration, deficits in accommodation, deterioration of spatial orientation and ocular motility dysfunction. Depending on its etiology, amblyopia is classified into four main types: strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia and stimulus deprivation amblyopia. To successfully treat the "lazy eye" it is essential to remove the amblyopic factor with techniques addressing each disturbing factor. Techniques used for treating amblyopia include: occlusion, optical penalty or pharmacological, therapy with Levodopa and computer vision therapy. Amblyopia treatment is lengthy and it is very important to counsel not only the child but the whole family and to establish a relationship of trust between doctor and patient in order to get high treatment compliance and high child motivation.

  4. Amblyopia and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E

    2013-03-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3%-3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of binocular dysfunction in the genesis of amblyopia and the constellation of visual and motor deficits that accompany the visual acuity deficit has been identified. These findings motivated us to evaluate a new, binocular approach to amblyopia treatment with the goals of reducing or eliminating residual and recurrent amblyopia and of improving the deficient ocular motor function and fine motor skills that accompany amblyopia.

  5. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Dilated Exam Grants and Funding Extramural ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  7. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D.E. Maconachie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction and/or strabismic (turn of one eye amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  8. The challenges of amblyopia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry ... Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency ...

  10. Global Processing in Amblyopia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Hamm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system that is associated with disrupted binocular vision during early childhood. There is evidence that the effects of amblyopia extend beyond the primary visual cortex to regions of the dorsal and ventral extra striate visual cortex involved in visual integration. Here we review the current literature on global processing deficits in observers with either strabismic, anisometropic or deprivation amblyopia. A range of global processing tasks have been used to investigate the extent of the cortical deficit in amblyopia including: global motion perception, global form perception, face perception and biological motion. These tasks appear to be differentially affected by amblyopia. In general, observers with unilateral amblyopia appear to show deficits for local spatial processing and global tasks that require the segregation of signal from noise. In bilateral cases, the global processing deficits are exaggerated, and appear to extend to specialized perceptual systems such as those involved in face processing.

  11. Alexia and quadrant-amblyopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2006-01-01

    Reading difficulties caused by hemianopia are well described. We present a study of alexia in a patient (NT) with a milder visual field deficit. The patient had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage causing damage to the left occipital cortex and underlying white matter. NT's text reading was slow and ...... to normal eye movements. Still, subtle reading difficulties and oculo-motor abnormalities remained. Overall, the study shows how amblyopia in one quadrant can lead to a characteristic form of alexia....

  12. Point Electric Stimulation and Children's Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-ke; CHU Hui-ju; WANG Fu-chun; YANG Bo; GAO Yang; HAN Chou-ping

    2007-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic efficacy of electric stimulation on points for children's amblyopia.Method:Ninety children amblyopia cases with ametropia upon correction were randomized into three groups:point electric stimulation,comprehensive conventional therapy and integrative therapy of the above two.And then visual function changes of kids in the three groups were observed.Results:Among the above three therapies,the recovery rates of point electric stimulation,comprehensive conventional therapy and integrative therapy of the two were 83.9%,82.6%and 94.25 respectively,showing no significant difierence(P>0.05) among the three groups.Conclusion:Point electric stimulation has similar action with comprehensive conventional therapy in the treatment of children's amblyopia,and the combination of the two therapies has better effect,indicating point electric stimulation can speed up recovery of visual function of kids with amblyopia.

  13. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia.

  14. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

  15. A game platform for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin; Blum, Jeffrey R; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a prototype device for take-home use that can be used in the treatment of amblyopia. The therapeutic scenario we envision involves patients first visiting a clinic, where their vision parameters are assessed and suitable parameters are determined for therapy. Patients then proceed with the actual therapeutic treatment on their own, using our device, which consists of an Apple iPod Touch running a specially modified game application. Our rationale for choosing to develop the prototype around a game stems from multiple requirements that such an application satisfies. First, system operation must be sufficiently straightforward that ease-of-use is not an obstacle. Second, the application itself should be compelling and motivate use more so than a traditional therapeutic task if it is to be used regularly outside of the clinic. This is particularly relevant for children, as compliance is a major issue for current treatments of childhood amblyopia. However, despite the traditional opinion that treatment of amblyopia is only effective in children, our initial results add to the growing body of evidence that improvements in visual function can be achieved in adults with amblyopia.

  16. Neuronal basis of amblyopia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigg John

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is an acquired defect in vision due to an abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of visual development. The neuronal basis of amblyopia is the study of the effects of "abnormal" environmental influences on the genetically programmed development of the visual processing system. Visual pathway development commences with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve. The process that guides these neurones initially to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and then onto the visual cortex is genetically programmed. Initially this process is influenced by spontaneously generated impulses and neurotrophic factors. Following birth, visual stimuli modify and refine the genetically programmed process. Exposure to the visual environment includes the risk of abnormal inputs. Abnormal stimuli disrupt the formation of patterned inputs allowing alteration of visual cortical wiring with reduction in ocular dominance columns driven by the abnormal eye. Correction of the abnormal visual input and penalisation of the "normal" input is the mainstay of therapy for amblyopia. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of a normal visual processing system will allow trialing therapies for amblyopia not responding to occlusion therapy. Levodopa is one agent providing insights into recovery of visual function for short periods in apparently mature visual systems.

  17. Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    MiYoung Kwon; Zhong-Lin Lu; Alexandra Miller; Melanie Kazlas; Hunter, David G.; Peter J. Bex

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. METHODS: Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7), anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6), strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15) and normal vision (n = 40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe t...

  18. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was ...

  19. [The problem of amblyopia in subluxated lenses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E

    1980-01-01

    A re-evaluation of the incidence and development of amblyopia was carried out in 27 patients with a history of lens subluxation at pre-school age. Due to insufficiently accurate histories and the heterogeneous composition of the material it is impossible to make any valid statement regarding the critical phase of development of deprivation amblyopia. However, it appears that "form-deprivation" amblyopia may regress spontaneously up to early school age following hygienization of the optic media and if optimal spectacles or contact lenses are worn. In individual cases it has been shown that unilateral amblyopias can and should be treated (pleoptics) following hygienization of the optic media. Therefore, early surgical treatment should be considered in such cases, above all in view of the fact that complications are rare.

  20. Amblyopia: neural basis and therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Peixoto Bretas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abnormalities in visual processing caused by visual deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction may induce amblyopia, which is characterized by reduced visual acuity. Occlusion therapy, the conventional treatment, requires special attention as occlusion of the fellow normal eye may reduce its visual acuity and impair binocular vision. Besides recovering visual acuity, some researchers have recommended restoration of stereoacuity and motor fusion and reverse suppression in order to prevent diplopia. Recent studies have documented that the amblyopic visual cortex has a normal complement of cells but reduced spatial resolution and a disordered topographical map. Changes occurring in the late sensitive period selectively impact the parvocellular pathway. Distinct morphophysiologic and psychophysical deficits may demand individualization of therapy, which might provide greater and longer-lasting residual plasticity in some children.

  1. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, E.S. van de; Despriet, D. D.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Simonsz, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bil...

  2. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    van de Graaf, Elizabeth S.; Despriet, Dominiek D. G.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Simonsz, Huibert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3–3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case–control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bila...

  3. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, E.S. van de; Despriet, D.D.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Simonsz, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-contr

  4. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observationa

  5. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  6. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-12-18

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail.

  7. A case of amblyopia with contralateral optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Kelly A; Pang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    We describe an unusual case of unilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) in a patient with contralateral anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. A seven-year-old boy presented with visual acuities of 6/12 R and 6/18 L and eccentric fixation in the left eye. Cycloplegic retinoscopy was R +1.50/-0.50 × 180 and L +5.25 DS. Funduscopy revealed optic nerve hypoplasia of the right eye. The patient fixated with his better-seeing right eye, despite the optic nerve hypoplasia. His reduced vision may be attributed to optic nerve hypoplasia in the right eye and amblyopia in the left. Although optic nerve hypoplasia can occur with ipsilateral amblyopia, we believe this is the first reported case of unilateral optic nerve hypoplasia in the fellow eye of an amblyopic patient.

  8. Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel H

    2014-03-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cortex and, on the basis of initial data, appear to improve both binocular and monocular visual function, even in adults with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies that have investigated the structure, measurement and treatment of binocular vision in observers with strabismic, anisometropic and mixed amblyopia.

  9. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  10. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-01-01

    Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  11. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Sjoukje E; Rook, Caitlin A; Nassif, Deborah S; Piskun, Nadya V; Hunter, David G

    2011-07-07

    Purpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable strabismus. Methods. The PVS test, administered from 40 cm and requiring 2.5 seconds of attention, generated a binocularity score (BIN, 0%-100%). We tested 154 patients and 48 controls between the ages of 2 and 18 years. BIN scores of amblyopic children and controls were measured, and 21 children received sequential PVS measurements to detect any changes in BIN resulting from amblyopia treatment. Results. With the pass/refer threshold set at BIN 60%, sensitivity and specificity were 96% for the detection of amblyopia or strabismus. Assuming a 5% prevalence of amblyopia or strabismus, the inferred positive and negative predictive values of the PVS were 56% and 100%, respectively. Fixation accuracy was significantly reduced in amblyopic eyes. In anisometropic amblyopia patients treated successfully, the BIN improved to 100%. Conclusions. The PVS identified children with amblyopia or strabismus with high sensitivity and specificity, while successful treatment restored normal BIN scores in amblyopic patients without strabismus. The results support the hypothesis that the PVS detects strabismus and amblyopia directly. Future strategies for screening by nonspecialists may thus be based on diagnostic detection of amblyopia and strabismus rather than the estimation of risk factors, allowing for rapid, accurate identification of children with amblyopia early in life when it is most amenable to treatment.

  12. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74% patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014. Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048 and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03 were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.

  13. Study of the wavefront aberrations in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-fei; ZHOU Yue-hua; WANG Ning-li; ZHANG Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia.Methods The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data.Results Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z3-1-Z31), trefoil (Z3-3-Z33) and 4th order aberration (Z40); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z3-1) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z31). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17±0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11±0.13, P0.05).Conclusions Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.

  14. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current

  15. Assessing binocular interaction in amblyopia and its clinical feasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiYoung Kwon

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. METHODS: Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7, anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6, strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15 and normal vision (n = 40. Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (∼20% of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r = 0.94, p<0.001 but without any significant bias between the two. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that abnormal binocular interaction can be reliably captured by measuring the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye and quantitative assessment of binocular interaction is a quick and simple test that can be performed in the clinic. We believe that reliable and timely assessment of deficits in a binocular interaction may improve detection and treatment of amblyopia.

  16. Prevalence of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Yousef Homood Aldebasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 5176 children, aged 6 to 13 years (mean - 9.53 ± 1.88 years were evaluated. There were 2573 (49.71% males and 2603 (50.29% females. Distance visual acuity (V/A was tested monocularly using a logMAR chart with and without correction. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in children with reduced vision. To determine the etiology of amblyopia, children were enrolled if there was a difference in V/A of two or more lines between eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity 0.05. The prevalence of amblyopia was statistically significant higher in the older age group (10-13 year compared to younger age group (6 to 9 years (P < 0.05. Unilateral amblyopia (3.24% was more frequent than bilateral amblyopia (0.66%. The most frequent causes of amblyopia were refractive error (94.56%, of which anisometropic amblyopia was present in 77.72%, isoametropic amblyopia in 16.84% and strabismus in 5.44%. Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia in Qassim province, KSA, is 3.9% which is similar or higher than other published studies on amblyopia. Anisometropic refractive errors are the most common underlying cause for this population. We recommend implementation of visual screening programs for children with appropriate clinical and social settings for early detection and proper management of amblyopia.

  17. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

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    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  18. A case of Biateral Extensive Persistent Pupillary Membranes with Amblyopia and Cataract

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    Sibel Kocabeyoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pupillary membrane represents a congenital remnant of the anterior tunica vasculosa lentis. It can be associated with other ocular pathologies. These membranes can cause deprivation or anisometropic amblyopia. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s age and the characteristics of the membranes. In this paper, we report the findings in a 21-year-old female patient with bilateral persistent pupillary membranes, amblyopia, and cataract. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 70-2

  19. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  20. Prolonged perceptual learning of positional acuity in adult amblyopia: perceptual template retuning dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-12-24

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is often successfully treated by patching the sound eye in infants and young children, but is generally considered to be untreatable in adults. However, a number of recent studies suggest that repetitive practice of a visual task using the amblyopic eye results in improved performance in both children and adults with amblyopia. These perceptual learning studies have used relatively brief periods of practice; however, clinical studies have shown that the time-constant for successful patching is long. The time-constant for perceptual learning in amblyopia is still unknown. Here we show that the time-constant for perceptual learning depends on the degree of amblyopia. Severe amblyopia requires >50 h (approximately equal to 35,000 trials) to reach plateau, yielding as much as a five-fold improvement in performance at a rate of approximately equal to 1.5%/h. There is significant transfer of learning from the amblyopic to the dominant eye, suggesting that the learning reflects alterations in higher decision stages of processing. Using a reverse correlation technique, we document, for the first time, a dynamic retuning of the amblyopic perceptual decision template and a substantial reduction in internal spatial distortion. These results show that the mature amblyopic brain is surprisingly malleable, and point to more intensive treatment methods for amblyopia.

  1. Biometric relationships of ocular components in esotropic amblyopia

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    Iara Debert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of the individual ocular components, i.e. anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth, to total axial length in patients with esotropic amblyopia. METHODS: The study population consisted of 74 children, aged between 5 and 8 years: thirty-seven patients with esotropic amblyopia and 37 healthy volunteers (control group. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction and A-scan ultrasonography. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and total axial length were recorded. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare biometric measurements between amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes and between right and left eyes in the control group. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular components to the total axial length, we report the individual components as a percentage of total axial length. RESULTS: The comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes regarding the individual contribution from ocular components to the total axial length revealed greater contribution from lens thickness (P=0.001 and smaller contribution from vitreous chamber depth (P=0.001 in amblyopic eyes, despite similar contribution from anterior chamber depth (P=0.434. The comparison between right and left eyes in the control group showed similar contributions from anterior chamber depth (P=0.620, lens thickness (P=0.721, and vitreous chamber depth (P=0.483. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes when the total axial length is broken down into the individual contribution from the ocular components.

  2. 弱视的治疗进展%Progress of Treatment for Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倪(综述); 张黎(审校)

    2015-01-01

    弱视是眼科常见病,不仅使患儿视力低下,更重要的是会影响双眼视觉功能的发育,从而影响患儿立体视的建立。部分弱视经过及时适当的治疗是可逆的,其疗效与年龄等因素有密切关系。近年来,国内外在弱视的临床治疗方面取得了很大进展,治疗方法多种多样,主要包括屈光矫正、遮盖疗法、药物治疗、压抑疗法、手术治疗、知觉学习及综合治疗等。不同类型的弱视治疗方案的选择各有不同。%Amblyopia is common in department of ophthalmology .It leads to poor vision in children . What′s more,amblyopia seriously affects the visual development of binocular vision and stereoscopic vision . Some of the patients with amblyopia can improve their visual function if they are given proper treatment in time.The curative effect of amblyopia is closely related to the age.In recent years,considerable progress has been made in the treatment of amblyopia in China and abroad .There are varieties of treatment for amblyopia , such as refractive correction,occlusion therapy,drug therapy,suppression therapy,surgical treatment,percep-tual vision therapy and comprehensive treatment.And different types of amblyopia should choose different treatment.

  3. Utility analysis of disability caused by amblyopia and/or strabismus in a population-based, historic cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.S. van de Graaf (Elizabeth); H. Kempen-du Saar (Hanneke); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amblyopia (prevalence 3.4%) is in principle treatable, but approximately one quarter of children do not reach reading acuity in the amblyopic eye. Adults with persistent amblyopia and/or strabismus experience a decrease in quality of life. This was now quantified by patient-p

  4. Higher order aberrations in amblyopic children and their role in refractory amblyopia

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    Arnaldo Dias-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have hypothesized that an unfavourable higher order aberrometric profile could act as an amblyogenic mechanism and may be responsible for some amblyopic cases that are refractory to conventional treatment or cases of “idiopathic” amblyopia. This study compared the aberrometric profile in amblyopic children to that of children with normal visual development and compared the aberrometric profile in corrected amblyopic eyes and refractory amblyopic eyes with that of healthy eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study with three groups of children – the CA group (22 eyes of 11 children with unilateral corrected amblyopia, the RA group (24 eyes of 13 children with unilateral refractory amblyopia and the C group (28 eyes of 14 children with normal visual development. Higher order aberrations were evaluated using an OPD-Scan III (NIDEK. Comparisons of the aberrometric profile were made between these groups as well as between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Results: Higher order aberrations with greater impact in visual quality were not significantly higher in the CA and RA groups when compared with the C group. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the higher order aberrometric profile between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Conclusions: Contrary to lower order aberrations (e.g., myopia, hyperopia, primary astigmatism, higher order aberrations do not seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia. Therefore, these are likely not the cause of most cases of refractory amblyopia.

  5. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  6. The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia

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    Ahn, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Shin, Seung Ai; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12{+-}7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23{+-}2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further.

  7. Using Stereoscopic 3D Technologies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amblyopia in Children

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    Gargantini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The 3D4Amb project aims at developing a system based on the stereoscopic 3D techonlogy, like the NVIDIA 3D Vision, for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia in young children. It exploits the active shutter technology to provide binocular vision, i.e. to show different images to the amblyotic (or lazy) and the normal eye. It would allow easy diagnosis of amblyopia and its treatment by means of interactive games or other entertainment activities. It should not suffer from the compliance problems of the classical treatment, it is suitable to domestic use, and it could at least partially substitute occlusion or patching of the normal eye.

  8. Is Noncycloplegic Photorefraction Applicable for Screening Refractive Amblyopia Risk Factors?

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    Zhale Rajavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the accuracy of noncycloplegic photorefraction (NCP with that of cycloplegic refraction (CR for detecting refractive amblyopia risk factors (RARFs and to determine cutoff points. Methods: In this diagnostic test study, right eyes of 185 children (aged 1 to 14 years first underwent NCP using the PlusoptiX SO4 photoscreener followed by CR. Based on CR results, hyperopia (≥ +3.5 D, myopia (≥ -3 D, astigmatism (≥ 1.5 D, and anisometropia (≥ 1.5 D were set as diagnostic criteria based on AAPOS guidelines. The difference in the detection of RARFs by the two methods was the main outcome measure. Results: RARFs were present in 57 (30.8% and 52 (28.1% of cases by CR and NCP, respectively, with an 89.7% agreement. In contrast to myopia and astigmatism, mean spherical power in hyperopic eyes was significantly different based on the two methods (P < 0.001, being higher with CR (+5.96 ± 2.13 D as compared to NCP (+2.37 ± 1.36 D. Considering CR as the gold standard, specificities for NCP exceeded 93% and sensitivities were also acceptable (≥ 83% for myopia and astigmatism. Nevertheless, sensitivity of NCP for detecting hyperopia was only 45.4%. Using a cutoff point of +1.87 D, instead of +3.5 D, for hyperopia, sensitivity of NCP was increased to 81.8% with specificity of 84%. Conclusion: NCP is a relatively accurate method for detecting RARFs in myopia and astigmatism. Using an alternative cutoff point in this study, NCP may be considered an acceptable device for detecting hyperopia as well.

  9. Axial Length and Corneal Curvature in Anisometropic Amblyopia in Nepalese Children

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    Safal Khanal, B Optom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purpose/Aim: To assess ocular parameters in Nepalese children with severe anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional analytical study conducted in a tertiary eye center in Nepal. Twentyone children aged 7-12 years with severe anisometropic amblyopia (>3D of anisometropia were included in the study. Relevant demographic and clinical data were obtained. Axial length, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth were measured in both the amblyopic and fellow eye, along with detailed anterior and posterior segment evaluation. Results: In anisomyopia, amblyopic eyes had longer axial length than the fellow eyes (p<.05, while in the cases with anisohyperopia, amblyopic eyes had shorter axial lengths than the fellow eyes (p<.05. The difference in corneal astigmatism between the amblyopic and fellow eye in children with anisoastigmatism was clinically and statistically significant (p<.05. However, there was no significant difference between the axial lengths in the amblyopic and the fellow eyes (p=.84. Conclusion: Difference in axial length was responsible for the difference in spherical refractive error in children with anisometropic amblyopia with no significant difference in corneal astigmatism, whereas corneal curvature was the significant factor responsible for amblyopia resulting from anisoastigmatism.

  10. Enriched experience and recovery from amblyopia in adult rats: impact of motor, social and sensory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Laura; Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Giribaldi, Francesco; Manno, Ilaria; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Berardi, Nicoletta; Bonanno, Giambattista; Maffei, Lamberto; Sale, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Amblyopia is one of the most common forms of visual impairment, arising from an early functional imbalance between the two eyes. It is currently accepted that, due to a lack of neural plasticity,amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults. Environmental enrichment (EE) emerged as a strategy highly effective in restoring plasticity in adult animals, eliciting recovery from amblyopia through a reduction of intracortical inhibition. It is unknown whether single EE components are able to promote plasticity in the adult brain, crucial information for designing new protocols of environmental stimulation suitable for amblyopic human subjects. Here, we assessed the effects of enhanced physical exercise,increased social interaction, visual enrichment or perceptual learning on visual function recovery in adult amblyopic rats. We report a complete rescue of both visual acuity and ocular dominance in exercised rats, in animals exposed to visual enrichment and in animals engaged in perceptual learning.These effects were accompanied by a reduced inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. In contrast, we did not detect any sign of recovery in socially enriched rats or in animals practicing a purely associative visual task. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of amblyopia therapy.

  11. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qi, Ya; Shi, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Wen; Hu, Man

    2016-01-01

    Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I (2) test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger's test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12-1.93) times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66) times more likely to suffer from amblyopia and hyperopia, respectively, compared with children whose mother did not smoke, and the difference was significant. Significant heterogeneity was only found among studies involving the influence of maternal smoking on children's refractive error (P analysis suggests that maternal smoking is a risk factor for childhood hyperopia and amblyopia.

  12. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  13. Application of special computer programs for diagnostics and treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsiashvili, E

    2007-09-01

    Under amblyopia one ought to understand a variety by origin forms of reduction of vision the reason for which are functional disorders of the visual analyzer with no changes in the fundus of the eye and without any organic affections of the visual pathways and centers. At the present time, the pathophysiological mechanisms of amblyopia remain a puzzle. Diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia remains so far a topical problem in clinical ophthalmology. The objective of our investigation was to estimate functional state of the visual system and efficiency of treatment of amblyopia of varying degree by means of special computer programs. Clinical researches were based on the analysis of results of 317 patients (410 eyes) with anisometropic (120 patients-120 eyes), disbinocular (127 patients-150 eyes) and refractive (70 patients-140 eyes) amblyopias of different degrees at the age from 5 to 17 with visual acuity from 0.05 up to 0.5 on the amblyopic eye, with the symptoms of functional disturbance: decrease in achromatic and color spatial contrast sensitivity in the domain of high and middle frequencies; decrease in contrast sensitivity of on-off channels of the retinal cone system; normal sensitivity to saturated colors; decrease in color sensitivity to unsaturated, red and green colors; dramatic changes in color (red and green) sensitivity in the paracentral zone (5 degrees -10 degrees ) of the retina and 20 healthy children-40 eyes. In addition to routine ophthalmologic methods we also used the special computer programs for diagnostics and adequate treatment of amblyopia: "ZEBRA"; "OFF-ON"; "eYe" ("Shooting-gallery", "Chase", "Crosses","Spiders"); "Contour"; "MEKO" ("KONSTR", "UFO", "SHOW"). Statistical analysis of results was performed with statistical method "ANOVA". Diagnostical computer methods enable quantitative estimation of the functional state of different channels of the visual system (based on the data of spatial contrast, light, color and contrast

  14. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  15. The case from animal studies for balanced binocular treatment strategies for human amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donald E; Duffy, Kevin R

    2014-03-01

    Although amblyopia typically manifests itself as a monocular condition, its origin has long been linked to unbalanced neural signals from the two eyes during early postnatal development, a view confirmed by studies conducted on animal models in the last 50 years. Despite recognition of its binocular origin, treatment of amblyopia continues to be dominated by a period of patching of the non-amblyopic eye that necessarily hinders binocular co-operation. This review summarizes evidence from three lines of investigation conducted on an animal model of deprivation amblyopia to support the thesis that treatment of amblyopia should instead focus upon procedures that promote and enhance binocular co-operation. First, experiments with mixed daily visual experience in which episodes of abnormal visual input were pitted against normal binocular exposure revealed that short exposures of the latter offset much longer periods of abnormal input to allow normal development of visual acuity in both eyes. Second, experiments on the use of part-time patching revealed that purposeful introduction of episodes of binocular vision each day could be very beneficial. Periods of binocular exposure that represented 30-50% of the daily visual exposure included with daily occlusion of the non-amblyopic could allow recovery of normal vision in the amblyopic eye. Third, very recent experiments demonstrate that a short 10 day period of total darkness can promote very fast and complete recovery of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of kittens and may represent an example of a class of artificial environments that have similar beneficial effects. Finally, an approach is described to allow timing of events in kitten and human visual system development to be scaled to optimize the ages for therapeutic interventions.

  16. A computer-based anaglyphic system for the treatment of amblyopia

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    Rastegarpour A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Rastegarpour Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: Virtual reality (VR-based treatment has been introduced as a potential option for amblyopia management, presumably without involving the problems of occlusion and penalization, including variable and unsatisfactory outcomes, long duration of treatment, poor compliance, psychological impact, and complications. However, VR-based treatment is costly and not accessible for most children. This paper introduces a method that encompasses the advantages of VR-based treatment at a lower cost. Methods: The presented system consists of a pair of glasses with two color filters and software for use on a personal computer. The software is designed such that some active graphic components can only be seen by the amblyopic eye and are filtered out for the other eye. Some components would be seen by both to encourage fusion. The result is that the patient must use both eyes, and specifically the amblyopic eye, to play the games. Results: A prototype of the system, the ABG InSight, was found capable of successfully filtering out elements of a certain color and therefore, could prove to be a viable alternative to VR-based treatment for amblyopia. Conclusion: The anaglyphic system maintains most of the advantages of VR-based systems, but is less costly and highly accessible. It fulfills the means that VR-based systems are designed to achieve, and warrants further investigation. Keywords: amblyopia, computer-based, open source, virtual reality, color filters, 3-D

  17. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of development disrupts neuronal circuitry in the visual cortex and results in abnormal spatial vision or amblyopia. Here we examined whether playing video games can induce plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. Specifically 20 adults with amblyopia (age 15-61 y; visual acuity: 20/25-20/480, with no manifest ocular disease or nystagmus were recruited and allocated into three intervention groups: action videogame group (n = 10, non-action videogame group (n = 3, and crossover control group (n = 7. Our experiments show that playing video games (both action and non-action games for a short period of time (40-80 h, 2 h/d using the amblyopic eye results in a substantial improvement in a wide range of fundamental visual functions, from low-level to high-level, including visual acuity (33%, positional acuity (16%, spatial attention (37%, and stereopsis (54%. Using a cross-over experimental design (first 20 h: occlusion therapy, and the next 40 h: videogame therapy, we can conclude that the improvement cannot be explained simply by eye patching alone. We quantified the limits and the time course of visual plasticity induced by video-game experience. The recovery in visual acuity that we observed is at least 5-fold faster than would be expected from occlusion therapy in childhood amblyopia. We used positional noise and modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying the visual improvements in terms of decreased spatial distortion (7% and increased processing efficiency (33%. Our study had several limitations: small sample size, lack of randomization, and differences in numbers between groups. A large-scale randomized clinical study is needed to confirm the therapeutic value of video-game treatment in clinical situations. Nonetheless, taken as a pilot study, this work suggests that video-game play may provide important principles for treating amblyopia

  18. Changes in visual evoked potential of children with amblyopia%弱视儿童视觉诱发电位改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬卉; 夏娟; 洪流

    2002-01-01

    @@ Amblyopia is common among children.Visual evoked potential(VEP) is a new approach for diagnosis and evaluation of amblyopia. VEP was examined using tessellation stimulation in our hospital since 1999.20 healthy children were selected as controls.Here is the report.

  19. Survey of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Anisometropic and Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Soltani Moghaddam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available . To investigate the effect of anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia on the nerve fiber layer thickness. This cross-sectional study was done on 54 amblyopic subjects, equally in both strabismic and anisometropic groups. The thickness otonerve fiber layer measured in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole in both eyes of both groups. The means of thickness were compared in amblyopic and sound eyes. In strabismus group, the average nerve fiber layer thickness of the sound eye , in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole were 113.23±14, 117.37±25, 68.96±6, 69.55±14 and 93.40±8 microns respectively. In amblyopic eyes of the same group, these measurements were 103.11±18, 67.74±11, and 69.59±16 and 89.59±12 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as whole respectively. In anisometropic groups, the sound eye measurements were as 130.96±22, 129.07±29, 80.62±12, and 83.88±20 and 107.7±13 microns in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole orderly. In amblyopic eyes of this group the mean thicknesses were 115.63±29, 133.15±25, 78.8±15, 80.2±16 and 109.17±21 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole respectively. Statistically, there were no significant differences between amblyopic and sound eyes (P>0.5. Our study did not support any significant change in a nerve fiber layer thickness of amblyopic patients; however, decreased thickness in superior and nasal quadrants of strabismic amblyopia and except inferior quadrant and as a whole. These measurements may be a clue for management and prognosis of amblyopia in old age.

  20. A morphological study of retinal changes in unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography image segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szigeti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible structural changes of the macula in patients with unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT image segmentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 38 consecutive patients (16 male; mean age 32.4±17.6 years; range 6-67 years with unilateral amblyopia were involved in this study. OCT examinations were performed with a time-domain OCT device, and a custom-built OCT image analysis software (OCTRIMA was used for OCT image segmentation. The axial length (AL was measured by a LenStar LS 900 device. Macular layer thickness, AL and manifest spherical equivalent refraction (MRSE of the amblyopic eye were compared to that of the fellow eye. We studied if the type of amblyopia (strabismus without anisometropia, anisometropia without strabismus, strabismus with anisometropia had any influence on macular layer thickness values. RESULTS: There was significant difference between the amblyopic and fellow eyes in MRSE and AL in all subgroups. Comparing the amblyopic and fellow eyes, we found a statistically significant difference only in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in the central region using linear mixed model analysis keeping AL and age under control (p = 0.032. There was no significant difference in interocular difference in the thickness of any macular layers between the subgroups with one-way between-groups ANCOVA while statistically controlling for interocular difference in AL and age. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results there are subtle changes in amblyopic eyes affecting the outer nuclear layer of the fovea suggesting the possible involvement of the photoreceptors. However, further studies are warranted to support this hypothesis.

  1. Relationship between monocularly deprivation and amblyopia rats and visual system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes of lateral geniculate body and visual cortex in monocular strabismus and form deprived amblyopic rat, and visual development plastic stage and visual plasticity in adult rats.Methods:A total of60SD rats ages13 d were randomly divided intoA, B,C three groups with20 in each group, groupA was set as the normal control group without any processing, groupB was strabismus amblyopic group, using the unilateral extraocular rectus resection to establish the strabismus amblyopia model, groupC was monocular form deprivation amblyopia group using unilateral eyelid edge resection+ lid suture.At visual developmental early phase(P25), meta phase(P35), late phase(P45) and adult phase(P120), the lateral geniculate body and visual cortex area17 of five rats in each group were exacted forC-fosImmunocytochemistry. Neuron morphological changes in lateral geniculate body and visual cortex was observed, the positive neurons differences ofC-fos expression induced by light stimulation was measured in each group, and the condition of radiation development ofP120 amblyopic adult rats was observed.Results:In groupsB andC,C-fos positive cells were significantly lower thanthe control group atP25(P0.05),C-fos protein positive cells level of groupB was significantly lower than that of groupA(P<0.05).The binoculusC-fos protein positive cells level of groupsB andC were significantly higher than that of control group atP35,P45 andP120 with statistically significant differences(P<0.05).Conclusions:The increasing ofC-fos expression in geniculate body and visual cortex neurons of adult amblyopia suggests the visual cortex neurons exist a certain degree of visual plasticity.

  2. [The possibility for using the phenomenon of polarized light interference in treating amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V G; Vakurina, A E; Kashchenko, T P; Pargina, N M

    1996-01-01

    A new method for treating amblyopia is proposed, making use of the phenomenon of polarized light interference. It helps act simultaneously on the brightness, contrast frequency, and color sensitivity in response to patterns. The method was used in the treatment of 36 children. In group 1 (n = 20) it was combined with the traditional methods. Such treatment was more effective than in controls treated routinely. Group 2 consisted of 16 children in whom previous therapy was of no avail. Visual function was improved in 7 of them.

  3. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra eHussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on twenty amblyopic subjects (ten children and ten adults, who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 hours. Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, LogMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean: 1.3 lines; range: 0-3.6 lines. We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  4. Perceptual learning reduces crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Webb, Ben S; Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V

    2012-01-11

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder of cortical origin, characterized by crowding and poor acuity in central vision of the affected eye. Crowding refers to the adverse effects of surrounding items on object identification, common only in normal peripheral but not central vision. We trained a group of adult human amblyopes on a crowded letter identification task to assess whether the crowding problem can be ameliorated. Letter size was fixed well above the acuity limit, and letter spacing was varied to obtain spacing thresholds for central target identification. Normally sighted observers practiced the same task in their lower peripheral visual field. Independent measures of acuity were taken in flanked and unflanked conditions before and after training to measure crowding ratios at three fixed letter separations. Practice improved the letter spacing thresholds of both groups on the training task, and crowding ratios were reduced after posttest. The reductions in crowding in amblyopes were associated with improvements in standard measures of visual acuity. Thus, perceptual learning reduced the deleterious effects of crowding in amblyopia and in the normal periphery. The results support the effectiveness of plasticity-based approaches for improving vision in adult amblyopes and suggest experience-dependent effects on the cortical substrates of crowding.

  5. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on 20 amblyopic subjects (10 children and 10 adults), who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 h). Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, logMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean = 1.3 lines; range = 0–3.6 lines). We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings. PMID:25404922

  6. The challenges of developing a contrast-based video game for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahra; Astle, Andrew T; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning of visual tasks is emerging as a promising treatment for amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision characterized by poor monocular visual acuity. The tasks tested thus far span the gamut from basic psychophysical discriminations to visually complex video games. One end of the spectrum offers precise control over stimulus parameters, whilst the other delivers the benefits of motivation and reward that sustain practice over long periods. Here, we combined the advantages of both approaches by developing a video game that trains contrast sensitivity, which in psychophysical experiments, is associated with significant improvements in visual acuity in amblyopia. Target contrast was varied adaptively in the game to derive a contrast threshold for each session. We tested the game on 20 amblyopic subjects (10 children and 10 adults), who played at home using their amblyopic eye for an average of 37 sessions (approximately 11 h). Contrast thresholds from the game improved reliably for adults but not for children. However, logMAR acuity improved for both groups (mean = 1.3 lines; range = 0-3.6 lines). We present the rationale leading to the development of the game and describe the challenges of incorporating psychophysical methods into game-like settings.

  7. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCampana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period, several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS, was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat, Ma-Naim, Belkin & Sagi, 2004, here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.

  8. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  9. Refractive state analysis of children hyperopic amblyopia%儿童远视性弱视与屈光状态的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云; 谭星平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨远视性弱视儿童远视度数与弱视、斜视的关系。方法对远视性弱视儿童300例(550眼)使用阿托品散瞳验光,检查结果进行统计学处理。结果远视性弱视儿童的远视度数由低至高依次为外斜视组、无斜视组、内斜视组。球镜度数越高,弱视程度越高,无斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视球镜度数高,差异有高度显著性,轻度弱视比中度弱视的柱镜度数高,差异有显著性;重度弱视只有1例。内斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视的球镜度数高,差异有高度显著性;重度弱视球镜度数比中度弱视低,与斜视和注视性质有关;外斜视组中度弱视比轻度弱视球镜度数高,差异有显著性。结论远视性弱视儿童远视度数与弱视程度有一定关系,但重度弱视还与视觉抑制和中心旁注视关系更为紧密;中高度远视是内斜视的主要原因;远视散光是弱视的重要原因。%Objective Explore the relationship between the degree of hyperopia in children with amblyopia, and the status of amblyopia and strabismus. Methods Three hundreds and twelve children (550 eyes) with hyperopia amblyopia were checked their refraction error after using atropin ,and their refractive datum were analyzed by statistic method. Results In hyperopic amblyopic children, the group of exotropia had the lowest hyperopia degree, followed by the group without strabismus and esotropic group had the highest. The higher degree of spherical, the higher degree of amblyopia. In the esotropia group there are significant difference of spherical degree between moderate amblyopia and mild. But in severe amblyopia there were more close relationship with Properties of fixation than hyperopia degree. Spherical degree between patients with moderate amblyopia and mild amblyopia without strabismus has highly sig-nificant difference.Cylinder power in mild amblyopia is significant high than that in moderate

  10. Interactive stereo games to improve vision in children with amblyopia using dichoptic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M.; MacKeith, Daisy; Vivian, Anthony; Purdy, Jonathan H.; Fakis, Apostolos; Cobb, Sue V.; Hepburn, Trish; Eastgate, Richard M.; Gregson, Richard M.; Foss, Alexander J. E.

    2015-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common condition affecting 2% of all children and traditional treatment consists of either wearing a patch or penalisation. We have developed a treatment using stereo technology, not to provide a 3D image but to allow dichoptic stimulation. This involves presenting an image with the same background to both eyes but with features of interest removed from the image presented to the normal eye with the aim to preferentially stimulated visual development in the amblyopic, or lazy, eye. Our system, called I-BiT can use either a game or a video (DVD) source as input. Pilot studies show that this treatment is effective with short treatment times and has proceeded to randomised controlled clinical trial. The early indications are that the treatment has a high degree of acceptability and corresponding good compliance.

  11. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere.

  12. Corneal refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lens for treatment of amblyopia caused by high myopia or anisometropia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunyu; Peng Xiujun; Fan Zhengjun; Yin Zhengqin

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review of literature was performed to compare various visual function parameters including the final visual acuity outcome and/or adverse events between corneal refractive surgery (CLRS) and phakic intraocular lens implantation (p-IOLi) in the treatment of refractive amblyopic children.Data sources Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed,EMBASE,and Controlled Trials Register databases for publications from 1991 to 2013.Study selection There were 25 articles,including 597 patients and 682 eyes,was included in CLRS group.Among them,21 articles reported the use of CLRS in the treatment of myopic anisometropia for 318 patients (13 photorefractive keratectomy or laser epithelial keratomileusis and eight laser in situ keratomileusis).And 11 articles had the results of CLRS in treating hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia children.Eleven articles reported the effect of p-IOLi for treating high myopia or anisometropic amblyopia,including 61 patients (75 eyes).Age,pre-and postoperation best-corrected vision acuity (BCVA),and spherical equivalent (SE) were compared in CLRS and p-IOLi groups.Results The average age of CLRS group and p-IOLi group has no statistically significant difference.The SE in CLRS group for myopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (-10.13±2.73) diopters (D) and for hyperopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (5.58±1.28) D.In p-IOLi group the SE was (-14.01±1.93) D.BCVA was improved significantly in both groups,and even better in p-IOLi group.Refractive errors were corrected in both groups,but there was no clinically significant difference in final SE between each group.More than one-half of the children had improved binocular fusion and stereopsis function in both groups.Conclusions Both CLRS group and p-IOLi group showed their advantage in treating refractive amblyopia in children.In comparing p-IOLi with CLRS for treatment of refractive amblyopia,no statistically significant difference in final BCVA was observed.

  13. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, <0.01 degrees resolution) in 20 strabismic amblyopes (mean age, 44.9 +/- 10.7 years) and 20 normal control subjects (mean age, 42.8 +/- 10.9 years) while they silently read paragraphs of text. Monocular reading comparisons were made between the amblyopic eye and the nondominant eye of control subjects and the nonamblyopic eye and the dominant eye of the control subjects. Binocular reading between the amblyopic and control subjects was also compared. RESULTS. Mean reading speed, number of progressive and regressive saccades per line, saccadic amplitude (of progressive saccades), and fixation duration were estimated. Inter- and intrasubject statistical comparisons were made. Reading speed was significantly slower in amblyopes than in control subjects during monocular reading with amblyopic (13.094 characters/s vs. 22.188 characters/s; P < 0.0001) and nonamblyopic eyes (16.241 characters/s vs. 22.349 characters/s, P < 0.0001), and binocularly (15.698 characters/s vs. 23.425 characters/s, P < 0.0001). In amblyopes, reading was significantly slower with the amblyopic eye than with the nonamblyopic eye in binocular viewing (P < 0.05). These differences were associated with significantly more regressive saccades and longer fixation durations, but not with changes in saccadic amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS. In strabismic amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression.

  14. 单眼弱视者的空间视觉缺损及其与弱视程度的相关性研究%Correlation between space visual defect of monocular amblyopia and the degree of amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 罗红

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究单眼弱视者的空间视觉缺损模式及其与弱视程度的相关性,探讨连续全遮盖治疗的临床效果。方法回顾性分析我院2011年8月至2014年4月期间,于我科治疗的65例单眼弱视患者的临床资料,均予以连续全遮盖方式治疗,疗程12周,通过治疗效果,对比患者治疗前后双眼的视力、视锐度、AULCSF (对比敏感度函数的曲线下面积)、Smax (峰值对比敏感度)、Frmax (Smax空间频率)、CutSF (截止空间频率),评价弱视程度对空间视觉缺损所产生的影响。结果经12周治疗后,患者患眼视力、AULCSF、CutSF与治疗前相比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。视锐度、AULCSF、Smax、Frmax、CutSF在患眼不同弱视程度下差异均有显著统计学意义(P0.05). Visual acuity, AULCSF, Smax, Frmax, CutSF had statistically sig-nificant difference between different degrees of amblyopia (P<0.01), and Smax, Frmax, CutSF decreased with the de-gree of amblyopia eyes increased. Conclusion In patients with monocular amblyopia, AULCSF, Smax, Frmax, CutSF show a trend of consistency with visual sharpness and space visual defects. If the space visual defects deterio-rate, the corresponding degree of amblyopia would get worse. If high frequency contrast and resolution are reduced, the risk of eye spatial frequency will also show low frequency offset. For monocular amblyopia, continuous full cover treatment can improve the visual to the high frequency resolution, and not reduce visual function of eye.

  15. Long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with high anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-ming; YAN Xiao-he; WANG Zheng; YANG Bin; CHEN Qi-wen; SU Jin-ai; YE Xue-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with anisometropic amblyopia are often noncompliant with traditional treatment including spectacules and contact lenses.This study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for children with high anisometropic amblyopia.Methods A retrospective analysis of 24 children with high unilateral anisometropic amblyopia,who underwent LASIK during the period between August 2000 and September 2005 in our hospital,was conducted.The mean age of these children was (7.4±1.9) years (range 5-14 years) and the mean follow-up period was (33.3±14.2) months (range 18.5-74.2 months).After LASIK,visual acuity,refraction and far or near stereoacuity were analyzed.Near stereoacuity was measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the pre-school random-dot stereogram,while far stereoacuity was measured by the synoptophore with Yan's random-dot stereogram.Results Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.06±0.05,while mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.43±0.33.Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.26±0.22,while mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.67±0.40.For patients with myopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (-8.01±2.70) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (-1.32±2.47) D.For patients with hyperopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (+7.35±1.55) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (+3.30±0.86) D.These results demonstrated that there was statistical difference in these parameters between preoperative and postoperative tests.At the last follow-up,20 patients had near stereoacuity,and the mean near stereoacuities measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the preschool random-dot stereogram were (149.00±152.93)" and (201.05±235.94)",respectively.In contrast,11 patients had far stereoacuity,and the mean far stereoacuity

  16. Screening for amblyopia among grade-1 students in primary school with uncorrected vision and stereopsis test in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shi-ming; LI Jin-ling; LI Si-yuan; LIU Luo-ru; WANG Yang; LI He

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis.This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.Methods By stratified cluster sampling,3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study.All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA,stereopsis test,cycloplegic refraction,best corrected VA (BCVA),cover test,and ocular movement examination.VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (IogMAR) chart.Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang Ⅱ stereo card and TNO test.Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 IogMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.Results Out of the 3112 eligible students,2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations.The average age of the students was (7.10±0.41) years.Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (IogMAR 0.1),high cutoff (IogMAR 0.0),and near VA (IogMAR 0.0),31.64%,73.18%,and 50.23% students were abnormal,respectively.Screened by stereopsis test,only 4.69% students were abnormal.Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist,61 students had amblyopia.The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%,100%,and 80.77%,respectively,whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%.Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.Conclusions Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity.Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Perceptual learning for treating amblyopia in children based on activation of visual signal pathway Relationship of curative effects and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Liu; Jiang Shen; Jianzhong Huang; Yan Luo; Hongting Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods (such as occlusion therapy, fine manipulation, complementary, and alternative medicine) take effects slowly, are time and labor consuming, and have uncertain curative effects in the treatment of amblyopia. Perceptual learning, a new method for treating amblyopia, improves the ability to process signals from the cerebral optic nerve system by specific visual stimulation and visual learning, as well as activation of the visual signal pathway utilizing brain nervous system plasticity.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated and evaluated the curative effects of perceptual learning, which can directionally increase brain plasticity, on the treatment of amblyopia in children. The relationship between curative effect and time was also analyzed.DESIGN: A self-control experiment. SETTING: Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 125 amblyopic children (250 amblyopic eyes), 73 males, 52 females, averaging (6 ± 2) years of age, received treatment at the Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between September 2006 and February 2007 and were recruited for this study. All children presented with no structural disease of the eyeballs. Written informed consent for therapeutic regiments was obtained from each child's parent. The protocol received approval from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Visual function was tested with a perceptual learning system (Research Center for Human Health and Development of Sun Yat-sen University, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Medical Care Implement) for visual noise, position noise, contour discrimination, contrast sensitivity, grating stereogram, and random-dot fusion. These tests helped to evaluate the efficiency of visual information processing of these children, and to determine the degree of defects of the optic nerve cells and the connections of visual

  18. Is age relevant for the success of treatment of anisometropic amblyopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Neela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective cohort study of 200 anisometropic amblyopes was conducted. The patients were classified into two groups. Group A: Patients less than 12 years of age. This consisted of 144 (72% patients, the average age being 7.77 years (±2.34, range 1 to 12. Group B: Patients more than 12 years of age. This comprised 56 (28% patients, the average age being 19.8 years (±5.47, range 12 to 30. Criterion for success was defined as best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 (0.5 logMAR equivalent or better. The Chi-square test was used to compare baseline characteristics and success rates. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the two groups ( P =0.07. The treatment was successful in 108 (75% in Group A and in 34 (60.7% in Group B ( P = 0.07. There was no statistically significant change in the success rate of treatment of anisometropic amblyopia, even beyond 12 years of age.

  19. Mechanism of Neurophysiological Treatment of Amblyopia Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangming Lu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ping Liang; Wenzhen Zhou; Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To research the mechanism of neurophysiological treatment of amblyopia by observing the visual cortex activation under rotating grating stimulus with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and identify the components of the activation.Methods: Nine healthy volunteers were examined using gradient-recalled echo and echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) pulse sequence performed at the 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. In the block designing, rotating grating, stationary grating and luminance were plotted as task states, stationary grating, luminance and darkness as control states, respectively. The tasks of stimuli included 6 steps. Imaging processing and statistical analysis were carried out off-line using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software in single-subject.Results: Some individual areas of visual cortex were activated by various stimuli information supplied by rotating grating. The strong activation in the middle of occipital lobe related to the stimuli of luminance, bilateral activation of Brodmann's 19th area related to visual motion perception, and the mild activation in the middle of occipital lobe related to form perception.Conclusion: The plotting of control state is important in bock design. The effective visual information of rotating grating includes components of luminance, visual motion perception and form perception. Functional MRI has potential as a tool for studying the physiological mechanism of visual cortex.

  20. Protection against deprivation amblyopia depends on relative not absolute daily binocular exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donald E; Sengpiel, Frank; Hamilton, David C; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Kennie, Jan

    2011-06-16

    Short daily periods of binocular exposure (BE) can offset longer single daily episodes of monocular exposure (ME) to prevent the development of deprivation amblyopia. To determine whether the outcome depended upon an absolute daily amount of BE or its proportion of the daily visual exposure, daily mixed visual input of 3 different durations (3.5, 7, or 12 h) was imposed on 3 cohorts of kittens. Measurements of the visual acuity of the deprived eye at the end of mixed daily visual input revealed that the acuity of the deprived eye developed to normal values so long as the proportion of the total exposure that was binocular was 30% or more. By contrast, the development of functional ocular dominance domains in V1 revealed by optical imaging suggests that normal domains emerge with a fixed amount of daily binocular exposure. The latter result is consistent with the effects of any daily period of ME, or BE, or both, effectively saturating with a small dose so that the effects of ME of any length can be offset by a short period of BE. The different result for vision may reflect neural events at higher and/or multiple levels in the visual pathway.

  1. Levodopa methyl ester increases nerve growth factor expression in visual cortex area 17 in a feline model of strabismic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwen Li; Xing Lin; Shijun Zhang; Rong Li; Weizhe Jiang; Renbin Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a feline model of strabismic amblyopia was established during a sensitive developmental period, and the influence of levodopa methyl ester and levodopa on nerve growth factor expression in the visual cortex (area 17) was compared. Pattern visual-evoked potential and immunohistochemistry results showed that levodopa methyl ester and levodopa treatment shortened P100 wave latency, increased P100 amplitude, and increased the number of endogenous nerve growth factor-positive cells in visual cortex levels. In particular, the effects of levodopa methyl ester were superior to levodopa treatment.

  2. TELEMEDICINE FOR AMBLYOPIA TREATMENT BASED ON INTERNET%基于Internet的远程弱视医疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项阳; 顾其威

    2003-01-01

    Amblyopia is a common eye disease caught by many children. For some reason, the traditional treating method is unsatisfactory and ineffective. By connecting home and hospital through Internet, patients can receive service of treatment designed for their own purpose. Thus the effectiveness of therapy is expected to have sigificent improvment. A new Internet-based telemedicine system for amblyopia is put forward in this paper with further discussions of its principles, framework and implementation methods.%弱视是一种常见的疾病,通常在幼儿期间发病.由于多种原因,传统的弱视治疗手段效果不够理想.通过使用Internet将家庭和医院连接起来,病人能够获得具有个性化的治疗服务.因此,治疗效果有望得到明显提高.本文论述了基于Internet的远程弱视医疗系统的原理、框架及实现技术.

  3. "A retrospective cohort study for prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance in anisometropic amblyopia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vinita

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 50 anisometropic amblyopes, between the ages of 2.5 to 10 years, was studied retrospectively to assess the prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance. There is ample evidence in the literature for a significantly lower accommodative response in the anisometropic amblyopic eye. It has been proposed that the efferent accommodative dysfunction may be a fundamental and causative factor in anisometropic amblyopia. A reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance was found in 17 [34%] patients and in 11 out of these the near vision improved after an addition of +3.0D sph. When a reduced visual acuity for near, was obtained it was difficult to determine whether the visual afferent system (due to insufficient visual input, or the accommodation efferent mechanism was responsible. However an improvement in corrected near vision by addition of +3.0D sph. suggested an accommodative dysfunction. In patients with reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance, not only was the final visual outcome poor but also the onset of visual improvement in response to amblyopia therapy was delayed.

  4. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana T L Chung

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation. To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  5. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  6. 重视弱视诊治的规范化%Pay attention on the normalization of diagnosis and treatment for amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓

    2008-01-01

    We need to establish a guidelines for the prevention and treatment of children amblyopia. In this amblyopia treatment system, high quality optic correction should be emphasized, customized occlusion therapy should be made based on the type of amblyopia, and the age of the patient. Penalization therapy is highly suggested to moderate and mild amblyopia, as well as patients with poor compliance. Multiple-center research with random comparison is expected, which wiU evaluate the effect of current treatment with the methods of evidence based medicine.%我国儿童弱视防治工作需要进一步规范化.在制定规范化治疗弱视的方案时,应该重视屈光矫正的作用,提高屈光矫正的质量和水平.根据弱视的不同类型、患儿的不同年龄制定不同的遮盖方案,对轻、中度弱视和对遮盖疗法依从性差的儿童,压抑疗法值得提倡和推广.应进一步开展多中心的随机对照研究,对综合疗法效果以循证医学的方法进行科学的评价,提高我国对弱视治疗临床研究的水平.

  7. Terapia oclusiva em ambliopia: fatores prognósticos Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: factors that influence the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fava Salata

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Ambliopia é o defeito visual mais comum em crianças e por mais de 250 anos a terapia oclusiva vem sendo o melhor tratamento. Sendo assim, propusemo-nos a determinar os fatores que influenciam no sucesso do tratamento da ambliopia por terapia oclusiva em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com 169 crianças amblíopes atendidas no Ambulatório de Ambliopia do Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP, Campinas (SP, entre janeiro de 1996 e maio de 1998. A população atendida foi classificada quanto ao sexo, idade de início do tratamento por faixa etária (3 grupos, olho afetado, tipo de ambliopia (estrabísmica, anisometrópica, por deprivação, associação de dois tipos, tempo de seguimento, gravidade da ambliopia (leve, moderada, grave, adesão ao tratamento (regular, irregular e resposta obtida (cura, melhora, sem cura. Resultados: A adesão ao tratamento não diferiu entre as faixas etárias (p=0,68 e não foi influenciada pela gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,82. Dos pacientes estudados 52,67% curaram-se, 19,52% melhoraram e 27,81% não obtiveram cura. Os pacientes com adesão regular tiveram índice de cura significativamente maior do que os pacientes com adesão irregular (p=0,0009. O resultado do tratamento não dependeu da idade de início do mesmo (p=0,39 e da gravidade da ambliopia (p=0,30. Conclusão: Concluímos, assim, que, no nosso grupo de estudo, a adesão é o principal fator prognóstico no sucesso da terapia oclusiva.Purpose: Amblyopia is the most common form of visual problem in children and for more than 250 years occlusion therapy is the standard treatment. Thus our purpose is to identify the factors that influence the outcome of amblyopia treatment with occlusion therapy. Methods: We reviewed 169 amblyopic children seen in the outpatient clinic of amblyopia of the Campinas State University, between January 1996 and May 1998. Patients were analyzed regar-ding sex, age at start of treatment (3

  8. 儿童弱视的发病机制及最新治疗进展%Advances in treatment and pathogenesis of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妍丽; 张艳芳; 钱志刚; 李新宇

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is one of the common pediatric ophthalmology disease at present. It causes serious harm to children's visual development, which is characterized in the eye without obvious organic disease. However, functional factors can cause the distance vision≤0. 8 that can not be corrected. In this paper, it focuses on reviewing the current research advances and therapy of amblyopia children, so as to provide a powerful evidence for the better treatment of amblyopia children.%弱视是目前小儿眼科常见的眼病之一,严重损害儿童视力发育,其特征是眼部无明显器质性病变,以功能性因素为主所引起的远视力≤0.8且不能矫正。本文就目前儿童弱视的治疗现状及研究进展做一个综述,以便为能更好地治疗儿童弱视提供一个有力的证据。

  9. Mechanism research of acupuncture treatment of amblyopia%针刺治疗弱视的机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈程; 崔海福; 严兴科

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the acupuncture treatment of amblyopia in mechanism research for the past few years.Analysis of the impact of acupuncture on amblyopia from visual microcirculation, visual electrophysiology, neurotransmitter and factor and visual center, indicate that acupuncture can improve blood circulation system, regulation retinal function, correct visual environment, regulation neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor expression, enhance the biological electrical activity of visual center, improve the optic nerve conduction and activate the corresponding region of visual cortex, in order to achieve the purpose of treatment of amblyopia.%本文总结了近年来有关针刺治疗弱视机理研究的文献,从视觉微循环、视觉电生理、神经递质及因子、视觉中枢角度分析了针刺对弱视的影响,表明针刺可以通过改善眼部血液循环,调节视网膜功能,纠正视环境紊乱,调节神经递质及神经因子,增强视觉中枢生物电活动,改善视神经传导,激活大脑视觉皮层相应区域的作用,达到治疗弱视的目的.

  10. Current progresses of experimental models of amblyopia and clinical therapeutic%弱视的实验研究及临床治疗展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少敏(综述)

    2014-01-01

    弱视是一种儿童早期由于异常的视觉经历如斜视,屈光参差,视觉剥夺等导致的皮层性视觉损害,因而,只有理解了其发病的神经机制,才可能提出有效的治疗。一般观念认为弱视只有在儿童期治疗才有效,而成人的弱视基本无法治愈,但是近年来随着对弱视发病机制的分子生物学及神经电生理的研究,尤其是对视觉皮层发育可塑性的细胞间交流及细胞内分子信号通路的认识,拓展了人们对弱视病理的知识,因而也成功地通过恢复成年期的可塑性改善了成年弱视的视力。本文介绍了视觉发育可塑性的进展,就近年在增强成年可塑性途径如改变神经兴奋性与抑制性的平衡、细胞外基质、丰富环境及表观遗传学修饰等作了介绍,以其对弱视的病理机制,尤其对成人弱视的治疗有更深入的认识。%Amblyopia is a form of cerebral visual impairment caused by abnormal visual experience ( e.g., strabismus, anisometropia, deprivation) during early childhood. It is essential to understand the neural mechanism of amblyopia in order to devise novel therapeutic strategies. Although previous concepts of amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults, recent data deepen our knowledge of the factors involved in the intercellular communication and intracellular signaling that mediate experience-dependent plasticity in the developing visual cortex. Successful en-hancement of adult plasticity has been achieved by altering the excitation to inhibition balance;extracellular matrices;environmental enrichment and epigenetic modification. In this review, I describe current concepts of brain plasticity and the established mechanisms of amblyopia, and their implications for novel therapeutic strategies, these may hold the best hope for success in the fight against amblyopia.

  11. 远视性弱视儿童的心理行为分析%Analysis of psychogenic behavior in children with hyperopic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏欣; 江灵莉; 肖满意; 李筠萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate psychogenic problems in children with hyperopic amblyopia, we compare the showing of psychological behavior in hyperopic amblyopia with emmetropia's of children. Methods 78 children definitely diagnosed as hyperopic amblyopia and 80 control normal children with uncorrected refraction error were collected. Their parents complete two psychological evaluated with the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL ) and the Conners Rating Scales (Parent Symptom Questionnaire, PSQ). Two groups had divided into four groups as gender. T-test was used to compare children with amblyopia and those without. Results This had adverse consequences for hyperopic amblyopia children's psychosocial well-being. Both girls and boys had the problems of school scales and social competence. While the girls had the problems of Impulsivity-hyperactivity, the boys had the problems of delinquent behavior aggressive behavior activities and psychosomatic disorder. Conclusions Given that amblyopia can affect children's psychosocial well-being, and the boys had more problems than the girls. Although abnormal psychogenic behavior exist in children of hyperopic amblyopia, the values of change have not reach the standard of mental illness. Health outcomes need to integrate both vision and psychosocial implications of treatment.%目的 通过比较远视性弱视儿童与正常同龄儿童的心理行为探讨弱视对儿童心理行为的影响,关注弱视儿童行为心理发育健康.方法 将门诊受试儿童分为2组:1.弱视组(78例)2.正常对照组(80例).采用Achenbach儿童行为量表家长用表和Conners父母症状问卷对同龄的远视性弱视和对照组儿童进行评定并进行比较分析.结果 Achenbach儿童行为量表显示:弱视组的男孩中,社交问题、违纪行为、攻击性行为、活动情况、学校情况、社会能力总分的评分显著高于对照组(P<0.05);女孩中,学校情况、社会能力总分的评分显著高

  12. Effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia around visual maturity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachee Vasant Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia in the age group of 4-13 years. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial, which included patients who were randomly divided into two groups. Both the groups received patching therapy till plateau was achieved in phase 1 of the study. Then in phase 2, group I received citicoline plus patching and group II continued to receive only patching. Outcome Measures: Outcome was measured by the visual acuity in logMAR every month in phase 1 till plateau was achieved and then for 12 months in phase 2. Results: No significant difference was found in the mean visual acuities in these two groups in phase 1 till plateau was reached. In phase 2, for the initial four months, there was no significant difference in the visual acuities in these two groups, at the respective intervals. However, five months onward, up to 12 months, there was a significant difference in the visual acuities in these groups.The result was the same in younger patients ( seven years of age. In phase 2, the mean proportional improvement in group I was significantly more than that in group II, at two months and onward, at the respective intervals. Conclusion: The improvement in visual acuity with citicoline plus patching was significantly more than that with patching alone, in one year of treatment.

  13. 低功率氦氖激光在儿童弱视治疗中的应用%Low power He-Ne laser in the treatment of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小梅; 师文; 左芸; 杨发斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low power He-Ne laser in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Methods The low power He-Ne laser with joint integrated therapy in treating 86 cases of 146 amblyopic eyes. The low power He-Ne laser irradiated the amblyopic eyes 3 minutes per day, continuous treatment of 20 days, to observe the effect. Results The low power He-Ne laser with joint integrated therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children, the basic cure rate was 50.68%, effective (cure + improvement) rate was 85.62%. Amblyopia in the 3 to 6 age group has the best effect (77/83), the refractive amblyopia in different types of amblyopia has the best effect (93/104), the mid amblyopia in different degrees of amblyopia has the best effect (87/105), the center concave watching in different watching natures of amblyopia has the best effect (80/86), the near vision of 1.0 in different near vision amblyopia has the best effect (109/ 126). Conclusions Low power He-Ne laser can shorten the course of treatment of amblyopia, improve compliance in amblyopia children and parents, is effective in treating amblyopia.%目的 观察低功率氦氖激光在儿童弱视中的治疗作用方法对86例146只弱视眼采用低功率氦氖激光联合综合疗法进行治疗,激光每日照射弱视眼3min,连续治疗20d,观察疗效.结果 低功率氦氖激光联合综合疗法治疗儿童弱视,基本治愈率为50.68%,有效率85.62%.其中不同年龄弱视中以3-6岁组疗效最好(77/83),不同类型弱视中以屈光不正性弱视疗效最好(93/104),不同程度弱视以轻度弱视疗效最好(87/105),不同注视性质弱视以中心凹注视疗效最好(80/86),不同近视力弱视以近视力为1.0疗效最好(109/126).结论 低功率氦氖激光可缩短弱视治疗的疗程,提高弱视患儿和家长的依从性,对儿童弱视的治疗有效.

  14. 关于弱视、斜视患儿社区护理的现状调查%Investigation on Present Situation of Community Nursing in Children with Amblyopia and Strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志霞; 刘文兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究目前针对弱视、斜视患儿实施社区护理的状况é方法利用问卷调查的形式对该市200名弱视、斜视患儿的护理需求进行调查,并对目前社区50名护理人员护理现状进行调查分析é结果在经过问卷调查后,74%的弱视、斜视患儿有社区护理需求,且社区内有54%的护理人员对弱视、斜视患儿的规范护理措施知晓é结论目前社区内弱视、斜视患儿对社区护理的需求率较高,因而有必要强化社区对弱视、斜视儿童患儿的护理模式,提升社区护理质量é%Objective To explore the current status of the implementation of community nursing for children with amblyopia and strabismus. Methods Using the questionnaire of nursing needs of our 200 children with amblyopia and strabismus were investigated, and the current community nurses from 50 nursing status investigation and analysis. Results After the survey, 74% of the children with amblyopia and strabismus of community nursing needs and community awareness of standardized nursing care personnel of 54% children with amblyopia and strabismus. Conclusion The community of amblyopia and stra-bismus in children with community nursing demand rate is higher, so it is necessary to strengthen the nursing mode of com-munity of amblyopia and strabismus of children, improve the quality of community nursing.

  15. 基于互联网的感视知觉学习治疗弱视的疗效观察%Based on the internet perception study treatment of amblyopia clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志兵; 徐峻; 吴军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Mental Imagery Perceptual Learning System for the treatment of amblyopia. Methods 197 children(317 eyes) with amblyopia were recruited. Spectacles were prescribed based on atro-pine ointment cycloplegic refraction. Patients were assigned to receive either occlusion therapy or " Mental Imagery" perceptual learning according to their best corrected acuity . The following indices were analyzed : type of amblyopia , depth of amblyopia, age and treatment efficiency. Results With patients who received average 4 months "Mental Imagery" perceptual learning , amblyopia cured in 77% and improved in 30. 28% . The gross treatment efficiency was 88. 96% . Conclusion Mental Imagery Perceptual Learning System is an effective way for treating amblyopia .%目的 评价"脑力影像"感视知觉学习系统在弱视治疗中的效果.方法 对197例(317只眼)弱视儿童阿托品眼膏散瞳验光配镜,并根据矫正视力情况,给予相应的遮盖,利用"脑力影像"感知觉学习系统进行弱视治疗,对以下指标进行分析:弱视的类型、弱视的程度、患者的年龄与治疗效果.结果 平均接受4个月弱视治疗,总有效率88.96%,其中基本治愈58.67%,有进步30.28%.结论 "脑力影像"感知觉学习系统治疗弱视是一种有效的方法.

  16. Ambliopia por estrabismo: estudo retrospectivo de pacientes em hospital universitário Strabismic amblyopia: a retrospective study on patients from a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Salerno Costa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão ao tratamento, da gravidade da ambliopia e da idade de início do tratamento em pacientes com ambliopia por estrabismo submetidos à terapia oclusiva. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 569 prontuários de pacientes com ambliopia por estrabismo atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP no período de 1983 a 2000. Os critérios de exclusão foram: perda de seguimento, idade maior que 12 anos, presença de nistagmo e outras doenças oculares. Todos foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo com avaliação da motilidade ocular, divididos por faixas etárias e classificados quanto ao tipo de estrabismo, gravidade da ambliopia e adesão ao tratamento. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo método de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 198 pacientes (34,8%. Não houve diferença de adesão nos diversos grupos etários. A taxa de sucesso foi maior nos pacientes com boa adesão independente da gravidade da ambliopia. Porém a adesão ao tratamento foi menor no grupo com ambliopia grave, que foi o mais freqüente e obteve menor taxa de sucesso em nossa amostra. Não houve relação entre idade e sucesso terapêutico. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo demonstrou que a adesão ao tratamento oclusivo desempenha papel fundamental na eficácia terapêutica. Com isto, idade de início do tratamento isoladamente não teve influência no sucesso terapêutico, uma vez que foi possível obter boa adesão a despeito da idade. Além disto, os resultados foram piores nos casos de ambliopia grave, nos quais a adesão foi menor.PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of compliance with treatment, severity of amblyopia and age at the beginning of treatment in patients with strabismic amblyopia submitted to patching. METHODS: The data were selected from medical records of 569 patients seen at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo during the period of 1983 to 2000. Exclusion criteria: loss of

  17. A new model of strabismic amblyopia: Loss of spatial acuity due to increased temporal dispersion of geniculate X-cell afferents on to cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    2015-09-01

    Although the neural locus of strabismic amblyopia has been shown to lie at the first site of binocular integration, first in cat and then in primate, an adequate mechanism is still lacking. Here we hypothesise that increased temporal dispersion of LGN X-cell afferents driven by the deviating eye onto single cortical neurons may provide a neural mechanism for strabismic amblyopia. This idea was investigated via single cell extracellular recordings of 93 X and 50 Y type LGN neurons from strabismic and normal cats. Both X and Y neurons driven by the non-deviating eye showed shorter latencies than those driven by either the strabismic or normal eyes. Also the mean latency difference between X and Y neurons was much greater for the strabismic cells compared with the other two groups. The incidence of lagged X-cells driven by the deviating eye of the strabismic cats was higher than that of LGN X-cells from normal animals. Remarkably, none of the cells recorded from the laminae driven by the non-deviating eye were of the lagged class. A simple computational model was constructed in which a mixture of lagged and non-lagged afferents converge on to single cortical neurons. Model cut-off spatial frequencies to a moving grating stimulus were sensitive to the temporal dispersion of the geniculate afferents. Thus strabismic amblyopia could be viewed as a lack of developmental tuning of geniculate lags for neurons driven by the amblyopic eye. Monocular control of fixation by the non-deviating eye is associated with reduced incidence of lagged neurons, suggesting that in normal vision, lagged neurons might play a role in maintaining binocular connections for cortical neurons.

  18. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  19. Evaluation of stereopsis in different type of ametropic amblyopia children%不同类型屈光不正性弱视儿童的立体视觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 黄馨慧; 邱斌; 叶晗; 戴锦晖

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解屈光不正性弱视儿童立体视觉的状况.方法 对4~8岁,平均(5.2±1.8)岁,205例屈光不正性弱视儿童(其中散光性弱视65例、近视性30例、远视性110例),应用颜少明等随机立体检查图及同视机,检测不同类型屈光不正性弱视儿童远融合范围、远近立体视、近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差立体感知度.结果 轻、中度屈光不正性弱视三种类型近零视差差异有统计学意义,远视性弱视较小,近视性次之,散光性最差(P均<0.05);远立体视有显著差异,远视性较好散光性较差(P均<0.05);重度弱视3型近零视差和远立体视均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);远融合范围3型差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).弱视程度对弱视患者三级视功能有明显影响(P<0.05),程度越重影响越大.结论 弱视影响儿童期立体视觉建立,散光性弱视对立体视觉的影响大于近视性、远视性弱视儿童.%Objective To evaluate the stereopsis in different types of ametropic amblyopic children.Methods A total of 205 children between 4-8 years old with recovered ametropic amblyopia, including 65 of astigmatic amblyopia and 30 of myopic and 110 of hypermetropic, were involved in the subject. Using Yan's stereogram random dot synptophore stereogram and synoptophore, the distance fusion range, distance stereoacuity, approximationg zero disparity of these children were observed separately. Results In mild and moderate amblyopia there was significant difference in approximationg zero disparity and distance stereoacuity among astigmatic amblyopia and myopic and hypermetropic, within which astigmatic amblyopia the worst and hypermetropic amblyopia the best (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the distance fusion range (P>0.05). Different type of ametropic amblyopic led no significant difference in severe amblyopia (P>0.05) which caused worse influence to the stereopsis than mild and moderate degree (P

  20. New progress in the treatment of amblyopia and related binocular visual impairment%弱视及弱视相关双眼视功能损害治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 付晶

    2016-01-01

    人眼在视觉发育期由于单眼斜视、未矫正的屈光参差、高度屈光不正及形觉剥夺引起的单眼或双眼最佳矫正视力低于相应年龄的视力为弱视;或双眼视力相差2行及以上,视力较低眼为弱视。弱视在视觉敏感期给予正确治疗可治愈,然而一旦错过治疗时机则会造成终生视力低下;且弱视还会影响双眼视觉功能。因此,弱视的治疗一直是眼科研究的热点问题。目前,弱视的主要方法包括屈光矫正、遮盖疗法、药物治疗、压抑疗法、手术治疗(针对形觉剥夺性弱视)、综合治疗等。近年来,双眼视功能的重建在弱视治疗评价中也逐渐受到重视。本文中笔者在回顾国内外相关文献的基础上,对弱视的治疗方法及最新进展做一综述。%The best corrected visual acuity of monocular or binocular vision in patients with amblyopia is lower than that in normal eyes .It is in visual development period ,as a result of the monocular strabismus,uncorrected anisometropia, highly refractive errors, form deprivation induced.In addition, binocular vision is a difference of 2 lines, low vision eye is amblyopia .Amblyopia in the visual sensitive period to give the correct treatment can be cured , but once missed the opportunity of treatment will cause lifelong amblyopia;and the amblyopia will affect the binocular visual function .Therefore , the treatment of amblyopia has been a hot issue in the Department of Ophthalmology .At present, the main methods of amblyopia including refractive correction , cover therapy , medicine therapy , depression therapy , surgical treatment ( for form deprivation amblyopia ), comprehensive treatment, and so on.In recent years, the reconstruction of binocular visual function has been paid more and more attention in the treatment of amblyopia .On the basis of reviewing domestic and foreign literatures , the author reviewed the treatment methods and the latest

  1. 功能核磁共振对弱视神经机制及治疗评价的研究进展%Neuroimaging and treatment evaluation of amblyopia by function-MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 燕振国

    2015-01-01

    以往弱视神经机制研究主要集中于以视觉电生理为代表的二维表现形式,这些方式主要研究外侧膝状体之前的功能状态,对于视中枢的研究多处于动物模型阶段,无法准确探知人类弱视神经机制。易受多种因素影响,很难完成对弱视治疗效果的评价。功能核磁共振( functional MRI, fMRI)可无创、准确、以三维形式呈现视皮层神经元的功能活动状态,为弱视神经机制及治疗效果评价提供了可靠依据。本文就弱视神经机制及治疗后效果评价的fMRI研究进行综述。%In the past, the ways to amblyopia neural mechanism research are given priority to visual electrophysiology and so on, which express the result use two -dimensional form, these ways mainly research the functions of the state before the lateral geniculate body. For the study of optic center, animal models are used to research it. But these kinds of methods are unable to accurately detect amblyopia neural mechanisms of human beings. Vulnerable to a variety of factors, it is difficult to finish the amblyopia treatment effect evaluation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging ( fMRI ) can reflect the three-dimensional visual cortex neuron activity noninvasively and accurately, and give rise to amblyopia neural mechanism and therapeutic effect evaluation. Therefore, in this paper, the amblyopia neural mechanisms and visual center after treatment effect evaluation of fMRI research progress are summarized.

  2. 182例儿童弱视综合治疗临床观察%Clinical outcome of 182 cases of Amblyopia in Children after Combined Modality Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林媚; 张至菲; 关翠柳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical outcome of amblyopia in children after 3 years of treatment.To compare effectiveness of treatment among different age groups,types and severity groups of amblyopia.Methods 182 cases(276 eyes) aging from 3 years old to 13 years old,male 95 cases(157 eyes),female 87 cases(119 eyes).All of the patients were given 1%Atropine sulfate eye ointment for mydriatic refractometry and proper correction of refractive errors.Every 6 to 12 months,all the patients underwent a mydriatic refractometry and were given proper combination of the following management including occlusion treatment,medication,optical penalization and photic stimulation.Patients were followed up from 18 months to 36 months(ave. 24 months) with eyesight check up every month.Results The overall therapeutic efficacy in this group of patients was as high as 90.22%,cure rate 57.61%,improvement rate 32.61%and no effect 9.78%.Among which,age 3 to 6 years old group had an overall therapeutic efficacy as high as 95.92%while the 7 to 13 years age group had one only at 76.25%(P<0.05);mild amblyopia group had a therapeutic efficacy of 98.79%,moderate amblyopia group had a therapeutic efficacy of 82.95%,both of which were much higher than the severe group with a therapeutic efficacy only at 56.52%(P<0.05);group amblyopias had a therapeutic efficacy of 94.76%while group anisometropic amblyopia’s therapeutic efficacy was 90.62%,both of which were higher than that of group strabismic amblyopia at 73.58%(P<0.05);central fixation group’s therapeutic efficacy was 99.45% which was much better than that of eccentric fixation 72.04%(P<0.05). Conclusion To achieve optimal outcome,early diagnosis,early interference with aggressive combined therapy is highly recommended to cure amblyopia in children.%目的:总结分析一组弱视儿童3年综合治疗随访结果,观察不同年龄、不同类型、不同程度弱视治疗的疗效。方法:182例(276眼)3~13

  3. An analysis of refraction and amblyopia of children with subnormal vision%视力低常儿童的屈光状态与弱视分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the refraction between the eyes with normal corrected visual acuity and the amblyopic eyes, and to evaluate the impact on children vision from different refraction. Methods The refraction in 540(1080eyes) children with subnormal naked vision was retrospectively analysed. Results The refraction of normal corrected visual acuity eyes and amblyopic eyes are mostly compound hyperopic astigmatism, the number constituent ratio and degree of astigmatism in anblyopic eyes are higher than those of the normal corrected visual acuity eyes, and the degree of hypermetropia in amblyopic eyes is obviously higher than that of the normal corrected visual acuity eyes (P<0.01). Conclusions Compound hyperopic astigmatism, middle or high hypermetropia are the main refractive errors leading to amblyopia, and early screening, rectification and treatment are conducive to the prevention and treatment of amblyopia..%目的 分析矫正视力正常眼和弱视眼的屈光状态差异,评价不同屈光状态对儿童视力的影响.方法 回顾分析540名(1080只眼)裸眼视力低常儿童的屈光状态.结果 矫正视力正常眼和弱视眼的屈光不正均以复性远视散光为主,弱视眼中的散光眼构成比和程度均高于正常眼,弱视眼的远视程度明显高于正常眼(P<0.01).结论 复性远视散光、中、高度远视是导致弱视的主要屈光异常,早期筛查、矫正和治疗,有利于弱视的防治.

  4. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  5. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  6. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15, 2015 Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Tratamiento para el Ojo Perezoso Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  7. Glasses Principle and Treatment Effect of Amblyopia due to Mixed Astigmatism in Children%儿童混合性散光所致弱视的配镜原则和疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席斌; 梅妍

    2015-01-01

    探讨儿童混合性散光弱视的配镜原则和临床疗效.选择4~8岁混合性散光弱视儿童161例287眼,用1%阿托品散瞳验光配镜,并配合弱视治疗,连续5年观察屈光状态变化和弱视疗效.随访5年,所有患儿屈光状态呈现出远视等效球镜屈光度逐年减少;近视等效球镜屈光度逐年增加;散光度数及轴位基本不变的趋势.弱视有164(57.14%)只眼进步,102(35.54%)只眼基本痊愈,总有效率为266(92.68%)只眼,无效21(7.32%)只眼.混合性散光弱视的疗效与散光度数呈负相关,与戴镜治疗时间呈正相关.儿童混合性散光的配镜是难点,应根据儿童屈光特点及调节;眼位等情况综合考虑正确配镜,随着年龄增长,混合性散光有向单纯近视散光或复性近视散光发展的趋势,应每半年散瞳验光一次,及时调整镜片度数.同时配合弱视治疗能取得满意的疗效.%To explore glasses principle and treatment effect of amblyopia due to mixed astigmatism in chil-dren.287 eyes of 161 subjects with amblyopia due to mixed astigmatism aged from 4 years to 8 years are en-rolled.All cases are given mydriatic optometry by 1% atropine.Meanwhile,the amblyopia treatments are given as well.Follow -up measures include dioptric situation and amblyopia therapeutic effectiveness lasting for 5 years.Dioptric situation in all cases present that hyperopia spherical equivalent diopter decreases and myopia spherical equivalent diopter increases yearly.Degree and axis of astigmatism nearly keep unchanging.As to am-blyopia,164 eyes (57.14%) have improved,102 eyes (35.54%) have recovered nearly and 21 eyes (7.32%)have no improvement.The total effective rate is 266 cases (92.68%).The therapeutic effect of am-blyopia due to mixed astigmatism has a negative correlation with amblyopia degree and has a positive correlation with time of wearing glasses.The difficulty of children

  8. 口服胞磷胆碱钠片联合中药治疗弱视的疗效%Oral Citicoline Sodium Tablets Combined Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩治红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胞磷胆碱联合中药治疗弱视的疗效。方法66例弱视患者,随机分为2组,对照组33例给予常规物理疗法加中药,治疗组33例在常规物理疗法加中药基础上联合胞磷胆碱钠0.2g,3次/d,对视力等结果进行统计分析。结果治疗组对不同年龄弱视均有效,且视力,视敏度指标与对照组差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论胞磷胆碱钠联合中药治疗弱视效果较好。%Objective To investigate the curative effect of citicoline combined with traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of amblyopia. Methods 66 cases of amblyopia were randomly divided into two groups, 33 patients as a control group received conventional physical therapy and traditional Chinese medicine, the other 33 cases as a conventional treatment group,re-ceived physical therapy and traditional Chinese medicine combined citicoline sodium 0. 2g, 3 times a day,the visions were selected and analyzed. Results The treatment is effective for all age groups with amblyopia, and the vision and visual acuity was statisti-cally significant between the two groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion Citicoline sodium combined with traditional Chinese had abetter effect in amblyopia treatment.

  9. Clinical and Basic Research on Strabismus and Amblyopia%斜视弱视的临床与基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵堪兴

    2014-01-01

    斜视和弱视严重影响视觉发育,是导致儿童盲的主要原因之一。该项目将基础研究与临床工作相结合,从疾病相关结构与功能的各个方面开展研究。开展了国内首个以人群为基础的大样本斜视、弱视及视力发育的流行病学研究,确立了学龄前儿童弱视诊断标准;开展了一系列弱视及视觉发育的基础研究,创新了弱视功能评估方法;从多角度开展了斜视病因学研究,在国内率先开展了眼外肌 Pulley 结构组织学、生物力学和影像学的再创新研究;率先采用分子遗传学、神经影像学和组织学等手段,验证并丰富了 CCDDs 疾病群的“神经发育缺陷”假说,在国内首创了斜视影像学诊断技术;基于斜视病因学研究成果,创新了 CCDDs 疾病群、旋转性斜视、高度近视眼限制性斜视、垂直分离性斜视、合并斜视的先天性眼球震颤等复杂性斜视的手术术式;在我国推动了斜视微创和显微手术技术,参与确立了斜视手术技术评估国际规则。在相关遗传性致盲眼病的研究领域定位了一个新的 adRP 连锁位点,被国际基因命名委员会(HGNC)命名为RP33;首次克隆了SNRNP200基因,并证实其为adRP致病相关基因,提出了adRP的发生是源于SNRNP200依赖的U4/U6解旋功能缺陷的新机制,建立了adRP快速遗传学筛查的有效方法。%Strabismus and amblyopia are prime reasons that cause children’s blindness as they can seriously affect the visual development. This project carried out studies on different aspects of structural and functional changes of the diseases through combination of basic research and clinical practices. Among the studies,the first population-based big sample epidemiologic research in China on strabismus,amblyopia and visual development established a diagnosis standard of amblyopia for pre-school children;a series of basic researches in amblyopia and visual

  10. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisamos libros de texto reconocidos y utilizando MEDLINE, artículos representativos relacionados con el tema y mostramos un panorama general que incluye aspectos básicos de anatomía de los músculos extraoculares, nomenclatura y terminología empleada en estrabismo, aspectos de fisiología motora, pruebas clínicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico, generalidades sobre los principales tipos de estrabismo y manejo. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. MedUNAB 2011;14:108-120]. _____________________________________________________________________________________Strabismus and amblyopia are seen quite frecuently in the general population. Amblyopia is responsable for more unilaterally reduced vision of childhood onset than all other causes combined. There are severeal causes of strabismus while amblyopia is caused by three phisiopathologic states. We pretend to provide the primary care physician a general and up date review on this subject. In this article we reviewed recognized textbooks and, using MEDLINE some representative articles on this subject. We provide an overview of anatomical concepts, abbreviated designations for types of strabismus, some aspects on motor physiology, diagnostic techniques for strabismus and amblyopia, general concepts on various endodeviations and exodeviations and the management of each type. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in

  11. Resultados do tratamento da ambliopia com levodopa combinada à oclusão Results of amblyopia treatment with levodopa associated with occlusion therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Procianoy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a melhora da acuidade visual com levodopa/benzerazida combinada à oclusão parcial e seguida por oclusão total, em pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo experimental aberto, envolvendo 37 pacientes entre 7 e 40 anos de idade, com ambliopia por estrabismo ou anisometropia, durante 9 semanas. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com levodopa (0,70 mg/kg/dia e benzerazida 25% associada à oclusão de 4 horas/dia do olho dominante por 5 semanas e, nas 4 semanas seguintes foi realizada somente a oclusão total (24 h do olho dominante. A acuidade visual foi medida na tabela do ETDR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy com escala logMAR (logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução antes de iniciar o tratamento e após 1, 3, 5 e 9 semanas de tratamento. As adesões ao tratamento de oclusão e a ingesta do me-dicamento foram verificadas por meio de questionário e pela contagem das cápsulas. Os efeitos adversos foram avaliados por exame clínico e questionário. RESULTADOS: Após 9 semanas de tratamento, a acuidade visual média melhorou em logMAR de 0,58 ± 0,16 para 0,23 ± 0,16 (melhora de 4 linhas na tabela ETDR. CONCLUSÃO: Levodopa, na dose de 0,70 mg/kg/dia, é bem tolerada e associada à oclusão produz melhora significativa na acuidade visual de pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível.PURPOSE: To evaluate visual acuity improvement with levodopa/benzerazide associated with partial occlusion and followed by total occlusion therapy in patients with amblyopia considered irreversible. METHODS: A 9-week experimental open study was performed involving 37 patients, between 7 and 40 years old, with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. All patients were treated with levodopa (0.70 mg/kg/day and 25% benzerazide associated with 4-hour/day occlusion of the dominant eye for 5 weeks. In the last 4 weeks, only the total occlusion (24 h of the dominant eye was performed. Visual acuity

  12. An investigation on binocular summation response of visual evoked potential in children with hyperopia amblyopia%弱视儿童双眼总和视觉诱发电位变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春红; 廖瑜俊; 杨洋; 邓燕; 彭小维; 鄢涛; 殷小龙

    2009-01-01

    Objective Conventional examination for vision function adopts subjective psychophysics methods.Pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) binocular summation response is a new objective way for the test of vision function.But its clinical value in evaluating vision function of amblyopia children is still in controversy.This study was to explore the binocular vision and the feature of P-VEP binocular summation in children with amblyopia and evaluate the significance of P-VEP binocular summation in binocular vision.MethodsThis is a case-controlled study.P-VEP binocular summation response and single ocular P-VEP response was respectively recorded in 151 hyperopia amblyopia children and 80 age- and gender-matched normal children.P-VEP response from children with hyperopia amblyopia was recorded under the corrected vision.The hyperopia amblyopia was diagnosed based on the standard of National Children Amblyopia and Strabismus Prevention and Treatment Working Group.The feature of P-VEP binocular summation was further analyzed and compared with monocular VEP response.Informed consent was obtained from each subject or custodian prior to the trail.ResultsNo significant difference was found in latency between P-VEP binocular summation response and monocular P-VEP response whether amblyopia children or normal children(P>0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value in amblyopia children was lower than that in normal children(P<0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value in mild or moderate amblyopia children was higher than that in severe amblyopia children(P<0.05).Binocular response/monocular response value was significantly reduced in the children with binocular vision than in the children without binocular vision (P<0.05).ConclusionP-VEP binocular vision,acting as an evaluation factor,could impartially reflect the function of binocular vision of amblyopia children.%目的 探讨弱视儿童双眼视功能及总和图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)反应的特

  13. Análise do custo do tratamento da ambliopia para o paciente em hospital universitário A cost analysis of therapy for amblyopia for an outpatient at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ottaiano Cerântola de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os custos do tratamento da ambliopia para o paciente pela oclusão do olho dominante, assim como seu resultado visual. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo prospectivo para avaliar o custo do tratamento de ambliopia por oclusão no Setor de Estrabismo do Hospital São Paulo - Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Crianças portadoras de ambliopia entre 3 e 7 anos de idade foram incluídas no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a partir do diagnóstico até três retornos consecutivos. Ao diagnóstico prescreveram-se óculos se necessário e oclusão total, direta e contínua do olho dominante. Nos retornos coletaram-se dados referentes ao tratamento e ao custo do tratamento da ambliopia. Para análise dos resultados os custos foram divididos em diretos (óculos e oclusor e indiretos (transporte e desconto do dia de trabalho do acompanhante. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 14 pacientes com idade média de 5,21 anos, sendo 7 (50% do sexo masculino e 7 (50% do sexo feminino. Observou-se melhora da acuidade visual em 71,43% dos pacientes. O custo médio mensal do tratamento da ambliopia foi de R$ 59,49 e o custo médio anual de R$ 714,47. O custo médio mensal do tratamento da ambliopia equivale a 12,20% da renda familiar mensal média dos pacientes neste estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento de oclusão da ambliopia é eficiente e melhorou a acuidade visual do olho amblíope em 71,43% dos casos. O custo mensal deste tratamento é de R$ 59,49 e representa 12,20% da renda familiar mensal dos pacientes avaliados.PURPOSE: To analyze the costs of therapy for amblyopia for an outpatient using occlusion of the normal sighted eye and its visual results. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to evaluate the costs of therapy for amblyopia at the Strabismus Sector of the Hospital São Paulo - Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Children with amblyopia ranging in age from 3 to 7 years were

  14. Bold-functional MRI evaluation of the relationship between the level of amblyopia and the functional of the visual cortex in child ametropic amblyopia%屈光不正性弱视儿童皮层功能与弱视程度关系的功能磁共振研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娟; 燕振国; 张文文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of ametropic amblyopia on different level of visual cortex and compare the features of the cortex activations before and after ametropia correction on ametropic amblyopias with blood oxygenation dependent level functional MRI techniques (bold-fMRI). Methods Functional evaluations were performed on a 1.5 Tesla MR Ⅰ device with the experimental group before and after ametropia correction on 18 ametropic amblyopes and 18 normal subjects in control group. The stimulating apparatus was self-made black and white rotary grating with the speed of 5 circles per minute, stationary grating is vertical. No other light or influence was allowed in the scanning room. The distance between the eyes and screen was 1.0 m FSE and EPI sequence were used for the anatomical and functional data acquisitions. All data were analyzed with the own software of the scanner. During data processing, motion correction and three-dimensional smooth were used in all data.the activation areas were measured in occipital lobe. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistic analysis. The cortical activations of amblyopic eyes and the normal eyes were compared. The difference of the cortical activations of amblyopic eyes before and after refractive correction was analyzed. Results It was found that the cortex was activated obviously in the calcarine cortex around occipital lobe stimulation of experimental group induced lower response in visual cortexin comparison with the control group stimulation. After refractive correction,stimulation of experimental group induced more response than before, but also lower than the control group. Additional response was found in the secondary visual cortex, the cuneus,the lingual gyrus. There is no linear correlation between the activated of visual cortex and the level of amblyopia Conclusions There are remarkable defects on diferent levels of visual codex in ametropic amblyopia.secondary visual cortex has more activated defects than

  15. 屈光参差性弱视儿童治愈后的双眼视觉研究%Binocular vision in cured anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 王京辉; 孙省利; 董芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the binocular vision change in cured anisometropic amblyopic children and normal children. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 74 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 74 normal children. Methods Binocular vision of 74 anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity ≥0.9 and 74 normal children were tested with synoptophore and stereogram designed by Yan Shao-ming. Main Outcome Measures Simultaneous perception, distance fusion range, distance qualitative stereopsis and near zero disparity. Results (1) Distance qualitative stereopsis in cured anisometropic amblyopic children was worse than normal children(χ2=11.331 ,P=0.001), simultaneous perception (χ2=1.855 ,P=0.173) and distance fusion range (χ2=1.012,P= 0.603) had little difference between them. (2) Near zero disparity in cured anisometropic amblyopic children was obviously worse than normal children (χ2=27.759,P=0.000). (3) The milder the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the improvement of the near zero disparity (χ2=17.116,P=0.009). While simultaneous perception (x2=0.879,P=0.644),distance fusion range(χ2=7.930,P= 0.094), distance qualitative stereopsis (χ2=2.854, P=0.240) had little difference. Conclusion Anisometropic amblyopia affects the development of stereoacuity critically. The stereoacuity of anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity ≥0.9 after treatment is still worse than normal children. The more severe the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the effect of the near zero disparity.%目的 了解屈光参差性弱视儿童治愈后双眼视觉状况.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象屈光参差性弱视儿童74例,正常儿童74例.方法 采用同视机和颜少明《立体视觉检查图》对74例经治疗矫正视力已≥0.9的屈光参差性弱视儿童和74例正常儿童的双眼视觉功能进行检测.主要指标同时知觉、远融合范围、定性

  16. 图形翻转视觉诱发电位诊治儿童屈光不正性弱视%Pattern reversal visual-evoked potential for the diagnosis and treatment of ametropic amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅; 项道满; 胡兰香

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the features of pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP) in children with myopic,hypermetropic and astigmatical amblyopia and the effect of treatment on PRVEP.Methods Ninty children (180 eyes) with amblyopia at 6 to 7 years of age were recruited from Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center between May 2009 and May 2011 and were assigned to myopic (n=30,60 eyes),hypermetropic (n=30,60 eyes) and astigmatical (n=30,60 eyes) amblyopia group respectively.Thirty normal healthy children (60 eyes) were served as normal controls.PR-VEP examination was undertaken for comparison on the latency period of P100 and changes in amplitude of P wave piror to and after treatment.Results Children with amblyopia were associated with prolonged latency period of P100 for PR-VEP and reduced amplitude of P wave as compared with normal controls.Children with myopic amblyopia possessed the longest latency period of P100 and the lowest amplitude of P wave (both P<0.05),followed by those with hypermetropic and astigmatical amblyopia (P>0.05 for between-group comparison).Shortened latency period of P100 and increased amplitude of P wave were noted after the treatment in children with amblyopia.The differences in pre-and post-treatment latency period of P100 and amplitude of P wave reached statistical significance among the three groups [for the difference in latency period:(2.640±0.009 ms vs (5.590±0.576)ms vs (6.989±2.229)ms,for the difference in amplitude of P wave:(0.929 ± 0.611) μV vs (2.595 ± 0.464) μV vs (2.575 ± 0.211) μV,all P<0.05].Children with myopic amblyopia were featured by the lowest difference in latency period and amplitude.Conclusion The fact that children with myopic amblyopia have the lowest difference in latency period and amplitude proves the refactory treatment.Asessment of PR-VEP is clinically important to the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 对比近视性、远视性、散光性弱视患儿治疗前后的图形翻转

  17. Observation on the curative effect of visual perceptual learning for juvenile ametropic amblyopia%视知觉学习治疗大龄屈光不正性弱视效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泉; 刘伟民; 肖信

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较基于互联网的视知觉学习系统和传统综合训练方法治疗大龄儿童弱视的疗效,分析其视力的变化,摸索儿童弱视有效的治疗方法.方法:选取广西壮族自治区人民医院收治的弱视患儿84例(160眼),应用基于互联网的视知觉学习系统和传统综合训练方法对大龄弱视儿童进行治疗,具体训练方案由医师基于患儿视觉表现的初始状态、功能低下的严重程度以及训练治疗过程中的进步来设计,视知觉学习系统组给予提高视觉噪声和轮廓整合、位置噪声等视觉训练方案,传统训练组采取红光、精细目力训练等治疗.观察两种方法在弱视治疗后1个月、3个月、9个月、12个月的视力变化.结果:视知觉训练系统组的总体疗效高于传统综合疗法组,不同程度屈光不正性弱视视知觉学习组的总体疗效高于传统综合疗法组,差异均有统计学意义.视知觉感知组视力提升速率明显高于传统组,视知觉感知组在疗程第6个月已有50%的患儿进入基本治愈的平台期,而传统组50%的患儿进入基本治愈平台期在第12个月.视知觉训练组治疗屈光不正性弱视平均训练17.14 h可提高一行视力,其中重度弱视所需时间最短(12.00h),轻度弱视所需时间最长(25.12 h).结论:基于互联网的视知觉学习系统提供了强烈的、活跃的、有反馈的个性化视觉刺激,对超过视觉发育敏感期的大龄儿童屈光不正性弱视的疗效优于传统综合疗法,缩短了视功能障碍治疗的周期.此新方法能在较短时间达到最佳治疗效果,为弱视的临床治疗提供了新的可行的途径.%Objective; To compare the curative effects of perceptual learning based on internet and traditional comprehensive training in treatment of juvenile amblyopia, analyze the change of visual acuity, explore an effective therapy for children with amblyopia. Methods; 84 children (160 eyes) were selected

  18. Stereoacuity and Amblyopia and Strabismus of Children in China%中国儿童的弱视、斜视与立体视锐度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙禄

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study is to discover a developing status of stereoacuity of normal Chinese pre-school children and the relationship between stereoacuity and sex (part l), and to observe the impairment of stereopsis of patients with amblyopia and strabismus in detail (part 2). Methods: In part 1, the random sampling were used. The stereoacuity of 473 normal children(232 boys and 241 girls)were studied. The subjects were tested with five screening items. In part 2, 122 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of amblyopia and strabismus seen in a ophthalmology clinic were enrolled. The general routine eye examination wereperformed. The Chinese Random-dot Stereograms were used in the study. Results: In part1 465 children (98.3%)passed the 120″level and 402(85.0%)passed the 60″tlevet. There wasno noticeable difference in the stereoacuity between the male and female pre-school children(p0.05). It is observed that_theimpairment of stereopsis due to concomitant esotropia is more severe than that due toconcomitant exotropia(p<0.01).Conclusion: The developing status of stereoaeuity of normalChinese pre-school children are good. The impairment of stereopsis of patients with amblyopiaand strabismus are severe.%目的:为中国正常学龄前儿童立体视功能发育提供重要的基本数据,并了解立体视与性别的关系;揭示弱视与斜视患者立体视损害的规律.方法:随机抽样测定473名(男232人,女241人)4~6岁正常儿童的立体视锐度.同时无选择地测定122例弱视与斜视门诊患者的立体视.结果:473名儿童中,465人(98.3%)通过120",402人(85%)通过60″,且无性别差异.122例患者中100人(82%)为立体视盲,弱视愈深,立体视愈差,其立体视损害与注视性质及斜视的发生有关(P<0.05),单、双眼弱视间无显著性差异(P>0.05),共同性内斜视患者的立体视损害较共同性外斜视者更重(P<0.01).结论:我国正常

  19. Efficacy of oral citicoline for amblyopia%口服胞二磷胆碱治疗弱视的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何昭燕; 王立华; 甘晓玲; 侯宝杰; 柳川

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of oral citieoline nn the treatment of amhlyopia. Methods About 80 monocular outpatients (80 eyes) with 3 to 9 years old,and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 40 nases(40 eyes) in each group. Patients in observation group ware taken oral of citicoline on the basis of the glasses, occlusion therapy for near vision; Patients in control group were only taken glasses, occlusion therapy for near vision. All patients were followed up for 3 months. Change of visual acuity was observed. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 70%, and the control group was 42.5%. There wasa statistical difference between the two groups (P=0.003). Conclusions Oral citicoline is safe and effective on the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 探讨口服胞二磷胆碱在弱视治疗中的临床效果.方法 选择80例(80只眼)3~9岁的弱视患者,随机分为观察组和对照组各40例(40只眼).观察组在传统治疗的基础上口服胞二磷胆碱,对照组为单纯传统治疗.比较两组患者治疗3个月后的视力变化情况.结果 观察组总有效率70.0%,对照组总有效率42.5%,两组差异有统计学意义(P=0.003).未见明显并发症.结论 口服胞二磷胆碱在弱视治疗中有效、安全.

  20. Effect of binocular vision in myopia and hyperopia amblyopia%近视性和远视性弱视视功能发育临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁诚; 魏盟; 魏承丽; 任静

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解近视性弱视和远视性弱视对双眼视功能发育的影响。方法:对50例经治疗后双眼矫正视力均达0.9以上的弱视患儿行双眼视功能检查。测量同时视、融合范围及远近立体视。根据患儿的屈光状态将患儿分为A组(近视组)20例、B组(远视组)30例。比较A、B两组同时视、融合和立体视差异。结果:近视组中存在同时视的15例(75%),集合融合范围正常的6例(30%),分开融合范围正常的16例(80%),有正常远立体视的7例(35%),有正常近立体视的6例(30%)。远视组中存在同时视的26例(87%),集合融合范围正常的7例(23%),分开融合范围正常的20例(67%),有正常远立体视的15例(50%),有正常近立体视的7例(23%)。50例患儿中存在正常远立体视的为22例(44%),正常近立体视13例(26%)。同时视在两组患儿之间的差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.454,P>0.05);集合性融合和分开性融合在两组患儿之间的差异也无统计学意义(χ2=0.565,P>0.05;χ2=0.740,P>0.05);远近立体视两组患儿差异也均无统计学意义(χ2=0.195,P>0.05;χ2=0.295, P>0.05)。结论:近视及远视因素对弱视患儿双眼视功能发育影响的差异不显著。弱视治疗后矫正视力正常的患儿短期内双眼视功能仍未完全恢复正常。%AlM:To investigate the visual function in myopia and hyperopia amblyopia whose corrected visual acuity have recovered to normal.METHODS: The visual function of children ( 50 cases ) with amblyopia eyes by binocular vision correction after treatment above 0. 9 was checked. The simultaneous perception, fusion range and distance stereopsis were measured. According to the refractive condition of the children who were divided into group A ( myopia, 20 cases ) and group B ( hyperopia, 30 cases ) . The statistically difference of simultaneous perception, fusion function and stereopsis in two groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen ( 75

  1. Painted compared to perforation for the treatment of ametropic amblyopia.%描画与穿孔治疗屈光不正性弱视疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄焱

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察描画与穿孔治疗弱视的疗效差异.方法 160例(320只弱视眼)患儿随机分组,比较两种方法的对视力提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 描画组与穿孔组使弱视眼视力进步的有效率及立体视锐度差异有统计学意义.结论在某些情况下穿孔更有利于患儿视力提升及双眼视力恢复.%Objective To compare the effect between painted and perforation for the treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods 160 children with ametropic amblyopia in-eluding therapy group, compared the effect the improvement of visual acuity and binocular vision between the two methods. Results While in improving binocular vision the differences are significant between the two methods. Conclusion The effect of the two methods in improving visual acuity perforation is the part surpasses and perforation is superior to painted in improving binocular vision.

  2. Clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens for refractoriness amblyopia%配戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜治疗难治性弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小燕; 张然

    2014-01-01

    AlM:To explore the clinical effects of using rigid gas permeable contact lens ( RGP ) for refractoriness amblyopia patients. METHODS: Ninety - eight cases ( 98 eyes ) were voluntarily divided into RGP group and frame glasses group, and the two groups were received the regularity combined training to treat amblyopia for 6mo. We overviewed the corrected vision (on that day, 1, 3, 6mo) and the complication in RGP group . RESULTS: The corrected vision in RGP group was obviously better than that in control group during the same time. The therapeutic efficacy in RGP group was better than that in frame glasses group, without serious complications at 6mo after treatment. CONCLUSlON: RGP groups could get better corrected visual acuity. lt is safe and effective to improve corrected vision for refractoriness amblyopia patients.%目的:研究硬性透气性角膜接触镜( RGP)在难治性弱视患配戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜治疗难治性弱视  者中的治疗效果。  方法:对98例98眼难治性弱视患者,根据自愿原则给以配戴RGP镜及继续配戴框架眼镜,并继续予以正规弱视训练6mo,观察两组的弱视治疗效果(当天,1,3,6mo矫正视力)及RGP组并发症。  结果:RGP组同期矫正视力较框架眼镜组提高明显;治疗6mo后,RGP组治疗效果明显优于框架眼镜组,且RGP组无严重并发症发生。  结论:对于治疗难治性弱视患者,配戴RGP比配戴框架眼镜能获得更好的矫正视力,是一种安全、有效的方法。

  3. Clinical study of using rigid gas permeable contact lens on adult amblyopia%硬性透气性角膜接触镜矫治成人弱视有效性及安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吟; 林伟; 吴峥峥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGP) on eyes with adult amblyopia.Methods Collected 23 eyes with adult amblyopia.Performed optometry and recorded the corrected visual acuity.Then performed RGP fitting on each eye, recording the corrected visual acuity as well.After that we let all the eyes wore RGP and observed them regularly for 3 months.Results The corrected visual acuity had been statistically significant improved when wearing RGP (t =6.103, P =0.00).There was no serious ocular complications.Conclusions Wearing RGP could obviously improve the corrected visual acuity eyes with adult amblyopia.%目的 观察硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGP)应用于成人弱视眼的安全性及有效性.方法 选取在四川省人民医院眼科于2013年8月至2014年8月就诊的16~24岁弱视者16例共23只眼,予以验配框架眼镜并进行弱视治疗2个月后,再分别对弱视眼进行RGP的验配,每日配戴RGP 10~12 h,于配戴后1d、1周、1、2、3个月复查镜片配适、裂隙灯、矫正视力,并与配戴框架眼镜时的矫正视力进行比较.结果 对比配戴框架眼镜,23只眼在配戴RGP后的矫正视力明显提高,差异具有统计学意义(t =6.103,P=0.00),并且未发现严重眼部并发症.结论 配戴RGP能提高成人弱视眼的矫正视力,安全有效,值得推广.

  4. Research progress of perceptual learning on the reconstruction of visual function in the patients with strabismus and amblyopia%感知觉学习对斜弱视患者视功能重建的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娟; 张黎

    2015-01-01

    斜视、弱视是临床上常见的眼病,国内外学者运用生物和计算机技术对斜弱视的病因、发病机制及治疗等进行了多方位探讨和研究,并取得了很大的进展。斜、弱视患者的双眼视功能分类研究能使人们能够全面、准确地理解斜弱视发生的神经机制及匹配的生物模型,对寻求斜弱视临床治疗和视功能重建的新途径有所帮助。本文介绍了感知觉学习的定义及机制,并重点探讨了影响感知觉学习效果的可能因素、感知觉学习治疗效果的持续时间及神经机制。该领域未来需要在斜弱视发病的神经机制、感知觉学习重建斜弱视视功能的具体机制、影响感知觉学习效果的因素等方面做进一步研究。近年来,人们对大脑神经可塑性及感知觉学习的研究越来越深入,并应用于临床,治疗斜弱视,重建斜弱视患者双眼视功能,取得了令人欣喜的效果,现将感知觉学习治疗相关的国内外研究进展综述如下。%Abstract•Strabismus and amblyopia are common clinical eye diseases. Chinese and international scholars have studied them with biotechnology and computer technology from many perspectives such as their pathogen, pathogenesis and treatment, and have made great progress. The categorical study of binocular visual function in patients with strabismus and amblyopia provides comprehensive and accurate insights on the neurological mechanism and corresponding biological model, which is conducive to discovering new methods for the clinical treatment of the diseases and reconstruction of visual function. This paper introduces the definition and mechanism of perceptual learning, and discusses the possible influence factors, the duration of the treatment effect and neural mechanism of perceptual learning. The further researches were needed on the aspects of the neural mechanism of strabismus and amblyopia, the specific mechanism of the

  5. 硬性透气角膜接触镜矫治儿童弱视的临床观察%Clinical effects of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses on amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱进; 杨冠; 徐玉红; 史建明; 熊国强; 祝鋆; 陈忆伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of using Rigid Gas-permeable( RGP ) contact lens in curing amblyopia in children. Methods 83 children who had been treated with amblyopiatrics for more than one year with no improvement were divided into two groups called RGP group & eyeglass frame group. RGP group with 41 amblyopia children 18 eyes of male,23 eyes of female, average age( 9.5 ± 3.1 )] wore RGP lenses while eyeglass frame group with 42 amblyopia children 20 eyes of male,22 eyes of female, average age( 9.3 ± 3.3 )] continued to wear eyeglass frames. Amblyopia therapy was given to both group. The effects of the treatment methods of three years were then compared. Results After three years, the corrected vision in both groups had improved. RGP group improved with an effective rate of 47.36% ( 27 eyes with 5.0 ) while eyeglass frame group improved with an effective rate only of 10% ( 6 eyes with 5.0 ). Results differed significantly between the two groups ( P <0.001 ). The vision of 26 eyes in RGP group had progressed with 4.58 line average, 92.98 % total effective rate while the vision of 24 eyes in eyeglass frame group were 1.96 line average,50% total effective rate. Results differed significantly between the two groups( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion Usine RGP provides a more effective way of treatment than wearing eyeglass frame.%目的 探讨硬性透气角膜接触镜(RGPCL)对儿童弱视的矫治作用.方法在明确诊断为弱视并已配戴框架眼镜辅以遮盖等其他方法治疗1年以上无效者中选取两组对象,其弱视主要原因为屈光因素,41例(57只眼)作为RGPCL配戴组,其中男18例,女23例,平均年龄为(9.5±3.1);同期42例(60只眼)继续配戴框架眼镜作为对照组,其中男20例,女22例,平均年龄为(9.3±3.3)岁;两组戴镜后继续辅以遮盖等弱视综合治疗,历时三年,观察其戴镜前后的矫正视力,比较两组疗效.结果 3年后两组病例的矫正视力都有提高,RGP组有27

  6. Avaliação da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e mácula em pacientes com ambliopia Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, macular thickness, in patients with amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mitre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em olhos amblíopes e comparar com olhos normais e certificar se há correlação com a redução da acuidade visual. Além disso, este estudo se propõe avaliar a eficácia e eficiência em uma série de casos do protótipo de um equipamento nacional de magnificação para leitura. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 pacientes na faixa etária entre 9 e 80 anos (17 do sexo masculino. Foi desenvolvido um aparelho portátil, patenteado pela Unifesp (PI#020050145260, com um sistema de captura de imagens acoplado a um monitor de 5,6 polegadas proporcionando um aumento de 15 x. Foram analisadas a eficácia da acuidade visual e a eficiência de leitura após a utilização do protótipo proposto. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes (20% apresentaram AV 8M, 12 pacientes (40% apresentaram AV 6M, 7 pacientes (23,3% apresentaram 5 M, 5 pacientes (16,7% apresentaram 4M. A média de acuidade visual antes da utilização do SLP medida pela tabela LHNV-1 logMAR foi de 5,75M e após a utilização 100% dos pacientes atingiram a eficácia de AV J1. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo do SLP mostrou-se um recurso alternativo no processo de inclusão social das pessoas com baixa visão com diferentes níveis de resíduo visual. Também pode proporcionar incentivo psicológico, permitir conforto, mobilidade e independência àqueles que necessitam de uma leitura mais prolongada e maior distância de trabalho.OBJECTIVE: To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFLand the macular thickness of the amblyopic eye with those of the non-amblyopic eye in patients with unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT. METHODS: OCT was performed for13 patients with unilateral amblyopia who had no neurologic disease. Nine male andfour female patients, whose ages ranged from 23 to 63 years, were enrolled in the study. The RNFL thickness average analysis program was used to evaluate mean

  7. Clinical efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia%眼部穴位按摩在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丽娇; 何碧华; 谢祥勇

    2013-01-01

    目的观察按摩眼部穴位在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的作用及疗效。方法对纳入标准的弱视儿童120例(224眼),按就诊日期单双号分为对照组60例(110眼),观察组60例(114眼)。两组均用1%阿托品滴眼后验光配镜,并采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗作为基础治疗。对照组采用补肝益肾、养血明目中药方眼部离子导入,每次导入15 min。观察组在中药眼部离子导入同时,予以眼部穴位按摩,10 min/次。两组均以3个月为1个疗程,治疗期间监测两组视力、起效时间及疗程长短。结果观察组总有效率为95.6%,对照组总有效率为91.8%,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但观察组起效时间快,疗程短于对照组。结论眼部穴位按摩配合基础治疗加中药眼部离子导入疗法,具有促进弱视眼视功能恢复的作用。%Objective To observe the efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia.Methods One hundred and twenty amblyopia patients (224 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 60 patients(110 eyes) and observation group with 60 patients(114 eyes).Both of two groups were got their eyeglasses by mydriatic refractometry after 1% atropine, and treated with occlusion and penalization .At the same time,control group were iontophoresed Chinese drugs each time 15 min, observation group were massaged the eye point each massage time 10 min after iontophoresing Chinese drugs , observing for 2 courses and 3 months made up of a course.The eyesight, onset time and duration were compared between the two groups .Results The effective rate for observation group was 95.6%,the control group 91.8%,showing that was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two groups.But the onset time and duration of observation group were better than that of control group . Conclusion Eye point massage has similar action with Chinese drug

  8. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  9. 弱视遮盖治疗对屈光度和立体视的影响%Changes of refraction and stereoscopic vision after dominant eye occlusion in amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少远; 张林娜

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes of refraction and stereoscopic vision after dominant eye occlusion in amblyopia.Methods:The refraction and stereoscopic vision of 62 patients were examined before and after dominant eye occlusion treatment.Results:The hyperopia of both eyes decreased after 2.5±1.7a treatment, while the amblyopic eye which was unpatched decreased more significantly. The stereoscopic vision improved after treatment.Conclusion:Suitable dominant eye occlusion won't affect the changes of refraction and stereoscopic vision in amblyopia.%目的:研究主眼遮盖对弱视儿童屈光度和立体视的影响。方法:动态分析经主眼遮盖法基本治愈的弱视62例治疗前后双眼屈光度和立体视的变化。结果:62例患儿平均遮盖主眼2.5±1.7年后,视力>0.8,基本治愈;治疗后双眼球镜度均较治疗前下降,未遮盖眼下降更明显;双眼柱镜度无显著变化,立体视功能改善与治疗前差异有显著性。结论:对弱视儿童主眼进行遮盖,未加速被遮盖眼的近视化,适当的遮盖治疗不会对立体视发育造成显著影响。

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  12. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to ...

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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    Full Text Available ... Lead joe.balintfy@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations afh@nei.nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ... comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

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  17. Visual cortical functional mediating stereopsis in children anisometropic amblyopia: evidence from fMRI%儿童屈光参差性弱视立体视觉中枢区激活的fMRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 燕振国; 马强华; 叶建军

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用血氧水平依赖性功能性磁共振成像(BOLD-fMRI)技术评价屈光参差性弱视儿童在规范弱视训练后,立体觉映射的脑皮层功能区的恢复情况.方法 自身前后对照研究.选择11例屈光参差性弱视初诊患儿,行任务态组块式(Blocks)设计的fMRI实验,在弱视治疗后1周、2周及4周时复查BOLD-fMRI.采用基于Matlab 7.12.0.635的SPM8软件包进行图像后处理,采用随机效应法分别获得各组脑皮层激活的矩阵数据,利用假设驱动法对各治疗阶段结果进行自身前后配对t 检验,获得治疗前后各组视皮层激活的差异数据.立体图像为计算机生成的随机点立体视觉检查图,通过配戴红蓝眼镜观察立体视图像,当识别立体视图像后迅速点按反馈键.结果 弱视训练至4周时,左侧枕叶(BA18)、枕中回(BA19)、边缘叶(BA19)及右侧枕叶舌回(BA17)和双侧顶上小叶(BA7)激活范围不同程度扩大,与治疗前的平均激活强度差异t值分别是1.636、1.902、1.727、1.350与1.777(P<0.01),但增进幅度偏小,且与随机点立体视图的恢复不平行.结论 儿童屈光参差性弱视对立体觉映射的脑皮层功能损害严重、短期恢复困难.%Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery about the visual cortex function of stereopsis in anisometropic amblyopia after regular amblyopia treatment with blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI techniques (BOLD-fMRI).Methods In this study,selfcontrolled study before and after treatment was used,and blocks-designed fMRI was performed on 11 children with first amblyopic treatment,and review BOLD-fMRI inspection after regular amblyopia treatment 1 week,2 weeks and 1 month.Functional MRI data were processed by using SPM8 which based on the MATLAB7.12.0.635.Random effect group analysis was performed in each group to acquire average cerebral cortex activated functional images data.Through the hypothesis drive method

  18. 中药离子导入配合穴位按摩对儿童弱视的图形视觉诱发电位的影响%The Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis plus Eye Point Massage for Change of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in Amblyopia Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧华; 谢祥勇; 韦丽娇; 唐勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on the change of pattern visual evoked potential P-VEP ) in amblyopia children. Methods One hundred and seventeen amblyopia patients( 198 eyes ) were randomly divided into control group with 58 patients( 97 eyes:79 eyes with ametropic amblyopia ,4 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 14 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ) and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 59 patients( 101 eyes:84 eyes with ametropic amblyopia,5 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 12 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise. The treatment group was given self-made Chinese herbs( pericarpium citri reticulatae viride, Semen Cassiae, chrysanthemum, borneol, Olibanum, Spearmint, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry, flowers carthami, Angelica sinensis,butterflybush flower,the root of red-rooted salvia,the seed of Chinese dodder,prepared rehmannia root ) iontophoresis plus eye point massage besides the methods mentioned above. Both groups were treated continually for 6 months. Results Before treatment, three types of amblyopia showed no significant difference in the PI 00 wave amplitude ( P100-A ) and latencyv P100-L ) of P-VEP between two groups( P >0. 05 ). After treatment, the increase of P100-A in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P <0.05 ),but P100-L shortened significantly compared with the controls( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage for amblyopia children can make P-VEP-P100 wave latency shortened and amplitude increased, and it is an effective method for the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 观察中药离子导入配合眼周穴位按摩对儿童的图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)的影响.方法 弱视儿童117例(198只眼)按随机数字表法分为对照组58例(97只

  19. Amblyopia after unilateral infantile cataract extraction after six weeks of age Ambliopia no pós-operatório de catarata congênita unilateral operada após seis semanas de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ejzenbaum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine interocular grating acuity difference in children treated for unilateral infantile cataract. METHODS: A group of 27 children previously treated for unilateral infantile cataract, had their monocular visual acuity measured by sweep visual evoked potentials. Interocular grating acuity difference was calculated as the absolute subtraction of monocular acuity scores. Lens status, opacity severity and eye alignment were considered for analysis. RESULTS: Mean interocular grating acuity difference obtained from unilateral cataract patients was 0.58 ± 0.20 logMAR. This result was significantly larger than 0.10 logMAR used as normative data. Children with severe opacities had a more pronounced amblyopia than the moderate ones. No significant correlation between amblyopia and strabismus or aphakia was found. CONCLUSIONS: Interocular acuity difference in this group of unilateral congenital cataract was more pronounced than previous reports, mainly because of delay in diagnosis, surgery and optical correction.OBJETIVOS: Determinar a diferença interocular da acuidade visual de resolução de grades em crianças operadas de catarata congênita unilateral. MÉTODOS: Um grupo de 27 pacientes operados de catarata congênita unilateral tiveram mensurada sua acuidade visual monocular pelo potencial visual evocado de varredura. A diferença interocular foi calculada pela subtração absoluta das acuidades monoculares. A intensidade da opacificação, implante ou não de lente intraocular e presença de estrabismo foram consideradas para análise. RESULTADOS: A média da diferença interocular foi de 0,58 ± 0,20 logMAR. Esse resultado foi significantemente maior que 0,10 logMAR, valor considerado como média normal nos estudos normativos. Crianças com opacidades intensas tiveram ambliopia mais pronunciada que os casos moderados. Não houve correlação significante entre a intensidade da ambliopia com estrabismo e afacia. CONCLUSÕES: A

  20. 经MRI研究屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度%MRI study on the cortical thickness of occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜寒剑; 王健; 黎川; 张久权; 陈利; 刘波

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study cortical thickness of the occipital lobe in children with ametropic amblyopia by using MRI technique and the FreeSurfer software.MethOds Nine children with ametropic amblyopia were included in the amblyopic group and 8 normal children were included in the control group.All the children underwent brain MRI on the Siemens Avanto 1.5 T scanner.For the cortical thickness analysis,3-demensional MPRAGE images were collected and analyzed with FreeSurfer software package.Cortical thickness of related regions in the occipital lobe (including the cuneus,later occipital,lingual,and pericalcarine gyri) were recorded and compared. Results The cortical thickness of the lingual,pericalcarine gyri on the left hemisphere and the cuneus,lateraloccipital,lingual gyri on the right hemisphere in amblyopic group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Morphological changes existed in the occipital lobe in ametropic amblyopic children.The analysis technique with the FreeSurfer package has a potential value in the clinical application.%目的 探讨屈光不正性弱视患儿枕叶皮质厚度改变.方法 以1.5 T MR仪对9例屈光不正性弱视患儿及8名视力正常儿童进行全脑扫描,应用三维磁化准备快速梯度回波(3D MPRAGE)序列扫描,采集3D解剖数据,采用FreeSurfer软件进行处理分析.观察指标为双侧半球枕叶4个部位即楔叶、舌回、枕外侧叶和距状沟周边区的皮质厚度.结果 屈光不正性弱视患儿双侧半球舌回、左侧距状沟周边区、右侧半球楔叶及枕外侧叶皮质厚度与对照组相比均明显变薄(P<0.05).结论 屈光不正性弱视儿童枕叶皮质存在形态学改变;通过对MR的3D解剖数据分析可以无创性衡量屈光不正性弱视患儿视觉相关枕叶皮质发育情况,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  1. 中药离子导入联合常规疗法治疗小儿弱视的meta分析%Meta-Analysis on Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis Combined with Moderate Comprehensive Therapy for Children with Amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奥; 严兴科; 刘安国

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价中药离子导入联合常规综合疗法治疗小儿弱视的有效性。方法计算机检索1995年~2015年间计算机检索中国期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)、万方全文数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库、EMBASE数据库与美国医学文摘数据库(PubMed)中关于中药离子导入联合常规综合疗法治疗小儿弱视的临床文献,纳入中药离子导入联合常规综合疗法治疗小儿弱视与单纯常规综合疗法比较的随机对照试验(RCT)和临床对照试验(CCT),按照循证医学(Cochrane)系统评价的方法,逐一评价纳入研究的质量,并根据改良后 Jadad 评分量表对纳入文献进行评分,提取有效数据,采用 RevMan5.1统计软件进行 Meta 分析。结果10篇文献符合纳入标准,共计1809例病例。Meta分析显示中药离子导入联合常规综合疗法与单纯常规综合疗法总有效率比较,差异具有统计学意义[合并OR(固定效应模型)=5.90,95%可信区间为(4.06,8.57),Z=9.32,P<0.00001]。结论中药离子导入联合常规综合疗法治疗小儿弱视的总有效率优于单纯常规综合疗法,所以可以初步认为,中药离子联合常规综合疗法治疗小儿弱视有效;但鉴于高质量的随机对照研究支持的缺乏,以及文献发表偏倚的存在,尚需要更多设计良好的临床随机对照试验来进一步证实。%Objective To assess the evidence of efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis Combined with moderate methods for children with amblyopia.METHODS To search trials published randomized controlled trials(RCT)and controlled clinical trials (CCT) that evaluated the effect of Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis Combined with comprehensive therapy for children with amblyopia with moderate comprehensive therapy treatment were identified in 1995~2015 China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, SinoMed, EMBASE, and PubMed with computer. The methodological

  2. Effect of binocular vision after part-time occlusion therapy in amblyopia children%间断遮盖治疗儿童弱视对视功能发育影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠; 刘桂香; 马玉娜; 刘春莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察间断遮盖治疗对弱视患儿双眼视功能发育的影响.方法 对70例经治疗后双眼矫正视力均达0.9以上的弱视患儿行双眼视功能检查.测量同时视、融合范围及远近立体视.根据治疗过程中是否有遮盖史将患儿分为A(遮盖组)、B(不遮组)两组.统计A、B两组同时视、融合和立体视差异.结果 遮盖组中存在同时视的42人(91.3%),集合融合范围正常的2人(4.3%),分开融合范围正常的36人(78.3%),有正常远立体视的15人(32.6%),有正常近立体视的6人(13.0%).不遮组中存在同时视的23人(95.8%),集合融合范围正常的1人(4.2%),分开融合范围正常的17人(70.8%),有正常远立体视的10人(41.7%),有正常近立体视的3人(12.5%).70例患儿中存在正常远近立体视的各为25人(35.7%)、7人(10.0%).同时视在两组患儿之间的差异无统计学意义(x2=0.041,P=O.839);集合性融合和分开性融合在两组患儿之间的差异也无统计学意义(x2=0.156,P=0.693; x2=0.473,P=0.492);远近立体视两组患儿差异也均无统计学意义(x2=0.564,P=0.453;x2=0.004,P=0.949); 70例患儿正常远、近立体视获得率之间的差异具有统计学意义(x2=13.125,P=0.000).结论 弱视治疗后矫正视力正常的患儿短期内双眼视功能仍未完全恢复正常.间断遮盖优势眼治疗弱视不会对患儿双眼视功能发育造成显著的影响.%Objective To investigate the visual function after part-time occlusion therapy in amblyopia children whose corrected visual acuity recovered to normal. Methods Investigate the binocular vision of 70 cases amblyopia children whose corrected visual acuity had recovered to normal.According to whether patching dominant eye during treatment the children were divided into 2 groups (A and B).The statistically difference of simultaneous perception,fusion function and stereopsis in two groups was analyzed.Results Forty-two (91.3%) and 26 (95.8

  3. Effect of ametropic and anisometropic amblyopia on the development of children's stereoscopic function%儿童屈光不正性与屈光参差性弱视对立体视功能发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱芝; 刘桂香; 崔从先; 吴坤; 张爱华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the differences between ametropic and anisometropic amblyopia stereoscopic function of children with.Methods Sixty-three ametropic or anisometropic amblyopia children whose corrected visual acuity was recovered to normal were included.According to the result of retinoscopy after mydriasis in the first visit,the patients were divided into two groups:Group A (ametropia group,41 cases) and Group B (Anisometropia group,22 cases).In addition,according to first visit age of the children,they were divided into 3 groups:Group a (≥3 years old,7 cases),Group b (3 ~ 6 years old) 47 cases,and Group c (≥6 years old) 9 cases.Synoptophore and Yan Shaoming Stereoscopic Vision Control Chart were used to examine their far and near stereoscopic respectively.The statistically differences between far and near stereopsis were analyzed among the groups.Results Nineteen children owed the normal far stereoscopic and 5 owed the normal near stereoscopic among the 63 cases.Sixteen children (39.0%) of Groups A and three children (14.3%) of Groups B owned the normal far stereoscopic,and differences between the two groups showed statistical significance (P <0.05).Four (9.7%) children got the normal near stereoscopic in Group A,and one (4.5%) in Group B.Differences between the two groups did not show any significant (P >0.05).In the three groups of a,b,and c,the far stereoscopic differences between a and b and between a and c showed statistical significance (P <0.01,P <0.05),but the far stereoscopic difference between b and c has no significant (P >0.05).The near stereoscopic differences among the three groups had no significant (P >0.05).After treatment,among the 63 cases of amblyopia children 19 (30.2%) got the normal far stereoscopic vision and only five (7.9%) got the near stereoscopic vision,there were statistically significant difference between far and near stereoscopic vision (P < 0.01).Conclusions After treatment

  4. 压抑与遮盖在视感知疗法治疗学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视中的疗效比较研究%Comparison of the effect between penalization and occlusion in the perceptu al learning for treatm ent of scholo-age children with ani sometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔旻; 林泉; 赵武校; 刘伟民

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较研究视感知疗法在学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视中使用压抑与遮盖法的疗效。方法将78例(155眼)学龄期儿童屈光参差性弱视患者,分别行压抑(43例,85眼)和遮盖(35例,70眼)法矫正视力较好眼,使用视感知疗法治疗1年后应用统计学分析疗效。结果压抑法的疗效优于遮盖法(P<0.05),总有效率也高于遮盖法(P<0.05),在轻、中度弱视患者中,压抑法的疗效均优于遮盖法(P<0.05),而在重度患者中,两组疗效比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论在采用视感知疗法治疗学龄儿童屈光参差性弱视患者中,压抑法矫正视力的效果比遮盖法要好。%Obej ctive To compare the effect between penalization and occlusion in the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia .Methods In the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia ,85 eyes of 43 patients received the penalization ( penalization group) and 70 eyes of 35 patients received the occlusion(occlusion group).After 1 year researching was analyzed. Results The effects of the penalization group were better than the occlusion′s,the effects in both slight and moderate amblyopia of the penalization group also better than occlusion′s,their difference had the statistical significance ( P0.05 ) .Conclusion In the perceptual learning for treatment of school-age children with anisometropic amblyopia ,u-sing the penalization may have higher total effect than using the occlusion .

  5. Clinical Curative Effect Observation of Posterior Chamber Iol Implantation in Treatment of Adult Amblyopia%后房型人工晶体植入术治疗成人弱视临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珊容; 李元朝

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨有晶体眼成人屈光不正(弱视)患者植入后房型人工晶体术后的临床疗效。方法:15例(28只眼)成人高度近视弱视眼患者(屈光度球镜-8.50~21.5 D,柱镜-1.00~2.50 D),表面麻醉后行后房型人工晶体植入术,术后3个月随访观察。结果:术前角膜内皮计数(3121±135)个/mm2,眼压(15.0±4.5)mm Hg,术后角膜内皮计数(3100±151)个/mm2,眼压(20.0±2.5)mm Hg。100%术眼的最佳矫正视力保持不变或增加≥1行,术后裸眼视力≥1.0者为7.14%(1例,2只眼),术后裸眼视力较术前最佳矫正视力提高2行以上者为64.29%(18只眼),术后裸眼视力等同术前最佳矫正视力者为28.57%(5例,8只眼)。结论:后房型有晶体眼人工晶体植入是一种安全、有效的治疗成人高度近视弱视眼的手术方法。%Objective:To investigate clinical efficacy of implanted posterior chamber intraocular lens surgery in treatment of the adult phakic refractive errors(amblyopia).Method:15 cases(28 eyes)adult amblyopia patients with high myopia(spherical diopter-8.50-21.5 D,cylinder-1.00-2.50 D)were given intraocular lens implantation after topical anesthesia ,then followed up three months.Result:Preoperative corneal endothelial count was(3121±135)/mm2,intraocular pressure was(15.0±4.5)mm Hg, corneal endothelial count was(3100±151)/mm2,intraocular pressure was(20.0±2.5)mm Hg.100%best corrected visual acuity eye surgery remain unchanged or increase≥1 line,postoperative uncorrected visual acuity≥1.0 were 7.14%(n=1,2 eyes), postoperative uncorrected visual acuity compared with preoperative best corrected visual acuity improved 2 those above the line for 64.29%(18 eyes),postoperative uncorrected visual acuity before surgery best corrected visual acuity equal to 28.57%(5 cases, 8 eyes). Conclusion:Chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective surgical method for treating high

  6. Effect of cover adjustment on binocular vision function in children with anisometropic amblyopia%屈光参差性弱视患儿遮盖调节对双眼视功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凯

    2016-01-01

    Abstract• AIM: To explore and study the effect of cover adjustment on binocular visual function in children with anisometropic amblyopia.•METHODS: Forty -five children with anisometropic amblyopia of our hospital from July 2014 to April 2015 were as the study group, and treated by cover adjustment. Then 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected as the blank control group.The binocular visual function of the subjects was observed.• RESULTS: Before treatments, at 1 and 3mo after treatments, the positive rates of binocular fusion were respectively 62%, 76% and 87%, which at 3mo after treatments was significantly higher than that before treatments ( P 0.05 ) .Before treatments, at 1 and 3mo after treatments the numbers of children whose stereo visions were 3000 "~801"were respectively 26,13 and 2, and the numbers of children whose stereo visions were 800 "~401"were respectively 12,13 and 6;the numbers of children whose stereo visions were 400 "~101"were respectively 7,15 and 25 ;the numbers of children whose stereo visions were≤100"were respectively 0,4 and 12. Far apart from the point of rupture and the convergence function in the study group after treatments were improved and significantly higher than those in the control group ( both P0.05 ) . After cover adjustment treatment, the lag of binocular regulation significantly decreased than that before treatments ( P 0.05 ) .In the study group ( 45 cases with 90 eyes) 52 eyes were cured, 24 eyes improved, 14 eyes ineffective;the total effective rate was 84%.• CONCLUSION: Cover adjustment has some improvement effect on binocular visual function in children with anisometropic amblyopia.%目的:探讨屈光参差性弱视患儿遮盖调节对双眼视功能的影响。方法:选取2014-07/2015-04在我院医治的屈光参差性弱视患儿45例作为研究组,应用遮盖治疗,同期选取40例志愿健康者作为空白对照组,观察受试者的双眼视功能情况。结

  7. Analysis on the effect of stereopsis deficit on visual function of amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia%立体视觉缺损对弱视儿童弱视眼视功能的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴居正; 王丽萍; 陈宏; 孙朝晖

    2012-01-01

    目的:探究立体视觉缺损对弱视儿童弱视眼的视力、游标视力及对比敏感度的影响.方法:采集了257例弱视患者的立体视觉及弱视眼的视力、游标视力、边界对比敏感度和光栅视力数据,并用SPSS及MatLab软件进行统计分析.结果:①在相同的光栅视力水平下,成人弱视中有立体视觉组(立体视≤800 s)弱视眼的视力、游标视力和边界对比敏感度与无立体视觉组(立体视> 800 s)相比,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000 4,P=0.006 2,P=0.031 8);②在相同的光栅视力水平下,弱视儿童中有立体视觉组弱视眼的视力与无立体视觉组相比,差异有统计学意义(P =0.000 2);③在相同的光栅视力水平下,弱视儿童中有立体视觉组弱视眼的游标视力、边界对比敏感度与无立体视觉组相比,差异无统计学意义(P=0.115 8,P=0.260 2).结论:弱视儿童弱视眼的视力在无立体视觉的情况下缺损更严重,而游标视力和对比敏感度无显著的变化.但在视觉发育敏感期后,无立体视觉的弱视患者弱视眼的游标视力显著差于有立体视觉的患者.因此,在弱视的治疗过程中,对于无立体视觉的患儿,当弱视眼的视力恢复到一定水平后,应该积极配合立体视觉训练,以助于弱视眼的康复.%Objective; To explore the effect of stereopsis deficit on visual acuity, vernier acuity, and contrast sensitivity of anibly-opic eye in children with amblyopia. Methods: The data of stereoscopic vision, visual acuity, vernier acuity, and edge contrast sensitivity of amblyopic eye, and grating vision of 257 patients with amblyopia were collected, SPSS and MatLab software were used for statistical analysis. Results: Under the circumstance of the same grating vision, there was statistically significant difference in the visual acuity, vernier acuity, and edge contrast sensitivity of amblyopic eye between the adults in stereoscopic vision group (stereoscopic vision ≤800

  8. Analysis of the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials in different age groups of children with ametropic amblyopia%年龄对屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓东; 邸悦; 唐小菁

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位(PVEP)检测结果的特点及年龄对其的影响.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.等效球镜为远视的屈光不正性弱视患儿92例(184眼),按最佳矫正视力0.8~0.6、0.5~0.2、≤0.1三个级别分为轻度弱视组108眼,中度弱视组65眼,重度弱视组11眼.每组又以6岁为界进行分组,分为<6岁组和≥6岁组.采用视觉电生理检查系统检测PVEP,对弱视组间差异行单因素方差分析,同一程度弱视组中的不同年龄组间行独立样本t检验,比较不同弱视程度组间及不同年龄组间P100波潜伏期(LP100)及振幅(AP100)的差异.结果 随弱视程度加重,PVEP的LP100延长,三组间差异有统计学意义(F=151.30,P<0.01),两两间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).三组间AP100差异有统计学意义(F=13.59,P<0.05),两两比较示,重度组的AP100明显较其余两组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),中度组较轻度组低,但差异无统计学意义.轻度组中,年龄≥6岁组与<6岁组比较,LP100明显延长,AP100降低,差异有统计学意义(t=5.08、7.45,P<0.01);中度组也呈类似表现(t=4.68、4.27,P<0.01);重度组结果类似,但由于例数少,未进行统计分析.结论 PVEP的LP100、AP100可作为衡量儿童屈光不正性弱视严重程度的客观指标,同时对结果进行分析时应充分考虑年龄的影响.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEPs) and the effect of age in children with ametropic amblyopia.Methods Ninety-two children (184 eyes) with hyperopic amblyopia (spherical equivalent refractions) were analyzed retrospectively.Subjects were categorized into three groups based on the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA): mild amblyopia group (0.8-0.6),108 eyes; moderate amblyopia group (0.5-0.2),65 eyes; severe amblyopia group (BCVA≤0.1),11 eyes.Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on age: <6 years

  9. 扩散张量成像(DTI)及其在视觉发育和弱视研究中的应用%Diffusion tensor imaging(DTI) and its application in visual development and amblyopia research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    植俊杰; 邢咏新; 严宏; 陈军

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging(DTI) is an efficient and noninvasive tool to investigate the characteristics and functions of white matter fiber tracts,and it can be used to study the relationship between the structure and function in the nervous system,the plasticity and damage repair of visual development,abnormalities of the white matters that relate to the visual pathways.Recently,the quantification of white matter fiber tracts from the lateral geniculate bodies to the occipital lobe visual cortex using DTI offers morphological information for the function and structure of the white matters during visual development.Some studies attempt to compare the DTI outcomes and tractography between amblyopic children and normal children so as to better display the variations of optic radiation in children with amblyopia,and to evaluate the relationship between structure and function of the white matters.DTI becomes an important supplementary research approach in these fields.This paper reviews the application of DTI in visual development and amblyopic eyes.%磁共振扩散张量成像(DTI )能非侵入性地观察脑白质纤维束的特性和功能变化,用于研究神经系统结构和功能的关系、视觉发育的可塑性及其损伤修复、弱视与视觉通路有关的脑白质结构和功能异常等.利用DTI可量化从外侧膝状体到枕叶视皮质等各个层次的脑白质纤维束,从形态学方面观察视觉发育与脑白质结构之间的关系;经对比弱视儿童和正常儿童DTI图像及束成像分析弱视儿童视放射的变化,探讨弱视与脑白质相关的结构和功能间的关系.DTI逐渐成为此研究领域重要的辅助手段,就DTI及其在视觉发育和弱视研究中的应用进行综述.

  10. 不同注视性质弱视治愈前后立体视的变化%CHANGES OF STEREOPSIS IN PATIENTS WITH AMBLYOPIA OF DIFFERENT FIXATION PATTERN BEFORE AND AFTER THE CURE OF VISUAL ACUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凤; 刘桂香

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of stereopsis in patients with amblyopia of different fixation pattern (ADFP) before and after the cure and the association between fixation pattern and the recovery of stereopsis. Methods YAN's near stereoscopic chart and random dot synoptophore stereogram were used to examine the near and far stereoacuity, respectively, in 281 children with ADFP before and after the cure of the disease. Results After the cure, both near and far stereoacuity were significantly improved (x2 = 6.116-40.772, P<0.01 ) ; both before and after the cure, the detection rate of far stereoacuity was higher than that of the near stereoacuity (x2 = 9.599, 20. 894;P<0.05). The difference of recovery of near and far atereoacuity among different ADFP was not significant (x2 =0. 350,0. 096;P>0. 05). Conclusion During the course of therapy for patients with ADFP, functional exercise for both eyes should be carried out, the prognosis of stereoacuity was not obviously different among different fixation pattern.%目的 探讨不同注视性质的弱视治愈前后立体视变化以及注视性质与立体视恢复关系.方法 采用颜少明和同视机随机点立体视图片(定性画片),检测281例不同注视性质弱视病儿治愈前后近立体视和远立体视.结果 弱视治愈后近、远立体视均有明显的改善(X2=6.116~40.772,P0.05).结论 不同注视性质的弱视在治疗过程中均需积极进行双眼视功能锻炼.其立体视觉预后没有明显不同.

  11. Expression of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex in visual developing normal cat and strabismic amblyopia cat%NogoA在视觉发育期正常猫和斜视性弱视猫视皮层21a区的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭珍; 刘冰; 林锦镛; 赵堪兴

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of the molecular mechanism of visual plasticity is helpful for the explaining and prevention of strabismus and amblyopia.The effect and significance of NogoA in the strabismus and amblyopia formation are attracting more attention. Objective The present study was to investigate the expression of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex in strabismic-induced amblyopia cats and explore the possible molecular mechanism of strabismic-induced amblyopia. Methods Sixteen 4-week old clean cats were randomizedly divided into normal group and strabismic-induced amblyopia group and eight for each group.The strabismic-induced amblyopia models were created by cutting off the external rectus in 8 cats.Pattern visual evoked potentials ( P-VEP ) were recorded 1 week after operation and compared with normal cats,and depression of amplitude and prolongation of implied time of P100 wave were as the successful criterion of model.The 200 ml paraformaldehyde was infused via heart to fax the brain under the deep anesthesia and then the cats were sacrificed and the brain cortex sections were prepared.The morphology of 21a zone of cat visual cortex was examined by haematoxylin and eosin staining,and the expressions of NogoA in 21a area of visual cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antiNogoA antibody.The use of the animals complied with the Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by State Science and Technology Commission. Results The implied time and amplitude ratio of VEP P100 wave were (98.10±7.07)ms and (0.83±0.14) in normal group,and those in strabismic-induced amblyopia group were (108.50±6.95 )ms and (0.35 ±0.09 ),showing significant differences between two groups (t=4.450,P=0.005 ; t =5.970,P =0.005 ).The numbers of neurons were similar in 21a area of visual cortex between the two groups,but the volume of the neurons was lessen in strabismic-induced amblyopia group.The positive cell densities for Nogo

  12. Efficacy of citicoline combined with physical therapy for amblyopia%胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春敏; 陈明利

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胞二磷胆碱联合配镜、遮盖疗法、视近训练治疗弱视的临床效果.方法 选择弱视门诊单眼患者8~16岁的268例(268眼),并随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各134例(134眼).观察组在配镜、遮盖、视近训练物理疗法的基础上联合胞二磷胆碱患眼颞浅动脉旁皮下注射,时照组只用配镜、遮盖疗法物理疗法.随访3个月,观察视力并比较视网膜中央动脉收缩期峰值流速(peak systolic velocity,PSV)及舒张期阻力指数(diastolic resistance index,RI)变化情况.结果 观察组134眼总有效率69.40%(93眼),对照组134眼有效率38.81%(53眼).观察组中轻度、中度、重度弱视患者有效率分别为80.00%、65.52%、43.75%,对照组为50.00%、34.48%、12.50%,2组比较差异均有统计学意义(均为P<0.05).观察组注射胞二磷胆碱后30 min、1 h、复查时PSV分别为:(9.61±O.75)mm·s-1、(9.95±0.78)mm·s-1、(9.53±0.65)mm·s-1,较注射前(8.32±0.69)mm·s-1增高(均为P<0.05).观察组不同时段RI值相比较,差异均无统计学意义(均为P>0.05).结论 胞二磷胆碱联合配镜、遮盖疗法、视近训练治疗大龄弱视儿童能同时提高弱视眼和健眼视力,并且安全有效.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of citicoline combined glasses,occlusion therapy and training for near vision on the treatment of amblyopia. Methods About 268 monocular outpatients(268 eyes)with 8 to 16 years old,and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 134 cases(134 eyes) in each group. Patients in observation group were taken subcutaneous injection of citicoline next to superficial temporal artery on the basis of the glasses,occlusion therapy and physical therapy for near vision; Patients in control group were only taken glasses and occlusion therapy. All patients were followed up for 3 months. Changes of visual a-cuity .retinal artery peak systolic velocity(PSV) and diastolic resistance

  13. 以FreeSurfer活体测量屈光参差性弱视枕叶皮质形态学改变的MRI研究%MRI Study on Gray Matter Volume Change in Occipital Lobe in Vivo of Anisometropic Amblyopia with FreeSurfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周扬; 姜召福; 鲁冰; 孔丽丽; 陈玉飞; 王玉东; 王金财; 崔巍; 赵洪全

    2014-01-01

    目的运用磁共振技术及FreeSurfer软件,对屈光参差性弱视患者枕叶皮层灰质进行分割测量。方法以1.5T磁共振对11例屈光参差性弱视患儿及11例视力正常儿童进行全脑扫描,应用三维磁化准备快速递度回波序列采集三维解剖数据,采用FreeSurfer软件进行处理分析。结果弱视患儿双侧枕叶灰质容积与对照组分别进行独立样本检验,其结果分别为P=2.618,P=0.016;P=2.515,P=0.021,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论 FreeSurfer对磁共振三维解剖数据的后处理可以无创性、活体测量枕叶灰质容积,屈光参差性弱视枕叶灰质容积较视力正常者降低。%Objective Using MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) technique and the FreeSurfer software package to research the occipital lobe's gray mat er volume (GMV) change in children with Anisometropic amblyopia. Methods 11 normal sighted children and 11 children with Anisometropic amblyopia undertook MRI scans. The two groups were age-matched. Standard T1-weighted high-resolution anatomic scans with 3D-MPRAGE (three dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences were obtained for each subject.The 3-demension data were analyzed using FreeSurfer software . After inflated the brain cortex of the patients and normal groups , gray mat er volume in bilateral occipital lobe and ICV (the estimate total intracranial volume)were calculated. The statistic analyses of the data between the two groups were performed with the student t test. Results The patients of Anisometropic amblyopia showed a significant decrease in gray mat er volume compared with healthy controls:t=2.618,P=0.016;t=2.515,P=0.021 ( P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that gray mat er volume is smal er in patients of anisometropic amblyopia compared with healthy controls;Through FreeSurfer analysis, we could observe the morphological variation of the occipital lobe without invasive.

  14. 屈光参差性弱视儿童色觉中枢激活范围的 BOLD-fMRI初步研究%Visual cortex activation range of color vision with BOLD-fMRI in anisometropia amblyopia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠芳; 燕振国

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the recovery of visual cortex activation range of color vision in anisometropia amblyopia children after treatment by using blood oxygen level dependence-functional magnetic resonance imaging ( BOLD- fMRI ) and SPM8 software. METHODS:Self-control study. This fMRI study directly compared activity in visual cortex produced by color monocular stimulation in 13 monocular anisometropia amblyopia children. The project of study was blocked design. The data of functions and anatomical MRI was stimulated by three-primary colors and was preprocessed and analyzed by SPM8 that based on MATLAB software. According to the data, we compared the change of the central area of color vision when first visit and 1, 2 ,4wk after treatment. RESULTS: The BA17, BA18, BA19 and BA37 of amblyopia children were different activated after they accepted the three-primary colors stimulation (P CONCLUSION: After 4wk treatment, visual cortex activation of color vision of anisometropia amblyopic children is expanded, but with low extent, after the short-term treatment of amblyopia, visual cortex activation of color vision has a certain degree of recovery but not obvious.%目的:利用血氧水平依赖性功能磁共振成像( blood oxygen level dependence-functional magnetic resonance imaging, BOLD-fMRI)及SPM8软件研究分析经过系统治疗后屈光参差性弱视儿童色觉中枢激活区域的恢复情况。  方法:自身前后对照研究。利用3.0T超导磁共振采集13例屈光参差性弱视儿童色觉中枢激活区域的试验数据,采用组块设计方案,以三原色作为刺激源获取色觉皮层激活区功能核磁共振数据,应用基于MATLAB 软件下的运行的SPM8对数据进行预处理及分析,对比初诊、治疗1,2,4 wk后色觉中枢激活区域的变化。  结果:弱视初诊患儿接受三原色刺激后, BA17, BA18, BA19,BA37均有不同范围的激活(P  结论:经过4 wk的系统治疗后屈光参差性弱视儿童

  15. Tratamento do coloboma de pálpebra superior pela técnica de Cutler-Beard e sua associação com ambliopia: relato de caso Upper eyelid coloboma treatment with the Cutler-Beard technique and its association with amblyopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bezerra de Menezes Reiff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato é apresentado um caso de coloboma congênito de pálpebra superior reconstruído por meio de retalho de transposição de pálpebra inferior (retalho de Cutler-Beard, com bom resultado estético e funcional. A paciente apresentou como complicação o desenvolvimento de ambliopia por privação de imagem (em função do período de oclusão visual, entre a primeira e a segunda intervenção cirúrgica, que respondeu adequadamente à terapêutica instituída. Realizou-se revisão bibliográfica, comentando-se os princípios que regem a reconstrução de defeitos da pálpebra superior, mostrando vantagens e desvantagens de cada técnica e levantou-se discussão quanto ao melhor método de reconstrução nos recém-nascidos, em função dos riscos da ocorrência de ambliopia.The authors present a case of a large congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid which was reconstructed through a transposition flap from the lower eyelid (Cutler-Beard technique, with good esthetic and functional result. The patient presented as a complication, development of deprivation amblyopia, (as a result of the time of visual axis occlusion between the first and second operation, which was solved utilizing appropriate therapy. A bibliographic review was made and the principles that rule the treatment of upper eyelid defects were commented, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Discussion was raised about the best method of reconstruction in newborns, facing the risks of occurrence of amblyopia.

  16. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVE: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods (ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  17. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    utilizado para avaliar o estado de visão das crianças brasileiras e seria útil que essa avaliação fosse um marcador estatístico do SUS.OBJECTIVES: To determine amblyogenic factors and amblyopia prevalence in a Health Family assisted community área of Lapa (RJ; and to estimate in the same area the sensiblity and specificity among visual acuity methods ( ETDRS versus LEA optotypes in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross section study of 93 children from three to six years old. All the children were submitted to complete ophthalmological evaluation which included: anamnesis, ectoscopy, double blind visual acuity measurements with LEA and ETDRS optotypes, red reflex, Titmus Test, objective cycloplegic refraction, subjective refraction, ocular motility evaluation, anterior segment biomicroscopy, fundoscopy. The data were collected in Ronaldo Gazolla Policlinic of Estacio de Sá University. RESULTS: The amblyogenic factors prevalence were : 8,4% of strabismus, 11,86% of anisometropia and 15,2% of ametropia. The ETDRS visual acuity test had 100% of sensibility and 18% of specificity for amblyopia detection. Lea visual acuity test had 100% sensibility and 30,9% specificity for amblyopia detection. CONCLUSION: Both optotype tests ETDRS and LEA can be used for amblyopia screening because they had 100% sensibility. The specificity was higher for LEA optotypes. However, the specificity still remained in a low level. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the visual acuity screening with a complete ophthalmological exam in the individuals screened to have amblyopia. Visual screening performed by Health Community Agents could identify children with visual acuity problems, and they could be referred to an ophthalmological complete exam, in an age group that visual acuity problems resolution is a priority. Helth Family Program can be used to evaluate visual acuity children status and it would be useful that this evaluation could be a statiscal SUS mark.

  18. Expression of mGluR1 at primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat and the observing of ultrastructure%代谢性谷氨酸受体1在单眼形觉剥夺弱视大鼠视皮质17区的表达及超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗青; 刘向玲; 穆雅林; 刘爱琴; 李晓鹏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the regulation of expression of mGluR1 and the changes of neuron ultrastructure at primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat within cortical period.Methods Taking randomized concurrent controlled trail.Establishing the model of monocular deprivation amblyopia rat.After proving the model successful by PVEP,all of the rats were randomly divided into three groups:normal visual cortex,experimental visual cortex and experimental opposite visual cortex.Immunocytochemical technology,electron microscope,photography microscope,computer image analysis,SPSS 11.5 and ANOV were used to get the resuhs.Results Compared with the layer Ⅳ of normal visual cortex and experimental opposite visual cortex,the area of immunopositive neurons in layer Ⅳ of experimental visual cortex are deficiency.there is significant difference between them(P<0.01).There are no significant differences between the other four corresponding layers(P>0.05).Morphological abnormals were found in layer Ⅳ of experimental visual cortex by observing of ultrastructure.Conclusion The expression of mGluR1 in layer Ⅳ of primary visual cortex of monocular deprivation amblyopia is reduced.There are morphological abnormals happened in layer Ⅳ of primary visual cortex of monocular derivation amblyopia.Reduced afference of nerve pulse because of monocular deprivation leads to the expression difficiency of mGluR1 in layer Ⅳ of the primary visual cortex,then synaptic plasticity happened,then neurons atrophy occurred may be one of the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia.%目的 探讨视觉形成关键期内单眼形觉剥夺弱视大鼠初级视皮质17区中代谢性谷氨酸受体1(mGluR1)的表达规律及神经元超微结构变化,为临床上揭示弱视的病理机制及防治提供依据.方法 随机对照同期动物实验.方法是建立大鼠单眼形觉剥夺弱视模型,经图形视觉诱发电位检测证实造模成功后,与正常对照组大鼠一起灌注

  19. 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视立体视觉疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢祥勇; 詹勇华; 何碧华; 韦丽娇; 程子昂

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视的疗效及对立体视觉的影响.方法 将符合纳入标准的弱视儿童80例142只眼,随机分为对照组(40例70只眼)和中药导入治疗组(40例72只眼).对照组用1%阿托品滴眼液点眼后验光配镜,同时采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗;中药导入治疗组在戴镜、遮盖及精细作业的基础上,采用自拟中药方离子导入,并按摩眼部穴位,以3个月为1个疗程,连续治疗2个疗程.观察两组视力和立体视的变化.结果 中药导入治疗组总有效率97.27%,对照组总有效率为85.71%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),中药导入治疗组的立体视改善情况也好于对照组.结论 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视,不仅能提高治疗弱视的有效率,还可使治疗后弱视儿童的立体视觉得到有效建立,是一种较理想的治疗方式,值得临床推广应用.%OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia. METHODS Eighty amblyopia patients ( 142 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 40 patients (70 eyes)and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 40 patients (72 eyes). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise; the treatment group, besides the above mentioned methods, was given Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage. Both groups were treated continually for 2 courses of 6 months. The eyesight and stereoscopic vision were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The effective rate of treatment group was 97.27% while the control group was 85.71%. The difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.05).The improvement of stereoscopic vision of treatment group was better than that of control group. CONCLUSIONS The therapy of Chinese herbs

  20. 海丁格刷引导定位的后像仪对偏心注视性弱视的疗效研究%Research on the clinical efficacy of Haidinger brush guided and located afterimage amblyopic therapeutic apparatus in patients with eccentric fixation amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪灵芝; 施颖辉; 江龙飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of Haidinger brush guided and located afterimage amblyopic therapeutic apparatus in training of eccentric fixation amblyopia.Methods: 25 children with eccentric fixation amblyopia who received amblyopic training in outpatient department of the hospital were selected, the corrected visual acuity of 11 children was 0.2 ~ 0.5, and the corrected visual acuity of 14 children was below 0.1, the average corrected visual acuity was 0.178 0.A self - designed Haidinger brush guided and located afterimage amblyopic therapeutic apparatus was used for amblyopic training, the changes of corrected visual acuity and fixation property before and after the training were recorded.Results: There was significant difference in average corrected visual acuity before (0.178 0) and after the training (0.716 0) showed by paired t test (P <0.001 ).There was significant difference in fixation property before and after the training showed by non - parameter rank sum test.Conclusion: Haidinger brush guided and located afterimage amblyopic therapeutic apparatus is effective in the treatment of eccentric fixation amblyopia.%目的:探讨海丁格刷引导定位的后像弱视治疗仪用于偏心注视性弱视训练的疗效.方法:取该院门诊弱视训练患儿中偏心注视患者25例,其中矫正视力0.2~0.511例,矫正视力0.1以下14例,平均矫正视力为0.1780.应用本科室自行研究设计的海丁格刷引导定位的后像弱视治疗仪进行弱视训练,记录训练前后矫正视力的变化及注视性质的改变.结果:①采用配对t检验比较训练前后矫正视力变化,训练前平均矫正视力为0.178 0,训练后平均矫正视力为0.716 0,P<0.001,有统计学差异.②用非参数秩和检验比较训练前后注视性质的变化,P<0.001,有统计学差异.结论:海丁格刷引导定位的后像弱视治疗仪用于治疗偏心注视性弱视有显著疗效.

  1. Assessment of diagnostic value of age for meridional amblyopia with Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve%应用Logistic回归和ROC曲线评价患者年龄对儿童子午线性弱视诊断的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 许江涛; 蒋晓明; 周莹

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用Logistic多元回归分析和ROC曲线探讨年龄因素对诊断儿童子午线弱视有无影响.方法:研究对象为2008/2011年间在我院眼科门诊就诊,以散光为主要屈光异常并排除屈光参差及斜视的4~8岁儿童共1 005例1 910眼.采用Logistic多元回归分析年龄、性别、柱镜绝对值程度、球镜绝对值程度、散光类型对诊断子午线性弱视的影响,通过ROC曲线下面积(area under the ROC curve,AUC)分析进一步明确患者年龄因素对诊断子午线弱视的影响.结果:分别建立Logistic 回归模型1(包括性别、柱镜绝对值程度、球镜绝对值程度、散光类型四个变量)和模型2(前四个变量再加上年龄).两个模型的Logistic 回归分析都提示柱镜绝对值程度是诊断子午线性弱视的影响因素,模型2 的Logistic 回归分析同时提示年龄是诊断子午线性弱视的影响因素.模型1的AUC为0.64,模型2的AUC为0.74,两者比较有统计学差异(Por = 1. 00D and sphere < or = 3. 00D were present in one or both eyes. The difference of sphere between both eyes was less 1. 50D. The difference of astigmatism between both eyes was less 1. 00D. All astigmatism was calculated by the absolute value. By analyzing age, sex, astigmatism type, diopter of cylinder and diopter of sphere with Logistic regression, two mathematical models were established. Then the diagnostic efficacy of the model was assessed using the ROC curve.RESULTS: The model 1 included 4 parameters (sex, astigmatism type, diopter of cylinder and diopter of sphere). The model 2 included 5 parameters (the 4 parameters of the model 1 adding age). Using Logistic regression, the diopter of cylinder had an influence on the diagnosis of meridional amblyopia in two models. In model 2, age was another influencing factor on the diagnosis of meridional amblyopia. The model 1 area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0. 64, and the model 2 was 0.74. The area of model 2 was greater than the model 1

  2. 基于体素的形态测量学方法研究屈光参差性弱视患儿的相关区域脑结构%An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圣源; 张敬; 张权; 伊慧明; 张丽红; 李威; 张云亭

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用基于体素的形态测量学(VBM)分析屈光参差性弱视患者全脑灰、白质体积变化.方法 采用1.5 TMR扫描仪对12例屈光参差性弱视患儿和年龄、性别相匹配的12名正常志愿者行3D快速扰相梯度回波(FSPGR)序列的全脑扫描.原始数据用统计参数图(SPM)5软件进行处理.结果 与正常对照组相比,弱视组脑灰质体积减少的脑区包括右侧楔叶、双侧枕中下回、右侧额中回、左侧颞中回、右侧颞上回、右侧楔前叶、右侧中扣带回(差异脑区体素> 10个).弱视组脑灰质体积增多的脑区包括右侧小脑半球、右侧海马旁回、左侧中央前回、左侧额上回(差异脑区体素> 10个).与对照组比较,弱视组脑白质体积减少的脑区包括双侧视放射区、双侧内囊,以右侧为著(差异脑区体素>10).未见弱视组脑白质体积增多的脑区.结论 运用VBM方法可分析屈光参差性弱视患者全脑灰、白质体积变化,有助于从形态学的角度阐述屈光参差性弱视的可能神经机制.%Objective To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM).Methods Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR)sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system.Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)5.Results Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus,bilateral occipital gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus,left middle temporal gyrus,right superior temporal gyrus,right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus ( clusters > 10).The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus

  3. 单纯屈光矫正治疗儿童青少年屈光不正性弱视的疗效观察%Observation on the therapeutic effect of simple correction of refractive error for treatment of children and adolescents with ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄丽萍; 王平

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究双眼屈光不正性弱视患者单纯屈光矫正后的治疗效果.方法:根据国内最新弱视诊断标准,对确诊为双眼屈光不正性弱视患者58例(116 只眼)使用1%硫酸阿托品眼用凝胶点双眼,睫状肌麻痹后验光,按MPMVA原则根据患者年龄并结合患者限位(隐斜)给予全矫或保留生理性的远视度数,散光足矫,然后随访追踪患者戴镜后3、6个月及1年时的视力.结果:屈光矫正3个月时视力达到同龄儿童视力参考值下限的有57只眼(49.1%),6个月时有84只眼(72.4%),1年时有102只眼(87.9%).随访1年时视力平均提高(3.59±2.04)行,其中视力提高≥2行的弱视眼占90.5%(105只眼);100.0%(38只眼)中度远视患者、82.4%(28只眼)高度远视患者、83.3%(30只眼)远视散光患者以及75.0%(6只眼)混合散光患者达到同龄儿童视力参考值下限,50.0%(9只眼)≥8岁患者视力达1.0.结论:多数屈光不正性弱视患者仪通过单纯屈光矫正治疗可取得良好的治疗效果,准确的验光和正确的屈光矫正方法是提高这类弱视患者视力的关键.%Objective; To research the therapeutic effect of simple correction of refractive error for treatment of children and adolescents with ametropic amblyopia. Methods: According to the newest diagnostic criteria of amblyopia in China, 58 patients (116 eyes) who were diagnosed as bilateral ametropic amblyopia definitely were treated with eye dropping with 1% atropine sulphate gel, optometry was performed after cycloplegia; according to MPMVA principle, age, and eye position (heterophoria) , simple correction of refractive error was conducted or physiological hyperopia degree was conserved; at three months, six months, and one year after wearing glasses, eyesights of the patients were followed up. Results; At three months after simple correction of refractive error, 57 eyes reached the low limit of the normal reference of healthy children vision

  4. 胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视随机对照临床研究文献的Meta分析%A Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢家铭; 盛雪燕; 马重兵; 朱田田; 韩雅迪; 赵中亭; 严兴科

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence of efficacy of Citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia. METHODS Computer searched trials published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) that evaluated the effect of citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia compared with conventional treatment were identified in 1999~2014 China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Wanfang, and PubMed. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed based on the Jadad scale. Data synthesis was facilitated using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS Ten trials involving 1363 participants satisfied the minimum criteria for meta-analysis. The evidence showed that the total effective rate of treatment within the group receiving citicoline combined physical therapy was higher than that in conventional group;there were statistically significant differences between groups (polled fixed effets model (OR)=4.22,95%confidence interval (3.26 5.47), Z=10.96, P<0.00 01). CONCLUSIONS The total effective rate of citicoline combined physical therapy for amblyopia was significantly superior to conventional treatment, indicating that acupuncture was a promising treatment for amblyopia. However, due to the limited number of CCTs and RCTs, especially those of large sample size and multicenter randomized controlled studies that were quantitatively insufficient, more well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the effect.%目的:评价胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的有效性。方法计算机检索1999年~2014年间中国期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)、万方全文数据库、美国医学文摘数据库(PubMed)中关于胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视的临床文献,纳入胞二磷胆碱联合物理疗法治疗弱视与单纯物理治疗比较的随机对照试验(RCT)和临床对照试验(CCT),按照循证医学(Cochrane)系统评价的方法,逐一评价纳入研究的质量,

  5. A comparative study on visual acuity and stereopsis outcomes between perceptual learning based on cloud services and conventional therapy for amblyopia%基于云服务技术的视知觉训练与传统综合训练对改善弱视患儿视力和立体视功能的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤玮玮; 王潇潇; 陶黎明

    2016-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of spatial vision that results in both monocular and binocular deficits.Conventional therapy for amblyopia which focuses on monocular training can improve visual acuity.However,how to improve the binocular function,especially stereopsis is rarely studied.Objective This study was to evaluate the outcome of perceptual learning based on cloud services of improving stcreopsis and visual acuity for amblyopia.Methods A randomized-controlled clinical study was performed.One hundred and seven amblyopic patients (178 eyes) with the age of 5-18 years old were recruited in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from July 2013 to March 2014.The patients were randomized into the perceptual learning group and the conventional therapy group.A perceptual learning based on cloud services with computer under the best corrected visual acuity was carried out in the perceptual learning group with 30-day duration as a course for 5-6 cycles,and training feedback data was obtained after each cycle for the regulation of following treatment.The dominant eye was covered during the training process.In the conventional therapy group,a training regimen of health eye covering that combined with eyesight training of amblyopic eye was performed.The stereopsis and visual acuity of the patients were estimated after training.Written informed consent was obtained from the parents or custodians of the children before entering the cohort.Results The total effective rate of visual acuity improvement is significantly higher in the perceptual learning group than that in the conventional therapy group after training (Z =6.368,P=0.012).The mean stereopsis value of the amblyopic eyes in the perceptual learning group and the conventional therapy group was (127±53)" and (174±67)" after training,which was significantly higher than (273 ±95)" and (311 ±103)" before training,respectively,and the increasing range of the mean stereopsis was

  6. Efficacy of stereoscopic vision training in refractive amblyopic eye's visual function recovery after ambly-opia cure restoration%双眼同时视训练在屈光不正性弱视治愈后双眼视功能恢复中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁莹; 周园; 郭立云; 李跃祖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy of stereoscopic vision training in refractive amblyopic eyes visu-al function recovery after amblyopia cure restoration. Methods 122 refractive amblyopic children with corrected vi-sual acuity>0.9 after treatment were randomly divided into experimental group (61cases) and control group (61cas-es) . All patients were examined far stereo vision inspection with regard machine random dot stereogram, checked the stereo vision inspection by Yan Shao-ming " random three-dimensional control chart", and checked near-zero parallax, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity various stereopsis. The experimental group accepted the stereoscopic vision training by intelligent multi-dimensional training system for 3months. Control group conduct no stereoscopic vision training. Compared and analysised stereo visual function of two groups. Results The far stereopsis, near-zero parallax, crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity various stereopsis of the experimental group were significantly better than that of control group, P0.9的屈光不正性弱视患儿作为研究对象,随机分为试验组和对照组各61例,两组患者均应用同视机随机点立体图进行远立体视觉检查,颜少明《随机立体检查图》进行近立体视觉检查,并分别检测近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差各项立体视功能.试验组采用智能化多维训练系统进行立体视训练,治疗3月.对照组不进行立体视训练.对比两组患者的立体视功能情况.结果 试验组患儿的远立体视、近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差的各项指标,均显著优于对照组, P交叉视差>近零视差>非交叉视差.

  7. Amblyopia: Who Is at Risk for Lazy Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  8. Is age relevant for the success of treatment of anisometropic amblyopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan Neela

    2007-01-01

    A prospective cohort study of 200 anisometropic amblyopes was conducted. The patients were classified into two groups. Group A: Patients less than 12 years of age. This consisted of 144 (72%) patients, the average age being 7.77 years (±2.34, range 1 to 12). Group B: Patients more than 12 years of age. This comprised 56 (28%) patients, the average age being 19.8 years (±5.47, range 12 to 30). Criterion for success was defined as best corrected visual acuity of 20/4...

  9. The effect of prolonged monocular occlusion on latent nystagmus in the treatment of amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractWe recorded eye movements in 5 patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after 2 days of occlusion of the better eye. The slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was in general, before occlusion, lower when the better eye fixated but, after occlusion, lower when the worse eye fixate

  10. L-dopa methyl ester attenuates amblyopia-induced neuronal injury in visual cortex of amblyopic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Zhaoni; Zhang, Shijun; Lin, Xing; Huang, Renbin

    2013-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential anti-amblyopic effects of L-dopa methyl ester (LDME) on visual cortex area 17 in an amblyopic feline model induced by monocular vision deprivation. After LDME administration, pathophysiologic and ultrastructural observations were utilized to examine the morphological changes of nerve cells in visual cortex area 17. Dopamine (DA) and its metabolite contents in visual cortex area 17 were investigated through HPLC analysis. Apoptotic cells in visual cortex area 17 were evaluated by TUNEL assay. Additionally, the c-fos expression both at gene and protein levels was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. The contents of DA and its metabolites were elevated in visual cortex area 17. Neuronal rejuvenation which occurred in visual cortex area 17 was observed through anatomical and physiological assessments. Similarly, TUNEL results showed that neuronal apoptosis was inhibited in the visual cortex of amblyopic cats by both L-dopa and LDME therapies. Meanwhile, the c-fos expression was notably up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels by the treatments. These findings suggested that LDME treatment could effectively increase DA and its metabolite contents, and restrain the apoptotic process, as well as elevate the c-fos expression in nerve cells of visual cortex area 17. Taken together, LDME might ameliorate the functional cytoarchitecture in visual cortex area 17 through mechanisms that elevate DA content and increase endogenous c-fos expression, as well as inhibit neuronal lesion in visual cortex tissue.

  11. Multifocal electroretinogram in concomitant esotropic amblyopia%共同性内斜视弱视眼的多焦视网膜电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房学军; 谷丽英; 赵霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 与正常人多焦视网膜电图进行比较分析并探讨共同性内斜视弱视眼多焦视网膜电图特征.方法 采用德国Roland公司生产的RETI Scan多焦视觉电生理检查系统对13例20眼共同性内斜视弱视眼(研究组),10例20眼正常眼(正常对照组)进行检测,记录一阶反应的波形与数值,分析其5个环形视网膜区域的反应.结果 研究组3个环形视网膜区域环1、环2、环3的平均反应密度(75.06±22.68)nV·deg-2、(45.96±15.12)nV·deg-2、(32.24±9.49)nV·deg-2,低于正常组(136.15±29.08)nV·deg-2、(65.51±12.33)nV·deg-2、(43.15±11.02)nV·deg-2,振幅(1.12±0.41)μV、(0.89±0.27)μV、(0.89±0.38)μV、低于正常组(1.75±0.49)μV、(1.33±0.29)μV、(1.19±0.29)μV;潜伏期较正常人明显延长[研究组:(47.49±3.54)ms、(43.24±2.91)ms、(41.29±3.59)ms;对照组:(39.92±1.93)ms、(38.01±1.36)ms、(36.24±1.25)ms],2组环1、环2、环3相比差异有统计学意义(P均0.01),共同性内斜视弱视眼的视网膜损伤主要发生在黄斑区中心凹处.结论 共同性内斜视弱视眼的多焦视网膜电图反应密度与振幅均降低,潜伏期延长,黄斑中心凹处最为明显,说明共同性内斜视弱视的视网膜损害主要发生在黄斑区中心凹处,存在黄斑抑制,是中心视力损害的因素之一.

  12. The application of functional imaging technology in amblyopia research%功能性影像技术在弱视研究中的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁平; 王秦令

    2006-01-01

    利用影像学中功能性神经影像技术研究弱视的发病机制是近几年新兴的技术,它的发展将有关弱视发病机制的研究向前推进了一大步.现在的脑功能成像技术包括脑磁图(magnetoencephalography,MEG)、单光子发射计算机断层显像(single photon emission computed tomography,SPECT)、正电子发射型计算机断层显像(positron emission tomography,PET)以及功能磁共振(functional magnetic resonance imaging,fMRI)等.研究发现弱视患者的中枢的各项技术检测指标和正常人相比具有一定差异,袁明这些技术对于弱视中枢的研究具有一定价值,其应用是切实可行的,但现有的功能性神经影像技术还不能精确定位弱视中枢,现对这些影像技术作一综述.

  13. 双眼视训练治疗弱视的临床效果%Clinical effect of binocular vision training for amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 李春林

    2015-01-01

    目的:本研究旨在探讨双眼视功能综合功能训练疗法对于儿童弱视的治疗效果。方法:将本院眼科中心收治的78例(144眼)弱视儿童根据就诊顺序分为研究组39例(74眼)和对照组39例(70眼),对照组采用屈光不正矫正、遮盖疗法、光栅刺激、红光闪烁、视标训练治疗,研究组在此基础上加用同视机、网络版多媒体训练系统进行双眼视功能训练治疗,观察两组儿童在治疗3个疗程(30 d为1个疗程)后的视功能变化情况。结果:研究组轻度弱视儿童的治疗有效率96.97%、中度弱视儿童治疗有效率88.46%、研究组的总有效率86.49%分别显著的高于对照组的75.76%、56.52%、61.43%(P0.05)。治疗后研究组的立体视正常率78.38%显著的高于对照组的60.00%(P0.05). Atfer treatment, the study group of stereopsis normal rate of 78.38% was signiifcantly higher than that of the control group of 60.00% (P<0.05); atfer treatment study group and the control group of stereopsis of normal rate compared with those before treatment were significantly increased (P<0.05).Conclusion:Binocular visual functional training can improve the visual function of children.

  14. Interferon-alfa treatment of facial infantile haemangiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C.; Illum, N.; Jensen, H.;

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging......ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging...

  15. Paediatric cataract: challenges and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr P Vijayalakshmi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia should always be anticipated in children with unilateral cataract, asymmetrical bilateral cataracts (or where there is a delay between the first and second eye operation, or a delay of more than a year between diagnosis/ detection and surgery, cataracts with anisometropia or traumatic cataracts with corneal scars. When amblyopia is detected, occlusion therapy (eye patching must be instituted at the earliest opportunity. The patching regimen is the same with any strabismic amblyopia and sometimes needs to be aggressive at the start. It is crucial to explain the need for patching to the parents, since compliance is the greatest obstacle to the success of amblyopia treatment.

  16. Investigation Between the Diagnosis and Treatment in Children with Amblyopia and the Pattern Visual Evoked Potentia%儿童弱视的诊治与图形视觉诱发电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙平

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童弱视诊治与图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)之间的关系.方法:本组对70例(105只眼)弱视儿童在治疗前后分别进行P-VEP检测,同期对30例正常儿童检测,将资料进行对比、分析.结果:发现弱视儿童的P-VEP均有异常改变(潜伏期延长,幅值降低),治疗后P-VEP均有改善.结论:P-VEP是诊治弱视的可靠依据.

  17. Analysis of application of P-VEP in amblyopia treatment%图形视觉诱发电位在弱视治疗中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜素强; 夏光辉; 李秋果; 许玮琳

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨弱视儿童治疗前后图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)P100波变化.方法 选择43例(78眼)弱视儿童在治疗前后分别进行P-VEP检测,同期对30例正常儿童检测,将资料进行对比、分析.结果 发现弱视儿童P-VEP P100波振幅明显低于正常对照组,潜伏期则比正常对照组明显延长,结果差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01);弱视经治疗后P-VEP均有改善,重度弱视治疗前后结果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 P-VEP是诊断弱视的可靠依据.儿童弱视治疗过程中定期检查P-VEP,能评价治疗效果,指导下一步治疗.

  18. The investigation of Multifocal Visual Evoked Potentials in ametropic amblyopia of 36 children%36例屈光不正性弱视儿童多焦视诱发电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满晓飞; 林发森; 韩晓丽; 洪金针; 侯丽枫; 何青; 辜智强

    2002-01-01

    目的应用临床视觉电生理的方法对屈光不正性弱视眼视野各部位的视功能的损害进行探讨.方法采用德国Roland公司的RETIscan33-15多焦视觉电生理仪,选用Pattern-LT刺激方式,刺激图形选用CRT Combs,由61个六边形组成,每个六边形内均由黑白相间的小区填充,在刺激时作黑白翻转,每个六边形的刺激翻转分别由一个二极伪随机时间序列(m序列)控制,是随机和相互独立的,用RETI多焦电生理仪的分析软件提取FOK(一阶反应).共记录和分析了36例屈光不正性弱视儿童72眼,并与正常对照组儿童作比较.结果弱观眼N1-P1波振幅密度平均值和P1-N2波振幅平均值较正常组儿童在中央视野有下降,周边部分无明显异常,P1波潜伏期王均值与正常对照组儿童比较在视野各部分无明显异常.结论屈光不正性弱视眼在中央视野,部分视功能下降.

  19. 斜视性弱视儿童多焦视觉诱发电位的研究%A study of multifocal visual evoked potentials in strabismic amblyopia children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世斌; 万小钢; 林发森

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究斜视性弱视多焦视觉诱发电位特征,探讨弱视发病机制.方法 采用德国Roland公司的RETI scan3.15多焦视觉电生理仪,记录和分析了斜视性弱视儿童80眼,外斜43眼,内斜37眼,并与正常对照组儿童60眼作比较.结果 弱视眼N1 -P1波振幅密度平均值和P1-N2波振幅平均值较正常组儿童在中央视野有下降,随离心度增加,这种现象呈下降趋势.P1波潜伏期平均值无明显异常.正常组和各斜视性弱视组N1 -P1波振幅密度平均值:颞侧鼻侧.结论 斜视性弱视mfVEP中心区损害重于周边区,波形异常程度与弱视程度无关.内斜性弱视波形异常程度大于外斜性弱视.

  20. Correcting evaluation of rigid gas permeable contact lens for astigmatic amblyopia%硬性透气性角膜接触镜对散光性弱视的矫治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥臣; 石岩; 李云杰; 张慧卿; 牟国营

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价硬性透气性角膜接触镜(rigid gas per-meable contact lens,RGPCL)对儿童散光性弱视的矫治作用及其安全性.方法 选取框架眼镜矫治效果欠佳的儿童散光性弱视23例(46眼),其中,单纯远视性散光5眼,复合远视性散光23眼,复合近视性散光14眼.混合散光4眼.依据框架眼镜矫正视力分为轻度弱视组(13眼),中度弱视组(22眼),重度弱视组(11眼).所有患儿配戴高透气性RGPCL,随访12个月,观察其矫治作用.结果 配戴RGPCL即时,矫正视力较框架眼镜提高1~4行,平均(2.7±0.9)行,达到或超过5.0者7眼(15.22%).12个月后,28眼(60.87%)的矫正视力≥5.0,其中,轻度弱视组11眼(84.62%),中度弱视组17眼(77.27%),重度弱视组无一眼达到5.0.观察期内无严重角、结膜损伤以及感染等并发症发生,无因不能耐受而停戴者.结论 RGPCL对儿童散光性弱视的矫治是有效而安全的,框架眼镜矫治效果欠佳者可优先选择RGPCL.

  1. Curative effect of rigid gas permeable contact lens for adults with high ametropic amblyopia%RGP治疗成人高度屈光不正性弱视的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 郭颖卓

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨硬性透氧性角膜接触镜(rigid gas-permeable contact lenses,RGP)治疗成人高度屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法:对26例49眼成人高度屈光不正性弱视患者行RGP验配.随访观察6mo,回顾性分析其疗效.结果:患者戴镜前屈光度球镜-14.90±4.95D,散光-2.59±1.60D,框架眼镜最佳矫正视力平均4.64±0.16.首次配戴RGP后最佳矫正视力为4.79±0.17,经配对t检验,差异具有显著统计学意义(t=-8.999,P<0.01);配戴1,3,6mo后,矫正视力保持稳定,未见下降,视觉质量满意.镜片配适良好,未见角结膜严重并发症.结论:RGP为成人高度屈光不正性弱视提供了优质的视觉矫正效果,可进一步推广.

  2. The evaluation of using rigid gas permeable lens to cure anisometropic amblyopia by VEP%RGP镜矫正屈光参差性弱视的视觉诱发电位评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 乔岗; 王晓莉; 胡春洋; 胡波

    2007-01-01

    目的 分析高透氧硬性角膜接触镜(Rigid gas permeable contact lens,RGP)联合常规弱视治疗干预屈光参差性弱视眼前后的视觉诱发电位(VEP)变化规律,探讨RPG增强常规弱视治疗对屈光参差性弱视疗效的相关机理.方法 将2003年1月~2004年12月在我科门诊诊断为屈光参差性弱视患者43例,随机分为A、B两组,A组22人,B组21人,A组配戴高透氧硬性角膜接触镜,B组配戴框架眼镜,戴镜后两组同时进行正规弱视综合治疗,对比观察两组治疗3个月、6个月后视力、立体视、VEP等的变化.结果 3个月后,两组裸眼和矫正视力均有不同程度提高,A组有效率达77.3%,平均提高2.01行,B组有效率达14.3%.VEP异常发生率B组多于A组,两组疗效有显著性差异.6个月后,A组有20例裸眼和矫正视力均有不同程度提高,有效率达90.91%,平均提高2.35行,B组4例矫正视力提高,有效率达19.04%,VEP异常发生率B组明显多于A组,两组疗效有显著性差异.结论 RGP矫正屈光参差性弱视安全、有效,可以通过VEP等电生理手段客观评价其在弱视矫正中的作用,并为屈光参差性弱视的病理机制提供证据.

  3. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*; Martha Lía Gaviria Bravo, MD**

    2011-01-01

    El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisa...

  4. 通过调查探讨色盲、色弱与正常色觉的遗传关系%A genetic correlation between color blindness, color amblyopia and normal color perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明祥

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州省贞丰县一个满族色盲家系的调查和分析,简单探讨了色盲、色弱与正常色觉的遗传关系,提高对此类遗传病进一步的认识,以及用于生物学教学.

  5. 屈光参差性弱视治疗前后双眼视觉的临床观察%A clinical observation on binocular vision in anisometropic amblyopia before and after treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 卢炜; 成娟娟; 孙省利

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解屈光参差性弱视儿童治疗前及矫正视力正常后双眼视觉的状况.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象屈光参差性弱视儿童53例.方法 对53例屈光参差性弱视儿童分别在治疗前及矫正视力≥0.9后采用颜少明和同视机检测其双眼视觉功能.主要指标立体视锐度、交叉视差、非交叉视差立体视觉,同时知觉、远融合范围,定性远立体视.结果 屈光参差与弱视(r=0.613)、弱视与立体视(r=0.422)及屈光参差与立体视均具有相关性(r=354).弱视患儿矫正视力正常后其近立体视锐度、交叉视差、非交叉视差立体视觉均较治疗前有显著改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).弱视患儿矫正视力正常后其同时视功能较治疗前无明显差异(P=0.37);远融合范围及远立体视均较治疗前有显著改善,差异有统计学意义(远融合范围P=0.03,远立体视P<0.01).结论 屈光参差、弱视、立体视觉三者之间具有相关性.屈光参差性弱视影响融合和立体视觉的发育.随着视力的提高,双眼视觉有显著改善.

  6. 屈光参差性弱视治愈前后双眼视觉的检测与分析%Examination and evaluation on binocular vision in anisometropic amblyopia before and after treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆慧; 王蕊; 任军爽

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解屈光参差性弱视治愈前后双眼视觉状况.方法:对56例103眼屈光参差性弱视儿童,分别在治疗前和基本治愈后检测其立体视锐度及同视机三级视功能.结果:基本治愈前后:同时视功能无明显差异(P>0.05);立体视锐度有显著性差异(P<0.01);融合功能和定性远立体视也有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:屈光参差性弱视不仅影响视力同时也影响双眼视觉发育,随着视力提高其双眼视功能也有明显改善,所以在弱视治疗时应注重双眼视觉的建立与完善.

  7. Investigation of Axial Length-Disc Area Ratio in Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.%远视性屈光参差性弱视眼轴/视盘面积比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 徐梅; 张萌

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨远视性屈光参差性弱视患者眼轴长度(AXL)、视盘面积(DA)及眼轴(AXL)/视盘面积(DA)比.方法 选择2006年1月至2007年1月来我院门诊就诊的单眼远视性屈光参差性弱视惠儿28例及同期正常儿童20名为研究对象,分为正常儿童组(组1),40眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼的对侧眼组(组2),28眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼组(组3),28眼,行AXL测量和眼底照相及DA测量.计算AXL/DA比并进行比较.结果 组1 AXL为(22.4±1.0)mm,DA为(2.8±0.6)mm2,AXL/DA为(9.2±2.3)mm-1:组2 AXL为(21.6±1.1)mm,DA为(2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AXL/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视功能受损的一个重要因素.2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AX/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视

  8. 78 FR 62935 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... limit by 18 mph. Junior Chavarria Mr. Chavarria, 31, has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood... since childhood. The visual acuity in his right eye is 20/80, and in his left eye, 20/ 20. Following an... over the past 40 years who had amblyopia, trauma et. al. to one of their eyes and there was never...

  9. 77 FR 38381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... vision in his right eye due to trauma sustained in childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his... amblyopia in his left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is 20/30, and.... Tyrane Harper Mr. Harper, 51, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best...

  10. 77 FR 70534 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Mr. Taylor, 57, has had refractive amblyopia in his left eye since birth. The best corrected visual... Colecchi Mr. Colecchi, age 27, has had amblyopia in his right eye since birth. The best corrected visual... since childhood due to a traumatic incident. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is...

  11. [Immature palpebral capillary angioma. A case commented on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, H; Hurbli, T; Morax, S

    1994-01-01

    A three-year-old girl presented a voluminous capillary haemangioma associated with amblyopia. This case failed to respond to steroid treatment. Surgical treatment was necessary. The authors describe evolution, complications and therapeutic management of eyelid angiodysplasia.

  12. The evaluation of stereopsis in different types and degrees of amblyopic children%不同类型及程度弱视患儿的立体视觉现状评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾仁攀; 梁小琼; 王国平

    2009-01-01

    Objective Amblyopia is common disease in children. It can cause visual suppression that damage binocular vision function especially to the development of stereopsis. The objective of this study was to investigate the stereoscopic vision in children with different types and degrees of amblyopia. Methods This is a clinical retrospective comparative analysis. 178 children with amblyopia from Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospitial CAPF were enrolled in this study. Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity were examined with Yan' s stereogram. The classification of stereogram based on the criteria of Okuda. The degree of amblyopia was graded based on the corrected vision acuity. Results The differences in the eyes and percentage of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity among refractive amblyopia group, anisopia amblyopia group and strabismic amblyopia group were statistically significant, respectively(χ~2 =13. 979, P =0. 001; χ~2 = 15. 198, P = 0. 001 ; χ~2 =6. 974, P = 0. 031) . Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity in mild amblyopia were better than of medium amblyopia in ametropic amblyopic children (P < 0. 05) . No statistically significant difference in the eye number and percentage of uncrossed disparity was found between mild and moderate refractive ametropia (P > 0. 05) . The same outcomes also were seen in approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity between mild and medium anisopia amblyopia (P > 0. 05) . No statistically significant differences in the eye number and percentage of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity were found between mild and moderate strabismic amblyopia (P >0. 05) . Conclusion Amblyopia affects the development of stereoacuity. Amblyopia is aggravated with the increase of amblyopia degrees. The influence of amblyopia on stereoscopic vision is most mild in refractive ametropic and most serious in strabismic amblyopia.%目的 了解

  13. Prevent Blindness America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  14. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  15. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  16. Ten Ways to Prevent Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. Pregnancy and Your Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Vision Problems in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  19. Tips for Buying Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  20. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  1. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  2. Leading Cause of Eye Injuries in School-Aged Children are Sports-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  3. How Often Should I Have an Eye Exam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  4. Floaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  5. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  6. Checklist for Your Eye Doctor Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  7. Near Vision Test for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  8. 75 FR 39725 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Calvin D. Bills Mr. Bills, 59, has had amblyopia in... left eye, 20/20. Following an examination in 2009, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Calvin Bills, in...

  9. 77 FR 27852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Michael E. McAfee Mr. McAfee, 28, has congenital eye disease including cataract and amblyopia in his left eye. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is...

  10. Eyelid drooping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Tumor around or behind the eye Diabetes Horner syndrome Myasthenia gravis Stroke Swelling in the eyelid, ... Read More Amblyopia Brain tumor - children Cancer Diabetes Horner syndrome Myasthenia gravis Stroke Review Date 8/20/ ...

  11. 77 FR 5874 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    .... Troyan Mr. Troyan, 30, has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual... commercial vehicles.'' Mr. Troyan reported that he has driven straight trucks for 8 years, accumulating...

  12. Phakic posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for myopic anisometropic amblyopia in adults%有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石明华; 蒋海翔; 何晓阳; 周伟; 王静

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体又称可植入式接触镜(implantable contact lens,ICL)植入术治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视的效果和安全性.方法 2010年9月到2012年9月在汉口爱尔眼科医院行ICL植入术的伴有弱视的高度近视性屈光参差患者共11例,随访6个月以上.记录患者术前、术后裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力、眼压、角膜内皮细胞计数以及术后的Titmus立体视情况.结果 术前患者弱视眼平均屈光度为13.55 D(等效球镜),术后为0.33 D.术前最佳矫正视力为0.50±0.18,术后1周裸眼视力为0.72 ±0.23,末次随访时裸眼视力进一步提升到0.78±0.22,较术前最佳矫正视力平均提高2行,差异有显著统计学意义(t=-9.87,P<0.001).术前角膜内皮细胞计数为(2678±155)个·mm-2,术后1周为(2466±214)个·mm-2,末次随访时为(2410±142)个·mm-2.术后Titmus立体视检查2例斜视患者没有立体视,其他患者均有立体视,立体视为157″±102″.所有术眼术中、术后均未见严重并发症发生.结论 ICL植入术是治疗成人近视性屈光参差性弱视安全有效的方法,其能明显提高患者的视功能,改善患者的生活质量.

  13. 扩散张量成像对屈光参差性弱视儿童视觉通路白质结构的研究%Study on the structure of visual pathway white matter in children with anisometropic amblyopia by diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖满意; 徐静; 李亚军; 魏欣; 彭晓娟; 贺忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用扩散张量成像(DTI)技术检查屈光参差性弱视儿童大脑白质的发育情况,从而探讨其发病机制.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象 15例屈光参差性弱视儿童(均为左眼弱视)及14例年龄、性别相匹配正常儿童.方法 利用DTI技术进行检查,用基于体索(Voxel)的形态学测量对病例组与对照组的各向异性分数(FA)图像中的所有Voxel进行逐个比较;用感兴趣区(ROI)方法定位于视放射,计算左右视放射的FA平均值和Voxel数目,比较其在两组研究对象中的差异,分析屈光参差性弱视患者视放射的发育情况.主要指标视觉通路白质结构的FA值和Voxel数目.结果 左眼弱视患者的右侧枕叶、顶下小叶、颞叶回下及左侧岛叶FA值较正常者降低,差异有统计学意义(P均=0.00);而双侧丘脑、叶下神经核团外、额叶,右侧枕中回、中央前回、豆状核、壳核,扣带回FA值较正常者升高.差异有统计学意义(P均=0.00).左眼弱视患者左右两侧视放射的Voxel数目,平均FA值和总FA值较对照组均下降,右侧差异具有统计学意义(P均<0.05),双侧总Voxel数目和FA值均低于正常对照组.差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05),双侧平均FA值也较正常组降低,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).病例组和对照组组内双侧视放射比较发现左侧视放射Voxel数目,平均FA值和总FA值均高于右侧,除对照组平均FA值外,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 屈光参差性弱视患者存在多个视觉相关脑区白质FA值的下降,提示屈光参差性弱视存在着视觉通路神经网络结构的异常;屈光参差性弱视患者双侧视放射FA值和Voxel数目下降,提示此类患者存在双侧视放射的发育不良.

  14. The Few Penalization Treats the Amblyopia Child to Regard the Vision to Return to Draws Back the Clinical Obser-vation Weakly%微量压抑法治疗儿童弱视视力提高后回退临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄焱

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨微量压抑法及无微量压抑治疗法治疗儿童弱视视力在提高后回退的效果。方法将102例患儿随机分为两组,观察组采用微量压抑法训练,对照组采取无微量压抑的治疗方法。结果观察组总有效率为98.04%,对照组为66.67%,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组经治疗后立体视觉正常为50眼(占98.04%),对照组为34眼(占66.67%),两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论微量压抑法用于解决儿童弱视治疗后视力在提高后回退及建立三级视功能,特别是人类的高级视功能立体视觉是有效的,有优势的。%Objective The observation discusses two kind of training methods to treat the child weakly to regard the effect which the vision returns draws back. Methods Divides into 2 groups stochastically 102 example troubles,the observation group uses the few penalization,the control group no uses the few penalization the method of treatment. Results Total effective rate of observation group was 98. 04%,66. 67% in the control group,there was significant difference between two groups(P<0. 05). The observation group after treatment,normal stereopsis in 50 eyes(98. 04%),the control group for 34 eyes(66. 67%),there was sig-nificant difference between two groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion The few penalization can use in solving the child to regard the treatment back sight strength to return weakly draws back and establishes three levels of apparent work to be able to be effective, has certain superiority.

  15. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

    2014-05-05

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to

  16. Steady-State Contrast Response Functions Provide a Sensitive and Objective Index of Amblyopic Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Visual deficits in amblyopia are neural in origin, yet are difficult to characterize with functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI). Our aim was to develop an objective electroencephalography (EEG) paradigm that can be used to provide a clinically useful index of amblyopic deficits. Methods. We used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to measure full contrast response functions in both amblyopic (n = 10, strabismic or mixed amblyopia, mean age: 44 years) and control (n = 5, mean age: 31 years) observers, both with and without a dichoptic mask. Results. At the highest target contrast, the ratio of amplitudes across the weaker and stronger eyes was highly correlated (r = 0.76) with the acuity ratio between the eyes. We also found that the contrast response function in the amblyopic eye had both a greatly reduced amplitude and a shallower slope, but that surprisingly dichoptic masking was weaker than in controls. The results were compared with the predictions of a computational model of amblyopia and suggest a modification to the model whereby excitatory (but not suppressive) signals are attenuated in the amblyopic eye. Conclusions. We suggest that SSVEPs offer a sensitive and objective measure of the ocular imbalance in amblyopia and could be used to assess the efficacy of amblyopia therapies currently under development. PMID:25634977

  17. The Indication of Surgical Treatment and Visual Rehabilitation in the Congenital Cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Keklikçi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataracts constitute an important part of blindness in childhood. It’s a curable disease which is one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Main treatment is surgical operation. Timing of surgery, appropriate and rapid post sur- gery visual rehabilitation have a major effect on prognosis. Surgery should be perfor-med as soon as possible after the diagnosis in order to prevent amblyopia.Visual rehabi- litation of congenital cataract includes optical correction and amblyopia treatment. The most effective treatment of amblyopia is occlusion therapy. In this article congenital cataracts were evaluated in the light of recent literature and the importance of the timing of surgery and visual rehabilitation were attempted to be emphasized.

  18. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ann Tay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  19. Device for diagnosis and treatment of impairments on binocular vision and stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Jieun; Choi, Yong-Jin; Son, Jung-Young; Kodratiev, N. V.; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.; Chung, Chan-sup

    2001-06-01

    Strabismus and amblyopia are two main impairments of our visual system, which are responsible for the loss of stereovision. A device is developed for diagnosis and treatment of strabismus and amblyopia, and for training and developing stereopsis. This device is composed of a liquid crystal glasses (LCG), electronics for driving LCG and synchronizing with an IBM PC, and a special software. The software contains specially designed patterns and graphics for enabling to train and develop stereopsis, and do objective measurement of some stereoscopic vision parameters such as horizontal and vertical phoria, fusion, fixation disparity, and stereoscopic visual threshold.

  20. 不同类型弱视儿童立体视觉状况的临床观察%Clinical research on stereoscopic vision in different types of amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑜琳; 陶利娟; 杨俊芳; 罗俊; 杜芬; 肖志刚; 邓姿峰; 唐璟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解不同类型弱视儿童立体视觉状况及危害,为提高临床弱视治愈率提供依据。  方法:选取321例在我院门诊确诊为不同类型弱视的儿童,应用同视机随机点立体图行远立体视觉检查,颜少明随机立体检查图行近立体视觉检查,分别检测其近零视差立体视锐度、交叉视差及非交叉视差立体感知度,并对资料数据进行统计分析。  结果:屈光不正性弱视组、屈光参差性弱视组与斜视性弱视组及形觉剥夺性弱视组比较,患儿的近零视差、交叉视差、非交叉视差及远立体视存在率的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。其中斜视性弱视组及形觉剥夺性弱视组患儿的立体视觉存在率最低,但两者之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),屈光不正性弱视组患儿立体视觉存在率最高,屈光参差性弱视组患儿立体视觉存在率较屈光不正性弱视组低。  结论:不同类型的弱视均可导致儿童立体视觉的发育障碍,其中斜视性弱视及形觉剥夺性弱视对立体视觉影响最大,屈光不正性弱视影响较小,重视立体视觉的重建是巩固儿童弱视治疗的关键。%AIM:To investigate the stereoscopic vision and its damage in children with different types of amblyopia, in order to improve the curative ratio of amblyopia in clinic. METHODS: Totally 321 children with different types of amblyopia from Hunan Children's Hospital were enrolled in this study.Distance stereoacuity was examined with synoptophore and random dot stereogram. Approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity were examined with Yan's stereogram.All the datum were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The differences of approximation zero disparity, crossed disparity, uncrossed disparity and distance stereoacuity among each type of amblyopia group was statistically significant ( P 0.05 ) . The prevalence of

  1. Treatment of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Diarrhoea, constipation, pruritus, and nervousness have also been described, Rarely encountered serious reactions include urticaria , bronchospasm... angioedema of the face, mucous membranes and the lungs, deafness, blindness or amblyopia, haemolytic anaemia, and agranulocytosis. The deafness and...ToxicitY. Silphionarniides are generally well tolerated, but they can cause 190 S. L. HOFFMAN hepatitis, urticaria , erythema multiforme, Stevens

  2. 77 FR 19749 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the FDMS published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http.... Qualifications of Applicants Robert J. Abbas Mr. Abbas, age 62, has had amblyopia in his left eye since birth... perform the driving tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Abbas reported that he...

  3. 78 FR 34143 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... violations in a CMV. Michael L. Grogg Mr. Grogg, 49, has had ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in his left eye... ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. This has been stable since 1989 and, given his intact color vision and... in a CMV. Leonard Sheehan Mr. Sheehan, 51, has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood....

  4. 76 FR 7894 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Pedro G. Limon Mr. Limon, 39, has had amblyopia and aphakic in his..., 20/20. Following an examination in 2010, his ophthalmologist noted, ``In my opinion Mr. Limon has sufficient vision to perform the duties to operate a commercial vehicle safely.'' Mr. Limon reported that...

  5. Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.-J. Li (Ling-Jun); J. Liao (Jie); Q. Fan (Qiao); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. Methods. In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 2008 to 2010, a total of 727 partic

  6. 77 FR 56261 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... last 3 years shows no crashes and no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. Roger S. Hardin Mr. Hardin, 41, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his..., ``It is my professional opinion that Mr. Hardin has sufficient vision to perform the driving...

  7. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry ... Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency ...

  8. 76 FR 25766 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .... Davis Mr. Davis, 30, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected visual... childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his left eye is 20/20. Following an examination in 2011, his... eye due to trauma that occurred 15 to 20 years ago. The best corrected visual acuity in his right...

  9. 75 FR 72863 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... right eye since 1974 due to trauma. The best corrected visual acuity in his left eye is 20/20. Following... in his left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is 20/20... in a CMV. Timothy Bradford Mr. Bradford, 55, has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood....

  10. 75 FR 65057 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .... Dattler Mr. Dattler, 55, has had complete loss of vision in his right eye since childhood due trauma. The.... Branham Mr. Branham, 42, has had loss of vision in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected... Brown Ms. Brown, 47, has had amblyopia in her left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual...

  11. 78 FR 64274 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood. The visual acuity in his right eye is 20/20, and in... since childhood. The visual acuity in his right eye is 20/20, and in his left eye, 20/ 400. Following an... penetration trauma from a foreign object in his left eye due to a traumatic incident in 1982. The...

  12. Uveitis in Children: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju; Ramanan, A V

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is a term used to describe inflammation of uvea, which is the middle layer of eye. It is an important cause of blindness in children in both developed and developing countries. Delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment and risk of amblyopia are some of the factors that are unique to childhood uveitis and are responsible for significant morbidity seen with this disease.

  13. Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringencr scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Deborah S.; Gramatikov, Boris; Guyton, David L.; Hunter, David G.

    2003-07-01

    Amblyopia, a leading cause of vision loss in childhood, is responsive to treatment if detected early in life. Risk factors for amblyopia, such as refractive error and strabismus, may be difficult to identify clinically in young children. Our laboratory has developed retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), in which a small spot of polarized light is scanned in a circle on the retina, and the returning light is measured for changes in polarization caused by the pattern of birefringent fibers that comprise the fovea. Binocular RBS (BRBS) detects the fixation of both eyes simultaneously and thus screens for strabismus, one of the risk factors of amblyopia. We have also developed a technique to automatically detect when the eye is in focus without measuring refractive error. This focus detection system utilizes a bull's eye photodetector optically conjugate to a point fixation source. Reflected light is focused back to the point source by the optical system of the eye, and if the subject focuses on the fixation source, the returning light will be focused on the detector. We have constructed a hand-held prototype combining BRBS and focus detection measurements in one quick (< 0.5 second) and accurate (theoretically detecting +/-1 of misalignment) measurement. This approach has the potential to reliably identify children at risk for amblyopia.

  14. Educational Attainment of 10-Year-Old Children with Treated and Untreated Visual Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Children with visual impairments who participated in a 10-year survey were compared with peers on measures of intelligence, reading, mathematics, and sporting ability. Results are consistent with earlier findings of increased intelligence among Ss with myopia and slightly reduced intelligence among Ss with amblyopia. It was concluded that the…

  15. Operational Colour Vision in the Modern Aviation Environment (la Vision des couleurs dans l’environnement aeronautique operationnel d’ aujourd hui)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Streptomycin + II yellow Miscellaneous Cannabis indica + Tobacco (amblyopia) II,III + Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) + II,III Blue, blue-green...see Chapter 5). Dietary deficiency and drug abuse may be overlooked, whilst the effects of Parkinsonism in its commonest manifestation, gross, chronic

  16. Gold Standard Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    distinguishing a drug effect from spontaneous rheumatoid arthritis . Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) variability. Am HeartJ 1996;131:472-80. 1983;61:831-7. 2...I1 yellow Miscellaneous Strychnine + Cannabis indica + Tobacco LI, LII + (amblyopia) Sildenafil citrate + LI, III blue, blue- flashing lights

  17. [Study and application of "binocular aniseikonia test chart"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A N; Yan, S M

    1994-09-01

    With the help of this chart, the image incongruity of simultaneous perception, fusion and stereoscopic vision can be precisely determined. It can objectively evaluate the binocular visual function and possesses important significance for the diagnosis and treatment of anisometropia, amblyopia, strabismus and visual fatigue.

  18. 77 FR 17109 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... in a CMV. Scott T. Green Mr. Green, 31, has had amblyopia in his left eye since birth. The best... sufficient visual function to perform the driving tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Green... cited for one of the crashes, and no convictions for moving violations in a CMV. John M. Riley Mr....

  19. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  20. 75 FR 25917 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Mary D. Gunnels, Director, Medical Programs, (202) 366-4001, fmcsamedical@dot.gov... CMV. Wesley V. Holland Mr. Holland, 48, has had amblyopia in his left eye since childhood. The best... 2010, his ophthalmologist noted, ``I, Dr. Jeffrey Bunning, certify in my medical opinion that...

  1. Prevalence of myopia among school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Hittalamani

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Early diagnosis and visual rehabilitation of myopic students can be achieved by periodic eye examination at regular intervals by school teachers and basic health workers and this can help in preventing the development of amblyopia thereby reducing the burden of morbidity due to myopia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2786-2790

  2. Interocular Shift of Visual Attention Enhances Stereopsis and Visual Acuities of Anisometropic Amblyopes beyond the Critical Period of Visual Development: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Increasing evidence shows that imbalanced suppressive drive prior to binocular combination may be the key factor in amblyopia. We described a novel binocular approach, interocular shift of visual attention (ISVA, for treatment of amblyopia in adult patients. Methods. Visual stimuli were presented anaglyphically on a computer screen. A square target resembling Landolt C had 2 openings, one in red and one in cyan color. Through blue-red goggles, each eye could only see one of the two openings. The patient was required to report the location of the opening presented to the amblyopic eye. It started at an opening size of 800 sec of arc, went up and down in 160 sec of arc step, and stopped when reaching the 5th reversals. Ten patients with anisometropic amblyopia older than age 14 (average age: 26.7 were recruited and received ISVA treatment for 6 weeks, with 2 training sessions per day. Results. Both Titmus stereopsis (z=-2.809, P=0.005 and Random-dot stereopsis (z=-2.317, P=0.018 were significantly improved. Average improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.74 line (t=5.842, P<0.001. Conclusions. The ISVA treatment may be effective in treating amblyopia and restoring stereoscopic function.

  3. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  4. 先天性上睑下垂患者100例弱视致病原因的探讨%Assessing amblyogenic factors in 100 patients with congenital ptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Kasaee; Alireza Yazdani-Abyaneh; Syed Ziaeddin Tabatabaie; Alireza K.Jafari; Ahmad Ameri; Bahram Eshraghi; Vafa Samarai; Meysam Mireshghi; Mohammad Taher Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the frequency of amblyogenic factors in patients with congenital ptosis.congenital ptosis more than 1 year old were included. Amblyopia was defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than 10/10 or a difference between the two eyes of at least 2/10. In patients too young to be measured by the linear Snellen E test, fixation behavior was observed. Different types of amblyopia were assessed for each patient as: 1) anisometropic amblyopia: astigmatic anisometropia≥ 1dpt, hyperopic spherical anisometropia≥ 1dpt, myopic spherical anisometropia≥ -3dpt (with cycloplegia);2) strabismic amblyopia, and 3) stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA). Then the total incidence of amblyopia and each type of it were obtained. Patients with uni-and bi-lateral ptosis were also compared. Each specific cause was refractive amblyopia in 29.8%, SDA in 10.5%, strabismic amblyopia in 4.3%. Amblyopia was more frequent in severe ptosis, 76% in patients with covered optical axes (OA), compared to non-covered OA (22.5%). In unilateral ptosis with covered OA, astigmatic anisometropic amblyopia was more frequent, and in bilateral ptosis with at least one eye covered OA, spherical anisometropic amblyopia was more frequent. In both unilateral and bilateral ptosis, SDA was more common if the OA was covered. Paying attention to all causes of amblyopia may be important in preventing amblyopia in a child with a ptotic eye.%目的:评估先天性上睑下垂患者的弱视发病情况.方法:在本横断面研究中,包括1岁以上的先天性上睑下垂患者100例(114眼).最佳矫正视力小于10/10或两眼之间至少相差2/10者定义为弱视.年幼患者不能进行斯内伦视力表检测者, 观察其注视情况.不同弱视患者的类型:1)屈光参差性弱视:散光性屈光参差≥1.00D;远视性球镜屈光参差≥1.00D,近视性球镜屈光参差≥-3 00D(睫状肌麻痹);2)斜视性弱视,3)形觉剥夺性弱视(SDA).观察弱视的总发病率及类型,

  5. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  6. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  7. [Some principles in surgical treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Doina; Grigorescu, Adina; David, Roxana; Urda, S

    2007-01-01

    Taking into consideration the age of the patient, the strabismus surgery targets different things. Thus, for infants, the goal of the surgical intervention for congenital esotropia, is to prevent the occurrence of amblyopia and binocular vision dysfunctions (ARC, suppression). In preschool children, we operate aiming the recovery of the binocular vision, while in children over ten years old, the surgery is done only for esthetic reasons. On the other hand, in adults, the strabismus surgery has two aspects: for esthetic reasons in monocular strabismus with amblyopia, or for diplopia treatment in strabismus of traumatic or neurological cause. To get the best results, the surgical intervention has to respect several rules, which differ with patient's age. This presentation will discuss several surgical procedures: for congenital esotropia (including its advantages and drawbacks), for preschool children strabismus and also for strabismus in adults. We will also review the surgical treatment for Duane syndrome, Ciancia syndrome and superior oblique muscle palsy.

  8. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  9. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  10. Implanting two posterior chamber intraocular lenses in a case of microphthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Sanders, V N

    1993-11-01

    A 31-year-old male with bilateral microphthalmos and a history of severe refractive amblyopia presented with early nuclear sclerosis. Intraocular lens calculations determined the patient would need about a 46.0 diopter power intraocular lens in both eyes to achieve satisfactory vision postoperatively. When no manufacturer could or was willing to make such a high-power lens, we chose to implant two lenses in each eye. The patient is satisfied with his postoperative vision and overall outcome.

  11. Motion Perception and Driving: Predicting Performance Through Testing and Shortening Braking Reaction Times Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    to deficits in a variety of conditions for which standard VA is normal. These include amblyopia,29 early enucleation,30 multiple sclerosis,31 and...Factors. 1991;33:507–519. 11. Sanderson FH, Whiting HTA . Dynamic visual-acuity – possible factor in catching performance. J Motor Behav. 1978;10:7–14. 12...2489. 30. Steeves JKE, Gonzalez EG, Gallie BL, Steinbach MJ. Early unilateral enucleation disrupts motion processing. Vision Res. 2002;42:143–150. 31

  12. Periocular capillary hemangioma: management practices in recent years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jo Anne Hernandez,1,3,4 Audrey Chia,2 Boon Long Quah,1,2 Lay Leng Seah1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kandang Kerbau Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Cardinal Santos Medical Center, San Juan, Manila, Philippines Purpose: To present a case series on the management options for capillary hemangiomas involving the eyelid and orbit. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of clinically diagnosed capillary hemangioma cases involving the periocular region treated at two local eye institutions. The patients' demographics and clinical presentation – including visual acuity, refractive error, periorbital and orbital examinations, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings – were reviewed. The clinical progression, modalities of treatment, and treatment outcomes were studied. Results: Sixteen cases of capillary hemangiomas involving the eyelid and orbit were studied. The mean age at consultation was 9.6 months (range: 1 month–72 months. The majority were females (75%, with 50% presenting as upper-eyelid hemangiomas and the remaining as lower-eyelid (38% and glabellar (12% lesions. Combined superficial and deep involvement was common (64%. Cases whose lesions were located at the upper eyelid or superior orbit led to amblyopia (25%. Fifty-six percent of cases (9/16 were managed conservatively, and 44% (7/16 underwent treatment with either single-agent (n = 4 or combined treatments (n = 3. Conclusion: Close monitoring of visual development and prompt institution of amblyopia therapy for children with periocular capillary hemangiomas generally preserve vision. Extensive lesions that affect the visual axis require local and systemic treatments, alone or in combination, in order to reduce the size and impact of lesions on the eyeball, to reduce induced refractive error and

  13. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  14. Orthoptics

    OpenAIRE

    Adámková Hana; Veselý Petr

    2012-01-01

    First part of presentation reminds basic strabismus terms as amblyopia, eccentrically fixation or anomaly retinal correspondence. After that we will discuss processes and methods of treatment these pathological conditions, which precedes orthoptic training. Briefly we will talk about pleoptic treatment with occlusion and treatment with many pleoptic devices. Last part of presentation is dedicated to orthoptic training – prerequisites of orthoptic training, methods, which we use in Czech Repub...

  15. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  16. Relationship of Visual Cortex Function and Visual Acuity in Anisometropic Amblyopic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li, Lin Cheng, Qiongwu Yu, Bing Xie, Jian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect the functional deficit of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique, and investigate the relationship between visual acuity and visual cortex function.Methods: Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI was performed in ten monocular anisometropic amblyopia children and ten normal controls. fMRI images were acquired in two runs with visual stimulation delivered separately through the sound and amblyopic eyes. Measurements were performed in cortical activation of striate and extrastriate areas at the occipital lobe. The relationship between cortex function and visual acuity was analyzed by Pearson partial analysis.Results: The activation areas of both the striate and extrastriate cortices in the amblyopic eyes were significantly lower than that of the sound fellow eyes. No relationship was found between the striate and extrastriate cortex activation. No relationship was found between the visual cortical activation of striate, extrastriate areas and visual acuity of anisometropic amblyopes.Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI revealed the independent striate and extrastriate cortical deficits in anisometropic amblyopes. In addition, the visual acuity lesion and the striate and extrastriate cortical deficits were not parallel, and results of fMRI examination have much potential value in the evaluation of amblyopia.

  17. Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

  18. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  19. Development and evaluation of a patching treatment questionnaire for Chinese amblyopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jinling; Lu Qun; Huang Ying; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Jie; Yu Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common disease for children.The main treatment approach for amblyopia is to patch the normally sighted eye and force the use of the amblyopic eye.However,patching treatment in children may negatively impact psychological well-being of both the child and family.At present,no specific questionnaire is available to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of amblyopic treatment for children and their families in China.The purpose of our study was to develop a Chinese version of patching treatment questionnaire,and evaluate its reliability and validity.Methods The original patching treatment questionnaire of amblyopia treatment index (ATI) was translated into Chinese.Amblyopic patients aged 4-9 years receiving patching 4-8 hours per day or full-time were recruited.The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire were determined by internal consistency,test-retest reliability,item-scale correlations,and construct validity.The associated baseline factors and the questionnaire responses were assessed.Results One hundred and nine children with amblyopia treated with patching were enrolled.Distribution of response options for individual items and correlation with the respective subscale were calculated.Factor analysis revealed that 16 of the 21 items were loaded in the three subscales as follows:"adverse effects" of treatment,“difficulties with compliance" and "social stigma" of treatment.Intemal consistency values measured by Cronbach's a coefficient (0.768) and split-half coefficient (0.790) were satisfactory for the total scales.The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.998.No significant difference was found between the overall questionnaire scores and children's age,sex,baseline visual acuity of amblyopic eyes,improvement of the amblyopic eye,or patching time.Conclusions We developed a Chinese version of the patching treatment questionnaire with satisfactory

  20. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  1. Methods for Dichoptic Stimulus Presentation in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Bhaskar; Jurcoane, Alina; Muckli, Lars; Sireteanu, Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Dichoptic stimuli (different stimuli displayed to each eye) are increasingly being used in functional brain imaging experiments using visual stimulation. These studies include investigation into binocular rivalry, interocular information transfer, three-dimensional depth perception as well as impairments of the visual system like amblyopia and stereodeficiency. In this paper, we review various approaches of displaying dichoptic stimulus used in functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments. These include traditional approaches of using filters (red-green, red-blue, polarizing) with optical assemblies as well as newer approaches of using bi-screen goggles. PMID:19526076

  2. White light interferometry in amblyopic children--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Hardman-Lea, S; Rubinstein, M P; Snead, M P

    1990-01-01

    Interferometric acuity using the IRAS white light interferometer was compared with Snellen acuity in nine amblyopic children between the ages of five and nine years, and nine aged matched controls. All of the amblyopic eyes achieved better grating acuities than Snellen acuities. Fifty-seven per cent of the amblyopes with a best corrected Snellen acuity of 6/18 or less in their amblyopic eye, achieved grating acuities indistinguishable from normal. The hand held white light interferometer may have a role in the assessment of meridional amblyopia and in children with high astigmatic errors.

  3. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Atsushi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  4. Intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick P Smit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periocular infantile capillary hemangiomas do not always respond well to conventional treatment modalities such as systemic or intralesional corticosteroids, radiotherapy or debulking surgery. The authors describe the use of intralesional bleomycin injections (IBIs to treat potentially amblyogenic lesions in two cases where other modalities have failed. In both cases monthly IBIs successfully cleared the visual axis of the affected eye before the age of 1 year thus preventing permanent sensory deprivation amblyopia. A total of five and nine injections, respectively, were used and no significant side effects were noted. IBI appears to be a useful alternative in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas refractory to more conventional modalities.

  5. Clinical study of surgical treatment for congenital esotropia%手术治疗先天性内斜视临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷玉; 于丹; 张弛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨先天性内斜视的临床特点、手术时机、手术方法及疗效。方法回顾分析43例施行手术的先天性内斜视病例的治疗结果。结果正位36例,正位率83.72%,欠矫5例,占11.63%,过矫2例,占4.65%,随访2~4年,部分病例经过二次手术,术后进行弱视治疗及双眼单视功能训练,最终获得正位率41例,占93.02%,弱视治愈率92.11%,23.26%病人恢复双眼单视功能。结论先天性内斜视的患者应早期手术治疗,术后弱视治疗及双眼单视功能训练,对远期眼位正位,弱视的治愈及双眼单视功能的重建非常重要。%To study the clinical features of congenital esotropia, operation timing, methods of surgery, and curative effect. Methods Retrospective analysis the outcomes of 43 cases after congenital esotropia treat-ment. Results After the first operations, 36 cases (83.72%) were orthotopic, 5 cases (11.63%) were undercorrected, 2cases (4.64%) were overcorrected respectively. All the patients underwent the follow-up visit for 2 to 5 years. Par-tial patients got the second time surgeries and 41 cases ( 93.02%) gained orthotopia with training of amblyopia and synoptophore. The amblyopia cure rate reached to 92.11% and 23.26% patients regained the binocular vision. Con-clusions Congenital esotropia should be treated with surgery earlerly, postoperative amblyopia and binocular vision training is the key way to cure amblyopia and rebuilt binocular vision .

  6. Cliuical effecfive of LASIK for hyperopic ~anisometropia in adoleacent%青少年远视屈光参差性弱视LASIK效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬萍; 马红霞; 李晓林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate efficacy and safety of LASIK for hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in adolescent. Methods 56 Cases (9 - 17 years old) of hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia were involved in the clinical study. The mean corrected visual acuity was 0. 38 ± 0. 09 ; routine perioperative examination was performed. All the patients were accepted birocular vision training and treatment of amblyopia. Results The poatoperative uncorrected visual acuity in 3 months was 0. 65 ± 0. 15 compared 0. 07 ±0.03 preoperatively,and was 0. 68 ±0. 14 in 6 months postoperatively. Postoperative refractionsignificantly decreased ( P <0.05 ). 52 patients improved binocular vision, and 36 patients establish complete stereopsis. Conclusion LASIK for hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia is safe and effective in adolescent. It could improve binocular vision.%目的 探讨准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术( LASIK)矫治青少年重度远视屈光参差性弱视的效果与安全性。方法 56例(56眼)平均矫正视力为0.38±0.09的9~17岁远视屈光参差性弱视纳入观察,常规行围手术期检查。术后进行双眼训练和弱视治疗。结果 术后3个月弱视眼平均裸眼视力由术前的0.07±0.03提高到0.65 ±0.15;术后6个月平均裸眼视力为0.68±0.14。术后矫正视力较术前明显提高;术后屈光度较术前明显降低(P<0.05);52例(92.86%)同时视和融合功能改善,其中36例(64.29%)建立完整立体视功能。结论 青少年远视屈光参差性弱视的LASIK安全有效,有助于改善双眼单视功能。

  7. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  8. The Estimation of Higher Order Aberrations in Children with Anisometropic Amblyopic%高阶像差在远视儿童屈光参差性弱视中的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱煦; 谭琦; 廖孟; 刘陇黔

    2011-01-01

    使用美国ZYWAVEⅡ像差分析仪对54例屈光参差性远视弱视儿童共108只眼进行像差检查,就像差均方根(RMS)分布情况进行统计分析研究,观察各类高阶像差(HOAs)分布、屈光参差性弱视程度与HOAs的关系.所有患儿弱视眼的总HOAs、总彗差(TC)、总球差(TSA)、总5阶像差(RMS5)的均方根逐阶递减.弱视眼各阶像差均方根值均大于对测眼,但无统计学差异.弱视眼随弱视程度增大,TC、TSA和RMA5呈递增趋势.弱视眼TSA与屈光参差度正相关.HOAs可能在屈光参差性弱视的发展中起了一定作用,但不是主要影响因素.%Higher order aberrations (HOAs) were measured in 54 anisometropic amblyopic children using the ZY-WAVE II aberrometer. The results were compared in normal fellow and amblyoic eyes which were determined by the corrected visual acuity. Between the normal eyes and anisometropic amblyopic eyes, no statistically significant difference were found in mean root square of total HOAs, total coma (TO ? Total spherical aberration (TSA), and the 5th root mean square (RMS5). There was no correlation among best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)t HOAst TC. TSA, and RMS5, There was some positively correlation between the degree of anisometropia and TC. HOAs increase with the increasing of the degree of anisometropic amblyopia. Lower order aberrations are the main refractive factors leading to amblyopia. And HOAs is related to anisometropia amblyopia. The study helps us understand the mechanism of amblyopia and make the further study.

  9. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  10. Primary Congenital Glaucoma with Delayed Suprachoroidal Hemorrhage following Combined Trabeculotomy Trabeculectomy and 5-Fluorouracil

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    Roseline Duke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delayed postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhage (DSCH may occur following intraocular surgery for the treatment of glaucoma. It is considered to be a rare and debilitating event if not managed appropriately. Reported herewith is a case of Primary Congenital Glaucoma followed by DSCH with successful immediate surgical intervention and visual restoration. Patient and Method. An 8-month-old male child had bilateral Primary Congenital Glaucoma (PCG. Combined Trabeculotomy Trabeculectomy with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU was performed. He developed delayed suprachoroidal hemorrhage (DSCH within 24 hours after intraocular surgery which was drained. In addition, he developed exposure keratopathy and left amblyopia. Outcome. Resolution of the DSCH was seen with surgical drainage in addition to treatments for exposure keratopathy and amblyopia. These resulted in reduced intraocular pressure and improved visual acuities. Conclusion. There appears to be a difference in the overall management of PCG and DSCH between adults and children. A high index of suspicion as well as emergency surgical treatment for DSCH and associated conditions should be performed on pediatric patients that present with these challenges.

  11. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  12. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  13. Temporal Instabilities in Amblyopic Perception: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Aylin; Iftime, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the temporal characteristics of spatial misperceptions in human amblyopia. Twenty-two adult participants with strabismus, strabismic, anisometropic, or mixed amblyopia were asked to describe their subjective percept of static geometrical patterns with different spatial frequencies and shapes, as seen with their non-dominant eye. We generated digital reconstructions of their perception (static images or movies) that were subsequently validated by the subjects using consecutive matching sessions. We calculated the Shannon entropy variation in time for each recorded movie, as a measure of temporal instability. Nineteen of the 22 subjects perceived temporal instabilities that can be broadly classified in two categories. We found that the average frequency of the perceived temporal instabilities is ∼1 Hz. The stimuli with higher spatial frequencies yielded more often temporally unstable perceptions with higher frequencies. We suggest that type and amount of temporal instabilities in amblyopic vision are correlated with the etiology and spatial frequency of the stimulus.

  14. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harun; akmak; Tolga; Kocatürk; Sema; Oru; Dündar

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare surgically induced astigmatism(SIA)following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the "hang-back" technique and conventional recession technique.·METHODS: Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique(Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique(Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1stwk, 1stand in the 3rdmo after surgery using the SIA calculator.·RESULTS: SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups.·CONCLUSION: The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia.Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia.

  15. Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Mach and Hering had early advanced a model of spatial visual processing featuring an antagonistic interaction between adjoining areas in the visual field. Spatial opponency was one of the first findings when single-unit studies of the retina were begun. Not long afterwards psychophysical experiments revealed a center-surround organization closely matching that found in the mammalian retina. It hinged on the demonstration of reduction of sensitivity in a small patch of the visual field when its surround was changed from dark to bright. Because such patterns inevitably produce borders, well-known phenomena of border interaction could be seen as providing alternative explanations, whose substrate would most likely be in the visual cortex. These competing viewpoints are discussed especially as they pertain to the recent demonstration of spatial differences in the center/surround organization between the normal and affected eyes of amblyopes. To the extent that most findings favor a retinal site for the psychophysically measured antagonism, and that evidence is accumulating for a direct effect on the mammalian retina of stimulus manipulation during visual development, the difference in spatial parameters of center/surround antagonism in amblyopia suggests that the dysfunction in amblyopia begins already in the retina.

  16. Management of congenital and infantile cataract%先天性和婴幼儿性白内障治疗的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄钰森

    2012-01-01

    先天性和婴幼儿性白内障可产生形觉剥夺性弱视而导致终生视力损害.成功的处理依赖于早期诊断、适时和适当的治疗.在治疗先天性和婴幼儿性白内障时,我们常常更多关注手术技巧,而良好的视觉重建、术后弱视治疗和长期随访对患儿的预后非常重要.应强调和规范围手术期的相关检查.%Congenital and infantile cataracts produce deprivation amblyopia and can thus cause lifelong visual impairment. Successful management is dependent on early diagnosis and referral for surgery when indicated. Accurate optical rehabilitation, amblyopia treatment and postoperative supervision are very essential for prognosis. Perioperative routine examination should be emphasized and need specification. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 73-78)

  17. Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

    2014-07-29

    Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion.

  18. Ocular problems in children with cerebral palsy

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    Esra Ayhan Tuzcu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate eye problemsin children with cerebral palsy in our region.Materials and Methods: 90 patients which was diagnosedas cerebral palsy, treated and followed up in PediatricNeurology Department of Mustafa Kemal University,were included to this study. The history was taken, anda physical examination was performed to determine theetiology of the disease and type of SP. All of the patientswere underwent a detailed ophthalmological examinationincluding visual acuity, refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus,nystagmus and fundus examination.Results: Totally 90 patients, 51 male and 39 female,were included to the study. When the etiologic factorswere evaluated, the asphyxia was seen in 33.3% of thepatients. The most common type of cerebral palsy wasspastic quadriplegia at the rate of 43.3%. Eye problemswere detected in 60% of our cases. Of this, 54.4% wererefractive errors, 35.6% were strabismus, and 22.2%were optic nerve pathologies. Amblyopia was found in11.1% of cases. Although strabismus is more common inspastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy, there was no statisticallysignificant differenceConclusions: In conclusion, eye problems are commonin children with cerebral palsy. Therefore, we recommendroutine eye examination in these patients due to be beneficialin reducing the detection and communication difficulties.Key words: Cerebral palsy, refractive error, strabismus,optic atrophy

  19. Peculiarities of vernier monocular and binocular visual acuity in the retinal orthogonal meridians in patients with hypermetropic astigmatism

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    Владимир Александрович Коломиец

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an examination of meridional vernier visual acuity in 100 patients 7-25 years old with a simple and compound hypermetropic astigmatism and refractive ambyiopia. An astigmatic component of refraction was in range 0,5- 2,5 dptr. Visual acuity on the sighting eyes after correction was 0,9- 1,0, on eyes with amblyopia 0,4 - 0,85 relative units.Methods. Visual acuity was defined by the Landolt rings of Sivtsev table. Vernier visual acuity was defined in seconds of arc from 5 km, using special computer program.Result. It was demonstrated that in patients with the simple hypertropic astigmatism diagnosis of meridional amblyopia can be specified by the comparison of data of monocular and binocular vernier visual acuity in orthogonal meridians of retinas.Conclusions. An effect of the rise of meridional binocular visual acuity in one of meridians and its absence in another one allows define selective meridional disturbances of the visual acuity

  20. Relieving the attentional blink in the amblyopic brain with video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Ngo, Charlie V; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Video game play induces a generalized recovery of a range of spatial visual functions in the amblyopic brain. Here we ask whether video game play also alters temporal processing in the amblyopic brain. When visual targets are presented in rapid succession, correct identification of the first target (T1) can interfere with identification of the second (T2). This is known as the "attentional blink". We measured the attentional blink in each eye of adults with amblyopia before and after 40 hours of active video game play, using a rapid serial visual presentation technique. After videogame play, we observed a ~40% reduction in the attentional blink (identifying T2 200 ms after T1) seen through the amblyopic eye and this improvement in performance transferred substantially to the untrained fellow sound eye. Our experiments show that the enhanced performance cannot be simply explained by eye patching alone, or to improved visual acuity, but is specific to videogame experience. Thus, videogame training might have important therapeutic applications for amblyopia and other visual brain disorders.

  1. Comparative analysis of binocular summation of pattern visual evoked potential before and after the surgery of concomitant strabismus%共同性斜视矫正术后双眼总和图形视觉诱发电位的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖妙云; 中华; 黄海

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过分析共同性斜视矫正手术前后双眼总和图形视觉诱发电位的变化,探讨共同性斜视手术时机及其在斜视性弱视治疗中的作用。  方法:回顾性分析18岁以内在院接受共同性斜视矫正术治疗,且术后斜视矫正正位(斜视度≤±10△)的病历资料67例。按手术前斜视类型、接受手术时年龄、弱视程度分组,对各组术前、术后1,3 mo分别进行双眼总和P-VEP检测。结果以双眼反应/单眼反应( B/M)比值作为评价指标。  结果:所有病例术后1 mo B/M值均升高,差异有显著统计学意义(P12岁组明显(P  结论:经过弱视治疗后视力仍难以提高的共同性斜视患者建议6岁前行斜视矫正手术,特别是重度弱视及内斜视患儿(调节性内斜视除外)。早期手术有利于弱视的进一步治疗及双眼视功能的恢复。%AlM:To investigate the opportunity of the concomitant strabismus operation and the function in the treatment of strabismic amblyopia through analyzing the changes of binocular summation of pattern visual evoked potential ( P-VEP ) before and after the surgery of concomitant strabismus. METHODS: ln this retrospective study we investigated 67 cases admitted in our hospital. All patients were less than 18a and the postoperation squint angle was less than ± 10△. Patients were divided into three groups according to the strabismus type, age, and amblyopia degree. P-VEP binocular summation response was recorded in all cases, to observe the changes of the binocular summation response of P-VEP before strabismus surgery and 1mo, 3mo after surgery. The P-VEP response of binocular /monocular ( B/M ) ratio was taken as an evaluation index. RESULTS: B/M value of three groups all improved obviously 1mo after surgery, which the difference showed statistical significant (P12a group (P CONCLUSlON: Concomitant strabismus surgery is suggested to be performed before 6 years old when the patients are

  2. Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Shin Yeop; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the changes in refractive error and clinical evaluation in partially accommodative esotropia(PAET) after surgery. A total of 68 patients PAET who received at least 2 years of follow-up after surgery were enrolled in this study. We performed a retrospective study in patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral medial rectus recession for a non-accommodative component of PAET between January 2005 and March 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence of dominancy (dominant, non-dominant, alternative eye), and presence of amblyopia (amblyopic, fellow, normal eye). Changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error were analyzed in all patients and compared between groups. Patients were divided into two groups, those weaned off of hyperopic glasses and those who continued using them, then factors that significantly influenced the continued use of glasses were analyzed. The changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error according to time after operation and presence of amblyopia or dominancy. The mean length of follow-up was 4.89±1.74 years after surgery and the mean change in SE refractive error rate per year was -0.284±0.411 diopters (D). The pattern of changes in the mean SE refractive error for those with dominant, non-dominant, and alternative eyes was not significantly different (p = 0.292). The pattern of changes in the mean SE refractive error for those with amblyopic, fellow, and normal eyes was significantly different (p = 0.0002). Patients were successfully weaned off of hyperopic glasses at an average age of 9.41±2.74 years. The average SE refractive error in the group weaned off of hyperopic glasses was significantly lower than that in the group maintained on hyperopic glasses (p = 0.0002). The change of SE refractive error in amblyopic eyes decreased less than that in fellow or normal eyes, which may be correlated with the presence of amblyopia. Patients with a smaller esodeviated angle without hyperopic

  3. Dysfunction in the fellow eyes of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic children assessed by visually evoked potentials

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    Eric Pinheiro Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity and transient pattern reversal (PR visual evoked potentials (VEPs in the fellow eyes of children with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children diagnosed with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia were recruited for electrophysiological assessment by VEPs. Monocular grating and optotype acuity were measured using sweep-VEPs and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, respectively. During the same visit, transient PR-VEPs of each eye were recorded using stimuli subtending with a visual angle of 60', 15', and 7.5'. Parameters of amplitude (in μV and latency (in ms were determined from VEP recordings. Results: A group of 40 strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopic children (22 females: 55%, mean age= 8.7 ± 2.2 years, median= 8 years was examined. A control group of 19 healthy children (13 females: 68.4%, mean age= 8.2 ± 2.6 years, median= 8 years was also included. The fellow eyes of all amblyopes had significantly worse optotype acuity (p=0.021 than the control group, regardless of whether they were strabismic (p=0.040 or anisometropic (p=0.048. Overall, grating acuity was significantly worse in the fellow eyes of amblyopes (p=0.016 than in healthy controls. Statistically prolonged latency for visual angles of 15' and 7.5' (p=0.018 and 0.002, respectively was found in the strabismic group when compared with the control group. For the smaller visual stimulus (7.5', statistically prolonged latency was found among all fellow eyes of amblyopic children (p<0.001. Conclusions: The fellow eyes of amblyopic children showed worse optotype and grating acuity, with subtle abnormalities in the PR-VEP detected as prolonged latencies for smaller size stimuli when compared with eyes of healthy children. These findings show the deleterious effects of amblyopia in several distinct visual functions, mainly those related to spatial vision.

  4. 儿童远视内斜合并弱视手术疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汪霞; 戴仙梅; 何国荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察和比较儿童远视内斜合并弱视手术配合非手术治疗以及仅采用非手术治疗的临床疗效。方法:将3-12岁远视内斜合并弱视患者30例(44只眼)随机分为15例(23只眼)观察组和15例(21只眼)对照组,观察组首先采用手术对斜视进行矫正然后采取非手术治疗,对照组仅采用非手术治疗,对比两组的治疗效果。结果:两组患者的治愈率,观察组34.8%显著高于对照组14.3%,具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论:早期采用手术治疗远视内斜合并弱视,不仅能够对外观进行改善,而且能够使患者建立新的立体视觉和双眼视觉。%Objective:To observe and compare the operation in children with Hyperopia Amblyopia in inclined combined with the non operation treatment and only uses the clinical ef ica-cy of non operation treatment. Methods:3-12 years old in oblique amblyopia hyperopia and 30 patients (44 eyes) were randomly divided into 15 cases (23 eyes) in observation group and 15 ca-ses (21 eyes) in control group,the observation group by operation of strabismus correction and then take the non operation treatment,while the control group only received non operation treat-ment,treatment ef ect comparison the two group. Results:The cure rate in patients of the two groups,the observation group 34. 8% was significantly higher than that of control group was 14. 3%, with statistical dif erence (P<0. 05). Conclusion:Early use of operation for Hyperopia Amblyopia in inclined combined,can not only improve the appearance,but also can make patients to estab-lish a new stereo vision and binocular vision.

  5. Outcomes of ophtalmologic surgical procedures of esotropia in children and adolescents

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    Kljaković-Avramović Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Esotropia is the most common manifestation form of strabism accompanied by refraction deviations and amblyopia. The aim of this prospective study was to present the outcomes of surgical treatment of esotropia in children and adolescents. Methods. Within the period from January 1st 2006 to February 1st 2007 at the Clinic for Ophtalmology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade a total of 25 patients with esotropia (34 eyes and previously corrected refraction anomaly and treated amblyopia were operated on. The patients were 4-19-year of age. All of the patients were submitted to a complete ophtalmologic and orthoptic examination prior to the surgery, and a month, three months and six months after the surgery. The surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Out of the total number of the patients nine were operated on both eyes, while 16 patients on one eye with amblyopia or frequent esodeviation. Nine patients were submitted to retroposition of the inner straight muscle, two to myectomy of the outer straight muscle, while in 14 of the patients a combination of retroposition and myectomy was performed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the preoperative angle at the distance and followed-up accordingly after the surgery. Deviation angle at the distance in the group I was 18-25 DP, in the group II 26-35 PD, while in the group III it was 36-60 PD. Results. The most numerous, group I (12 patients; 48%, a month following the surgery showed angle reduction by 55.58%, after three months 63.25%, and after six months 63.92%. The group II consisted of 8 patients (32% showed angle reduction by 70.75% a month following the surgery, by 76% after three months, and by 79.12% after six months. The group III (5 patients; 20% showed angle reduction by 72.20% a month following the surgery, 79.20 after three months, and 80.12% after six months following the surgery. Conclusion. The best postoperative outcomes after a month, three

  6. Novel occurrence of axenfeld: Rieger syndrome in a patient with blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavin M; Dada, Tanuj; Panda, Anita; Tanwar, Mukesh; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Rima

    2014-03-01

    Blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a complex eyelid malformation characterized by the classical tetrad of blepharophimosis, telecanthus, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus. It has been reported to be associated with other ocular anomalies such as euryblepharon, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, microphthalmos, lacrimal drainage apparatus abnormality, extra ocular muscle abnormalities, microcornea, trabecular dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasias, and colobomas of the optic disk. We describe a case of BPES with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, a neurocristopathy characterized by maldevelopment of the anterior segment with predisposition to development of glaucoma. Interestingly, both syndromes are caused by mutations in the same class of genes, namely the winged-helix/forked transcription factors (FOX) involved in a variety of developmental processes.

  7. Association of extensive myelinated nerve fibers and high degree myopia: Case report

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    Elvan Yalcın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral extensive myelination of the peripapillary nerve fibers may be associated with anisometropic myopia, strabismus, and reduced vision. Myelination of optic nerve fibers terminate at lamina cribrosa. Yet in some patients, myelination progresses into the peripapillary retinal nerve fibers and may affect the visual acuity. In this report, we described 4 patients. All patients presented extensive peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers associated with myopic anisometropia. After routine ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, all patients underwent treatment for amblyopia through correction with spectacles, contact lenses, and the occlusion of the good eye. Corrected visual acuity improved in 1 patient, but 3 patients had no increase in visual acuity despite treatment with full cycloplegic refraction and appropriate patching. Probably because of structural abnormalies of the macula, visual results are often disappointing with appropriate correction of the refractive error and occlusion.

  8. Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (Citicoline) in Glaucoma: Rationale of Its Use, Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Michelessi, Manuele; Quaranta, Luciano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Manni, Gianluca; Oddone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine or citicoline is an endogenous compound that acts in the biosynthetic pathway of phospholipids of cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine, and it is able to increase neurotrasmitters levels in the central nervous system. Citicoline has shown positive effects in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as in amblyopia. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease currently considered a disease involving ocular and visual brain structures. Neuroprotection has been proposed as a valid therapeutic option for those patients progressing despite a well-controlled intraocular pressure, the main risk factor for the progression of the disease. The aim of this review is to critically summarize the current evidence about the effect of citicoline in glaucoma. PMID:26633368

  9. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-07-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates ("wave-plate-enhanced RBS") that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia.

  10. Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Case report: A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion: This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia.

  11. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates (“wave-plate-enhanced RBS”) that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia. PMID:21750772

  12. Approach to diagnosis and management of optic neuropathy

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    Sharik Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual loss consequent to anterior visual pathway involvement can occur in a variety of clinical settings. In a tropical country like India, apart from the usual suspects, nutritional, infective, and toxic amblyopia have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The mode of onset (acute/chronic, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, accompanying occular pain or the lack of it, and pattern of visual loss are some of the pointers which help to differentiate optic neuropathy clinically. The presence of concurrent neurological deficits, evidence of other systemic illnesses, and the results of serological and radiological investigations help to confirm the diagnosis. This article briefly describes the important causes of optic neuropathy in the Indian context and outlines a practical approach to management.

  13. Ocular Problems Related to Television Falls in Childhood

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    Esra Savku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV falls cause serious morbidity and mortality in children. Head trauma is frequently seen, and cranial nerve palsies ( 6th and 7th nerves are more frequently affected are associated with head trauma. Strabismus surgery can be performed in cases not resolving with conservative treatment, however, the delay in treatment related to associated traumas and systemic problems may result in amblyopia. There is no previous report in the literature about ocular findings accompanied by body and head trauma in children after television falls. In order to share our experience, we retrospectively evaluated the records of three patients that were admitted to our clinic with the history of TV-related injuries. The visual acuities of patients, anterior segment and fundus findings as well as the characteristics of the television (tube or LCD, size of the screen, height of the easel were recorded. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 451-4

  14. Outcomes of Surgery for Posterior Polar Cataract Using Torsional Ultrasound

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to report outcomes of surgery for posterior polar cataract using torsional ultrasound. Material and Method: Medical records of 26 eyes of 21 consecutive patients with posterior polar cataract who had cataract surgery using the torsional phacoemulsification were evaluated retrospectively. The surgical procedure used, phacoemulsification parameters, intraoperative complications, and postoperative visual outcome were recorded. Results: Of the 26 eyes, 24 (92.3% had small to medium posterior polar opacity. Two eyes had large opacity. All surgeries were performed using the torsional handpiece. Posterior capsule rupture occurred in 4 (15.3% eyes. The mean visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.001. The postoperative visual acuity was worse than 20/20 in 5 eyes. The cause of the low acuity was amblyopia. Discussion: Successful surgical results and good visual outcome can be achieved with phacoemulsification using the torsional handpiece. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 345-7

  15. Novel occurrence of axenfeld: Rieger syndrome in a patient with blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome

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    Bhavin M Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES is a complex eyelid malformation characterized by the classical tetrad of blepharophimosis, telecanthus, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus. It has been reported to be associated with other ocular anomalies such as euryblepharon, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, microphthalmos, lacrimal drainage apparatus abnormality, extra ocular muscle abnormalities, microcornea, trabecular dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasias, and colobomas of the optic disk. We describe a case of BPES with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, a neurocristopathy characterized by maldevelopment of the anterior segment with predisposition to development of glaucoma. Interestingly, both syndromes are caused by mutations in the same class of genes, namely the winged-helix/forked transcription factors (FOX involved in a variety of developmental processes.

  16. High-flow orbital arteriovenous malformation in a child: current management and options.

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    Trombly, Ryan; Sandberg, David I; Wolfe, S Anthony; Ragheb, John

    2006-07-01

    Vascular malformations of the orbit cause significant morbidity such as chronic pain, diplopia, amblyopia, and cosmetic disfigurement. They are rare lesions which require multidisciplinary care, and in the modern era results of treatment have been greatly improved with the assistance of endovascular therapy. Other treatment options include laser therapy, percutaneous embolization, open surgery, or a combination of these modalities. Nevertheless some patients suffer poor results despite modern medical advances. A case of an orbital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) initially treated independently by a dermatologist, a plastic surgeon, and a neuroendovascular interventionalist is presented. When treating patients with these rare but disabling lesions it is of the highest importance to coordinate efforts between all pertinent specialists in order to promote the best possible result.

  17. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Postoperative Glaucoma and Its Treatment in Paediatric Cataract Surgery.

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    Mataftsi, Asimina

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative glaucoma is perhaps the most feared complication after paediatric cataract surgery, as it is difficult to control. Paediatric glaucoma is also challenging to diagnose, and different definitions of glaucoma have led to a rather big range of reported incidences of this disease. It can occur soon after surgery, in which case it is usually closed-angle glaucoma, or it can have a late onset, even more than a decade after surgery, and its aetiopathogenesis remains unclear to this day. There is significant controversy as to what the risk factors are for developing it, especially regarding intraocular lens implantation. The vast majority of studies show that an earlier age at surgery confers a higher risk. Medical and surgical treatment of aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma can be successful; however, management often requires repeated procedures with or without multiple medications, and the prognosis is guarded. The visual outcome depends on sufficient intraocular pressure control and management of concurrent amblyopia.

  18. Dense Persistent Pupillary Membrane in an Adult Patient

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    Yesim Altay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pupillary membranes (PPM are congenital abnormalities which results from an incomplete involution of tunica vasculosa lentis and are rarely seen in adults. A thirty-year old man applied to the hospital with the complaint of uncommon-looking pupils and progressive blurring of vision in the left eye. On examination, uncorrected visual acuity (Snellen were 20/100 in the right eye and 20/640 in the left eye with amblyopia. On biomicroscopic examination, there were bilateral dense PPM and cataract in the left eye. Visual field analysis of right and left eyes showed great narrowing of visual fields. We present our case in order to emphasize that analysis of visual field of patients with PPM is as important as central vision when planning its treatment. For planning treatment of patients with PPM, visual impairment, size of pupillary opening, and visual field analysis should be considered.

  19. Recent advances in infants with congenital cataracts%婴幼儿先天性白内障研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢静

    2011-01-01

    Infant is a special population, congenital cataract and amblyopia is one of the leading cause of blindness in infants and young children. Based on the literature, this paper briefly summarized problems and racent advance of congenital cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation,in orderto parents and primary physician to pay attention of congenital cataract disease.%婴幼儿是一个特殊的群体,先天性白内障及其弱视是婴幼儿致盲眼病之一,通过对国内外文献的研究简要阐述先天性白内障手术治疗以及人工晶状体植入的问题,旨在总结目前研究进展,引起家长及初级医师对先天性白内障疾病治疗的重视.

  20. Clinical observation on surgical efficiency of unilateral congenital cataract.%单眼先天性白内障手术的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣霞; 陈伟蓉; 邓大明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects of unilateral congenital cataract after cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation.Methods 61 consecutive children(2 ~ 12 years old)of unilateral congenital cataract were operated and followed-up for 12 to 56 months,meanly(42.7 ± 10.5)months.Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA),presence of stereopsis,amblyopia and other complications were recorded.Results BCVA was 0.5 or better in 18 eyes(29.5 %)and good binocular function(≤100")was achieved in 11 children(18.0%).The extent of cataract,absence of strabismus and regular treatment on amblyopia had effect on BCVA(P < 0.05).The restoration of binocular function or not in the patients had statistical difference in BCVA,extent of cataract,absence of strabismus and regular treatment of amblyopia(P < 0.05).Conclusion Multiple factors affect on visual acuity and binocular function such as extent of cataract,absence of strabismus and regular treatment on amblyopia.Binocular function correlated closely with good BCVA..%目的 观察单眼先天性白内障儿童行白内障摘出人工晶状体植入术的效果并探讨其影响因素.方法 2~ 12岁单眼先天性白内障摘出联合Ⅰ期人工晶状体植入术61例(61眼).术后随访12 ~56个月,平均(42.7±10.5)月,记录术前情况及术后最佳矫正视力(BCVA)、双眼视功能、并发症及弱视治疗情况.结果 随访期末18例(29.5%)BCVA≥0.5;11例(18.0%)取得良好立体视(<100″),其中10例BCVA≥0.5.术后视力恢复较好(≥0.5)与较差(<0.5)者,其晶状体浑浊程度、是否合并斜视及有无做弱视治疗方面的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后立体视在BCVA、晶状体浑浊程度、是否合并斜视及有无做弱视治疗方面的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 患儿术后视力和立体视的恢复与晶状体浑浊程度、眼部并发症、弱视治疗等多种因素有关;双眼视功能的恢复与术后BCVA关系密切.

  1. Screening eye diseases in babies: an italian experience on 5000 healthy, consecutive newborns

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    Roberto Perilli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visual performance of eyes with congenital pathologies is conditioned by an early diagnosis. Families having problems in accessing health services risk to delay or miss both an early diagnosis and an early treatment and amblyopia (lazy eye prevention. METHODS: In our hospital, all full-term, healthy newborns are thoroughly examined by an ophthalmologist in the maternal ward, 1 to 3 days after birth. RESULTS: Among the first 5000 newborns examined, a high incidence of congenital pathologies compared to international literature was reported, with differences between Caucasians and non-Caucasians. CONCLUSION: Performing an early in-hospital thorough eye examination in all newborns as a screening would be an effective way to miss none and to start an early and effective pathway of disease treatment.

  2. Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum: Report of two cases

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    Chandana Chakraborti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by partial or complete adhesion of upper and lower eyelids, usually seen as an isolated finding but often associated with other anomalies or a well-defined syndrome. We report two cases of AFA who presented at a tertiary eye care center of West Bengal. Family history of consanguinity was absent. One baby had abnormal tuft of hair over the small of the back. No other congenital abnormalities were detected in any of them. The adhesions of the eyelids were divided by a number 15 blade after crushing with mosquito forceps in both cases without any anesthesia. Subsequent ocular examinations following separation and during follow-up revealed normal eyelid function, ocular motility, and fundus. In a case of AFA, timely separation of the eyelids is crucial to avoid the development of occlusion amblyopia. Cases of AFA reported in the literature are reviewed.

  3. Open globe injury in a 3-year-old child presenting 3 days later!!!

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    Avinash Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injuries are a very common cause of unilateral visual loss, with children accounting for up to 20% of all these injuries. The principles of management of ocular injuries are the same for children and adults. However, the management in the case of a child is made much more difficult due to variable cooperation with assessment and continuing therapy as well as the subsequent possibility of amblyopia further complicating the treatment. Here we report the successful management of a 3-year-old child who was brought to this center with a full thickness penetrating injury to her cornea, with a pencil, and the presence of hypopyon, 3 days after the occurrence of the injury.

  4. Cytidine 5'-Diphosphocholine (Citicoline) in Glaucoma: Rationale of Its Use, Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Michelessi, Manuele; Quaranta, Luciano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Manni, Gianluca; Oddone, Francesco

    2015-11-30

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine or citicoline is an endogenous compound that acts in the biosynthetic pathway of phospholipids of cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine, and it is able to increase neurotrasmitters levels in the central nervous system. Citicoline has shown positive effects in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in amblyopia. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease currently considered a disease involving ocular and visual brain structures. Neuroprotection has been proposed as a valid therapeutic option for those patients progressing despite a well-controlled intraocular pressure, the main risk factor for the progression of the disease. The aim of this review is to critically summarize the current evidence about the effect of citicoline in glaucoma.

  5. Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (Citicoline in Glaucoma: Rationale of Its Use, Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

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    Gloria Roberti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine or citicoline is an endogenous compound that acts in the biosynthetic pathway of phospholipids of cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine, and it is able to increase neurotrasmitters levels in the central nervous system. Citicoline has shown positive effects in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as in amblyopia. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease currently considered a disease involving ocular and visual brain structures. Neuroprotection has been proposed as a valid therapeutic option for those patients progressing despite a well-controlled intraocular pressure, the main risk factor for the progression of the disease. The aim of this review is to critically summarize the current evidence about the effect of citicoline in glaucoma.

  6. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

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    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  7. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

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    Danish Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs, psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs and functional subscale scores (FSSs following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20 questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT], back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009 and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009. OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001. Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02, on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01. The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02. Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04, largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week.

  8. Factors Influencing the Surgical Success in Patients with Infantile Esotropia

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    Fatma Gül Yılmaz Çınar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the factors that influence the surgical success in patients with infantile esotropia and to evaluate the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence. Material and Method: We retrospectively investigated the records of 188 patients with infantile esotropia who were operated on. The surgical success rate, the factors that influence the surgical success, and the relationship between amount of bilateral medial rectus recession and convergence deficiency were evaluated. Successful outcome was defined as deviation amount lower than 10 prism diopters postoperatively. Results: The mean age of the 188 patients included in the study at presentation was 54.9±56.8 (5-276 months, and the mean surgical age was 60.7±54.8 (7-276 months. Success was provided in 70.7% of patients after the first surgery and in 86.7% of patients after repeated surgeries. It was seen that gender, surgical age, refractive error, surgical procedure and the presence of fusion before surgery did not affect surgical success. Residual esotropia was found more frequently in patients with large-angle preoperative deviation, whilst both residual esotropia and consecutive exotropia were found more frequently in patients with amblyopia. It was observed that augmented bilateral medial rectus recession did not cause an increase in postoperative convergence deficiency. Discussion: Since the presence of amblyopia affects the surgical success negatively, it must be identified and treated preoperative. Residual esotropia is more frequently seen in patients with large-angle deviation preoperative, and more than one surgery may be required to provide orthophoria. In these cases, augmented bilateral medial rectus recession is a safe and effective method that rescues the patient from repeated surgeries and may be preferred to three-or four-muscle surgeries. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 413-8

  9. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

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    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531

  10. Screening Preschool Children for Visual Disorders: A Pilot Study

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    Suman Adhikari, BOptom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular and/or vision defects are one of the most common reasons for the referral of young children to the hospital. Vision disorders are the fourth most common disability of children and the leading cause of handicapping conditions in childhood. In preschool-age children, amblyopia and amblyogenic risk factors, such as strabismus and significant refractive errors, are the most prevalent and important visual disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of visual disorders in preschool children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.Methods: Four hundred and eighty-four children attending eight preschools in Kathmandu Valley underwent detailed optometric examination. Visual acuity was assessed with either Sheridan Gardiner or Kay Picture chart monocularly. Binocularity was assessed with cover test and prism bar neutralisation. Refraction was carried out in all children. In most instances this was done without the use of a cycloplegic agent. Stereopsis was assessed with the Lang stereo test. Anterior and posterior segment abnormalities were assessed by using a pen light, hand-held slit lamp, and direct ophthalmoscope.Results: Refractive error was the most common visual disorder. Considering our criteria of refractive error for myopia ≥ 0.50 D, hyperopia ≥ 1.50 D, astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D, the overall prevalence of refractive error in our study was 31.82%. The overall prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 24.17%, 2.48%, and 5.17%, respectively. Anisometropia was present in 1.65% of the participants, and 2%, 1.4%, and 0.2% had strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus, respectively.Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of refractive error in our studied population needs more attention. The results suggest that there is a need for a large-scale community-based preschool screening program in Nepal so that affected children can be identified early and appropriate treatment can be

  11. Asynchrony Detection in Amblyopes

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    Pi-Chun Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality of visual cortex. Although amblyopes experience perceptual deficits in spatial vision tasks, they have less temporal sensitivity loss. We investigated whether their temporal synchrony sensitivity is impaired. In experiment 1, four Gaussian blobs, located at the top, bottom, left, and right of a presentation screen, were flickering in 3 Hz and one of them was flickering in out-of-phase fashion in time. Participants needed to tell which blob was different from the other three and contrast threshold of the blobs was measured to determine the synchrony detection threshold. We found the thresholds were not correlated with the contrast thresholds for detecting the flickering blobs, suggesting synchrony detection and temporal detection threshold are processed by different mechanisms. In experiment 2, synchrony thresholds were measured as participants' ability to tell if one of the four high contrast Gaussian blobs was flickering asynchronously in time. Three temporal frequencies (1, 2, and 3 Hz and two element separations (1.25 and 5 deg were compared. We found that the amblyopic group exhibited a deficit only for the 1.25 deg element separation in amblyopic eye but was normal for the other configurations compared to controlled participants. It suggests amblyopes have deficits in temporal processing but only for foveal vision. We also found the sensitivity for the non-strabismic anismetropia group is reduced for all three temporal frequencies whereas for the strabismic anisometropia group it was reduced at 3Hz only, suggesting the impairment in temporal synchrony might be different for different types of amblyopia.

  12. Experience-induced interocular plasticity of vision in infancy

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    Wayne eTschetter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal model studies of amblyopia have generally found that enduring effects of monocular deprivation (MD on visual behavior (i.e. loss of visual acuity are limited to the deprived eye, and are restricted to juvenile life. We have previously reported, however, that lasting effects of MD on visual function can be elicited in adulthood by stimulating visuomotor experience through the non-deprived eye. To test whether visuomotor experience would also induce interocular plasticity of vision in infancy, we assessed in rats from eye opening on postnatal day (P15, the effect of pairing MD with daily threshold measurements of opto-kinetic tracking (OKT. Combining MD with OKT experience up to P25 led to a ~60% enhancement of the spatial frequency threshold through the non-deprived eye for OKT during the MD, which was followed by loss of function (~60% below normal through both eyes when the deprived eye was opened. Strictly limiting the period of deprivation to infancy, by opening the deprived eye at P19, resulted in comparable loss of function. Thresholds recovered by P30 unless binocular OKT experience was stimulated through both eyes from P25-P30, which was sufficient to maintain the lost function indefinitely. The ability to generate the plasticity, as well as to maintain lost function, was dependent on visual cortex. Animals with reduced visuomotor thresholds also exhibited significantly reduced visual acuity, measured independently in a discrimination task. Thus, a form of interocular plasticity, in which the stimulation of visual experience during MD can induce amblyopia, is present before the beginning of juvenile life.

  13. Fractality of sensations and the brain health: the theory linking neurodegenerative disorder with distortion of spatial and temporal scale-invariance and fractal complexity of the visible world

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    Marina Vladimirovna Zueva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory that ties normal functioning and pathology of the brain and visual system with the spatial-temporal structure of the visual and other sensory stimuli is described for the first time in the present study. The deficit of fractal complexity of environmental influences can lead to the distortion of fractal complexity in the visual pathways of the brain and abnormalities of development or aging. The use of fractal light stimuli and fractal stimuli of other modalities can help to restore the functions of the brain, particularly in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders or amblyopia. Nonlinear dynamics of these physiological processes have a strong base of evidence, which is seen in the impaired fractal regulation of rhythmic activity in aged and diseased brains. From birth to old age, we live in a nonlinear world, in which objects and processes with the properties of fractality and non-linearity surround us. Against this background, the evolution of man took place and all periods of life unfolded. Works of art created by man may also have fractal properties. The positive influence of music on cognitive functions is well-known. Insufficiency of sensory experience is believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and age-dependent diseases. The brain is very plastic in its early development, and the plasticity decreases throughout life. However, several studies showed the possibility to reactivate the adult's neuroplasticity in a variety of ways. We propose that a non-linear structure of sensory information on many spatial and temporal scales is crucial to the brain health and fractal regulation of physiological rhythms. Theoretical substantiation of the author's theory is presented. Possible applications and the future research that can experimentally confirm or refute the theoretical concept are considered.

  14. Cyclopentolate as a cycloplegic drug in determination of refractive error

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    Bolinovska Sofija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycloplegia is loss of the power of accommodation with inhibition of a ciliary muscle. We obtain in this way the smallest refraction of the lens and make it possible to determine the presence and size of the particular refractive error in cycloplegia by using cyclopentolate. Cyclopentolate is a synthetic anticholinergic drug and antagonist of the muscarine receptors. If applied in the eye, it blocks the effect of cholinergic stimulation on the sphincter pupillae muscle and ciliary muscle. It provokes severe mydriasis (dilation of the pupil and cycloplegia (paralysis of the accommodation. Cyclopentolate has been used occasionaly in diagnostic purposes: defining ocular refraction and in ophthalmoscopy. This is the prospective study which included 200 children (400 eyes aged 3-18 years, carried out in one ambulatory ophthalmological examination. The results were analysed using standard statistical methods. The most often refractive error in the examined group of children is hyperopia with hyperopic astigmatism, then myopia with myopic astigmatism and mixtus astigmatism are the most often in the oldest group of children. The mean value of corneal astigmatism on the right eye was 1.24 D, on the left eye 1.23 D. Anisometropy was found in 40% children. The presence of myopia, myopic and astigmatism mixtus tended to increase, and hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism tended to decrease toward older groups of children. Refractive error could result in a poor development of visual acuity, causing amblyopia and strabismus, and because of that represents an important public health problem. As one of amblyogenic risk factors in children, it can be prevented with screening program and appropriate treatment, thus providing prevention of amblyopia as one form of blindness.

  15. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  16. 随机点立体图与Titmus立体图检测法的应用评价%The comparative study of Random-Dot and Titmus Stereotest

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    江洋琳; 赵堪兴; 郑曰忠; 刘菊

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较随机点整体立体视检测法与Titmus局部立体视检测法在临床中的应用.方法 从天津市以人群为基础的"3~15岁少年儿童斜视、弱视及屈光不正流行病学调查"资料中分层随机抽取正常视力儿童409名.弱视儿童210名;应用整体立体视检测法和Titmus局部立体视检测法测定立体视锐度,比较正常视力儿童及弱视儿童应用这两种方法的立体视锐度分布.结果 正常视力儿童的中心凹立体视:随机点法为74.3%,Titmus法为86.3%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=18.79,P=0.000);弱视儿童组中心凹立体视分别为38.6%和51.9%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=11.87,P=0.008).弱视儿童立体视盲的检出率分别为12.4%和6.2%(X~2=11.87,P=0.008).结论 正常视力儿童立体视锐度值随机点整体立体视检测法高于Titmus局部立体视检测法,应用随机点整体立体视检测法能更准确地评价弱视患者的立体视功能.%Objective To study the clinical value of Random-Dot Stereotest (global stereopsis) and Titmus Stereotest (local stereopsis).Methods All cases were randomly selected from "The Epidemiology of 3-15 year old Children with Strabismus,Amblyopia and Refractive Error in Tianjin',including 409 children with normal vision and 210 children with amblyopia.The children's stereopsis was evaluated using Random-Dot Stereograms (RDS) for global stereopsis,and Titmus for local stereopsis.Results from both groups were compared of two forms of the stereopsis distribution of children with normal vision and children with amblyopia.Results The foveal stereopsis of children with normal vision measured with RDS was 74.3%,Titmus 86.3%,and the difference was statistically significant (X~2=18.79,P=0.000).The foveal stereopsis of amblyopic children measured with RDS was 38.6%,Titmus 51.9%,and the difference was statistically significant (X~2=11.87,P=0.008).The detection rate of blindness of stereopsis in amblyopic children with RDS was 12

  17. Prevenção à cegueira em crianças de 3 a 6 anos assistidas pelo programa de saúde da família (PSF do Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro Blindness prevention on 3 to 6 years old children at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro

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    Giancarlo Cardoso Jeveaux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho visou fazer um levantamento da prevalência de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos em crianças com idade pré-escolar em áreas assistidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família no Morro do Alemão-RJ. MÉTODOS: Crianças com idade entre 3 e 6 anos foram submetidas a exame de triagem visual. Os resultados positivos foram confirmados por exame oftalmológico realizado sob cicloplegia na própria unidade de saúde. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados aos acompanhantes das crianças e aos membros de todas as equipes de saúde da unidade. RESULTADOS: De 559 crianças convocadas para triagem, 265 (47,4% compareceram e, destas, 127 (48% foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico completo. Tiveram o exame ocular normal 138 (52% das crianças examinadas pela triagem. Compareceram para exame especializado 81 (63,7% crianças. Destas, 9 (4,1% crianças tiveram diagnóstico de ambliopia. Quatro (1,8% por estrabismo, uma (0,46% por privação de estímulo, uma (0,46% por anisometropia e três (33,3% por erros refracionais isometrópicos. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos pela triagem seguida de exame ocular especializado executada na unidade de atenção primária à saúde (PSF do Morro do Alemão-RJ, mostraram que os exames de triagem realizados são relevantes para a detecção de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos e para a promoção da saúde ocular infantil.PURPOSE: The study objective is to determine the prevalence of amblyopia and amblyopiogenic factors in children from 3 to 6 years old at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão-RJ. METHODS: A preschool children ocular evaluation cross sectional study will be submitted to an ophthalmic screening exam.The positive results were confirmed by oftalmologic examination under cicloplegia inside of the health centre. Were applied a semi-structure questionnaire to the health members of the health centre team and to all children accompanist. RESULTS

  18. Investigation of the compliance and its impact factors of amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning%视知觉学习治疗弱视患儿依从性及其影响因素的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 肖信; 刘伟民; 赵武校; 毛合娟; 韦蝶凤; 陆鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the compliance and its impact factors of amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning.Methods 116 amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning were investigated using self-made "compliance questionnaire for amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning".Results The average compliance score of amblyopia in treatment of visual perceptual learning was(71.45±10.10) points,ranging from 36 to 92 points.The univariate linear regression analysis showed that"awareness of parents on the amblyopia training","communication with medical staff","parents supervise children training" and "eyesight improvement speed of children" were the statistical significant impact factors.The further multivariate linear regression analysis showed that "awareness of parents on the amblyopia training" and "parents supervise children training" were also the statistically significant impact factors.Conclusions The compliance of amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning was satisfactory and its impact factors were associated with parents,the supervision and awareness of parents were the key impact factors for amblyopic children treating with visual perceptual learning.%目的 探讨视知觉学习治疗弱视患儿的依从性及其影响因素.方法 采用自行编制的“视知觉学习治疗弱视患儿依从性调查问卷”对116例接受视知觉学习治疗的弱视患儿进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 视知觉学习治疗弱视患儿的依从性总分平均值为(71.45±10.10)分,最高92分,最低36分.影响因素的单因素分析表明,家长对弱视训练的理解程度、与医护人员沟通治疗情况、家长督促患儿训练、患儿视力改善的速度4个项目为依从性好坏的影响因素.进一步的多因素分析表明,家长督促患儿训练和家长对弱视训练的理解程度为视知觉学习治疗弱视患儿依从性的显著性影响因素.结论 视知

  19. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

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    Jian Feng Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D, high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7% children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI:36.0,38.0 increased (P<0.001 from 1.7 ± 1.2% (95%CI:0.0,4.0 in the 4-years olds to 84.6 ± 3.2% (95%CI:78.0,91.0 in 17-years olds. Myopia was associated with older age (OR:1.56;95%CI:1.52,1.60;P<0.001, female gender (OR:1.22;95%CI:1.08,1.39;P = 0.002 and urban region (OR:2.88;95%CI:2.53,3.29;P<0.001. Prevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2% increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3 in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9 in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;P<0.001 and urban region (OR:3.11;95%CI:2.08,4.66;P<0.001. Astigmatism (≥ 0.75D (36.3 ± 0.6%;95%CI:35.0,38.0 was associated with older age (P<0.001;OR:1.06;95%CI:1.04,1.09, more myopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97 and urban region (P<0.001;OR:1.47;95%CI:1.31,1.64. BCVA was ≤ 20/40 in the better eye in 19 (0.32% children. UCVA ≤ 20/40 in at least one eye was found in 2046 (34.05% children, with undercorrected refractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9% children. Amblyopia

  20. 儿童白内障临床治疗疗效观察%The effect of treatment of pediatic cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菊珊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe curative effect of cliniral treatment after pediatric catarant. Methods 42 eyes of pediatric cataract with extraction and intraocular lens implantation under 14 years in 30 patients, which adopt different methods to proceed to vision training according to the conditions of amblyopia, 3 years follow-up to observe the recovery of visual function. Results (1) Vision:17 eyes were 0.5 or above of the best corrected visual acuity in 13 patients; 22 eyes of 12 cases were 0.2 to 0.4; 5 eyes of 5 cases were 0.1 or below. Amblyopia treatment for 3 months to 3 years, 22 eyes were 0.5 or above of the best corrected visual acuity in 15 patients; 19 eyes of 14 cases were 0.2 to 0.4; 1 eye of 1 case was 0.1 or below. (2) complications:35eyes with fibrinous uveitift, 8eyes with posterior eapsuleopacification. (3) binocular vision:30 patients of pediatric cataract with a fusion in 15cases, stereopsis vision in 5eases, strabismus in 5 cases. Conclusions The treatment of pediatric cataract is not just surgery treatment, amblyopia treatment is equally important.%目的 观察儿童白内障临床治疗后的疗效 方法 对30例(42只眼)14岁以下儿童白内障行抽吸+人工晶体植入术后,选择不同方法进行弱视训练,随访3年,观察视功能恢复情况.结果 (1)视力:术后最好矫正视力0.5以上13例15只眼;0.2~0.4 12例22只眼;0.1以下5例5只眼.弱视治疗3个月至3年后,最好矫正视力0.5以上15例22只眼,0.2~0.4 14例19只眼.0.1以下1例1只眼.(2)并发症:纤维素性葡萄膜炎35只眼,后发障8只眼.(3)双眼视功能:30例儿童白内障患者,具有融合功能15例,立体视觉5例.结论 儿童白内障不单是手术治疗,弱视治疗也同样重要.

  1. Amblyopic reading is crowded.

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    Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

    2007-10-26

    We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the

  2. Cataract surgery: factors influencing decision to treat and implications for training (south-east Scotland 2008–2014

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    Sniatecki JJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan J Sniatecki, Caroline Styles, Natalie Boyle, Roshini Sanders Cataract Unit, Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline, Fife, UK Purpose: To describe the population referred for cataract surgery, identify factors that influenced decision to treat, and patients suitable for ophthalmic training. Patients and methods: A total of 2,693 consecutive referrals over 6 years were interrogated using Business Objects software on cataract electronic patient records. Results: A total of 2,693 patients were referred for cataract surgery (group A. Of these patients 2,132 (79% had surgery (group B and 561 (21% did not (group C. Age for group B vs group C: 672 (32% vs 115 (20% ≤69 years, P<0.001; 803 (38% vs 225 (40% 70–79 years, P=0.48; 586 (27% vs 203 (36% 80–89 years, P<0.05; 71 (3% vs 18 (3% ≥90 years, P=1.0. Visual acuity, group B vs group C: 556 (26% vs 664 (59% 6/12 or better; 1,275 (60% vs 367 (33% 6/18–6/60; 266 (12% vs 64 (6% counting fingers or worse, P<0.05. Medical history for group B vs C: cognitive impairment: 55 (2.6% vs 29 (5.2%, P<0.05; cardiovascular accident: 158 (7.4% vs 60 (10.7%, P<0.05; diabetes: 372 (17.4% vs 96 (17.1%, P=0.87; COPD/asthma: 382 (17.9% vs 93 (16.6%, P=0.53; heart disease: 535 (25.1% vs 155 (27.6%, P=0.35; hypertension: 971 (45.5% vs 263 (46.9%, P=0.73. Ocular history for group B vs C was significant (P<0.05 for age-related macular degeneration 255 (12.0% vs 93 (16.6%, other macular pathology 38 (1.8% vs 25 (4.5%, corneal pathology 92 (4.3% vs 36 (6.4%, amblyopia 37 (1.7% vs 22 (3.9%. Detailed data on presenting complaint, ophthalmic history, and social status is discussed. Conclusion: We observed that surgery at a younger age with good levels of visual acuity was a factor in deferring cataract surgery. Cognitive impairment, cardiovascular accident, amblyopia, corneal and macular pathology significantly affected decision not to operate. We estimate that 80% of patients would be suitable for ophthalmic training

  3. Advances in visual correction and postoperative visual treatment of congenital cataract%先天性白内障视觉矫正和术后视觉训练的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅林; 王嵩; 严宏

    2014-01-01

    先天性白内障依然是造成儿童终生视力损害的重要疾病之一。相比于成人白内障,手术并发症多,治疗过程复杂,特别是弱视的发生,严重影响预后,所以术后视觉训练十分必要。目前先天性白内障术后视觉矫正的方法包括框架眼镜、角膜接触镜和人工晶状体的联合应用,但对于人工晶状体度数计算、植入时机和类型的选择等仍存在争议。遮盖治疗与视觉训练是术后避免弱视的重要手段。严格掌握遮盖患眼或健眼的时间和疗程,同时辅以视觉训练,可以明显提高视觉敏锐度和色觉敏感度,以期双眼视功能得到恢复和正常发育。%Congenital cataract is one of the important diseases that cause irreversible visual impairment on children. Compared with adult cataract, the surgery of congenital cataract is more complicated and the complications are more severer, especially the postoperative amblyopia often leads to bad prognosis. Therefore, the postoperative treatment is necessary to obtain the better visual outcome.The traditional visual correction methods after surgery include the combined use of spectacles, contact lens, and intraocular lens ( IOL ) , but some problems such as IOL power calculation and IOL implantation time are still controversial. Besides, occlusion therapy and visual training are also essential for preventing amblyopia after cataract surgery.Occlusion in an appropriate dose and course must be mastered, accompanied by visual training. Both of the operative eyes and normal eyes will be able to achieve much better visual acuity and color sensitivity, so that the binocular vision can recover and develop as normal function.

  4. Long-Term Results of Cataract Surgery in Patients with Unilateral Childhood Cataract

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    Suzan Güven Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the long-term visual outcome and to determine the surgical complications after cataract surgery in patients with unilateral childhood cataract. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 cases with unilateral childhood cataract who had undergone cataract surgery before the age of seven. Primary intraocular lens (IOL implantation was made in children who were older than 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was made after 18 months in children who were operated before the age of 1 year and were left aphakic. Occlusion therapy was performed to all children for amblyopia postoperatively. Visual acuity and complications were evaluated in a mean follow-up period of 4.8 years. Re sults: The mean age of the 18 patients (9 female/9 male at the time of surgery was 43.6±33.7(1-84 months. Eleven (61% patients had cataract surgery after 1 year of age. Secondary IOL implantation was performed at mean 28th month in 4 of 7 aphakic patients (57% who had cataract surgery before one year of age. In 3 (43% aphakic patients, secondary IOL implantation could not be performed because of ocular pathologies such as microophthalmia. Final visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 7 eyes (39%, between 0.1 and 0.5 in 6 eyes (33%, and worse than 0.1 - in 5 eyes (28%. Of 5 eyes that had visual acuity worse than 0.1, 4 (80% had at least one additional ocular pathology such as microphthalmia, strabismus and nystagmus. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed at mean 8th month in 7 of 8 (87% children whose posterior capsules were left intact at surgery. Dis cus si on: Favorable visual outcomes can be achieved with surgical intervention and complementary amblyopia treatment in children with unilateral cataract. Preoperative microphthalmia, nystagmus and strabismus are not entirely an obstacle to visual development, but they are important factors leading to low visual acuity. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 103-10

  5. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  6. Neuregulin-Dependent Regulation of Fast-Spiking Interneuron Excitability Controls the Timing of the Critical Period.

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    Gu, Yu; Tran, Trinh; Murase, Sachiko; Borrell, Andrew; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-05

    Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs. Blocking the effects of endogenous neuregulin via inhibition of erbBs rescued ocular dominance plasticity in postcritical period adults, allowing recovery from amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation. Thus, the strength of excitation onto FS INs is a key determinant of critical period plasticity and is maintained at high levels by NRG-erbB4 signaling to constrain plasticity in adulthood.

  7. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India

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    Sambuddha Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9% and 65 (2.5% children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2% and 5 (0.2% children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.

  8. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review.

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    Geneva, Ivayla I

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes. All available literature until April 2015 was reviewed using PubMed and the following keywords: "photobiomodulation AND retina", "low level light therapy AND retina", "low level laser therapy AND retina", and "FR/NIR therapy AND retina". In addition, the relevant references listed within the papers identified through PubMed were incorporated. The literature supports the conclusion that the low-cost and non-invasive nature of PBM, coupled with the first promising clinical reports and the numerous preclinical-studies in animal models, make PBM well-poised to become an important player in the treatment of a wide range of retinal disorders. Nevertheless, large-scale clinical trials will be necessary to establish the PBM therapeutic ranges for the various retinal diseases, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action.

  9. Intraocular lenses and clinical treatment in paediatric cataract

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    Camila Ribeiro Koch Pena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is the most common treatable cause of blindness in children. Prevalence, etiology and morphology vary with the socioeconomic development. The treatment goal is to reduce amblyopia, being difficult management especially in unilateral cases. The decision on aphakia or primary intraocular lens should be individualized as well as correction with contact lens or spectacles. The intraocular lens single-piece hydrophobic acrylic are the most implanted in children and the preferably is in the capsular bag. The Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T stressing that is described as more predictable, following Holladay I and SRK II and the recommendation is to under correction +6.0 or +8.0 dioptrias expecting the growth of the eye. The posterior capsule opacity is the most frequent complication and varies with the material choice of the lens. Glaucoma is the most serious postoperative complication and depends on the timing of the surgery, primary lens implantation and time of post surgical follow-up. The adherence to occlusion therapy with patching is critical to the visual prognosis and is determined by the child’s age and laterality of the cataract. There was significant improvement in the surgery and in IOLs, however the final visual prognosis is still not desirable.

  10. Duane Syndrome. Presentation of a case.

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    Pedra Palmero Aragón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an observational descriptive prospective longitudinal study including the period from march 2008 till june 20, 2008 in the Ophthalmology Service of the Provincial Educational Pediatric Hospital: “José Martí Pérez” in Sancti Spiritus, with the objective to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a patient with Duane Syndrome who went to consultation without receiving previous ophthalmological attention, the diagnosis age was determined, which was tardy, bracket the most affected eye and the kind of Duane, and also if there was any refractive defect and the presence of amblyopia , identifying the criteria for being operated, for collecting data a format was completed by the specialists, which included observation, interrogatory, ophthalmological medical record of the ill person and pictures, these elements allowed us to make a correct analysis. With the previous information we arrived as a conclusion that is all about a patient with 28 years of age who lives in Sancti Spiritus Municipality, with White skin, male, carried on the Duane Syndrome type I, unilateral left. A light Hypermetropia was presented in both eyes as a refractive defect, accompanied by a light bilateral amplyopia in the right eye and moderate in the left eye. It is necessary to stay that the patient was under surgical criterium by esotropia of more than 15 degrees in PPM and unacceptable torticollis although the time of evolution; there were no difficulties related to the surgical act. The postoperative picture can reflect the result of the surgery.

  11. Prevalence of Vitamin-A deficiency AND refractive errors in primary school-going children

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    Rupali Darpan Maheshgauri

    2016-03-01

    To assess refractive errors in primary school-going children. To critically analyze the need for supplementation of Vitamin A, to children of low socioeconomic strata. Methods: Students were examined from 2 primary schools. Visual acuity was tested using Snellen's chart, Pictogram and Landolt C chart. Detailed anterior and posterior segment examination using Binocular loop, Ophthalmoscope and Streak retinoscope. RESULTS: Total no of 560 children of age 3 to 13yr were screened from 2 primary schools.Statistically significant difference was found in the age of the study subject and presence of refractive errors. Percentage of students having Refractive error: myopia (29.64% is the major cause of refractive error, followed by astigmatism (4.28% hypermetropia (3.25% and amblyopia (1.25%. Conclusion: It was observed that many children had high refractive error and were undiagnosed. The possible reason could be ignorance on the part of teachers and parents, even when the children have vision related complains. Also the children in the younger age-group lack the acumen to judge whether they can see clearly or not. Prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency appears reduced in urban areas. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 23-27

  12. Síndrome de Noonan: relato de caso Noonan's syndrome: case report

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    Vanderson Glerian Dias

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de síndrome de Noonan em criança de 14 anos de idade, diagnosticada por meio de exame genético-clínico, demonstrando alterações oftalmológicas como hipertelorismo, alterações da fenda palpebral, hipotropia direita com pequena anisotropia em V, nistagmo, ptose palpebral bilateral e ambliopia do olho direito. Discute-se a importância do oftalmologista para esta síndrome e a necessidade do acompanhamento por equipe médica multidisciplinar.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old child with Noonan´s syndrome, diagnosed by clinical genetic examination, demonstrating ophthalmologic alterations such as: hypertelorism, eyelid fissue changes, right hypotropia with a small V anisotropy, nystagmus, bilateral eyelid ptosis and amblyopia in right eye. The importance of the ophthalmologist in this syndrome and the need for a follow-up by a multidisciplinary medical group are discussed.

  13. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

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    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  14. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

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    Magli A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adriano Magli,1 Luca Rombetto,2 Francesco Matarazzo,2 Roberta Carelli1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Orthoptics and Pediatric Ophthalmology, University of Salerno, Salerno, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM. Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate. Keywords: infantile esotropia, risk factors, reoperation

  15. TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF THE EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS FOR UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERROR AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN MEERUT.

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    A Davey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyes are the best God gift to our body as vision is important in development as it allows interaction with the environment. Appropriate correction prevents the development of childhood amblyopia and enables better performance at school. Later in life carrier of the youth is very much dependent on the visual acuity. Therefore study aims to find the prevalence of the uncorrected refractive error among school children in the age group of 13-16 years and factors contributing to the refractive error. Methods: It is institutional based crossed sectional study in English medium private school children in the age group 13-16 years. For one week they were screened for visual acuity from a Standard Snellen Chart. On pre-informed date educational intervention was conducted; they were followed up after one week of intervention for final assessment. Results: Prevalence of the uncorrected refractive error was 14.8% Distance for watching TV less than 3 m and computer less than 1 m were highly significant. Prolonged duration of TV watching for more than 4 hours in a day and indulgence in computers for more than one year were also significant. In follow up after education intervention, all the children with uncorrected refractive error except 2 had paid visit to ophthalmologist. Conclusion: Community based screening through school is most appropriate strategy to detect early any visual impairment, but school based approach must include teachers orientation also for prevention of eye disease.

  16. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

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    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery.

  17. Effects of Fluoxetine and Visual Experience on Glutamatergic and GABAergic Synaptic Proteins in Adult Rat Visual Cortex.

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    Beshara, Simon; Beston, Brett R; Pinto, Joshua G A; Murphy, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine has emerged as a novel treatment for persistent amblyopia because in adult animals it reinstates critical period-like ocular dominance plasticity and promotes recovery of visual acuity. Translation of these results from animal models to the clinic, however, has been challenging because of the lack of understanding of how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic mechanisms that are essential for experience-dependent plasticity. An appealing hypothesis is that fluoxetine recreates a critical period (CP)-like state by shifting synaptic mechanisms to be more juvenile. To test this we studied the effect of fluoxetine treatment in adult rats, alone or in combination with visual deprivation [monocular deprivation (MD)], on a set of highly conserved presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin, synaptophysin, VGLUT1, VGAT, PSD-95, gephyrin, GluN1, GluA2, GluN2B, GluN2A, GABAAα1, GABAAα3). We did not find evidence that fluoxetine shifted the protein amounts or balances to a CP-like state. Instead, it drove the balances in favor of the more mature subunits (GluN2A, GABAAα1). In addition, when fluoxetine was paired with MD it created a neuroprotective-like environment by normalizing the glutamatergic gain found in adult MDs. Together, our results suggest that fluoxetine treatment creates a novel synaptic environment dominated by GluN2A- and GABAAα1-dependent plasticity.

  18. Ocular Morbidity Associated With Retinopathy of Prematurity in Treated and Untreated Eyes: A Review of the Literature and Data From a Tertiary Eye-care Center in Southern India.

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    Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Kara, Tulika; Gilbert, Clare

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging cause of childhood blindness in low- and middle-income countries. We review the magnitude, causes, prevention and treatment of visual impairment caused by ROP over a time span. A review of literature on short and long term structural and functional outcomes of ROP was conducted through PubMed search primarily focusing on studies published during the last decade. Additionally, we have shared data from our institute located in Southern India. Visual Impairment in ROP-treated children ranged from 4.1% to 30% in various settings, attributable mainly to refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus and perinatal neurological events followed by structural changes like macular scarring and retinal detachment. We conclude that towards an early detection and a proper management of all the above mentioned conditions, these children need to be followed-up for a long time by a committed pediatric ophthalmologist at a specifically scheduled interval. The overall success depends upon the strength of the networking system between parents/neonatologists/pediatricians/pediatric ophthalmologist and a retina specialist.

  19. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

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    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.

  20. Rapid recovery from the effects of early monocular deprivation is enabled by temporary inactivation of the retinas

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    Fong, Ming-fai; Mitchell, Donald E.; Duffy, Kevin R.; Bear, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex. Here we have reduced this idea to practice in two species. In young mice, we show that the otherwise stable loss of cortical responsiveness caused by MD is reversed when binocular visual experience follows temporary anesthetic inactivation of the retinas. In 3-mo-old kittens, we show that a severe impairment of visual acuity is also fully reversed by binocular experience following treatment and, further, that prolonged retinal inactivation alone can erase anatomical consequences of MD. We conclude that temporary retinal inactivation represents a highly efficacious means to promote recovery of function. PMID:27856748

  1. The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children

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    Ashwin Mallipatna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an important imaging tool assessing retinal architecture. In this article, we report a single centers experience of using handheld spectral domain (SD-OCT in a pediatric population using the Envisu 2300 (Bioptigen Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Methods: We studied SD-OCT images from 975 patients imaged from January 2011 to December 2014. The variety of cases that underwent an SD-OCT was analyzed. Cases examples from different case scenarios were selected to showcase unique examples of many diseases. Results: Three hundred and sixty-eight infants (37.7% were imaged for retinopathy of prematurity, 362 children (37.1% underwent the test for evaluation of suboptimal vision or an unexplained vision loss, 126 children (12.9% for evaluation of nystagmus or night blindness, 54 children (5.5% for an intraocular tumor or a mass lesion such as retinoblastoma, and 65 children (6.7% for other diseases of the pediatric retina. The unique findings in the retinal morphology seen with some of these diseases are discussed. Conclusion: The handheld SD-OCT is useful in the evaluation of the pediatric retinal diseases. The test is useful in the assessment of vision development in premature children, evaluation of unexplained vision loss and amblyopia, nystagmus and night blindness, and intraocular tumors (including retinoblastoma.

  2. Refractive errors in Cameroonians diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism

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    Eballé AO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,3, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Christelle Noche4, Marie Evodie Akono Zoua2, Andin Viola Dohvoma21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon, 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Yaoundé Gynaeco-obstetric and Paediatric Hospital. Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Université des Montagnes. Bangangté, CameroonBackground: Albinism causes significant eye morbidity and amblyopia in children. The aim of this study was to determine the refractive state in patients with complete oculocutaneous albinism who were treated at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon and evaluate its effect on vision.Methods: We carried out this retrospective study at the ophthalmology unit of our hospital. All oculocutaneous albino patients who were treated between March 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011 were included.Results: Thirty-five patients (70 eyes diagnosed with complete oculocutaneous albinism were enrolled. Myopic astigmatism was the most common refractive error (40%. Compared with myopic patients, those with myopic astigmatism and hypermetropic astigmatism were four and ten times less likely, respectively, to demonstrate significant improvement in distance visual acuity following optical correction.Conclusion: Managing refractive errors is an important way to reduce eye morbidity-associated low vision in oculocutaneous albino patients.Keywords: albinism, visual acuity, refraction, Cameroon

  3. Causes of blindness among adult Yemenis: A Hospital-based study

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    Al-Akily Saleh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This hospital-based retrospective study was aimed to assess the causes of blindness among adults aged 17 years and over who attended a teaching eye hospital in Yemen. Methods: The case notes of 3845 consecutive new patients over 12 months attending Ibn Al-Haitham Eye Center which is affiliated to the University of Science and Technology in Sana′a (the capital of Yemen were retrieved and analysed. Data collected included age, gender, chief complaint and complete eye examination. Results: 7.7 percent (296 were uniocularly blind and 11.2 percent (432 were binocularly blind (best corrected visual acuity < 3/60 in the better eye. The leading causes of uniocular blindness were cataract, trauma related ocular complications, corneal opacity, amblyopia and glaucoma. Binocular blindness was mainly due to cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration and corneal opacity. Conclusions: These data imply that the preliminary results give us some insight about the magnitude of the problem of blindness in Yemen while awaiting a national survey on the prevalence and causes of blindness. Cataract was found to be the main cause of unilateral and bilateral blindness and this will require surgical relief, either in public hospitals, private hospitals and clinics, or in eye camps. Trauma related ocular complications were found to be the second most common cause of uniocular blindness. Health education, implementing work safety measures and bringing ophthalmological care to the doorstep of underprivileged rural community will improve their level of awareness.

  4. Lensectomy for complicated cataract in juvenile chronic iridocyclitis.

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    Kanski, J J

    1992-02-01

    Experience with the removal of complicated cataract by lensectomy in patients with juvenile chronic iridocyclitis (JCI) has so far been limited. The results of lensectomy were reviewed retrospectively in 131 patients with JCI (187 eyes). The mean follow up period was 5 years 4 months. The main operative complication was accidental loss of lens material into the vitreous cavity. The postoperative complications were glaucoma (23 eyes, 15%), phthisis (14 eyes, 8%), secondary pupillary membranes (11 eyes, 6%), and retinal detachment (six eyes, 3%). The incidence of postoperative phthisis was related to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of surgery. Twenty four per cent of hypotonous eyes and 4% of eyes with normal or elevated IOP became phthisical. Visual acuity was improved in 77%, was worse in 13%, and unchanged in 10% of eyes. The main causes of a postoperative visual acuity of 6/60 or less were glaucoma, amblyopia, and phthisis. Lensectomy did not appear to alter the course of uveitis.

  5. Parenteral corticosteroids followed by early surgical resection of large amblyogenic eyelid hemangiomas in infants

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    El Essawy R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rania El Essawy,1 Rasha Essameldin Galal21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of early surgical resection of large amblyogenic subdermal eyelid hemangiomas in infants after prior short-term parenteral administration of corticosteroids.Methods: Sixteen infants were given dexamethasone 2 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for three consecutive days prior to scheduled surgical excision of large eyelid hemangiomas. The lesions were accessed via an upper eyelid crease, subeyebrow incision, or a lower eyelid subciliary incision.Results: In all cases, surgical excision of the entire lesion was possible with no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. The levator muscle/aponeurosis complex was involved in 31.25% of cases and was managed by reinsertion or repositioning without resection. A satisfactory lid position and contour with immediate clearing of the visual axis was achieved in all but one case (93.8%.Conclusion: Parenteral corticosteroids helped in reducing volume and blood flow from the hemangiomas, allowing for very early total excision of large subdermal infantile hemangiomas without significant intraoperative hemorrhage. This resulted in immediate elimination of any reason for occlusion amblyopia. Long-term follow-up of visual development in these patients would help to demonstrate the effectiveness of this strategy compared with more conservative measures.Keywords: large eyelid hemangiomas, early surgical resection, parenteral corticosteroids

  6. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

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    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  7. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review

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    Geneva, Ivayla I.

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes. All available literature until April 2015 was reviewed using PubMed and the following keywords: “photobiomodulation AND retina”, “low level light therapy AND retina”, “low level laser therapy AND retina”, and “FR/NIR therapy AND retina”. In addition, the relevant references listed within the papers identified through PubMed were incorporated. The literature supports the conclusion that the low-cost and non-invasive nature of PBM, coupled with the first promising clinical reports and the numerous preclinical-studies in animal models, make PBM well-poised to become an important player in the treatment of a wide range of retinal disorders. Nevertheless, large-scale clinical trials will be necessary to establish the PBM therapeutic ranges for the various retinal diseases, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action. PMID:26949625

  8. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

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    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  9. Barriers to follow-up for pediatric cataract surgery in Maharashtra, India: How regular follow-up is important for good outcome. The Miraj Pediatric Cataract Study II

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular follow up and amblyopia treatment are essential for good outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery. Aim: To study the regularity of follow-up after cataract surgery in children and to gauge the causes of poor compliance to follow up. Subjects: 262 children (393 cataracts who underwent cataract surgery in 2004-8. Materials and Methods: The children were identified and examined in their homes and a "barriers to follow-up" questionnaire completed. Demographic data collected, visual acuity estimated, and ocular examination performed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Of the 262 children, only 53 (20.6% had been regularly following up with any hospital, 209 (79.4% had not. A total of 150 (57.3% were boys and the average age was 13.23 years (Std Dev 5 yrs. Poor follow up was associated with the older age group ( P 1 line with regular follow-up. Conclusion: Regular follow-up is important and improves vision; eye care practitioners need to take special efforts to ensure better follow-up.

  10. Congenital and infantile cataract: aetiology and management.

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    Chan, Wai H; Biswas, Susmito; Ashworth, Jane L; Lloyd, I Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Congenital cataract is the commonest worldwide cause of lifelong visual loss in children. Although congenital cataracts have a diverse aetiology, in many children, a cause is not identified; however, autosomal dominant inheritance is commonly seen. Early diagnosis either on the post-natal ward or in the community is important because appropriate intervention can result in good levels of visual function. However, visual outcome is largely dependent on the timing of surgery when dense cataracts are present. Good outcomes have been reported in children undergoing surgery before 6 weeks of age in children with unilateral cataract and before 10 weeks of age in bilateral cases. Placement of an artificial intraocular lens implant after removal of the cataract has become established practice in children over 2 years of age. There remains debate over the safety and predictability of intraocular lens implantation in infants. Despite early surgery and aggressive optical rehabilitation, children may still develop deprivation amblyopia, nystagmus, strabismus, and glaucoma. The diagnosis and management of congenital cataracts has improved substantially over the past 30 years with a concurrent improvement in outcomes for affected children. Many aspects of the pre-, intra-, and postoperative management of these patients continue to be refined, highlighting the need for good quality data and prospective collaborative studies in this field.

  11. 婴儿先天性白内障摘除一期人工晶状体植入的研究进展%Primary intraocular lens implantation after extraction of congenital cataract in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘馨; 罗怡

    2012-01-01

    近年来,婴儿先天性白内障摘除后一期植入人工晶状体受到越来越多眼科医生的认可,并在临床实践中逐步开展.25G玻璃体切除系统在婴儿白内障手术中的应用,大大降低了术后并发症的发生;新型屈光度计算公式和近视漂移预测公式的发展,提高了人工晶状体屈光度选择的准确性;更适合婴幼儿的人工晶状体和弱视训练方法的发展,提升了术后视功能重建的效果.%Primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after extraction of congenital cataract in infants has been accepted and gradually applied to clinic by an increasing number of ophthalmologists in recent years.Incidence of postoperative complications has largely reduced after application of the 25-gauge vitrectomy system in cataract surgery in infants.Accuracy of IOL power calculation has been increased because of the developments of new generation of I0L power calculation formula and prediction formula of myopia shift.Visual rehabilitation has improved due to the developments of the infants-suitable IOLs and the means of amblyopia training.

  12. Surgical management of third nerve palsy

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    Anupam Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell′s phenomenon, superior oblique (SO overaction, and lateral rectus (LR contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%, trauma (20%, inflammation (13%, aneurysm (7%, and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles.

  13. 左旋多巴在帕金森病以外的临床应用%Clinical application of levodopa except for Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 陈晨; 王晓平

    2013-01-01

    左旋多巴近50余年一直是帕金森病最重要的基础用药。如今左旋多巴的适应证包括抗非药源性震颤麻痹、急性肝功能衰竭的肝性脑病、弱视。临床医生还发现左旋多巴对多巴反应性肌张力障碍、不安腿综合征、垂体功能低下、精神分裂症、药物依赖等方面的治疗作用。本文对左旋多巴在帕金森病以外的治疗作用进行综述。%Levodopa has been one of the most important antiparkinson drugs in recent five decades. There are three applications: antiparkinsonism except drug-induced disorder, hepatic encephalopathy and amblyopia. Clinicians find it that levodopa is beneficial to some other diseases, such as dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), Restless Legs Syndrome, hypopituitarism, schizophrenia, drug-dependence and so on. Here the authors reviewed the other usages of levodopa apart from Parkinson Disease.

  14. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

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    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  15. Clinical presentation and management of congenital ptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Marco; Macchi, Ilaria; Macchi, Iacopo; Galassi, Emilio; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Congenital ptosis is a rare condition characterized by lower positioning of the upper eyelid that is present at birth and is a clinical condition that is persistent if not treated. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with other ocular disorders or systemic conditions, including Marcus Gunn, Horner, and Duane syndromes. It is a benign condition but causes functional, cosmetic, and psychological problems in children. However, not all patients need to undergo surgery, and usually only patients at risk of amblyopia need a prompt surgical correction, while in other cases, surgery can be postponed. The grade of ptosis, the eyelid function, and the amblyopic risk are the parameters that affect the ophthalmologist’s decision on timing of surgery and the surgical technique to be used. In fact, there are several types of surgical techniques to correct a congenital ptosis, although very often more than one is needed to obtain an acceptable result. This paper reviews the causes of congenital ptosis and associated diseases. Particular emphasis is given to surgical management and different procedures available to correct the upper eyelid anomaly and avoid permanent damage to visual function. PMID:28280295

  16. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  17. Systemic and Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Iris Coloboma

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    Sevda Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Ocular coloboma is a rare malformation resulting from defective closure of the embryonic optic fissure. It can affect iris, retina, choroid, optic disc or ciliary body. This study reviews the clinical diagnosis and the accompanying ocular and systemic abnormalities in cases of iris coloboma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Sixteen eyes of ten patients referred to our clinic and diagnosed as iris coloboma were included in the study and were reviewed retrospectively. Re sults: Seven cases were sporadic, and three cases were familial. Isolated iris coloboma was present in only one case, and chorioretinal involvement was present in all the others. Seven cases had involvement of the optic disc. Other ocular anomalies were unilateral microphthalmia in 3 cases, unilateral anophthalmia in 1 case, and unilateral microcornea in one case. Strabismus was present in the familial cases. Dis cus si on: In patients, diagnosed with iris coloboma, routine eye examination should be completed, refractive errors should be corrected, and these patients must be follewed for amblyopia. If strabismus is concominant, surgery can be performed. For potential complications, patients should be checked at regular intervals. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 19-22

  18. What is stereoscopic vision good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.

  19. 双眼先天性黄斑缺损1例%A case of congenital macular coloboma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜聪睿; 黄秀蓉; 杨婷

    2015-01-01

    Congenital macular coloboma is a rare clinical fundus disease ,due to congenital abnormalities of the macular ,which seriously affects the patient's central vision ,often accompanied by strabismus or eye tremor .Most of the macular coloboma were not found at birth ,and in early childhood was found to be found to be in poor eyesight .Therefore ,in the clinical ,some patients with strabismus and amblyopia ,and the fundus and OCT examination ,can help to screen for the fundus diseases ,to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of the disease .%先天性黄斑缺损是一种临床少见的眼底疾病,因黄斑部先天异常,严重影响患者中心视力,常伴有斜视或眼球震颤。大多数黄斑缺损在出生时未被发现,而在儿童早期因视力不佳而检查是被发现。故对于临床中一些因斜视、弱视来就诊的患者,行眼底及OC T检查,有助于筛查其有无眼底病变,避免此类疾病的误诊、漏诊。

  20. 早产儿视网膜病变激光术后视力康复的观察分析%Study the vision rehabilitation on retinopathy of premature after laser treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏科; 李汉珍; 袁海琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察和分析早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)激光治疗术后的视力改变和视力发育情况.方法 对ROP激光治疗术后3~5岁的儿童,共48例(96只眼)在门诊进行普通视力检查及阿托品散瞳验光,并对屈光结果进行统计分析.结果 ROP激光治疗后3~5岁儿童48例(96只眼)中,远视68只眼(70.8%),近视12只限(12.5%),散光6只眼(6.3%),正视眼10只眼(10.4%),该组儿童中远视所占的比例最大,各年龄中远视所占比例有一定差异,但都随着年龄的增长远视比例有所下降,正视和近视比例逐渐增加,视力正常率明显提高,同时ROP激光治疗后的儿童弱视比例为10.4%,明显高于足月产儿童的平均发生率,且随着年龄的增加呈下降趋势.结论 ROP激光治疗术后的屈光状态和视力发育变化趋势与正常儿童大致相同,随着年龄的增长,屈光状态有由远视向正视和近视发展的趋势,ROP激光术后儿童弱视发病率高于足月产儿童的平均发生率,ROP激光术后的屈光情况应尽早进行视觉追踪和屈光筛查.%Objective To observe and analyze the vision changes and visual development on Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment.Methods To statistically analyzed the refractive results of atropine mydriasis optometry and common vision,3 to 5-year-old children who with Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment,total of 48 cases,96 eyes in outpatient.Results The clinical data of 48 Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment (96 eyes)were observed,70.8% is hypermetropia(68 eyes),12.5% is myopia(12 eyes),6.3% is astigmatism(6 eyes),10.4% is emmetropia(10eyes),physiological hypermetropiais the largest type.With the increasing of age,the percentage of hypermetropia goes down,the percentageof emmetropia and myopia goes up,and the percentage of emmetropia increases obviously.Higher incidence of amblyopia was found on preterm infants.Conclusion The refraction state and visual acuity

  1. Correção cirúrgica da esotropia em portadores de fixação excêntrica Surgical correction of esotropia in eccentric fixation patients

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    Andréa Alejandra González Martinez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado da correção cirúrgica da esotropia em pacientes com fixação excêntrica e compará-lo com o de pacientes esotrópicos operados que não possuíam essa alteração sensorial. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo do resultado da correção cirúrgica da esotropia essencial de 19 pacientes com fixação excêntrica do Serviço de Motilidade Ocular Extrínsica da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Como grupo-controle, foram estudados 17 pacientes esotrópicos com ambliopia estrábica e fixação central e 16 pacientes esotrópicos sem ambliopia. O teste estatístico utilizado foi aplicação de variância para proporções (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Nos 3 grupos estudados prevaleceu a subcorreção, 12 (63,2% casos no grupo I, 13 (76,5% casos no grupo II e 13 (81,3% pacientes no grupo III. O sucesso cirúrgico (desvios ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the result of the surgical correction of esotropic patients with eccentric fixation and to compare it with operated on esotropic patients who did not have this sensorial disorder. METHODS: A retrospective study of the result of the surgical correction of essential esotropia in 19 patients with eccentric fixation of the "Santa Casa de São Paulo". As group controls, 17 esotropic patients with strabismic amblyopia and central fixation and 16 esotropic patients without amblyopia who had been operated on. The statistical test was application of variance for proportions (ANOVA. RESULTS: In the 3 studied groups undercorrection prevailed, 12 (63,2% cases in group I, 13(76,5% cases in group II and 13 (81,3% patients in group III. The surgical success occurred in 7 (36,8% patients of the group with eccentric fixation, of whom 4 cases were overcorrected and 3 of orthotropia. In group II, of the 7 cases of surgical success, 3 (17,6% had orthotropia and 1 (5,9% case presented with overcorrection. In group III, we had 5 (31,3% cases of surgical success, 1 (6,3% of them with orthotropia. Among the 36

  2. Leber's遗传性视神经病变患者的线粒体DNA检测%Diagnostic and differential diagnostic potent6ial of mitochondrial DNA assessment in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪梅; 濮伟; 高殿文; 伊佐敷靖; 大庭纪雄

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the primary mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associated with Leber′s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients with optic neuropathy. Methods Seventy-nine patients with a variety of bilateral optic neuropathy were examined. Mutations at np 3 460, np 11 778 and np 14 484 of mtDNA were tested by PCR-restriction fregment length polymorphism technique to detect DNA in peripheral blood. The samples were taken from 16 cases of clinically diagnosed LHON, 44 cases of suspected LHON, two cases of alcohol amblyopia, four cases of multiple sclerosis, five cases of autosomal dominant hereditary optic atrophy, 4 cases with primary open-angle glaucoma, three cases of spinocerebellar degeneration, and one case of ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy. Results The mutation at np 11 778 was identified in 31 cases (39.2%), consisting of all the 16 clinically diagnosed LHON cases, thirteen cases (29.5%) of the suspected LHON, and the two cases of alcohol amblyopia. The remaining 48 cases were negative for mtDNA mutations at np 3 460, np 11 778, or np 14 484. Conclusion Assessment of mtDNA provides a useful diagnsotic aid in confirming and excluding the diagnosis of LHON, particularly useful in cases without a family hereditary history and cases with cause unknown bilateral optic neuritis.%目的探讨与Leber's遗传性视神经病变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)相关的线粒体DNA原发位点突变在视神经疾病中的诊断意义。方法 79例各种原因引起的双侧视神经疾病中,16例为临床诊断的LHON患者,44例为可疑LHON患者,2例为酒精性弱视患者,4例为多发性硬化症患者,5例为常染色体显性遗传的视神经萎缩患者,4例为原发性开角型青光眼患者,3例为脊髓小脑退行性变和1例乙胺丁醇引起的视神经萎缩患者。用聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)及限制性片段长度多态性技术,检测外

  3. Achados oculares em crianças de zero a seis anos de idade, residentes na cidade de São Caetano do Sul, SP Ocular findings in children between 0 and 6 years of age, residing in the city of São Caetano do Sul, SP

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    Sandra Maria Canelas Beer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de erros refrativos, estrabismo, ambliopia e anisometropia nas crianças pertencentes à população em estudo, utilizando dois métodos de rastreamento (triagem na escola e triagem durante o dia da vacinação contra a poliomielite. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 2.640 crianças, residentes da cidade de São Caetano do Sul, entre zero e seis anos de idade, divididas em duas amostras (A e B. A amostra A consistiu de 476 crianças que foram examinadas por dez oftalmologistas e onze técnicos oftálmicos, durante o Dia Nacional de Vacinação (20 de junho de 1998 contra a Poliomielite. A amostra B consistiu de 2.164 crianças que freqüentavam escolas municipais, entre quatro e seis anos de idade e foram examinadas por dois oftalmologistas durante o ano de 1998. RESULTADOS: Na amostra A, a prevalência de estrabismo foi de 3,36% e de anisometropia foi de 1,26%. O principal tipo de erro refrativo encontrado foi a hipermetropia PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of refractive errors, strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia, among children in a population, using two methods of screening (at school and at the National Polio Vaccination Day. METHODS: We examined 2,640 children, between 0 and 6 years of age. The children, residents of the city São Caetano do Sul, were divided into two groups (A and B. Group A: 476 children, with an age range of a few months to 6 years, had their eyes examined by 10 ophthalmologists and 11 ophthalmology technicians, during the National Polio Vaccination Day (June 20,1998. Group B: 2,164 children attending municipal schools (EMEIs and EMIs, between 4 and 6 years of age, who had their eyes examined by two ophthalmologists during the year of 1998. RESULTS: In group A, the prevalence of strabismus was 3.36% and that of anisometropia was 1.26%. The most common type of refractive error was hypermetropia £ 2D and 14.11% required optical prescription. In group B, the prevalence of strabismus

  4. 儿童视力残疾因素及防治对策%Children with Visual Disability Factors and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Children explore the factors of visual disability , pursuant to propose countermeasures .Methods:I take a ran-dom sampling method where city children 0-6 years old children sample survey of blindness and low vision , visual inspection by a profes-sional physician, screening and diagnosis of the cause and proposed treatment .Results:Depending disabled children 40 cases, 85 cases showed low vision, accounting for 60.7%of the total, 55 cases of varying degrees of blindness in children , accounting for 39.3%.The proportion of boys than girls in general visual disability .The main factors that cause low vision children are amblyopia (57.6%), followed by congenital cataracts (24.7%);while the main cause of blindness is congenital and hereditary eye diseases , such as congenital cata-racts, congenital eye , congenital glaucoma .Conclusion:0-6 years old children with low vision -based visual disabilities , and the lead-ing cause of low vision in the amblyopic Department of; congenital and genetic factors are the primary factor in the cause of childhood blindness .For amblyopia and other visual disability can be off by early treatment residues .%目的:探讨儿童视力残疾因素,据此提出防治对策。方法:采取随机抽样方法抽取笔者所在市0~6岁儿童进行儿童盲和低视力抽样调查,由专业医师检查视力,筛查诊断原因并提出治疗措施。结果:140例视残儿童中,85例表现为低视力,占总数的60.7%,55例为不同程度的儿童盲,占39.3%。男童视力残疾比例普遍高于女童。导致儿童低视力的主要因素是弱视(57.6%),其次是先天性白内障(24.7%);而致盲的主要病因是先天及遗传性眼部疾病,如先天性白内障、先天性小眼球、先天性青光眼等。结论:0~6岁儿童视力残疾以低视力为主,而弱视系导致低视力的主要原因;先天和遗传因素是致儿童盲的首要因素。对弱视等

  5. Study on the functional deficit of brain cortex in human ametropic amblyopla by fMRI based on different task design modals.%屈光不正性弱视皮层功能损伤的磁共振成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明霞; 张云亭; 张权; 李威

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究屈光不正性弱视患者皮层功能损伤情况.方法 分别利用组块任务模式及事件相关任务模式,对屈光不正性弱视组及正常对照组在不同颜色棋盘格刺激下的脑皮层活动进行了BOLD-fMRI研究.结果 组块任务模式的棋盘格刺激主要激活视觉皮层区;事件相关任务模式的棋盘格刺激还可激活额叶、扣带回、海马旁回、中央前回、颞叶等与视觉注意和视觉意识有关的脑功能区,弱视组与对照组在视皮层及这些视觉注意及意识调控区的激活强度存在显著差异;屈光不正性弱视患者对不同颜色的敏感性减弱,但程度不同.结论 屈光不正性弱视患者视觉皮层及视觉注意和意识调控区的激活减弱可能与这些区域神经细胞的同步放电活动减弱有关.%Objective To investigate the functional deficit of brain cortex in human ametropic amblyopia.Methods The regional brain activation in ametropic amblyopia and healthy subjects evoked by visual stimuli of red-black and green-black chessboard patterns were detected by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging based on block-design and event-related design.Results For block-design modal,the major active regions during visual stimuli were in the visual cortex;for event-related design modal,activation were seen in the areas implicated in visual attentional and conscious modulation such as frontal,cingulated,parahippocampal,precentral,temporal regions as well as visual fields.And the activation intensity in ametropic amblyopic group was lower significantly than that in normal group.The sensitivity of ametropic amblyopic eyes to colors decreased,but with different level to different color.Conclusions The decreased activation in visual cortex and regions related to visual attention and consciousness may be associated with the reduced synchronization among activity neurons in these brain areas.

  6. Pars planitis: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management and visual prognosis

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    Pinar Cakar Ozdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease.

  7. Layer- and cell-type-specific subthreshold and suprathreshold effects of long-term monocular deprivation in rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Paolo

    2011-11-23

    Connectivity and dendritic properties are determinants of plasticity that are layer and cell-type specific in the neocortex. However, the impact of experience-dependent plasticity at the level of synaptic inputs and spike outputs remains unclear along vertical cortical microcircuits. Here I compared subthreshold and suprathreshold sensitivity to prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) in rat binocular visual cortex in layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids (4Ps and 2/3Ps) and in thick-tufted and nontufted layer 5 pyramids (5TPs and 5NPs), which innervate different extracortical targets. In normal rats, 5TPs and 2/3Ps are the most binocular in terms of synaptic inputs, and 5NPs are the least. Spike responses of all 5TPs were highly binocular, whereas those of 2/3Ps were dominated by either the contralateral or ipsilateral eye. MD dramatically shifted the ocular preference of 2/3Ps and 4Ps, mostly by depressing deprived-eye inputs. Plasticity was profoundly different in layer 5. The subthreshold ocular preference shift was sevenfold smaller in 5TPs because of smaller depression of deprived inputs combined with a generalized loss of responsiveness, and was undetectable in 5NPs. Despite their modest ocular dominance change, spike responses of 5TPs consistently lost their typically high binocularity during MD. The comparison of MD effects on 2/3Ps and 5TPs, the main affected output cells of vertical microcircuits, indicated that subthreshold plasticity is not uniquely determined by the initial degree of input binocularity. The data raise the question of whether 5TPs are driven solely by 2/3Ps during MD. The different suprathreshold plasticity of the two cell populations could underlie distinct functional deficits in amblyopia.

  8. Modern Tendencies in the Treatment of Strabismus in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error is one of the most actual problems of pediatric ophthalmology. Late and incomplete correction of refractive errors leading to amblyopia, the disruption of the formation of binocular vision, strabismus friendly. As a gross cosmetic defect and combined with violation of visual functions, strabismus in children presents as a psychophysical and social problem, making it difficult to establish social ties, often becoming an obstacle in acquiring the desired profession. A particularly difficult problem is forms of strabismus: paralytic, alphabetical (V, A, X and other syndromes ( Duane, brown DVD, etc. in which involved in the pathological process not only the muscles of the horizontal and vertical actions, but also one of the causes are functional disorders. In the syndrome of “V” and converging strabismus, the angle of deflection decreases when you look up and increases when looking down; in case of divergingstrabismus, the deviation is more when you look up and less when looking down. A thorough examination of a comprehensive personalized treatment, including pleopto-orthope-diploptic, training accommodation and convergence allows to restore visual function and binocular vision and to avoid secondary deviance. One-stage surgical intervention in combined horizontal-vertical strabismus with hyperfunction of the lower oblique muscle on horizontal and vertical muscle groups is an effective method of treatment allows to increase the effectiveness of surgical treatment to reduce the frequency of anesthesia, to reduce the number of repeated operations. Appointment postoperative functional treatment is an integral component of the strabismus correction and allows to achieve stable binocular functions, and further stand orthophoria.

  9. Ocular manifestation and treatment in Lowe syndrome%Lowe综合征的眼部表现及其诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭健文; 赖一凡

    2014-01-01

    Lowe syndrome also known as oculocerebrorenal syndrome.The aetiology is related to mutation of OCRL1 (Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) gene in the chromosome Xq26.1,reulting in a deficiency of OCRL1 protein or a reduction of phosphatase activity is responsibility for the disease.Lowe syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterised by anomalies affecting the eye,the nervous system and the kidney.Most of affected individuals is male,female carriers may be presence of bilateral cataract without other systemic abnormities.The common ocular disease in Lowe syndrome including bilateral congenital cataract,glaucoma,keloid,amblyopia and retinal atrophy.The mainly ocular treatments contain phacoemulsification,glaucoma filtering operation,topical medication.%Lowe综合征又称眼-脑-肾综合征(Oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome),主要是位于染色体Xq26.1的OCRL1基因突变导致所编码的OCRL1蛋白缺乏或磷酸酶活性丧失而致病,是一种能引起双眼白内障(中央核性白内障为主)、神经系统和肾脏等多系统异常的全身性疾病.此病绝大多数见于男性,女性携带者仅表现为双眼白内障而不伴其他系统的异常.Lowe综合征常见的眼部表现包括双眼先天性白内障、青光眼、角结膜瘢痕瘤、弱视、视网膜萎缩等.眼部治疗主要包括白内障摘除术、青光眼滤过性手术、局部药物治疗等.

  10. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

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    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. METHODS: Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion. RESULTS: All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of

  11. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  12. Pediatric open globe injury: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xintong; Zarbin, Marco A.; Bhagat, Neelakshi

    2015-01-01

    Open globe injury (OGI) is a severe form of eye trauma estimated at 2-3.8/100,000 in the United States. Most pediatric cases occur at home and are the result of sharp object penetration. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition by conducting a systematic literature search with inclusion of all case series on pediatric OGI published between 1996 and 2015. Diagnosis of OGI is based on patient history and clinical examination supplemented with imaging, especially computed tomography when indicated. Few prospective studies exist for the management of OGI in pediatric patients, but adult recommendations are often followed with success. The main goals of surgical management are to repair the open globe and remove intraocular foreign bodies. Systemic antibiotics are recommended as medical prophylaxis against globe infection, or endophthalmitis. Other complications are similar to those seen in adults, with the added focus of amblyopia therapy in children. Severe vision decline is most likely due to traumatic cataracts. The ocular trauma score, a system devised to predict final visual acuity (VA) in adults, has proven to be of prognostic value in pediatric OGI as well. Factors indicating poor visual prognosis are young age, poor initial VA, posterior eye involvement, long wound length, globe rupture, lens involvement, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. A thorough understanding of OGI and the key differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis between adults and children is critical to timely prevention of posttraumatic vision loss early in life. PMID:26604528

  13. Severe visual Impairment and blindness in infants: Causes and opportunities for control

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    Parikshit Gogate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood blindness has an adverse effect on growth, development, social, and economic opportunities. Severe visual impairment (SVI and blindness in infants must be detected as early as possible to initiate immediate treatment to prevent deep amblyopia. Although difficult, measurement of visual acuity of an infant is possible. The causes of SVI and blindness may be prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal. Congenital anomalies such as anophthalmos, microphthalmos, coloboma, congenital cataract, infantile glaucoma, and neuro-ophthalmic lesions are causes of impairment present at birth. Ophthalmia neonatorum, retinopathy of prematurity, and cortical visual impairment are acquired during the perinatal period. Leukocoria or white pupillary reflex can be cause by congenital cataract, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, or retinoblastoma. While few medical or surgical options are available for congenital anomalies or neuro-ophthalmic disorders, many affected infants can still benefit from low vision aids and rehabilitation. Ideally, surgery for congenital cataracts should occur within the first 4 months of life. Anterior vitrectomy and primary posterior capsulotomy are required, followed by aphakic glasses with secondary intraocular lens implantation at a later date. The treatment of infantile glaucoma is surgery followed by anti-glaucoma medication. Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferation of the retinal vasculature in response to relative hypoxia in a premature infant. Screening in the first few weeks of life can prevent blindness. Retinoblastoma can be debulked with chemotherapy; however, enucleation may still be required. Neonatologists, pediatricians, traditional birth attendants, nurses, and ophthalmologists should be sensitive to a parent′s complaints of poor vision in an infant and ensure adequate follow-up to determine the cause. If required, evaluation under anesthesia should be performed, which includes funduscopy, refraction

  14. Practitioners’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles

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    K. C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study to determine optometrists’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles. Ninety-seven optometrists completed a questionnaire pertaining to ametropia and ocular diseases among these patients. The questionnaire contained information regarding patient demographics, ocular pathology, ocular ametropia and the regulatory and public health aspects of ready-made readers.Ninety-five percent of respondents stated that they had seen patients with ready-made readers in their practice and 62% of these stated that they had found the presence of ocular pathology in these patients. The pathologies most commonly reported as seen by practitioners were dry eye (86% of practitioners, cataracts (80% and diabetic retinopathy (54%. In addition, 39% of practitioners reported seeing patients with anisometropia. The majority of practitioners (71% stated that they sold ready-made readers in their practice. Sixty-three percentof practitioners indicated that they would be prepared to offer a service whereby a reduced consultation fee and a pair of ready-made readers could be incorporated into an indigent “package”. An overwhelming 88% of the practitioners felt that the sale of ready-made readers should be more regulated and 74% of practitioners felt that the Professional Board for Optometry and Dispensing Opticians should be responsible for monitoring their sale. The research suggests that wearers of ready-made readers should be screened for ocular pathology, reduced visual acuity and amblyopia. Current regulations should be tightened and a public awareness education campaign should be initiated. The use of ready-made reading spectacles, in deference to an eye examination by an optometrist, appears to be largely as a result of the perceived costs of pri-vate practice combined with ignorance and apathy

  15. Fisiologia da visão binocular Physiology of binocular vision

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    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A visão binocular de seres humanos resulta da superposição quase completa dos campos visuais de cada olho, o que suscita discriminação perceptual de localizações espaciais de objetos relativamente ao observador (localização egocêntrica bem mais fina (estereopsia, mas isso ocorre em, apenas, uma faixa muito estreita (o horóptero. Aquém e além dela, acham-se presentes diplopia e confusão, sendo necessária supressão fisiológica (cortical para evitá-las. Analisa-se a geometria do horóptero e suas implicações fisiológicas (o desvio de Hillebrand, a partição de Kundt, a área de Panum, assim como aspectos clínicos da visão binocular normal (percepção simultânea, fusão, visão estereoscópica e de adaptações a seus estados afetados (supressão patológica, ambliopia, correspondência visual anômala.The binocular vision of human beings is given by the almost complete superimposition of the monocular visual fields, which allows a finer perceptual discrimination of the egocentric localization of objects in space (stereopsis but only within a very narrow band (the horopter. Before and beyond it, diplopia and confusion are present, so that a physiologic (cortical suppression is necessary to avoid them to become conscious. The geometry of the horopter and its physiologic implications (Hillebrand's deviation, Kundt's partition, Panum's area, stereoscopic vision are analyzed, as well as some clinical aspects of the normal binocular vision (simultaneous perception, fusion, stereoscopic vision and of adaptations to abnormal states (pathologic suppression, amblyopia, abnormal retinal correspondence.

  16. Síndrome de Möbius: achados clínicos e cirúrgicos em 7 pacientes Möbius syndrome: clinical and surgical findings in 7 patients

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    Galton Carvalho Vasconcelos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o quadro clínico, as anormalidades gestacionais e de parto e os resultados na cirurgia de estrabismo em pacientes com síndrome de Möbius. Métodos: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 7 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Möbius, dos quais 6 foram submetidos à cirurgia de estrabismo. Resultados: Além dos achados clássicos que caracterizam a síndrome, em todos os casos estudados observaram-se alterações gestacionais ou de parto. Em 2 pacientes encontrou-se no per-operatório, inserção posteriorizada do reto medial. Graças à fixação cruzada, esses pacientes geralmente não desenvolvem ambliopia. Conclusão: A cirurgia, quando indicada, deve constar apenas dos retrocessos musculares e acredita-se que o planejamento cirúrgico deva ser menor do que o feito em casos de paralisia isolada do nervo abducente de mesmo valor.Purpose: To evaluate clinical features, pregnancy and labour abnormalities and the results of strabismus surgery in patients with Möbius syndrome. Methods: The authors studied retrospectively 7 patients with Möbius syndrome, of whom 6 were submitted to strabismus surgery. Results: In addition to the classical findings that characterize the syndrome, pregnancy and labour insults were observed in all cases. In 2 patients a posterior medial rectus insertion was found during surgery. Due to cross-fixation, these patients usually do not develop amblyopia. Conclusions: Surgery should consist of muscle recessions, but recessing them less than it would be done for similar isolated abducens palsy.

  17. O uso do "photoscreening" no estudo de fatores ambliopigênicos na população infantil The use of Photoscreening in the study of the amblyopigenics factors in children

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    Pedro Paulo Leite dos Reis

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a precisão do aparelho "MTI Photoscreener" na triagem de uma população infantil, identificando fatores ambliopigênicos como ametropias, anisometropias, estrabismos e cataratas congênitas e opacidades dos meios transparentes. Métodos: Durante o projeto "Veja Bem Brasil" os autores examinaram com uma máquina de "photoscreening" (MTI Photoscreener, 107 crianças, com idade variando entre 6 e 15 anos, comparando estes resultados com aqueles encontrados em posterior exame oftalmológico completo. Resultados: Ao final encontraram 31 (28,97% crianças com alguma patologia oftalmológica e 76 (71,02% dentro da normalidade. As análises estatísticas da precisão do aparelho revelaram os seguintes valores: sensibilidade 90,32%; especificidade, 96,05%; valores preditivos positivos e negativos de 90,32% e 96,05%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados acima citados demonstraram a confiabilidade do teste de "Photoscreening" na triagem de pacientes em idade escolar.Purpose: To study the accuracy of the MTI Photoscreener in the screening of an infantile population, for amblyopia causing factors such as ametropias, anisometropias, strabismus, congenital cataracts and opacities of the media. Methods: During the execution of a study project "Veja Bem Brasil" ("See Well Brazil", the AA used the MTI Photoscreener to examine 107 children, with ages varying from 6 to 15 years, and compared these results with those of a following complete ophthalmic examination. Results: The end results gave us 31 (28.97% children with an ophthalmic pathology and 76 (71.02% within normal limits. Statistical analysis showed the following values: sensivitity, 90.32%; specificity, 96.05%; positive predictive values and negative predictive values of 90.32% e 96.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The above results showed the "photoscreening" test to be reliable to screen young patients of school age.

  18. Pediatric open globe injury: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injury (OGI is a severe form of eye trauma estimated at 2-3.8/100,000 in the United States. Most pediatric cases occur at home and are the result of sharp object penetration. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition by conducting a systematic literature search with inclusion of all case series on pediatric OGI published between 1996 and 2015. Diagnosis of OGI is based on patient history and clinical examination supplemented with imaging, especially computed tomography when indicated. Few prospective studies exist for the management of OGI in pediatric patients, but adult recommendations are often followed with success. The main goals of surgical management are to repair the open globe and remove intraocular foreign bodies. Systemic antibiotics are recommended as medical prophylaxis against globe infection, or endophthalmitis. Other complications are similar to those seen in adults, with the added focus of amblyopia therapy in children. Severe vision decline is most likely due to traumatic cataracts. The ocular trauma score, a system devised to predict final visual acuity (VA in adults, has proven to be of prognostic value in pediatric OGI as well. Factors indicating poor visual prognosis are young age, poor initial VA, posterior eye involvement, long wound length, globe rupture, lens involvement, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. A thorough understanding of OGI and the key differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis between adults and children is critical to timely prevention of posttraumatic vision loss early in life.

  19. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS

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    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 × magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  20. Prevalence of Accommodative and Non-Strabismic Binocular Anomalies in a Puerto Rican Pediatric Population

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    Stefania M. Paniccia, OD, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There exists a considerable void in the literature of studies that examine the prevalence of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders in the pediatric population of Puerto Rico. The purpose of this retrospective study was to fill this void by performing a comprehensive record review of the pediatric clinical population of the InterAmerican University College of Optometry satellite clinics. Methods: This study was performed using a random selection of 593 existing health records of patients between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Patients had participated in a complete optometric assessment between the years 2004 and 2012. The criteria for selection were the absence of strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, vertical deviation, corneal pathology, retinal pathology, lens pathology, or any other parameter outside of population requirements. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS program. Results of this study indicate that the most common non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies in the studied population are accommodative insufficiency (39.0%, convergence insufficiency (12.6%, convergence excess (9.1%, and accommodative infacility (7.6%. Conclusions: Accommodative and non-strabismic binocular vision problems are prevalent in the pediatric population of the InterAmerican satellite clinics. This is the first epidemiologic study about the prevalence of these conditions in Puerto Rico. Due to the possibility of these non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies resulting in a reduced quality of life for children and affecting school performance, sports performance, and play activities, an appropriate vision evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is important. Lastly, further comprehensive studies should be conducted in Puerto Rico using this study as a base for data collection and analysis.

  1. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal Indian pediatric population measured with optical coherence tomography

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    Neelam Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in normal Indian pediatric population. Subjects and Methods: 120 normal Indian children ages 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. RNFL thickness was measured with stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT. Children with strabismus or amblyopia, with neurological, metabolic, vascular, or other disorders and those with abnormal optic discs were excluded. One eye of each subject was randomly selected for statistical analysis. The effect of age, refraction and gender on RNFL thickness was investigated statistically. Result: OCT measurements were obtained in 120 of 130 (92.3% subjects. Mean age was 10.8 ± 3.24 years (range 5-17. Average RNFL thickness was (± SD 106.11 ± 9.5 μm (range 82.26-146.25. The RNFL was thickest inferiorly (134.10 ± 16.16 μm and superiorly (133.44 ± 15.50 μm, thinner nasally (84.26 ± 16.43 μm, and thinnest temporally (70.72 ± 14.80 μm. In univariate regression analysis, age had no statistical significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.7249 and refraction had a significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.0008. Conclusion: OCT can be used to measure RNFL thickness in children. Refraction had an effect on RNFL thickness. In normal children, variation in RNFL thickness is large. The normative data provided by this study may assist in identifying changes in RNFL thickness in Indian children.

  2. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

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    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  3. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  4. The Decompensated Monofixation Syndrome (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatkowski, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features and response to treatment of patients with decompensated monofixation syndrome (MFS) and to propose a hypothesis for a decompensation mechanism in such patients. Methods Fourteen adults with MFS who had been symptomatically stable for a mean duration of 25 years developed diplopia in the absence of neurologic or orbital disease. After retrospective chart review, they underwent detailed orthoptic testing. Results from this cross-sectional analysis were compared with similar data from 16 control subjects with stable MFS. Results Compared to stable MFS patients, decompensated subjects had significantly poorer horizontal fusional amplitudes but greater torsional fusional amplitudes; they were also more likely to have a small vertical strabismus and to have received initial treatment later. Stable subjects, however, also had subnormal horizontal as well as torsional fusional amplitudes. There was no difference between groups with respect to refractive error, amblyopia, type or prior treatment of strabismus, stereoacuity, or angle of deviation. After treatment, all patients regained monofixational alignment, but up to one-third had continued diplopia. Symptoms recurred in two patients whose treatment was initially successful. Conclusions Patients with MFS lose fusional amplitudes over time. In some cases this results in development of sensory torsion with secondary decompensation and diplopia. The rate of decompensation averages 7% per year from ages 20 to 70. Treatment for decompensation offers excellent motor results, but sensory symptoms may persist and recurrent symptoms may develop. Monitoring and maintenance of fusional vergence amplitudes should be part of the routine care for patients with MFS. PMID:22253490

  5. Reading performance is enhanced by visual texture discrimination training in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Xiangzhi Meng

    Full Text Available High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese.To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia.These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on

  6. 视觉发育过程中神经网络的可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡浩然(综述)

    2014-01-01

    视觉系统的神经网络是由许多神经元通过突触联系而形成的。遗传因素为年幼个体的突触联系奠定了良好的基础,而网络中的突触联系又是在内、外界环境因素的影响下,不断地发育和完善,因而突触联系便有了可塑性和敏感期,而且与一些疾病(如:弱视)的发病机理密切相关。随着电生理(尤其是膜片钳方法)和分子生物学技术的迅猛发展,近年来对这些课题进行了更深入的研究,本文综述国内外在这方面的一些新观念和所取得的新成果。%Neural network in visual system consists of many neurons through synaptic connections. Genetic factors had well the fundamental synaptic connections in juvenile individuals, however, these synapses have been pro-gressively modifying and perfecting, so the connections of synapses have plasticity, which occurs during the sensitive period of visual development. The plasticity is also related closely with pathogenesis of some diseases (e.g. amblyopia). Following the rapidly developing of electrophysiological (especially the patch-clamp methods) and molecular-biological techniques, this subject has being studied widely. In this short review, the progress of the study will be introduced.

  7. The Historical and Contemporary Reflection on the Women’s Self-worth%女性自身价值的历史考究及其当代反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2015-01-01

    社会在其演进过程中对男女赋予了众多刻板印象,以及历史社会对女性地位的弱视综合导致了当代女性社会地位现况。对女性社会地位现况的考究及其历史原因的追踪将有助于引发广大女性关于对自身价值的深思,从而倾力于自我灵魂的改造和自我价值的提升。最终为社会主义现代化建设的伟大事业增添一份不可代替的力量,为中华民族的伟大复兴展现自身内在的价值。%The society in the course of its evolution to the men and women gave many stereotypes ,and the social his‐tory of the status of women has led to the current situation of amblyopia comprehensive contemporary women’s social status .The situation of the social status of women is elegant and historical reasons of tracking will help cause the majority of women on the value of their own thinking ,thus to transform from self soul and self value promotion .Finally add airre‐placeable contribution to the great cause of socialist modernization construction ,to show their intrinsic value for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation .

  8. Cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5-15 in local anaesthesia: visual outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Kagmeni; Christelle, Domngang; Yannick, Bilong; Fricke, Otto Herrmann; Wiedemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation at the Mana eye Clinic Nkongsamba between 2006 and 2015 Main outcome measures were: best-corrected post operative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Mean age at surgery was 10.18 ± 3.21 years. Mean follow up length was 15.75 ± 3.36 weeks. Etiology included: 10 congenital cataracs (16.12%). 35 developmental cataracts (56.45%) and 17 traumatic cataracts (27.41%). The mean preoperative BCVA was logMAR 1.19 ± 0.33. (range 0.6-2.3). After cycloplegia refraction 2 weeks after surgery, the mean postoperative BCVA was log MAR 0.58 ± 0.88 ( range 0.5-1.8). The mean implanted IOL power was 22.01 ±3.16 D. IOL was succefuly implanted in 54 eyes (87.07%). Eight eyes (9.67%) were left aphakic. Increase in BCVA of 4 logMAR lines and above was recorded in 27 patients (43.55%). Intraoperative complications included: 4 posterior capsule holes with vitrous lost, 3 lenses subluxation and 1 case of iris dialyse. Late postoperative complications included: posterior capsular opacity which occurred in 16 patients, 3 posterior synechia, 2 retinal detachment. Peribulbar anaesthesia can be considered as a viable option in selected patients presenting developmental cataract undergoing cataract surgery in developing countries. Effort should be made to improve the early identification of congenital cataract and its early surgical intervention and prompt optical rehabilitation to prevent amblyopia.

  9. Visual function of Egyptian children with low vision and the demographic determinants

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    El Byoumi Boshra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire (LVP-FVQ could be used to assess self-reported visual function and quality of visual life in Egyptian school aged children. Materials and Methods: The LVP-FVQ was used to assess the quality of visual function in school-age children. All subjects were students at the time of assessment. Subjects underwent a visual function assessment that included distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision and visual field examination where possible. Data analysis were for both descriptive and inference statistics. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty children aged 11.28 ± 3.5 years (range, 5 years to 18 years with moderate-to-severe visual impairment most of their lives were enrolled. Twenty-two subjects (44% had albinism, 18 (36% subjects had hereditary retinal dystrophy, 6 (12% subjects had cone dystrophy, 2 (4% subjects had bilateral amblyopia and 2 (4% subjects had congenital coloboma without other disabilities. The four most difficult tasks were related to the following daily activities alluded to in the questionnaire such as reading a textbook at arms length, copying from the blackboard, seeing somebody across the road and identifying colors. There was no statistically significant association between the demographic variables and the level of visual functioning, sex, age, type of school, family history or consanguinity (P > 0.05 for all variables. Conclusion: LVP-FVQ can be used to screen Egyptian children with visual impairment. Input and integration of the parents and the school teachers to evaluate the child s behavior at home and the school is essential to developing a balanced questionnaire.

  10. Long-term visual outcome of dense bilateral congenital cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-hua; DENG Da-ming; QIAN Yi-yong; LIN Zhi; CHEN Wei-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Dense congenital cataracts often cause severe visual impairment. The results of long-term follow-up of dense bilateral congenital cataract in China have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term visual function in children who underwent cataract extraction for dense bilateral congenital cataract in southern part of China.Methods Medical records of children who underwent surgery of dense bilateral congenital cataract between January 1992 and December 2000 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University were retroactively reviewed. In 38 children available for current follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoscopic vision, as well as nystagmus, strabismus, and other complications, were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 107.6 months (range 60 to 167 months).Results The mean age of cataract extraction and secondary intraocular lens implantation were 5.6 months (range 3 to 12 months) and 4.2 years (range 2.4 to 15 years), respectively. The mean BCVA was 0.25 in the better eye and 0.16 in the fellow eye. Stereoscopic vision was absent in all patients, and 3 children had simultaneous perception. Nystagmus was detected in all cases and strabismus in 35 cases. A high correlation was found between timing of cataract extraction and final BCVA of the better eye (r=-0.55, P=0.00). A statistically significant difference was found in BCVA between postand pre-treatment of amblyopia (t=5.65, P=0.00).Conclusions Long-term visual function in children with dense bilateral congenital cataract was poor when cataract surgery was performed at age of 3 months or later. Earlier cataract surgery with adequate optical rehabilitation contributed to better visual outcome.

  11. Functional MRI, DTI and neurophysiology in horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven; Wetzel, Stephan G. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland); Luetschg, Juerg [University Children' s Hospital (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is an autosomal recessive disease due to a mutation in the ROBO3 gene. This rare disease is of particular interest because the absence, or at least reduction, of crossing of the ascending lemniscal and descending corticospinal tracts in the medulla predicts abnormal ipsilateral sensory and motor systems. We evaluated the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the first time in this disease and compared it to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and neurophysiological findings in the same patient with genetically confirmed ROBO3 mutation. As expected, motor fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were dominantly ipsilateral to the stimulation side. DTI tractography revealed ipsilateral ascending and descending connectivity in the brainstem yet normal interhemispheric connections in the corpus callosum. Auditory fMRI revealed bilateral auditory activation to monaural left-sided auditory stimulation. No significant cortical activation was observed after monaural right-sided stimulation, a hearing defect having been excluded. Prosaccades fMRI showed no activations in the eye-movement network. Motor fMRI confirmed the established findings of DTI and neurophysiology in the same patient. In suspected HGPPS, any technique appears appropriate for further investigation. Auditory fMRI suggests that a monaural auditory system with bilateral auditory activations might be a physiological advantage as compared to a binaural yet only unilateral auditory system, in analogy to anisometropic amblyopia. Moving-head fMRI studies in the future might show whether the compensatory head movements instead of normal eye movements activate the eye-movement network. (orig.)

  12. Research on subfoveal choroidal thickness of the children with hyperopic refractive errors%远视性屈光不正儿童黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝军生

    2014-01-01

    制有待进一步探讨.%Objective To observe the subfoveal choroidal thickness of the children with hyperopic refractive errors.Methods A total of 92 cases (184 eyes) of the hyperopia group and 48 cases (96 eyes) of the normal group in the same age segment were scanned horizontally and vertically on the fovea by enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT),the value of subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured.Between hyperopia and normal group,the difference of the subfoveal choroidal thickness values was compared using t test of two independent samples.The average thickness of the eyes between the different types was compared using the paired-t-test.The average values of difference diopter group; amblyopia group and non-amblyopia group between the thickness of macular subfoveal choroidal and macular retina was compared using Univariat Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA).Changes in each group were assessed using LSD-t test.The relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and gender,age,logMAR BCVA,spherical equivalent,macular retinal thickness in the hyperopia group was compared using linear correlation analysis.P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The average thickness of subfoveal choroidal of the hyperopia group was thicker than the normal group.The difference was statistically significant (t =-6.097,P <0.05).The average thickness of subfoveal choroidal of the right eyes,the left eyes,the man,the woman in the hyperopia group were all thicker than that in the normal group.The difference was statistically significant (t =3.638,5.184,4.647,5.235,P <0.05).The average subfoveal choroidal thickness of the hyperopia group was thicker than that in the normal group,whatever the right eyes or left eyes,between the male and the female.The difference was statistically significant (t =2.676,4.098,3.601,3.592,P <0.05).In the mild,moderate,severe hyperopia group,the subfoveal choroidal thickness was all thicker than the normal group,the difference

  13. Implications of CI therapy for Visual Deficit Training

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    Edward eTaub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We address here the question of whether the techniques of CI therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP, multiple sclerosis (MS, other CNS degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia.The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a transfer package to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies.CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the grey matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNC in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the diminished neural connections. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing (BSR. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment of

  14. Rehabilitation Approaches in Macular Degeneration Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia, Marcello; Cottereau, Benoit R; Soler, Vincent; Trotter, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a visual disease that affects elderly population. It entails a progressive loss of central vision whose consequences are dramatic for the patient's quality of life. Current rehabilitation programs are restricted to technical aids based on visual devices. They only temporarily improve specific visual functions such as reading skills. Considering the rapid increase of the aging population worldwide, it is crucial to intensify clinical research on AMD in order to develop simple and efficient methods that improve the patient's visual performances in many different contexts. One very promising approach to face this challenge is based on perceptual learning (PL). Through intensive practice, PL can induce neural plasticity in sensory cortices and result in long-lasting enhancements for various perceptual tasks in both normal and visually impaired populations. A growing number of studies showed how appropriate PL protocols improve visual functions in visual disorders, namely amblyopia, presbyopia or myopia. In order to successfully apply these approaches to more severe conditions such as AMD, numerous challenges have to be overcome. Indeed, the overall elderly age of patients and the reduced cortical surface that is devoted to peripheral vision potentially limit neural plasticity in this population. In addition, ocular fixation becomes much less stable because patients have to rely on peripheral fixation spots outside the scotoma whose size keeps on evolving. The aim of this review article is to discuss the recent literature on this topic and to offer a unified approach for developing new rehabilitation programs of AMD using PL. We argue that with an appropriate experimental and training protocol that is adapted to each patient needs, PL can offer fascinating opportunities for the development of simple, non-expensive rehabilitation approaches a large spectrum of visual functions in AMD patients.

  15. Profile of Low Vision Population Attending Low Vision Clinic in a Peripheral Eye Hospital in Nepal

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    Safal Khanal, BOptom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a peripheral eye hospital in Nepal.Methods: The low vision evaluation report cards of all the patients attending the low vision clinic at Biratnagar Eye Hospital between January 1, 2010 to March 31, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.Results: Out of 396 low vision patients, 280 (70.71% were males and 116 (29.29% were females. The age range of patients was from six to 89 years, with a mean of 43.29 ±11.06 years. Retinitis pigmentosa (70, 18% and macular diseases except age related macular degeneration (AMD (55, 14% were the most common causes of low vision. Nystagmus and amblyopia (34, 26.36%, retinitis pigmentosa (49, 23.33% and AMD (16, 28.07% were the most common causes of low vision in the 0-15, 16-60, and >60 years age groups, respectively. Telescopes (52, 39.10% and stand magnifiers (45, 33.83% were the most commonly prescribed low vision devices.Conclusion: Hereditary anomalies and age related degeneration constitute the major causes of low vision in the study population. Telescopes and stand magnifiers were the most commonly prescribed and preferred low vision devices. The burden of visual impairment can be tackled in an effective way through the provision of quality and affordable low vision services and also provide a basis for national and regional level planning to combat visual impairment.

  16. Etiology of Visual Impairment and Legal Blindness among the Young Men in Southeast Region of Turkey

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    Yildiray Yildirim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim: To identify the etiology of serious visual impairment and legal blindness and to declare the preventive factors among young men who live in the southeast region of Turkey. Material and Method: Between January 2004 and December 2008, records of the patients who admitted to Ophthalmology Department of Diyarbakir Military Hospital were examined respectively. The study includes 2000 young men cases (20 to 30 years whose visual acuity was worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart in at least one eye. Results: Among the patients’eyes of which visual acuity worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart; 11,6 % (232 were bilateral and 43,8 % (876 were only right eye and 44,6 % (892 were only left eye. The distribution of the etiology of the serious visual impairment and blindness was: 1. Trauma 68,4 % (1368, 2. Corneal opacities due to infectious diseases 10 % (200, 3. Congenital cataract 9,4 % (188, 4. Amblyopia due to strabismus and refractive errors 1,2 % (24 ve 5. Genetic eye disorders 10,6 % (212. The classification of the pathologies according to the anatomical segments of the eye was: Anterior segment disorders 53% (1060, posterior segment disorders % 21,2 (424, disintegration of the anatomy of the eye 24,8 % (496 and others 1% (20. Conclusion: It is possible to decrease the rate of prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and blindness both in this region and other parts of our country by creating systematic educational and health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 737-740

  17. 磁共振扩散张量成像在眼科的应用%Application of diffusion tensor imaging in ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁申芝; 朱豫

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recently developed functional MRI technique based on the random thermal motion of water molecules within tissues along different axes,which allows the quantificationally assessment of the shape,direction,arrangement,tightness,myelinization of the white matter fiber tracts in neural tissues in vivo.DTI is being widely used in the various domains of ophthalmology.In this article,the principles of DTI methodologies are explained,and several applications in ophthalmology are introduced,including optic neuropathy (ischemia,traumatic optic neuropathy,optic neuritis),glaucoma,as well as visual development and amblyopia.%磁共振扩散张量成像是一种基于分子水平上定量的功能磁共振成像技术,它能够在活体神经组织显示白质纤维束的走行、方向、排列、紧密度、髓鞘化等信息.目前磁共振扩散张量成像在眼科主要应用于视神经病变(缺血、外伤、视神经炎等)、青光眼视路病变、弱视及视觉发育等方面的研究.本文就磁共振扩散张量成像的原理及其在眼科应用及研究现状作一综述.

  18. Clinical presentation and management of congenital ptosis

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    Marenco M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Marenco,1,* Ilaria Macchi,2,* Iacopo Macchi,3 Emilio Galassi,4 Mina Massaro-Giordano,5 Alessandro Lambiase1 1Department of Sense Organs, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Catania, Catania, 4Ophthalmic Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Congenital ptosis is a rare condition characterized by lower positioning of the upper eyelid that is present at birth and is a clinical condition that is persistent if not treated. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with other ocular disorders or systemic conditions, including Marcus Gunn, Horner, and Duane syndromes. It is a benign condition but causes functional, cosmetic, and psychological problems in children. However, not all patients need to undergo surgery, and usually only patients at risk of amblyopia need a prompt surgical correction, while in other cases, surgery can be postponed. The grade of ptosis, the eyelid function, and the amblyopic risk are the parameters that affect the ophthalmologist’s decision on timing of surgery and the surgical technique to be used. In fact, there are several types of surgical techniques to correct a congenital ptosis, although very often more than one is needed to obtain an acceptable result. This paper reviews the causes of congenital ptosis and associated diseases. Particular emphasis is given to surgical management and different procedures available to correct the upper eyelid anomaly and avoid permanent damage to visual function. Keywords: ptosis, extraocular muscle development, neurologic dysfunction, surgical approach

  19. Peters Anomaly in Twins: A Case Report of a Rare Incident with Novel Comorbidities

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    Hashem S. Almarzouki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peters anomaly is a rare developmental malformation involving the anterior segment of the eye, which culminates in amblyopia or congenital blindness. Multiple ocular and/or systemic malformations have been observed with this anomaly, and novel comorbidities continue to be reported. Case Presentation: The probands were monozygotic twin boys (twin I and twin II born to consanguineous parents at 36 weeks of gestation. Coarse facial features and deep-seated eyes were noted at birth. At 6 months, ophthalmic examination revealed that both twins were unable to blink in response to light, or to fixate and follow a moving object. Both twins had prominent horizontal nystagmus. Slit-lamp examination demonstrated varying degrees of central leukoma (corneal opacity associated with iridocorneal adhesion, which is characteristic of type I Peters anomaly. No cataractous changes were observed. Normal intraocular pressure and disorganized retina were observed. Pupillary abnormalities included bilaterally underdeveloped pupils and bilateral absence of pupils was noted. Ocular MRI showed bilateral microphthalmia and optic nerve hypoplasia, with a small optic chiasm in both twins. At this age, the diagnosis of Peters anomaly was made. At 16 months of age, both twins developed deep venous thrombosis and purpuric skin lesions. Investigations revealed a hereditary thrombophilia secondary to a homozygous mutation causing protein C deficiency, which is a rare thrombotic condition. Ocular ultrasonography revealed bilateral vitreous hemorrhaging linked to altered coagulation. One twin developed bilateral inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism. Conclusion: The novel concordance of Peters anomaly in these monozygotic twins sharing a mutation in PROC gene provides further evidence that this anomaly has a genetic basis. Hypoplasia of the optic nerves and optic chiasm, along with severe protein C deficiency and bilateral absence of the pupils, are associated

  20. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  1. Retinal detachment after laser In Situ keratomileusis

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    Saba Al-Rashaed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To report characteristics and outcome of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopia. Materials and Methods : A retrospective chart review of patients who presented with RRD after myopic LASIK over a 10-year period. Results : Fourteen eyes were identified with RRD. Of these, two of 6112 LASIK procedures were from our center. The mean age of patients with RRD was 35.43 years. The mean interval of RRD after LASIK was 37.71 months (range, 4 months to 10 years. The macula was involved in eight eyes and spared in six eyes. Retinal breaks included a macular hole in two eyes, and giant tear in two eyes. Multiple breaks (>2 breaks occurred in 6 cases. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV was performed in 3 (21.4% eyes, a scleral buckle (SB was performed in 4 (28.5% eyes and 7 (50% eyes underwent combined PPV and SB. Mean follow-up was 15.18 months (range, 1 month to 7 years. The retina was successfully attached in all cases. The final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 7 (50% eyes, 20/40 to 20/60 in 4 (28.5% eyes, and 20/200 or less in 3 (21.4% eyes. Poor visual outcome was secondary to proliferative vitreoretinopathy, epiretinal membrane, macular scar and amblyopia. Conclusion : The prevalence of RRD after LASIK was low at our institute. Anatomical and visual outcomes were acceptable in eyes that were managed promptly. Although there is no cause-effect relationship between LASIK and RRD, a dilated fundus examination is highly recommended before and after LASIK for myopia.

  2. 儿童共同性外斜视术后复视的临床分析%Clinical analysis of double vision of post-operation in children concomitant exotropia surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 刘彦芳; 林萍; 张利玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study for the symptom of diplopia probability and related factors, reduce the in-cidence of diplopia children concomitant exotropia surgery. Methods 112 cases of children with concomitant ex-otropia in January 2011 to September 2014 of surgical treatment were analyized retrospectively.Result Older pa-tients, preoperative deviation, amblyopia and binocular vision function were related with diplopia probability. Con-clusions Children concomitant exotropia with a greater incidence of postoperative diplopia. The main reason unusu-ally are retinal correspondence and fusion. A good surgery design, and stereo vision training postoperative as early as possible is helpful to establish normal retinal correspondence and eliminate diplopia.%目的 研究儿童共同性外斜视手术后出现复视概率和相关因素,降低复视发生率.方法 选取2011年1月至2014年9月手术治疗的112例共同性外斜视患儿进行临床回顾性分析研究.结果 年龄大、术前斜视度数大、弱视以及双眼视觉功能较差的患儿复视发生概率大.结论 儿童共同性外斜视术后复视发生率较高,主要原因为异常视网膜对应、融合无力,术前设计好手术方案,术后早行立体视觉训练有利于建立正常视网膜对应关系、消除复视.

  3. Factors Influencing the Surgical Success in Patients with Intermittent Exotropia

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    Uğur Acar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine the factors that influence surgical success in patients with intermittent exotropia. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively evaluated the records of patients with intermittent exotropia who were diagnosed, operated, and followed up. Successful outcome was defined as alignment ≤10 prism diopters (PD esophoria or exophoria at the last follow-up visit. The clinical findings, exodeviation types, surgical ages, operation types, preoperative and postoperative deviation amounts, presence of anisometropia and amblyopia, presence of A- or V-pattern, and presence of binocular vision and stereoacuity of patients were evaluated. We investigated the independent variables that affected the surgical success in intermittent exotropia patients. Re sults: Among the 379 patients included in the study, 266 (70.18% underwent surgery, and the success rate was 68.05% (181 patients. In this successful surgery group, mean deviation was 25.82±11.27 PD at near and 30.80±10.59 PD at distance versus 30.93±12.47 PD and 34.92±11.02 PD, respectively, in the unsuccessful surgery group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Preoperative factors, such as presence of binocular vision preoperatively, and postoperative factors, such as followup period and the patients' deviation amount in the 1st week and 6th month, were found to affect the surgical outcome. Dis cus si on: The success rate of surgical treatment of intermittent exotropia increases in the patients with presence of fusion and low preoperative deviation amounts. Also, in the early postoperative period, orthophoric or ≤10 PD esophoric patients have a higher final surgical success rate. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 107-12

  4. MEDICAL AND SOCIAL VALUE OF AMETROPIA CORRECTION IN CHILDREN

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    E. Yu. Markova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the impact of early ametropia detection on clinical and economic treatment aspects. Patients and methods. Retrospectively, quality of ophthalmological care in 60 children aged 6-8 with ametropia and strabismus was analyzed. All children were divided into three groups depending on age, refractive error and year at which treatment was initiated. In group 1 (30 children, refractive error and strabismus were diagnosed at the first year of life. In group 2 (18 children, refractive error and strabismus were diagnosed at the age of 1-3 years. In group 3 (12 children, glasses were prescribed at the age of 3-7 years. Retrospective analysis of primary medical records of enrolled patients was performed. All diagnostic and treatment methods that were applied as well as treatment results performed at the age of 6-8 were considered. The study of economic aspects considered the rates of ophthalmological examinations and pleoptic and orthoptic treatment courses as well as need in surgery. Direct medical costs were calculated for mediumterm prospects (3-5 years. Results. Early detection of refractive errors prevents amblyopia, binocular vision impairment, and strabismus. Uncorrected refractive errors in children are characterized by high economic and social burden (i.e., the higher is the age at which refractive error was revealed, the higher treatment costs are. Ametropia diagnosis in children requires special skills, hence, dilated eye exam must be performed by pediatric ophthalmologist but not by an orthoptist. Early diagnosis of refractive errors and strabismus provides accurate glass correction and timely therapy thus reducing treatment costs. Conclusions. In terms of clinical and economic efficacy, optimal age of refractive error detection is less than 1 year. Increase in diagnostic costs is compensated by good clinical outcomes and decrease in costs of managing complications and non-medical costs associated with reduced quality of life of

  5. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

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    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  6. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide in the management of severe chronic pain

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    Howard S Smith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Howard S Smith,1 Timothy R Deer21Albany Medical College, Department of Anesthesiology, Albany, New York, USA; 2The Center for Pain Relief, Clinical Professor, West Virginia, University, Charleston, West Virginia, USAAbstract: Ziconotide is a conopeptide intrathecal (IT analgesic which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the management of severe chronic pain. It is a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring conopeptide found in the venom of the fish-eating marine cone snail and provides analgesia via binding to N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. As ziconotide is a peptide, it is expected to be completely degraded by endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Phase I hydrolytic enzymes widely located throughout the body, and not by other Phase I biotransformation processes (including the cytochrome P450 system or by Phase II conjugation reactions. Thus, IT administration, low plasma ziconotide concentrations, and metabolism by ubiquitous peptidases make metabolic interactions of other drugs with ziconotide unlikely. Side effects of ziconotide which tend to occur more commonly at higher doses may include: nausea, vomiting, confusion, postural hypotension, abnormal gait, urinary retention, nystagmus/amblyopia, drowsiness/somnolence (reduced level of consciousness, dizziness or lightheadedness, weakness, visual problems (eg, double vision, elevation of serum creatine kinase, or vestibular side effects. Initially, when ziconotide was first administered to human subjects, titration schedules were overly aggressive and led to an abundance of adverse effects. Subsequently, clinicians have gained appreciation for ziconotide’s relatively narrow therapeutic window. With appropriate usage multiple studies have shown ziconotide to be a safe and effective intrathecal analgesic alone or in combination with other intrathecal analgesics.Keywords: pain, ziconotide, intrathecal analgesics, safety, patient

  7. Rehabilitation Approaches in Macular Degeneration Patients

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    Maniglia, Marcello; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Soler, Vincent; Trotter, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a visual disease that affects elderly population. It entails a progressive loss of central vision whose consequences are dramatic for the patient’s quality of life. Current rehabilitation programs are restricted to technical aids based on visual devices. They only temporarily improve specific visual functions such as reading skills. Considering the rapid increase of the aging population worldwide, it is crucial to intensify clinical research on AMD in order to develop simple and efficient methods that improve the patient’s visual performances in many different contexts. One very promising approach to face this challenge is based on perceptual learning (PL). Through intensive practice, PL can induce neural plasticity in sensory cortices and result in long-lasting enhancements for various perceptual tasks in both normal and visually impaired populations. A growing number of studies showed how appropriate PL protocols improve visual functions in visual disorders, namely amblyopia, presbyopia or myopia. In order to successfully apply these approaches to more severe conditions such as AMD, numerous challenges have to be overcome. Indeed, the overall elderly age of patients and the reduced cortical surface that is devoted to peripheral vision potentially limit neural plasticity in this population. In addition, ocular fixation becomes much less stable because patients have to rely on peripheral fixation spots outside the scotoma whose size keeps on evolving. The aim of this review article is to discuss the recent literature on this topic and to offer a unified approach for developing new rehabilitation programs of AMD using PL. We argue that with an appropriate experimental and training protocol that is adapted to each patient needs, PL can offer fascinating opportunities for the development of simple, non-expensive rehabilitation approaches a large spectrum of visual functions in AMD patients. PMID:28082876

  8. Visual evoked potentials (VEP and visual acuity improvement after cytidine 52 -diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline therapy in amblyopic patient

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    Regina Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Citicoline may be used in many neurological disorders. Combined treatment of citicoline with patching in amblyopia has previously been researched. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of citicoline in non-patching amblyopic patient. A 11-year-old amblyopic boy underwent complete ophthalmological examinations, including VEP with flash and pattern stimulus. Two averages of 100 sweep were performed for flash stimulus. Pattern reversal stimulus obtained with high contrast was performed with 60', 30' and 15' checks stimuli. The VEP was repeated 90 days later after a therapy with citicoline and vitamin and the results compared with the responses of the previous recording session. The visual acuity (VA was 0,7 in the RE and 1,0 in the LE. The VEP pattern amplitude was normal in both eyes. Delayed in latency was detected for all spatial frequency stimulus (SFS in the RE. Delay in latency was detected only for high SFS in the LE. After the treatment, the VA was 1,0 in both eyes. The latency was normalized with low SFS on the RE and with high SFS on the LE. The flash VEP was normal before and after the therapy. In conclusion, the citicoline demonstrated that it was effective in the treatment of amblyopic eye without patching. The VA and the VEP latency improvement demonstrated that the citicoline enhance the transmission of the electric impulse from retina to visual cortex. Further research is required to understand the immediate and long-term effect of coline treatment in amblyopic patients.

  9. Citicoline retards myopia progression following form deprivation in guinea pigs

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    Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from −3.25 ± 0.77D to −0.62 ± 0.47D, P citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720

  10. Clinical study on rigid gas permeable lenses decreasing the children's anisometropia caused by hyperopia%高透氧硬性角膜接触镜减少儿童远视屈光不等差异的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐云户; 赵媛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨在非弱视性远视屈光不等儿童中,使用高透氧硬性角膜接触镜( rigid gas permeable lens,RGP)矫正高屈光度眼视力,对双眼屈光度等效球镜差值(△SE )、眼轴差值(△AL )的影响。方法:选择我院视光门诊远视性屈光不正的6~12岁儿童95例190眼,且双眼屈光度差值(△SE)1D≤△SE<2.0D和矫正视力不等,但每一眼的矫正视力均在同龄儿童正常范围内,即均非弱视。随机分为两组:A组48例,给屈光度较高眼(视力较差眼)配戴RGP,另一眼不戴镜处理;B组47例,不配镜作为对照组。用1%环戊酮散瞳验光计算等效球镜(SE),测量眼轴(AL),并随访1.5a。分别计算A组和B组等效球镜差值(△SE )、眼轴差值(△AL ),进行统计学分析。结果:A组双眼之间等效球镜度差值(△SE )小于B组,差异有统计学意义(F=18.508,P=0.002<0.05);A组双眼之间眼轴差值(△AL )小于B组,差异有统计学意义( F=1116.765,P=0.000<0.05)。结论:在非弱视性远视屈光不等儿童中,用RGP矫正高屈光度眼视力是有必要的,可以明显减少双眼屈光度、矫正视力差异,避免屈光参差所带来的视觉功能异常等一系列问题。%Abstract•AIM:To investigate the effect of rigid gas permeable lenses ( RGP ) for the difference of spherical equivalent (△SE ) and the difference of axial length (△AL ) in children with non-amblyopia anisometropia.•METHODS:In department of optometry in our hospital, 95 children 190 eyes aged from 6 ~12 year-old with hyperopic refractive error, of whom the difference of spherical equivalent between two eyes was 1D≤△SE <2.0D and whose corrected vision was different, but the corrected visual acuity of either right eye or left eye was within the normal range of children with the same age, which meant the difference was non-amblyopia

  11. 儿童内斜视矫正术后双眼单视的建立及影响因素%Factors influencing binocular vision in children with successful surgical alignment for esotropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇; 孔香云; 王利华

    2012-01-01

    -up period from Nov 2008 to Sept 2011 in the Eye Center of Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University.The Worth 4 dots flashlight test was used to evaluate the central and peripheral fusion of the children after successful surgical alignment for esotropia,and a titmus stereogram was used to evaluate stereoacuity.A Chi-square test was used to compare the status of postoperative peripheral binocular fusion for differeut types of esotropia.A logisitic regression analysis with odds ratios comparison was used to investigate the influence of the type of esotropia:the duration of the treatment for amblyopia,age at the time of the operation,the anisometropic equivalent of the two eyes and alignment at the last follow-up on the re-establishment of postoperative peripheral fusion.Results Of the 111 children with successful surgical alignment for esotropia,sixty-eight (61.3%) achieved peripheral fusion,six (5.4%) achieved central fusion,and fifty-six (50.5%)achieved different degrees of stereoacuity.The age at the time of the operation (b=-0.842,P<0.001),the treatment duration of the amblyopia (b=-0.135,P<0.05),and the alignment at the last follow-up (b=-1.305,P<0.05) showed negative correlations with the postoperative peripheral fusion.There was no significant correlation between anisometropic equivalent of the two eyes and postoperative peripheral fusion (b=-19.670,P>0.05).This was statistically significant (x2=15.977,P<0.01) since differences in postoperative peripheral fusion were achieved for different types of esotropia.Patients with congenital esotropia were least likely to achieve peripheral fusion (OR=1.0),followed by non-accommodative esotropia (OR=3.008),partially accommodative esotropia (OR=4.475),and high AC/A ratio esotropia (OR=82.217).Conclusion The earlier the age at the time of surgery,the more likely that surgical alignment is successful.The shorter the duration of the treatment for amblyopia and the smaller the angle of orthotropia after

  12. Incidence of the refractive errors in children 3 to 9 years of age, in the city of Tetovo, Macedonia

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    Ejup Mahmudi; Vilma Mema; Nora Burda; Brikena Selimi; Sulejman Zhugli

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of refractive errors at children 3 to 9 years of age in the area of Tetovo, Macedonia in rural and urban population. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional samples of children 3 to 9 years in rural and urban population were obtained through full ophthalmologic examination, and they underwent slit-lamp examination, ocular motility and refraction. They were presenting uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, along with refractive error under topical cycloplegia. Children 3 to 6 years of age with a visual acuity of 20/40 or worse and those 6 to 9 years of age with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse underwent a complete ophthalmic examination to determine the cause of visual impairment. A spherical equivalent of-0.5 diopter (D) or worse was defined as myopia, +2.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was considered astigmatism plus or minus. Results:The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/45 or worse in the better eye of 119 children, 59 male / 60 female (5.1% of participants). According to results of cycloplegic refraction, 1.6% of the children were myopic, 7.3% were hyperopic and the incidence rate of astigmatism was approximately 0.7%. In the multivariate logistic regression myopia and hyperopia were correlated with age (P = 0.040 and P < 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The study showed a considerable prevalence rates of refractive errors myopia , hypermethropia , astigmatism and amblyopia at children of 3-9 years of age in Tetovo. There was no correlation between sex of the children’s and the refractive errors founds. There was a correlation with the need for corrective spectacles and the refractive errors they represent. Refractive errors was registered in high percentage at rural area than in urban area. Although with best corrected vision the prevalence of impairment was less in urban than in rural populations, blindness remained nearly twice as high in the rural

  13. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

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    Adhikari S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three ecological regions – Terai, Hills, and Mountains – was selected for the study. Village Development Committees from each district were selected by random sampling. Three community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular conditions in children. Health workers who examined children and collected data using pretested questionnaire performed house-to-house surveys. Children with abnormal vision or ocular conditions were referred to and examined by pediatric ophthalmologists.Results: A total of 10,950 children aged 0–10 years, 5,403 from Terai, 3,204 from Hills, and 2,343 from Mountains, were enrolled in the study. Of them, 681 (6.2% were nonresponders. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.03:1. Prevalence of blindness was 0.068% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02%–0.12% and visual impairment was 0.097% (95% CI 0.04%–0.15%. Blindness was relatively more prevalent in Terai region (0.08%, 95% CI 0.02%–0.13%. The most common cause of blindness was amblyopia (42.9% followed by congenital cataract. Corneal opacity (39% was the most common cause of unilateral blindness.Conclusion: More than two-thirds of the causes that lead to blindness and visual impairment were potentially preventable. Further, nutritional and genetic studies are needed to determine the factors associated with ocular morbidity and blindness in these regions. Keywords: vision screening, ocular morbidity, childhood, Nepal, pediatric

  14. Assessment of visual disability using visual evoked potentials

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    Jeon Jihoon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to validate the use of visual evoked potential (VEP to objectively quantify visual acuity in normal and amblyopic patients, and determine if it is possible to predict visual acuity in disability assessment to register visual pathway lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with normal vision, unilateral amblyopia, optic neuritis, and visual disability who visited the university medical center for registration from March 2007 to October 2009. The study included 20 normal subjects (20 right eyes: 10 females, 10 males, ages 9–42 years, 18 unilateral amblyopic patients (18 amblyopic eyes, ages 19–36 years, 19 optic neuritis patients (19 eyes: ages 9–71 years, and 10 patients with visual disability having visual pathway lesions. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and correlations with visual acuity (logMAR were derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic subjects. Correlation of VEP amplitude and visual acuity (logMAR of 19 optic neuritis patients confirmed relationships between visual acuity and amplitude. We calculated the objective visual acuity (logMAR of 16 eyes from 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations derived from 20 normal and 18 amblyopic eyes. Results Linear regression analyses between amplitude of pattern visual evoked potentials and visual acuity (logMAR of 38 eyes from normal (right eyes and amblyopic (amblyopic eyes subjects were significant [y = −0.072x + 1.22, x: VEP amplitude, y: visual acuity (logMAR]. There were no significant differences between visual acuity prediction values, which substituted amplitude values of 19 eyes with optic neuritis into function. We calculated the objective visual acuity of 16 eyes of 10 patients to diagnose the presence or absence of visual disability using relations of y = −0.072x + 1.22 (−0.072. This resulted in a prediction

  15. Fenômeno de Marcus Gunn: diagnóstico diferencial das ptoses palpebrais na criança Marcus Gunn Phenomenon: differential diagnosis of palpebral ptoses in children

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    Marcia R. F. Torres

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve por objetivo fazer uma revisão bibliográfica, relatar e discutir o caso clínico de um paciente com fenômeno de Marcus Gunn. DESCRIÇÃO: Criança de 5 anos de idade, sexo feminino, hígida. Nos primeiros meses de vida, em consulta de puericultura, foi detectada alteração no olho direito, que, a princípio, parecia tratar-se de estrabismo. Após consultas com vários oftalmologistas, não se alcançou um diagnóstico preciso. Já aos 4 anos de idade, após exame realizado por oftalmologista pediátrico, confirmou-se o diagnóstico do fenômeno de Marcus Gunn. O restante do exame físico, incluindo exame neurológico, estava normal. Por se tratar de ptose palpebral leve, sem outras patologias associadas, optou-se por uma conduta conservadora. COMENTÁRIOS: Este relato visa alertar os pediatras com relação ao fenômeno de Marcus Gunn, que ainda é pouco conhecido. A partir deste conhecimento, o pediatra poderá identificar o fenômeno, possibilitando o encaminhamento precoce para a abordagem de complicações ou condições associadas, além de diagnóstico diferencial com outros tipos de ptose palpebral.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review existing literature on the subject and to report on and discuss a case of Marcus Gunn Phenomenon. DESCRIPTION: A five year-old female, otherwise a healthy patient, while still a few months old, was seen by a pediatrician who detected a disorder of the right eye, initially believed to be strabismus, at a follow-up childcare consultation. Several ophthalmologists failed to establish a precise diagnosis. After a pediatric ophthalmologist had examined the child at four years of age, a diagnosis of Marcus Gunn Phenomenon, otherwise known as jaw-winking phenomenon, was confirmed. Apart from this anomaly, physical, ophthalmological, and neurological examinations were normal. Since ptosis was mild and no association with strabismus, amblyopia or other conditions was

  16. The KwaZulu-Natal Child Eye Care Programme: Delivering refractive error services to primary school learners

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    Y. I. Mahraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, over 300 million people are estimated to be visually impaired. Uncorrected refractive error is the primary cause of almost half of all visual impairment, resulting in the global economy losing $269 billion in productivity annually. There is a definitive level of urgency in the treatment of refractive error in children as uncorrected refractive error results in the failure of normal visual maturation, termed amblyopia, which cannot be corrected in adult life. In South Africa, the lack of appropriatechild eye care strategies has posed a serious problem to the visual health of children. In 2006, the International Centre for Eye Care Education (ICEE conducted a situational analysis of child eye care services in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. The findings of this analysis indicated a dire need for comprehensive services in the province. Stakeholders (the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Healthand the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education were advised on the value of a short-term strategy as the underpinning of a long-term sustainable approach. This resulted in the formation of a trialliance to implement the KZN Child Eye Care Programme. Eighty (80 individuals who were previously volunteers for the KZN Department of Health were trained in vision screening. These vi-sion screeners screened 239 606 primary school children from February 2007 to May 2008. Seven percent (15 944 of the children failed the vision screening and were referred for optometric assessments. Of the 15 944 children that failed the vision screening, 10 707 children were examined by optometrists and 1083 were found to have a refractive error and were therefore supplied with spectacles. The study indicates that a short-term programme to address a backlog of services can reach many underserved children. This programme identified many challenges of implementing a vision screening programme such as poor uptake of refractive services by learners in the absence of an appropriate

  17. 关于蛋白激酶C-γ及其在中枢中的作用的研究进展%cPKC-γand its role in central

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗平; 王静; 李俊发; 傅涛

    2016-01-01

    蛋白激酶C-γ是经典型蛋白激酶C家族中的一个亚型。作为蛋白激酶C家族中的一员,它具有蛋白激酶C的普遍作用,同时又具有其特异作用。在磷脂酰丝氨酸存在的情况下,蛋白激酶C-γ可被Ca2+、磷脂酰甘油等激活。蛋白激酶C-γ具有神经特异性,主要在大脑皮层和脊髓的神经元中表达。 cPKC-γ的缺失或突变是导致许多神经系统疾病的原因之一,可诱发原发性视网膜色素变性、白内障和脊髓小脑共济失调等疾病。异常视觉经验可通过神经发育可塑性影响视皮层发育最终导致弱视产生,作为一种神经特异性蛋白激酶,cPKC-γ是否在视觉发育可塑性中发挥作用,仍存在争议。本文中笔者主要从cPKC-γ的生物化学性质、分子作用机制和与其相关的疾病方面进行综述。%Protein kinase C gamma ( cPKC-γ) is a subtype of conventional PKC family .As a member of protein kinase C ,it has common effects of protein kinase C ,and special effect of itself .In the presence of phosphatidylserine , it can be activated by Ca 2+and phosphatidyl glycerol ( DAG ) .cPKC-γhas neuron specificity ,mainly in brain and spinal cord .Its absence or mutation will cause many nervous system diseases , such as retinitis pigmentosa ( RP) ,cataract and spinocerebellar ataxia .Abnormal visual experience can lead to amblyopia by affect neuroplasticity of visual cortex .As a neuron-specific protein kinase , its role in visual plasticity is still controversial .This article summarizes the biochemical properties ,molecular mechanism and related diseases of cPKC-γ.

  18. A comparison of the visual status of dyslexic and non-dyslexic schoolchildren in Durban, South Africa

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    S. O. Wajuihian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Reading difficulties constitute an impediment to the learning process and in the educational achievement of a child. Consequently, several studies examined the visual status of dyslexic children in the Caucasian populations. Such studies are lacking in the African populations.Aim: To determine the prevalence of vision defects and investigate if there is an association between dyslexia and vision in a South African population of dyslexic school children.  Methods:  This comparative study assessed the visual function of 62 children (31 dyslexic and 31 normally-reading children, mean age 13 ± 1.42 years and 11.90 ± 0.93 years respectively. The participants were matched for gender, race and socio-economic status. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used were: visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refraction (static retinos-copy, ocular alignment (cover test near point of convergence (RAF rule, accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, amplitude of accommodation (push-up method relative accommodation(trial lenses accommodation posture (monocular estimation technique and vergence reserves (prism bars. Results:   In the following, results are  provided for the dyslexic versus control:  Refractive errors: (hyperopia 6.5% vs 3%, (myopia 6.5% vs 6.5%, (astigmatism 10% vs 13%, (anisometropia 6.5% vs 6.5% (amblyopia 6.5% vs 0%, (remote NPC 33% vs 48% (esophoria at near 3%  vs 0% (exophoria at near 9.5% vs 0%, (accommodative infacility at near  54% vs 33%, lag of accommodation 39.28% vs 41,93%,  (poor positive fusional amplitude at near, 25% vs 16%. Only the binocular accommodative facility at near was significantly associated with dyslexia (p=0.027. Conclusion: The prevalence of vision defects was similar between the dyslexic and non-dyslexic participants, which suggest that an association between dyslexia and vision variables investigated, cannot be inferred.  This study provides a research perspective on the

  19. Anestesia congênita de córnea associada à anestesia de ramo do trigêmio: relato de caso Congenital corneal anesthesia related to trigeminal anesthesia: case report

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    Miguel José Calix Netto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A anestesia corneana por ser uma condição rara, freqüentemente é confundida ou não diagnosticada durante o exame de rotina do segmento anterior. Relato de caso de um paciente de 18 anos encaminhado ao ambulatório de córnea e doenças externas com quadro clinico de síndrome de olho seco e com diagnóstico provável de síndrome de Sjögren. Era amblíope de olho direito devido à opacidade corneana no eixo visual secundária a trauma com unha na infância. Foi pesquisada sensibilidade corneana que era ausente em ambos os olhos; olho seco grave e com BUT (tempo de quebra do filme lacrimal menor que 4 segundos. Foi feito diagnóstico de anestesia corneana congênita associada a hipoestesia do nervo trigêmio pela avaliação neurológica da sensibilidade facial e movimentos bruscos do queixo que evidenciavam alterações sensoriais do nervo. O oftalmologista geral e principalmente o especialista em segmento anterior devem ter como rotina a pesquisa da sensibilidade corneana no exame do segmento anterior.Corneal anesthesia is a rare condition, therefore its diagnosis is frequently impaired or it is not noticed during the anterior segment examination. Case report of a 18-year-old patient referred to our Corneal and External Disease Department who complained of dry eye symptoms and with a suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome. She had amblyopia of the right eye, consequence of corneal leucoma over the visual axis secondary to a fingernail traumatism inflicted by herself in childhood. On the ophthalmologic examination corneal sensitivity was absent in both eyes. Severe dry eye and breakup time less than four seconds. Diagnosis of congenital corneal anesthesia was established, secondary to trigeminal anesthesia found on neurological evaluation of facial sensitivity. She also showed sudden movements of the chin which evidenced sensorial pathology of the trigeminal nerve. The general ophthalmologist and specially anterior segment specialists must

  20. The level of health in Elementary School Students in Training and Research Areas and Evaluation of School Screening Examination Results

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    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The research was planned in order to evaluate the level of health’s elementary schools located in Eskisehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine Public Health Department Training and Research Areas and the school health services they have been receiving for the last eight years. METHOD: 1st, 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students studying in 12 elementary schools located in the Training and Research Areas in 2009-2010 academic year were enrolled to the study. On days of the screenings, a total of 1405 students available (1405/1569: %89.5 in the schools were reached. Growth, seeing, hearing, mouth-teeth health, systemic physical examination and by consulting to the teachers, state of mind and existence of chronic diseases were researched. For each child, information containing the existence of school enrolment examination, the number of periodic examinations that have been conducted on the child, and also the results of the examination of the same year was inquired. RESULTS: 1.0 % of the students were detected as very weak, 4.8 % as weak, 75.9 % as normal, 15.8 % as overweight and 2.5 % as obese. In eye examinations, 10.5% of the students had refractive error, 6.2 % had amblyopia and 3.1% had diplopia. In the ear examination, it was determined that 48.7 % of the students had plug, 2.5 % had perforated tympanum, and 3.1 % had hearing loss. In mouth and teeth examination, it was detected that 64.8% of the students had tooth decay. All of the students who were claimed to have undergone school enrolment examination were first grade students and that examinations included examination results of this year. Health forms containing the results of school enrolment examination and periodic examinations of 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students were not found. School screening were conducted only in two district elementary schools. The eye examination results reported in the records appeared to be inconsistent with screning results. CONCLUSION: It was shown

  1. Prevalence and association of refractive anisometropia with near work habits among young schoolchildren: The evidence from a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Wei; Fang, Shao-You; Huang, Nicole; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shing-Yi; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behaviour may play a role in refractive error among children, but the association between near work habits and refractive anisometropia remains unclear. Methods We estimated the prevalence of refractive anisometropia and examined its association with near work activities among 23,114 children in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei who were grade 2 elementary school students at baseline in 2013 and 2014. Baseline data on demographics, medical history, parental history and near work habits were collected by parent-administered questionnaire survey. Refractive status was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Refractive anisometropia was defined as the spherical equivalent difference ≥ 1.0 diopter between eyes. Results The prevalence of refractive anisometropia was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0% to 5.6%). The prevalence and severity of refractive anisometropia increased with both myopic and hyperopic refractive error. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that refractive anisometropia was significantly associated with myopia (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% CI, 2.53–3.51), hyperopia (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.98–2.83), degree of astigmatism (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.005–1.006), amblyopia (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.06–3.12), male gender (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78–0.99) and senior high school level of maternal education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52–0.92). Though anisometropic children were more likely to spend more time on near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.29) and to have less eye-to-object distance in doing near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01–1.30), these associations became insignificant after additional adjustment for ocular, demographic and parental factors. Conclusions The present study provides large-scale, population-based evidence showing no independent association between refractive anisometropia and near work habits, though myopia is associated with refractive anisometropia. PMID:28273153

  2. Ocular Health Status and Causes of Enrolment into Special Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

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    Michaeline Isawumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Knowledge of the status of eye diseases among students’ enrolled in the special schools would assist in planning preventive and treatment strategies. Objectives To determine the types and causes of ocular morbidity leading to enrolment of students in special schools of Osun state. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study by utilizing a total-sampling-technique on students attending all 8 special primary and integrated secondary schools to find out the common ophthalmic diseases between July and September 2013. Teachers’ registers, oral interview and clinical examination were used to obtain data. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics through SPSS 17 software. Results Four hundred and seventy-two (472 students between the ages of 4 and 36 years with mean of 13.7 ± 4.7 were examined. Two hundred and seventy-six (58.5% were males and one hundred-ninety- six were females. Fathers’ occupation were mostly farmers 142 (30.1% and Artisans 133 (28.2%. Abnormal ocular findings were seen in 9.9% of students. The prevalence of blindness was 4.7% [95% Confidence Interval (CI 2.7 - 6.6]. Anatomical causes of blindness were corneal scarring (2.1% especially post measles keratopathy, whole globe disorders (1.1%, toxoplasma chorioretinal scars and maculopathies (0.6%, amblyopia/uncorrected refractive errors (0.4% and cortical visual impairment (0.2% . The prevalence of visual impairment was 1.4% [CI 0.0 -1.7], with cataracts and refractive error being the most common causes. Other findings included nystagmus (0.2%, vernal conjunctivitis (0.4%, and pigmentary retinopathy (4.2%. Ocular pathologies occurred most frequently among the lower socio-economic group (χ2 169.69, P < 0.001. Conclusions The common causes of ocular diseases leading to enrolment are avoidable. Mandatory eye examination at birth, preschool years and school age is needed for early detection and intervention. Health education, adequate nutrition, and immunization

  3. 先天性白内障术后无晶状体眼RGPCL矫正的临床效果观察%Clinical effects of infants aphakia corrected by rigid gas permeable contact lens after congenital cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建兰; 谢培英; 王丹; 常勇; 刘营

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨硬性透气性接触镜(CRGPCL)在先天性白内障患儿术后无晶体眼的视力矫正及视功能改善的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2010年5月至2012年10月7例先天性白内障术后无晶体眼的患儿验配Meni-con ZRGPCL,并观察戴镜后1个月、3个月、6个月、1年的戴镜视力及视功能提高的情况。结果1年观察期内均未出现严重的并发症而导致停戴。所有患儿配戴RGPCL1年时矫正视力均较框架镜矫正有提高,双眼视功能检查有部分改善。结论 RGPCL为先天性白内障术后无晶体眼的患儿在视力提高及视功能改善方面提供了一个良好的矫正方式,规范配戴与定期复查也同时降低了戴镜风险。%Objective To investigate clinic effects of corrected visual acuity and visual function using by Rigid Gas Permeable Contact lens(RGPCL) in infant aphakia after Cataract surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of 7 cases infants aphakia who fitted Menicon Z RGPCL in our center. We inspected the corrected visual acuity and visual function during periods of wearing RGPCL 1m,3m,6m and 1y. Results All children’s RGPCL corrected visual acuity and partial visual function were improved at 1st year. With the schedule of parents lens care, standard lens wearing,regular lens check and amblyopia training,there were no serious applications in 7 cases. Conclusions Infants aphakia corrected by RGPCL after Cataract surgery which obtains good corrected visual acuity and visual function and standard lens wearing and regular lens check reduce risks of lens use.

  4. Surgical Results in Cases of Sensory Strabismus

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    Ayfle Yeflim Oral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine horizontal deviation type and to evaluate the correlation between deviation type/etiology and surgical results for sensory strabismus. Patients and Methods: The reports of 29 patients operated for sensory strabismus (12 female, 17 male whose mean age was 22.17±11.52 (range: 4-57 years were evaluated retrospectively. Sixteen cases (55.2% had exotropia (XT and 13 cases (44.8% had esotropia (ET. Etiologies, ages during surgeries, and preoperative/postoperative deviation amounts were noted for the total of the patients as well as for ET and XT groups separately. The results for ET and XT groups were compared statistically using t test. The mean follow-up time was 4.27±3.5 years (range: 4 months-12 years and deviation in ±10 prism diopters (PD in the last visit was considered as success. Results: Etiologies in all cases examined were as follows: anisometropia in 13 (44.8%, trauma in 10 (34.5%, congenital cataracts in 2, and congenital glaucoma, keratoconus, choroidal coloboma, and hypoplastic optic disc in one case each. The visual acuity of the squinting eyes ranged from no light perception to 0.8 logMAR. The mean preoperative deviation was 46.24±19.29 PD, and the mean postoperative deviation decreased to 9.55±11.86 PD in the last visit. When the ET and XT groups were compared, the congenital causes were more common in the ET group (30.75% compared to the XT group (6.25%, otherwise, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of mean age, preoperative and postoperative deviation amounts and follow-up time between the two groups (p>0.05. In contrast, while the surgical success rate was found to be 75.9 % for all cases and 87.5% for the XT group, it was 61.5% for the ET group. Discussion: Despite the deep amblyopia in sensory strabismus, satisfactory surgical results are achieved; nevertheless, the success may be more limited in sensory esotropia particularly due to congenital causes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011

  5. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

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    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  6. Early visual environment and development of visual function%早期视觉环境与视觉功能发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋斌; 李硕; 张琴芬

    2013-01-01

    半个世纪以来,对哺乳动物视觉系统的研究阐明了视网膜-外膝体-视皮层之间复杂而有序的拓扑式神经连接以及视皮层功能的发育过程。视觉神经通路首先是基因遗传、分子及内在电生理活动调控的非视觉经验依赖性发育,然后是动物睁眼后视觉经验调控下的视觉皮层细胞感受野与方位柱、眼优势柱及双眼视觉等功能发育,因此视觉系统的发育是由遗传和环境共同来塑造。本文主要对哺乳动物出生后视觉通路发育过程特别是早期视觉环境对正常视觉功能发育的重要作用作一综述,并探讨通过改善视觉环境以治疗弱视患者的医疗可能性。%Over the past half-century,investigations on mammalian visual system have clarified that the visual pathway from retina to primary visual cortex is highly complex but displays the orderly topologi-cal neural connections.Furthermore,previous explorations especially revealed the function of primary visual cortex and its postnatal development.The development of visual pathway is orchestrated initially by an early innate non-visual experience-dependent regulated by successively genetic,molecules and inher-ent electrophysiological activity,and then visual functions in primary visual cortex such as receptive fields,orientation specific columns,cortical ocular dominance columns and binocular vision etc,are highly regulated by visual experience.Therefore,the development of the visual system is sculpted not on-ly by heredity but also by visual experience after eye opening.This review highlights the postnatal devel-opment of mammalian visual pathway,especially the important effects of early visual environment on the development of normal visual function,and discusses the medical possibilities of improving the treatment of amblyopia by visual environment.

  7. REORGANIZATION OF VISUAL CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS FOLLOWING ALTERATIONS OF RETINAL INPUT AND BRAIN DAMAGE

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    LAURA RESTANI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC. The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e. monocular deprivation. This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g. strabismus and amblyopia characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  8. 自发性续发性外斜视临床特点分析%Clinical characteristics and analysis of spontaneous consecutive exotropia

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    陈静嫦; 麦光焕; 余焕云; 余新平; 邓大明; 林小铭

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过观察和归纳自发性续发性外斜视的临床特点,探讨外斜视漂移的发病机制和临床意义.方法 收集斜视弱视专科门诊就诊的8例自发性续发性外斜视患者的临床资料进行了回顾分析和总结,包括患者的出生史、视力、屈光状态、斜视度、双眼视功能、治疗措施等.结果 患者均原为调节性内斜视,具有弱视、运动性融合功能低下甚至丧失,以及在早年接受足度或近足度远视镜矫正治疗等临床特点.结论 外斜视漂移并不少见,具有一定的临床指导意义,其发病可能是融合机制、神经动力因素和解剖因素的合力结果.%Purposes To investigate the pathogenesis and clinical significance of exotropic drift by studying the clinical characteristics of spontaneous consecutive extropia.Methods To review the case reports of eight children with spontaneous consecutive exotropia who attended the Strabismic and Amblyopic clinic of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center,Sun Yat-sen University in recent 10 years.Clinical data were analyzed including birth history,visual acuity,refraction,binocular vision and therapeutic means.Results All cases of spontaneous consecutive exotropia in the study had an early onset of accommodative esotropia associated with amblyopia,poor or loss of fusion and full or near full correction to the hypermetropic refractive error.Conclusions Exotropic drift is not uncommon and has clinical significance in the treatment of strabismus.It is suggested that exotropic drift may be caused by a combination of fusion,innervational and anatomical factors.

  9. 儿童调节性内斜视临床观察%Clinical Observation of Accommodative Esotropia in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢跃兵; 陈敏

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To observe the eye position, diopter, visual acuity and binocular vision of children with accommodative esotropia after wearing glasses. [ Methods] 106 children with accommodative esotropia wore the completely correction glasses after accurate refraction, follow-up for 4 years, and the retrospective analysis was conducted. [ Results] After 6 months, 91 cases showed orthotropia, which accounted for 85.85%. Some children with accommodative esotropia must wear the completely correction glasses for 6 months or more. The hyperopic diopter declined from + 6.54D at first visit to + 5.02D after 4 years. The visual acuity increased from 0.36 at first visit to 0.82 after 4 years. [ Conclusion] The treatment of accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to the correction of eye position, treatment of amblyopia and establishment of binocular vision.%目的 观察儿童屈光性调节性内斜视戴镜后的眼位、屈光度、视力及双眼单视功能情况.方法 搜集106例调节性内斜视儿童,准确验光后即时配戴全矫正眼镜,随访观察4年,并进行回顾性分析.结果 观察6个月以上,眼位正位者91例,占85.85%;部分性调节性内斜视,带全矫眼镜6个月以上,远视度数由初时的+6.5 4D,下降为4年后的+5.0 2D.视力由初诊时的0.36上升到4年后的0.82.结论 调节性内斜视的治疗是一个综合治疗过程.既要注重眼位的矫正、又要进行弱视治疗,同时注意建立双眼单视功能.

  10. Application of intraocular lens in infant cataract surgery%IOL在婴幼儿白内障手术中的应用

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    祁锦艳; 肖伟; 王明玥; 濮伟

    2015-01-01

    Cataract extraction and the intraocular lens ( IOL ) implantation are the first choice to cure children cataract both domestic and overseas so far. However, IOL implantation in the eyes of children, especially in infant, has always been cared by ophthalmologists. Timely implanting IOL after the cataract extraction has played a significant role in terms of the refractive correction, the establishment of visual function, the prevention of amblyopia and the reconstruction of binocular vision. However, on the issue of IOL implantation after cataract extraction, there is always controversy on cataract treatment programs for children, and the focus of the controversy is when the IOL should be implanted. Theoretically, the principle of pediatric cataract surgery is the sooner the better, aiming to remove deprivation factor, open the visual pathway, implant IOL timely, and promote the visual development. How to find both“early” and safe IOL implantation time point is undoubtedly helpful for the rehabilitation of visual function of these children. The issues on the IOL implantation after children cataract extraction both at home and abroad are summarized below.%目前,国内外已将白内障摘除和人工晶状体( intraocularlens, IOL)植入作为治疗儿童白内障的首要选择。但是,儿童眼特别是婴幼儿眼的IOL植入一直是眼科界关注的问题。适时的白内障摘除术后IOL植入对于屈光矫正、视功能建立、预防弱视和双眼视功能重建都有极大的作用。然而,有关婴幼儿白内障摘除术后IOL植入问题,在儿童白内障治疗方案上始终存在争议,争议的焦点主要集中在IOL植入的时机问题上。理论上讲,儿童白内障的手术治疗原则是越早越好,目的是去形觉剥夺因素,打开视觉通路,及时植入IOL,促进视觉发育。但如何找到既“早”又安全的IOL植入时间点无疑对患儿视功能的康复是大有益处的,本文就国内外儿童

  11. Effect of citicoline for the amblyopic after the sensitive period of visual development%胞磷胆碱钠对视觉发育敏感期后弱视患者视功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖秀林; 叶建忠; 许建铮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of citicoline for the amblyopic after the sensitive period of visual development. Methods 68 cases of amblyopia after the sensitive period of visual development were randomly divided into 2 groups. Treatment group:citicoline 0. 2,ATP40mg, Tid.Oral: Control group: Vit Bl 0.2,ATP40mg, Tid.Ora. P-VEP. contrast sensitivity, such as stereopsis results were analyzed. Results The effective rate of Treatment group and Control group were 70. 6% and 5. 8% (P<0. 05). P-VEP, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis of Treatment group were improved. Conclusion It is effective to treat amblyopic after the sensitive period of visual development with citicoline.%目的 探讨胞磷胆碱对视觉发育敏感期后弱视患者视功能的影响.方法 68例视觉发育敏感期后弱视患者,随机分为两组,治疗组:胞磷胆碱钠0.2g和ATP 40mg,每日3次口服;对照组:维生素B1 0.2g和ATP 40mg,每日3次口服;治疗前后对视力、P-VEP、对比敏感度、立体视功能等结果进行统计分析.结果 治疗组有效率70.6%,PVEP、对比敏感度、立体视功能都获得改善和提高;对照组有效率8.8%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 胞磷胆碱口服制 剂治疗视觉发育敏感期后弱视效果较好,可提高弱视患者的视功能,改善立体视功能.

  12. Abordagem da Catarata Congênita: análise de série de casos Approach to Congenital Cataract: case series analysis

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    Marina Soares Viegas Moura Rezende

    2008-02-01

    êm para o prognóstico visual funcional.INTRODUCTION: Congenital cataract is an important cause of poor visual acuity and amblyopia, with an incidence of 0,4%. Surgical approaches in children present many advances through the years, such as intraocular lenses implantation and others thechniques, wich results in better visual outcomes and prevention of amblyopia. PURPOSE: To report the early outcomes of a series of cases submited to different surgical techiniques for pediatric cataract, in the Tadeu Cvintal Ophthalmology Institute, from January 2004 to January 2005. METHODS: Retrospective study in 19 children (32 eyes with congenital cataract.The surgical management was separated in three series: pars plana lensectomy, phacoaspiration with or without intraocular lenses; and also separated in patients who had been submitted to posterior capsulotomy.Visual acuity has been tested with four months of follow up. RESULTS: Lensectomy was performed on eight cases, phacoaspiration with intraocular lenses implantation on 13, phacoaspiration without intraocular lenses on 11. Ten eyes had primary posterior capsulotomy, 13 had secondary posteior capsulotomy one month after initial surgery, nine did not need secondary surgery for capsular opacification. The only observed complication was capsule opacification in 60% of the cases. Fourteen (14 eyes (43% had visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/40 (LoGMAR +0.0 to + 0.3, from which eight were operated on bilateral cataract. The mean age in the group with best visual acuity was 7 yrs old. Seven eyes from this group (50% had phacoaspiration with intraocular lenses implantation, and five (35% with secondary capsulotomy. CONCLUSIONS: This series showed good visual and functional early outcomes, even with a small and heterogeneous sample. A longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the different prognosis for each surgical technique .

  13. Effect of form deprivation time on main refractive parameter in congenital cataract%先天性白内障形觉剥夺时间对眼主要屈光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾国刚; 严涛; 谌金金; 熊莎; 章艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of form deprivation time on the main refractive parameter in congenital cataract. Methods Forty-eight congenital cat-aract patients(48 eyes) aged from 6 months to thirty-five years were chosen,the subjective refraction was determined,and the retinoscopy was performed in patients,who unable to receive the subjective refraction examination. Based on form deprivation time,the patients were divided into from 0 year to 4 years group(13 eyes), from 4 years to 8 years group(18 eyes) and more than 8 years group(17 eyes) ,the binocular axis length and corneal curvature were measured. The amblyopia was defined as the best corrected visual acuity below normal vision, or the difference of binocular best corrected visual a-cuity equal to or more than two lines. Results In from 0 year to 4 years group and from 4 years to 8 years group,the difference between binocular axial length was not sig-nificant( P = 0.547,0.563), and the deprivation time was not related with the difference in binocular axial length, which were (0. 92 ±0.41) mm and (1. 64 ± 1. 49) mm (P = 0.890,0. 703); The difference of binocular corneal curvature had also no significant difference in all deprivation time points (all P > 0.05). In more than 8 years group, there was significant difference in difference of binocular axis length (P 0.05). The absolute value of binocular spherical equivalence difference (3.66±3.00)D was positive related with the absolute value of axial length difference (2.23 ± 1.46) mm in 42 eyes (r = 0.782 ,P < 0.01). Conclusion The deprivation form at early stage in congenital cataract patients has no effect on axial length,and its main effect is forming the amblyopia. The anisometropia in single eye with congenital cataract is mainly caused by prolonged ocular axis.%目的 评价先天性白内障形觉剥夺时间对眼屈光系统主要参数的影响.方法 选取单眼先天性白内障患者48例,年龄(6个月~35岁);术前综合验光仪进

  14. 海口市3~6岁儿童斜视与立体视锐度调查%Investigation of strabismus and stereoacuity in 3 to 6 year-old children in Haikou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 张漫萍; 吴清静; 郑云燕; 麦伟虎; 陈毓芬

    2005-01-01

    论:①调查结果中近90%的斜视患儿在本次调查中被首次发现,引起立体视异常的原因有屈光不正、斜视、弱视等.②共同性内斜视与调节的关系较密切,而外斜视、垂直斜视与屈光状态关系不大,立体视锐度随视力下降而降低.③调查结果支持立体视发育的成熟年龄在4岁以前,但存在个体差异.%BACKGROUND: The evaluation of stereoacuity can provide an unambiguous assessment of haplopia. It is valuable in assessing the diagnostic accuracy and the therapeutic effect in strabismus, amblyopia and ametropia. OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to evaluate the stereoptic development and the occurrence rate of strabismus in 3-6 years old children, and so that to provide objective data for prevention and treatment of strabismus and steropsis. DESIGN: It was a randomized sampling investigation. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology,Haikou People's Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 8326 children in 25 urban and suburban kindergartens, with an age of 3-6 years old, were selected randomly in Haikou city from June 2000 to April 2002. METHODS: 8 326 3-6 years old children in Haikou city underwent vision examinations on hyperopia, eye position and the myopia. Those having eyesight lower than 1.0D or abnormal eye position received atropine drops to dilate the pupil of the eye for optometry. ① 4-6 years old children were examined using standard visual chart and logMAR chart (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart), 3 years old children were examined using hroken wheel acuity cards or symbols chart. The results of the exminations were conversed and recorded in form of decimal fraction uniformly. ②The corneal reflection and the cover test procedure were used for the position of gaze. ③ Stereoacuity were examined using the stereoptic visual testing cards (made by the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). Stereoacuity were defined as normal when the test value was ≤ 60 s and were defined as

  15. 1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用%The application of the use of 1% Cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小梅; 杨发斌; 周华; 师文; 李海燕; 王晓林; 马自明; 曹仕涛; 左芸

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present research is to probe the application of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.Methods There was a ametropia epidemiological investigation carried out among children aged 2 to 6 in seven kindergartens in Yuxi City,Lincang City,using the small-pupil-retinoscope,and examining children with symptoms of direct or indirect shade movements >+1.50DS,or symptom of unsymmetrical shade movements between the two meridians,who can be considered as potential ametropia patients and then notified to their parents.When given 1% cyclopentolate to palsy ciliary muscles,once every five minutes,two to three times in total,there will be a retina retionoscopy optometry 60 minutes later.The patients can be diagnosed as ametrapia if the symptoms maintain.Results The results shows:among the 3378 children (6756 eyes),there were 246 (7.28%) children were notified re-examination.In fact,only 144 (288 eyes/58.54%) children recame,237 eyes were diagnosed as ametropia,83 (1.23%) eyes as potential amblyopia,and 37 (1.10%) children as strabismus.Conclusions The using of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.has been an easy-carrying-out method.The optometry can be done within a day after using the 1% cyclopentolate,therefore,it is well welcomed by both children and parents,bringing more convenience to children and less communication problems between doctors and patients.%目的 探讨1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用价值 方法 用小瞳检影法分别对玉溪市、临沧市7所幼儿园2~6岁儿童进行屈光筛查,对在检影时顺影动>+1.50DS(远视)、有逆影动(近视)或两个子午线影动不对称(散光)的儿童,疑为屈光不正,通知家长复诊.对复诊儿童给1%环戊通点眼麻痹睫状肌,5min/次,连续点眼2~3次,休息60 min进行视网膜检影,明确诊断.结果 在受检的3378名(6756

  16. 立体视觉下人类大脑激活的功能核磁共振初步研究%PRELIMINARY fMRI OF HUMAN BRAIN ACTIVATION UNDER STEREOSCOPIC VISION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 王飞; 洪炜; 高嵩

    2013-01-01

    role in processing stereoscopic vision. Some differences were found between the activating areas and results from previous experiments,and these were discussed.A comparison was made with other studies,to further understand mechanisms of binocular disparity.If activation areas among people with normal stereoscopic vision could be made clear and definitive,it would contribute to screening amblyopia more easily and efficiently by using fMRI scanning.

  17. Alterações oculares em crianças pré-escolares e escolares no município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Eye diseases in preschool and school children in the city of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Abelardo de Souza Couto Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a prevalência das alterações oculares, no ano de 2001, em crianças pré-escolares e escolares no município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal, durante campanha de saúde ocular na rede pública de ensino. Crianças com acuidade visual inferior a 0,8 ou com anormalidades foram triadas por voluntários treinados para serem avaliadas por oftalmologistas no Instituto Benjamin Constant. RESULTADOS: Avaliadas 1.800 crianças do total. Destas, 609 (33,83% foram encaminhadas ao IBC. Houve 491 (27,28% do total e 80,62% das crianças triadas que receberam alta por apresentarem visão melhor que 0,8. A prevalência das alterações oculares foi de 3,35%. (ambliopia teve prevalência de 2,00%, estrabismo teve 0,33% e outras causas 1,02%.. Houve 93 crianças (5,17% do total e 15,27% das crianças triadas com ametropias que necessitaram de correção através de óculos. CONCLUSÃO: Demonstrou-se a prevalência das principais alterações oftalmológicas infantis no município de Duque de Caxias e ressaltou-se a necessidade de campanhas para bom êxito no desenvolvimento da acuidade visual das crianças.PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of the ametropias and eye diseases, in the year 2001, within a preschool and school children in the city of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Transversal observational study during an ocular health campaign in public education schools. The children that have shown visual acuity lower than 0.8 or other abnormally were referred by trained volunteers to evaluation by ophthalmologists from the Benjamin Constant Institute. RESULTS: From the 1.800 children who were examined, 609 (33.83% were referred to the ophthalmologic examination. There were 491 children (27.28% from total and 80.62% from referred that were dismissed for presenting visual acuity better than 0.8. The Eye diseases prevalence was 3.35% (amblyopia was 2

  18. Prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias em crianças pré-escolares e escolares em favelas do Alto da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Prevalence of the ametropias and eye diseases in preschool and school children of Alto da Boa Vista favelas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Abelardo de Souza Couto Júnior

    2007-10-01

    prevalence was 3.50% (hyperopia and astigmatism hyperopic were 1.78%, myopia and astigmatism myopic 1.06%, mixed astigmatism 0.67%.The eyes diseases prevalence was 3.50% (amblyopia was 2.00%, manifest strabismus was 1.72% and others causes was 1.11%. CONCLUSION: It was shown the prevalence of the main ophthalmologic children disorders. It also points out the need of ocular health campaigns thus achieve remarkably the development of the children visual acuity.

  19. Condição ocular entre trabalhadores de uma indústria metalúrgica brasileira Ocular condition in a brazilian ironmaster industry

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    Thais Zamudio Igami

    2008-10-01

    ocular complains. Glasses were prescribed when necessary. RESULTS: Most of the evaluated employees in this industry was male (62.5%, ageing from 20 to 29 year old (41%. Visual acuity was normal in 95.5% of the eyes.The majority of the individuals (84% did not need glasses prescription. Fifty-five percent of the employees were considered as normal eye carriers, 13.6% presented presbyopia, 10% presented myopic astigmatism and 7.7% hyperopic astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 2,4% and blindness in one eye of 0,4% of the studied individuals. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and amblyopia. CONCLUSION: The majority of the employees, in this particular industry, presented with a normal ophthalmic examination. None of them had bilateral blindness.

  20. Problemas oftalmológicos mais freqüentes e desenvolvimento visual do pré-termo extremo Frequent ophthalmologic problems and visual development of preterm newborn infants

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    Rosa Maria Graziano

    2005-03-01

    / or cortical structures. The literature pinpoints retinopathy of prematurity, strabismus and refractive errors as the main ophthalmologic alterations resulting from prematurity. Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the main causes of preventable blindness in childhood. It is estimated that on average 562 children become blind each year in Brazil, which is a very high socioeconomic cost to result from a treatable disease. Children with visual deficiencies may be helped by programs of early visual stimulation in order to promote their environmental integration. CONCLUSIONS: The recommendation is that every preterm newborn weighing less than 1,500 g and/or with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks should be monitored until complete retinal vascularization and that the first examination should be performed between the fourth and sixth weeks of life. We recommend ophthalmologic outpatients follow-up of all preterm newborns until two years of life with examinations twice yearly, and then, annually, in order to prevent amblyopia.

  1. Três anos pós-LASIK em crianças anisométropes de 8 a 15 anos de idade Three years after LASIK in anisometropic children from 8 to 15 years old

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    Belquiz R. Amaral Nassaralla

    2003-01-01

    years after LASIK, uncorrected visual acuity improved by at least five Snellen lines in all eyes; five eyes (55.5% were 20/50 or better without correction. Six eyes (66.6%, were 20/50 or better with correction and five eyes (55.5% improved at least 1 line in the best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA. Due to amblyopia, no eye had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better. The mean spherical refraction equivalent decreased from -7.66 (± 3.75 D to -1.02 (± 1.26 D, and mean preoperative astigmatism decreased from -3.11 (± 2.09 D to -0.75 (± 0.25 D. Highest anisometropia was 1.5 D. CONCLUSION: Three years after surgery, LASIK seems to be a safe and effective option for the correction of high anisometropia in children from 8 to 15 years old, in whom conventional therapy had failed. The natural change in refraction related to maturation did not affect the use of appropriate spectacle correction.

  2. Reasons not to select patients for corneal refractive surgery Razões para recusar candidatos à cirurgia refrativa corneana

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    André Luiz Parolin Ribeiro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present how the section of Refractive Surgery of the Federal University of São Paulo assesses the candidates and the reasons to indicate for corneal refractive surgery. Methods: We examined 1626 patients. Anamnesis, complete ophthalmologic examination and corneal topography were performed in all patients. The patients spontaneously seeked evaluation at the Refractive Surgery Section by telephone without a previous screening. Reasons to refuse patients for refractive surgery were previously established by the Refractive Surgery Section. Results: Based on current technology and clinical experience, 265 patients (16.29% were refused for excimer laser corneal refractive surgery. Myopia of patients who had insufficient preoperative corneal pachymetry for the laser treatment was the main cause for refusal (51 patients. Cataract (45 patients, keratoconus (31 patients, amblyopia (21 patients, hyperopia > 5 diopters and mixed astigmatism (19 patients, presbyopia (unaware ness of the need for optical correction after the procedure; 16 patients, pupillary diameter > 5mm (9 patients, single eye (9 patients, progressive myopia (8 patients, postradial keratotomy (7 patients and low ametropia (7 patients were among the reasons for the refusal. Conclusion: Candidates for excimer laser corneal refractive surgery may present risk factors that should be known in order to avoid complications.Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é mostrar como o setor de Cirurgia Refrativa da Escola Paulista de Medicina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo avalia seus candidatos e quais as razões para não selecioná-los para cirurgia refrativa. Métodos: Foram examinados 1626 pacientes. Anamnese, avaliação oftalmológica completa e topografia corneana foram realizadas em todos os pacientes. Os pacientes procuraram avaliação no setor de Cirurgia Refrativa espontaneamente sem triagem prévia. Resultados: Não foram selecionados 265 pacientes (16,29% para cirurgia

  3. Promoção da saúde ocular e prevenção precoce de problemas visuais nos serviços de saúde pública Eye health promotion and early visual problem detection in the public health services

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    Ana Maria Girotti Sperandio

    1999-10-01

    't know the age at which visual development is finished; 86,3% (53 of the pediatricians and 100,0% the nurses didn't know what was amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the eye health promotion and the early visual problem detection in children were not run by the professionals from the public health services in the city of Campinas.

  4. Complicaciones en la evolución de los hemangiomas y malformaciones vasculares Complications in the evolution of haemangiomas and vascular malformations

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    A. Belzunce

    2004-01-01

    complications with ulceration, pain and haemorrhaging. Besides, the localisation of haemangiomas in the head and neck, next to vital structures, can compromise their functions. Hence, compression of the airway might be a vital emergency. Periorbital haemangiomas can give rise to amblyopia due to sensory deprivation or due to a restrictive strabismus. Lumbosacral haemangiomas must be studied with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance because of their frequent association with alterations in the midline at the level of the spine, anus, genitals or kidneys. Amongst visceral haemangiomas, hepatic haemangiomas are the most serious due to their association with congestive cardiac insufficiency. The association of extensive facial haemangiomas with anomalies of the central nervous system, vascular, cardiac, ocular and sternal anomalies, is denominated PHACE syndrome and is frequently complicated by mental deficiency, convulsions or ictus. Vascular malformations of trigeminal localisation are associated in up to 15% of cases with glaucoma or choroidal or leptomeningeal haemangiomas (Sturge-Weber syndrome. Combined vascular malformations localised in the extremities can become complicated with thrombophlebitis, regional osteolysis and even distant thromboembolisms (Klippel-Treneaunay Syndrome. On the other hand, there is a coagulopathy due to consumption (Kassabach-Merrit Syndrome that can complicate some vascular tumours such as the Kaposiform haemangioendothelioma and the tufted angioma. Finally, the complications of the treatments employed are reviewed.

  5. An experimental study on the effects of curcumin on posterior capsule opacification in young rabbit eyes

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    WANG Wen-ying; ZHANG Zhu-jun; WANG Jun; WANG Hai-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) compromises vision development in infants after cataract surgery and lead to amblyopia.To observe the effects of curcumin on PCO in infant rabbits,curcumin was injected under the capaule and into the anterior chamber during phacoemulsification.Methods Seventy-five 1-month-old healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups,one eye of each rabbit was randomly selected to be operated.The operation involved continuous circular capsulorhexis,followed by hydrodissection with 0.6 ml each of balanced salt solution (BSS,group A),hydroxypropyl-β-dodextrin (HP-β-CD,90μg/ml,group B) or CUR-HP-β-CD (123 μg/ml,group C),respectively.After phacoemulsification,0.4 ml of each drug solution was injected into the anterior chamber via an incision.The extent of corneal edema and the inflammatory response within the anterior chamber were considered as measures PCO and observed postoperatively.All eyes were examined 1 and 2 months postoperative by slit lamp microscopy and photography after pupil dilation.On the third day postoperative,6 rabbits from each group were executed.Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL,indicative of apoptosis).Stained sections were observed under light microscopy.Proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) was observed microscopically on day 3,day 7,month 1 and month 2 after the operation with HE staining.Results The remission of cornea edema occurred earlier in group C than in groups A and B (P <0.05); there were no significant differences between groups A and B.The remission of anterior chamber exudation in group C was earlier than those in groups A and B (P <0.05).No significant difference in the times when PCO occurred,was observed among groups.Compared to groups A and B,the extent of PCO was less severe (P <0.05).Three days after the operation,LECs aggregated

  6. 广东省肇庆市端州区病残儿病因分析、预防现状及建议%Analysis of etiological factor,situation of prevention and proposal for disabled children in Duanzhou district,Zhaoqing City

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    袁照; 陆秀棠; 高新梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 减少肇庆市端州区出生缺陷,提高人口素质.方法 对1998年~2007年我区经市病残儿鉴定小组鉴定的234例病例进行病因分析,结合预防现状提出合理性的预防建议.结果 肇庆市端州区病残儿遗传性及先天性疾病病种位于前五位的从高到低依次为先天性心脏病,智力低下,先天性弱视、斜视、屈光不正,地中海贫血,先天性血管瘤;所占比例依次为13.68%,7.69%,5.56%,3.85%,3.42%.非遗传性疾病病种位于前五位的从高到低依次为脑瘫,癫痫,脑发育不全,孤独症、新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病后遗症和外伤致残(三种病种并列第四位),肾病综合征:所占比例依次为10.68%,9.83%,6.48%,3.42%,2.99%.结论 要降低我区病残儿的发病率,必须预防为主,做好孕前、孕期、围产期保健,加强产前、产时监护,预防早产儿、低出生体重儿和出生时窒息,提高复苏水平,减少缺血缺氧性脑病及颅内出血等并发症.%Objective; Reduce birth defects and improve population quality in Duanzhou district, Zhaoqing City. Methods; 234 disabled children in Duanzhou district identified by Zhaoqing disabled children identification of groups in 1998 ~2007 were analysed, combined with the situation of prevention, put forward reasonable prevention recommendations. Results: The top five congenital and hereditary disease among disabled children were congenital heart disease, mental retardation, congenital amblyopia, strabismus, refractive error, Mediterranean anemia, congenital hemangioma. Share were 13.68% , 7. 69% , 5. 56% , 3. 85% , 3.42%. The top five non-genetic diseases were cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cerebral hypoplasia, autism, sequelae of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopa-thy, disabling injury, nephrotic syndrome. Share were 10.68% , 9.83% , 6.48% , 3.42% , 2.99%. Conclusion-. To reduce morbidity of disabled children in our district, prevention is the best way, perinatal health care can prevent preterm

  7. Observation of primary intraocular lens implantation on monocular congenital cataract%单眼先天性白内障一期人工晶状体植入观察

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    高小燕; 张俊霞; 王彦荣; 胡文静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of primary intraocular lens implantation in monocular congenital cataract patients that below 2 years old.Methods Thirty-two patients were collected in Yan'an people's hospital from July 2003 to March 2011.All the monocular congenital cataract patients were below two years old.The patients were underwent cataract extraction,posterior capsulorhexis,anterior vitrectomy and combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery.Complications,refraction,corrected vision,axial length,F-VEP and stereopsis were collected after surgery.All patients were followed up within 3-10 years.Results The best corrected visual acuity of all these cases were 0.41±0.21,16 eyes were over 0.5 (50%); 8 eyes were 0.3 to 0.5 (25%);8 eyes were 0.1 to 0.3 (25%).The axial length of the operated eye was similar with the opposite eye,so the difference was no statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusions Primary intraocular lens implantation for monocular congenital cataract below 2 years old can decrease the rate of anisometropic amblyopia and does not affect the normal development of eyeball.%目的 探讨<2岁的单眼先天性白内障患儿人工晶状体Ⅰ期植入的有效性及安全性.方法 回顾分析2003年7月至2011年3月在延安市人民医院眼科收治的<2岁的单眼先天性白内障患儿32例(32只眼),均行白内障吸除+后囊环形撕囊+前部玻璃体切除+人工晶状体Ⅰ期植入术.术后密切随访,详细记录术后并发症的发生情况、屈光状态及矫正视力,眼轴长度.术后随访时间3~10年.结果 术后最佳矫正视力为(0.41±0.21),其中≥0.5者16只眼(占50%);<0.5~≥0.3者8只眼(占25%);<0.3~≥0.1者8只眼(占25%).统计32例患儿术后3岁时术眼眼轴长度和对侧键眼相近,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 <2岁的单眼先天性白内障Ⅰ期植入人工晶状体能降低屈光参差性弱视的发生,并促进眼轴的正常发育.

  8. Elevation deficiency after anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle%下斜肌后徙转位术后的安全性分析

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    刘海华; 甘晓玲; 李巧娴; 田桂芬

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过比较下斜肌(Inferioroblique IO)后徙术与IO后徙转位术,术后至少3年的疗效,评价IO后徙转位术的安全性.方法 比较IO后徙术组(22例33只眼)和IO后徙转位术组(27例33只眼)病例手术后IO运动程度和眼球上转程度,分析可能的相关因素.结果 (1)IO后徙转位术组左右眼手术后远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度均明显低于IO后徙术组,差别有统计学意义,P<0.001.(2)术后IO运动程度不足与手术年龄、有无弱视、屈光状态、是否同时行水平斜视手术、术前IO功能亢进程度和斜视度均无关.(3)IO后徙转位术组术后远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度均低于近期(1周至1个月),有明显统计学差异,P<0.001.术后中期(3~6个月)与远期IO运动程度、眼球上转程度之间差异无统计学意义,P>0.05.结论 IO后徙转位术式存在术后眼球上转功能不足,IO功能不足的缺点,并且在术后持续存在.%Objective Through compared the effect of anterior transposition and recession of inferior oblique (IO), to study the security of anterior transposition of the inferior oblique. Methods A retrospective case control study. Compare the ocular elevation and the IO function after anterior transposition versus reces sion of the IO. Results The comparison of elevation and the IO function of anterior transposition versus recession of IO group yielded significant difference at long-term follow-up, P <0.001. The deficiency of IO function after surgery had no relationship with the age of surgery, amblyopia, refraction error, accompany horizontal strabismus surgery, the degree of IOOA and oblique angle. In anterior transposition of IO group, the ocular elevation and the IO function had significant difference at long term follow-up versus early follow-up, P <0.001, but had no difference at long term follow-up versus intermediate follow-up. Conclusions Anterior transposition of the IO may cause a limitation of

  9. 临沂市少年儿童眼病现况调查%SURVEYS ON THE EYE DISEASES IN CHILDREN FROM LINYI CITY

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    王立芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the current situation of children's eye diseases in Linyi City and to pro‐vide the basis for effective prevention measures .Methods A stratified cluster sampling was used to survey the children from kindergartens ,primary and secondary schools ,and the surveys were conducted by using the international ORBIS /Shandong Medical College Eye Hospital "Pediatric Eye Disease Prevention Pro‐ject"survey tables to compare the incidence of eye diseases between male and female children from different grade .Results 64 ,026 children were surveyed ,a total of 14 ,029 cases of eye disease were discovered .The total incidence rate was 21 .97% ,with 19 .74% in males and 24 .63% in females respectively (χ2 = 222 .2 , P <0 .01) .The total incidence rate in male and female children increased with the rise in grade ( P <0 . 01) .Myopia ,amblyopia ,hyperopia and strabismus may occur at different ages .Conclusion The incidence of refractive errors is rather high in children from Linyi City .Medical institutions at all levels should focus on the monitoring and intervention of refractive errors .%目的:探讨临沂市少年儿童眼病发病现况,为采取有效的防治措施提供依据。方法采用分层整群抽样的方法选择临沂市部分幼儿园、小学及中学的少年儿童,使用国际奥比斯/山东医专附属眼科医院“小儿眼病防治项目”调查用表进行调查,分析比较不同年度、年级男女眼病发病率及各种眼病发病率等。结果本次调查的64026人中,眼病发病者共14029例,总发病率为21.97%;其中男性眼病发病率为19.74%,女性发病率为24.63%,二者比较有统计学意义(χ2=222.2,P <0.01);各年级男、女发病率及总发病率均有随年级增高而上升的趋势( P <0.01)。近视、弱视、远视、斜视等在各学龄段眼病中占有重要位置,但表现不一。结论屈光不正是临沂地区儿童发病最

  10. 小儿内斜视矫正术后双眼单视功能的建立%Establishment of binocular single vision after surgical correction of eye position in infantile esotropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2015-01-01

    postoperative binocular vision function was negatively related with operative age (β= -0. 85, P=0. 01), amblyopia treatment time (β= -0. 24, P=0. 03), and postoperative strabismus (β= -1. 412,P=0. 02). Conclusion Infantile esotropia should be corrected by surgery as soon as possible. The peripheral fusion could be established more easily if the children were treated early and the strabismus was mild. The peripheral fusion was established more difficult in congenital esotropia than that in non-accommodative estropia and that in partially accommodative esotropia.

  11. 学龄儿童握笔姿势与双眼屈光度差异的关系%Relationship between myopic anisometropia and writing hand position in school-aged children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏承志; 刘庆淮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between writing strokes and myopic anisometropia in primary school-aged children.Methods It was a cross-sectional study.The refractive data of 100 primary school-aged children who held a pencil in the correct position was collected in the outpatient department of ophthalmology.In addition,the refractive data of another 100 primary school-aged children who held a pencil in an abnormal position was collected.All the screened children who tested for amblyopia,strabismus or astigmatism higher than 1.0 D were excluded from the study.The cycloplegic refractive status of all the screened children was checked and recorded.The difference between the two groups' refractive status was calculated and compared using a Wilcoxon rank sum test.Results Data analysis showed that the difference between the average degree of anisometropia between the two groups was statistically significant.The group with the abnormal writing hand position had a higher average degree of anisometropia than the group with the right writing strokes (Z=-10.33,P<0.01).And more right eyes had a higher degree of myopia than left eyes.Conclusion An abnormal writing hand position can be an important cause of school-aged children developing myopic anisometropia with right eyes often having a higher degree of myopia than left eyes.Further study is needed on this topic for clarification.%目的 通过临床观察儿童握笔姿势,探讨儿童不正确握笔与双眼近视性屈光度差异的相关性.方法 横断面研究.排除在南京市中西医结合医院眼科建立屈光档案的儿童中患弱视、斜视及散光大于1.0 D者,按男女比1:1随机抽取经确认握笔姿势正确和不正确的儿童各100例.通过睫状肌麻痹验光数据比较左右眼屈光度差值,以左眼等效球镜度减去右眼等效球镜度的代数值进行统计.对两组左右眼屈光度差值是否存在差异进行Wilcoxon秩和检验.结果 握笔错误组右眼近视度

  12. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Julio J; Lorenzo, José Luis

    2006-09-01

    trauma (HT) of varying severity, and cognitive disorders of different causes. In studies conducted in the treatment of patients with HT, citicoline was able to accelerate recovery from post-traumatic coma and neurological deficits, achieving an improved final functional outcome, and to shorten hospital stay in these patients. Citicoline also improved the mnesic and cognitive disorders seen after HT of minor severity that constitute the so-called post-concussional syndrome. In the treatment of patients with acute ischemic cerebral vascular disease, citicoline accelerates recovery of consciousness and motor deficit, achieves a better final outcome, and facilitates rehabilitation of these patients. The other major indication of citicoline is for treatment of senile cognitive impairment, either secondary to degenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer disease) or to chronic cerebral vascular disease. In patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, citicoline improves scores in cognitive rating scales, while in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type it stops the course of disease, and neuroendocrine, neuroimmunomodulatory, and neurophysiological benefits have been reported. Citicoline has also been shown to be effective in Parkinson disease, drug addictions, and alcoholism, as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. No serious side effects have occurred in any series of patients treated with citicoline, which attests to the safety of treatment with citicoline.

  13. 广州地区3~6岁学龄前儿童视力发育及屈光状态流行病学调查%Epidemiological study of the development of refraction and visual acuity in preschoolers aged 3 to 6 in the Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 郑德慧; 李振; 杨智宽; 蓝卫忠; 曾骏文; 刘雯; 陈林兴; 刘文彦; 卢金华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the refractive error and best corrective visual acuity of preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years. Methods Ten kindergartens were randomly selected from different districts in the Guangzhou area. Refractive error and best corrected visual acuity of the preschoolers were measured. Refractive error was determined by an autorefractor, which was rechecked by cycloplegic retinoscopy with cyclopentolate. Best corrected visual acuity was measured with an EDTRS vision chart. Data was analyzed with one-way ANOVA using Bonferroni correction. Results Two thousand four hundred and eighty children were examined in the study. There were 201 boys and 172 girls in the 3-year-old group and 434/384, 437/410, 238/204 in the 4-, 5- and 6-year-old groups, respectively. The mean ages in months were 43.3±2.8, 53.8±3.3, 65.5±3.4 and 75.1 ±2.6, respectively. The spherical equivalent refractions of the corresponding age groups were (1.66±0.70)D, (1.67±0.80)D, (1.59±0.81)D and (1.48±0.72)D, respectively. And the differences among the groups were statistically significant (P=0.000). The Bonferroni multiple comparisons showed that the difference between any pair of groups was statistically significant, except for that between the 3-year-old and 4-year-old groups, and between the 3-year-old and 5-year-old groups. The best corrected visual acuities on the LogMAR scale for the corresponding age groups were 0.26±0.14, 0.18±0.10, 0.13± 0.08 and 0.10±0.08, respectively. The difference among groups was statistically significant (P=0.000). The Bonferroni multiple comparisons between any pair of groups were also statistically significant (P=0.000). Conclusion Hyperopic refractive error gradually decreases with an increase of age during the 3rd to 6th years. The norms of the best corrected visual acuity shows a slow rise during this period, which indicates that age is an indispensable factor in making a diagnosis of amblyopia in children.%目的 了解广州地Ⅸ3~6岁学

  14. Catarata congênita: aspectos diagnósticos, clínicos e cirúrgicos em pacientes submetidos a lensectomia Congenital cataract: diagnostic, clinic and surgical features in patients submitted to lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lima Santos Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    children who underwent surgery at the Congenital Cataract Sector - Department of Ophthalmology - Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: Among the 62 children, 30.64% showed infectious causes, 19.36% genetic causes and 50% idiopathic causes. Strabismus was found in 54.83% of the patients and 27.42% had systemic diseases. Concerning pregnancy conditions, 22.58% of the mothers had no adequate prenatal care. Consanguinity was observed in 17.74% of the cases and congenital cataracts in 6 (9.68% relatives. The diagnostic suspicion was of the mothers in 72.58% of children. Leukocoria was the main feature. The suspicion age varied from immediately after birth to 15 months (mean = 1.34 months. Age on diagnosis in the department varied from 8 days to 20 months (mean = 5.84 months. Secondary opacification in the visual axis was the most frequent postoperative complication; it occurred in 19.11% of 89 eyes. It was observed that 45.16% of the patients had difficulties in following postoperative treatment. They did not use eyeglasses, eye drops or correct eye patching for amblyopia. CONCLUSION: Rubeola is still one of the most important causes of congenital cataract in our country. This condition shows the necessity of better prevention. The first diagnostic suspicion is mainly by the mothers and within the three first months of age in most children, but there is a considerable delay between suspicion and the patient's presence in a specialized service center. Despite satisfactory surgery results, delay of surgery and difficulties in postoperative treatment impair final visual results.

  15. Catarata infantil: importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces Infantile cataract: the importance of early treatment and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2005-06-01

    recorded in the Low Vision Service from January/1992 to December/2002. Age, sex, race, age at the first evidence of leukocoria and who noticed it, ages at diagnosis and phacectomy, family history of cataract, intraocular lens implantation, visual acuity (VA and optic prescription were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 44 patients. The age ranged from 0-15 years: 19 (43.0% 0-3, 14 (32.0% 4-10 and 11 (25.0% from 11-15 years. Twenty-eight (63.6% were female and 19 (43.2% leukodermic. The first evidence of leukocoria was observed by the mother in 17 patients (38.6%. Leukocoria was observed in the first 2 months of life in 45.5% of the patients; phacectomy was performed in 43.2% of the patients with more than 1 year of age. Optic prescription was performed in 61.4% of the cases with 9.1% of the patients below 1 year of age. Intraocular lens was implanted in 13.6% and 4 patients (9.1% had a family history of congenital cataract. In 20.4% VA was lower than 20/400 and secondary glaucoma was observed in 18.2% of the cases. Low vision aids included two glasses and one telescope. CONCLUSION: More information about congenital cataract should be provided for families and pediatricians, and early surgical treatment, optic correction and treatment of amblyopia should be performed promptly.

  16. PhotoScreenerTM for preschool children visual screening "Screening" visual em crianças pré-escolares utilizando o PhotoScreenerTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes Lavezzo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the PhotoScreenerTM (PS is useful as a method of screening in the prevention of amblyopia in children. METHODS: 227 preschool children were evaluated through the application of a questionnaire, refratometry measurements and photos using the PS. After this, all children were submitted to cycloplegic refraction, 30 minutes after one drop of cycloplegic agent. Refraction was performed by a mydriatic automatic refractor Shin Nippon®. Children identified as suffering from eye problems were treated, according to the criteria: hyperopia greater than +1.50 D, myopia greater than -1.00 D and astigmatism greater than 1.00 D. Data were analyzed through Goodman test, descriptive statistics and study of the specificity and sensitivity of the use of PS, comparing its results with other ophthalmologic assessment methods. RESULTS: There was a male predominance (54.6%, and the majority of children were four or five years old. PS sensitivity (S compared to refraction under cycloplegia was 50.9%. The specificity (E was 78.9%, positive predictive value (PPV = 70%, negative predictive value (NPV = 62.5% and accuracy (A = 65.1%. CONCLUSIONS: PS, when compared to cycloplegic refraction spherical equivalent, is a reasonable method of screening, although the low sensitivity. A positive point to be emphasized is the considerable specificity.OBJETIVO: O objetivo geral foi detectar fatores ambliopigênicos em uma população de pré-escolares, utilizando exames refratométricos e o PhotoScreenerTM (PS e o objetivo específico foi verificar se a avaliação feita com o PS é útil como método de triagem em campanhas de prevenção de ambliopia em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo, de janeiro a dezembro de 2007, avaliando-se 227 crianças pré-escolares, com o intuito de detectar, através da aplicação de um questionário, exames refratométricos e fotografias utilizando o PS, a presença de fatores

  17. Evaluation and analysis of children's graphic visual acuity chart and Teller visual acuity cards on infants%儿童图形视力表与Teller视敏锐度卡在婴幼儿视力检测中应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽波; 姚晶磊; 成娟娟; 焦永红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of visual assessment system of Children's Graphic Visual Acuity Chart and Teller Visual Acuity Cards on infants.Methods A total of 185 patients were included in this study from Strabismus and Amblyopia Out-patient Department,Beijing Tongren Hospital in 2012.Among those,118 eyes were checked in 59 infants from 2 to 3 years old with Children's Graphic Visual Acuity Chart,252 eyes were checked in 126 infants from 5 months to 2 years old with Teller Visual Acuity Cards.They were divided into 10 groups according to their age sequence,and every 2 months for one group.The visual acuity was recorded and results were analyzed statistically.Results Visual acuity was obtained with Children's Graphic Visual Acuity Chart,and the results were as follows:0.1-0.2 accounted for 14.41% (17 in 118),0.3-0.5,64.40% (76 in 118),0.6 21.19% (25 in 118); Similarly,visual acuity with Teller Visual Acuity Cards were obtained,the results were as follows:13cy/cm accounted for 21.43% (54 in 252),4.8-9.8cy/cm 20.63% (52 in 252),1.3-3.2cy/cm 42.86% (108 in 252),0.86cy/cm 10.71% (27 in 252),0.43cy/cm 4.37% (11 in 252).Conclusions Children's graphic visual acuity chart and Teller visual acuity cards are feasible and reliable visual assessment system on 5 months to 3 years old children.Compared with conventional test,the two visual assessment systems can find abnormal low vision earlier.At the same time,these visual assessment systems can be developed for early intervention and treatment programs on congenital eye disorders in infants with low vision.%目的 探讨儿童图形视力表、Teller视敏锐度卡在婴幼儿视力检测中的可行性和可靠性.方法 对2010年1~12月在北京同仁医院眼科斜弱视门诊就诊的185例患儿,分别使用儿童图形视力表检测2~3岁患儿59例118只眼,用Teller视敏锐度卡检测5个月至2岁患儿126例252只眼.每2个月龄为一组,共分为10组进行视力

  18. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  19. The optical correction of microphthalmos with rigid gas-permeable contact lenses%透气硬性角膜接触镜矫治先天性小眼球屈光不正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 亢晓丽; 李海燕

    2010-01-01

    -corrected visual acuity (RGP-VA) was recorded and lens fitting states were evaluated at follow-up.Results The average corneal curvature of 14 eyes was (6.93±0.27)mm,ACD:(2.46:1:0.23)mm,axial length:(15.67±0.59)mm,refraction:(+17.29±3.52)D,base curve of RGP:(6.92±0.19)mm,power of RGP lens:(+21.91±4.66)D.RGP-VA of 14 eyes were much better than UCVA.RGP-VA was nearly the same as SP-VA.After followed up for average 20 months(7-29 months),all patients could wear lenses the whole day,and no complications related to RGP happened.Conclusions The optical parameters of microphthalmos are significantly different from that of normal eyes with highly curved cornea,shallow ACD,short axial length and super hyperopia accompanied by amblyopia.RGP is a useful method of optical corrections.Specially designed trial lens set is necessary.

  20. A retrospective research on demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision in Zaozhuang of Shandong Province%山东枣庄地区低视力人群眼病筛查的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    博文; 孙光华; 张美玲; 彭志理; 姜丽; 刘艳珣

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision, and to set out a specific eye health education in Zaozhuang, Shandong Province. METHODS:The medical records of admission screening in preschoolers, cataract extraction project and medical outreach program in Zaozhuang were retrospective studied.A total of 12 685 people participated in the study, among those 7 962 were males, and 4 723 were females. 2 262 cases were in low age group ( aged 2 .5-15 ) , 4 684 cases were in young age group ( aged 15-50 ) , and 5 739 cases were in elder age group ( aged >50 ) . The examination protocol included visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure, computer optometry, anterior segment examination using slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination.The family history, ocular trauma, surgery and drug treatment were also recorded. RESULTS:The incidence of blindness and low vision in low age group (423 patients) was 3.33%.The leading causes were amblyopia, ametropia, ocular trauma, and retinopathy of the premature, etc. The incidence of blindness and low vision in young age group ( 239 patients) was 1.88%. The main causes were ocular trauma, high myopia, and retinal detachment, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision in old age group (597 patients ) was 4.71%. The primary causes were cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision increased with the age, and it was higher in females. CONCLUSION: The incidence of blindness and low vision in all groups, of which the leading causes are different, is higher than that of China.Early detection and treatment are important for low age patients, which can significantly increase the visual outcome.It's necessary for young patients to receive health education on common ocular diseases and labor protection.For elder patients, early cataract extraction surgery and treatment for ocular fundus disease are critical.%目的:通

  1. 先天性虹膜-脉络膜缺损患者14例临床诊疗分析%Analysis of 14 cases of congenital coloboma of iris and choroid:from diagnosis to treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 张琰; 刘巨平; 李筱荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics,symptoms,diagnosis , treatment and prognosis of congenital coloboma of iris and choroid for better guidance of clinical practice. Methods The clinical data were collected from the patients diagnosed as congenital coloboma of iris and choroid in our hospital from 2008 to 2010. The ophthalmic examinations, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of these patients were summarized. Results Twenty-four eye in 14 cases all exhibited typical inferior coloboma of iris. The choroidal coloboma was a large fan-shaped defect spanning 4 to 6 o' clock below optic disc. The coloboma was with similar size. The main complications of these patients included microphthalmia, small corneal,strabismus ,nystagmus,amblyopia,refractive error,low vision,age-related cataract,glaucoma and retinal detachment. Age-related cataract(7 cases) ,retinal detachment(5 cases) and open-angle glaucoma(2 cases) were the main reasons to be admitted to the hospital. One year after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation,the visual acuity in operated eyes of these patients was from 0.5 to 1.0, which improved more than six lines. After vitrectomy combined with intraocular photocoagulation and silicone oil tam ponade,one year following the surgery the visual acuity in operated eyes was from 0. 05 to 0. 3 ,and the retinal re-attached rate was 100% . After composite trabeculectomy ,the visual acuity decreased slightly one year,but was still between counting fingers/30 cm and 0.4. Conclusion Comprehensive eye examination should be performed for the patients with congenital coloboma of iris and choroid in clinical practice, so that the main vision-threatening complications can be detected and treated as early as possible.%目的 总结先天性虹膜-脉络膜缺损患者的病变特征、伴随症状、诊疗及其预后,以便更好地指导临床实践.方法 收集我院2008年至2010年住院患者中发现的先天性虹膜-脉

  2. Estudo refracional em crianças pseudofácicas Refraction study on pseudophakic children

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    Gerson López Moreno

    2005-06-01

    previous measurement of visual acuity with indication for cataract surgery with implant of intraocular lens in the Outpatient Clinic of Congenital Cataract of the Federal of University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, (UNIFESP-EPM from January, 1998 to December, 2000. After the surgery, refraction, prescription of glasses with appropriate treatment for visual stimulation of the children, and measurement of the final corrected visual acuity were performed. Final refraction, biometric accuracy and possible error factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three surgeries in 29 children were performed. Mean follow-up time was 10.15 months ranging from 2 to 34±8.18 months. In 43% of the cases a vision equal to or grater than 20/50 was obtained. Forty-six percent of the patients presented a final refraction between +1.00 and -1.00 spherical diopters. CONCLUSION: Treatment of congenital cataract through implant of intraocular lens continues to be controversial, where long-term results are not known. A great number of patients were operated on at a late time and progressed with amblyopia and low visual acuity even after treatment with difficult access to early and adequate treatment. In spite of residual refraction the patients obtained good visual acuity. Twenty-one percent of the cases with refractive alteration with hyperopia will still have increase in their axial diameter and consequently myopia with reduction of their refraction.

  3. 2010年上海市宝山区小学生屈光不正和视力损伤的患病率调查%Prevalence of ametropia and visual impairment in elementary school students in Baoshan District of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸晓枫; 朱剑锋; 邹海东; 陆丽娜; 赵惠娟; 李强强; 何鲜桂

    2014-01-01

    visual impairment and refractive error from large groups of children are lacking in Shanghai.Objective This study was to investigate the prevalence of ametropia and visual impairment in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years old.Methods In this cross-sectional study,4 686 students from 6 elementary schools in Baoshan District of Shanghai,a rural-urban fringe zone,China were selected by clustering sampling from May 2010 to April 2011.The eye examinations included visual acuity,ocular surface,ocular anterior segment,ocular media,fundus and intraocular pressure measurement,and the data autorefraction under cycloplegia and eye position were recorded.The cause of visual impairment was evaluated.Results A total of 4 594 students received examination with the response rate 98.0%,and autorefraction under cycloplegia was completed in 84.8% schoolchildren (3 975/4 594).The prevalence rate of uncorrected visual acuity 0.5 or worse in both eyes was 14.4% (662/4 594),with the wearing glasses rate 51.8% (343/662).The percentage of students with the uncorrected visual acuity 0.5 or worse in at least one eye was 22.4% (1 031/4 594).The prevalence rate of refractive error in the visual impaired students was 96.9% (999/1 031),followed by amblyopia (37/1 031,3.6%).The prevalence rate of myopia,hyperopia,and astigmatic in the pupils after cycloplegia was 31.1%,4.3 % and 33.0%,respectively.In addition,the prevalence rate of myopia in public elementary schools was higher than that in migrant elementary schools (33.9% versus 30.3%) (x2 =5.46,P =0.02).Logistic regression analysis showed that myopia was associated with age (OR =1.60,95 % CI:1.53-1.68,P < 0.01) and female (OR =1.33,95% CI:1.16-1.54,P<0.01).Conclusions The leading cause of vision impairment is myopia in the elementary school students in Shanghai,China.The screening-ratio of refractive error and the coverage of refractive correction in the elementary school students in Shanghai are matters of urgent

  4. Clinical observation of binocular vision function in concomitant strabismus patients before and after strabotomy%不同年龄共同性斜视手术前后三级视功能观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾仁攀; 曾庆华; 袁晓辉

    2013-01-01

    recovery and rebuilding of binocular vision function. ③Patients with constant comitant strabismus in China have older operation age and longer course . It should be necessary to enhance science education publicize, enlarge extensive survey of strabismus and amblyopia nationally, and make early detection, early diagnosis, early treatment as far as possible.%目的 观察共同性斜视患者手术前后双眼视觉功能的变化,探讨手术年龄与双眼视觉功能恢复的相关性.方法 共同性斜视患者37例,同时视、融合功能用同视机检测,立体视采用颜少明编绘的《立体视觉检查图》检测.有屈光不正的患者须戴眼镜矫正后进行检测.记录术前、术后1、3、6个月各项检查数据,按手术年龄分为年龄≤9岁组(16例)和年龄>9岁组(21例),并对数据资料进行统计分析.结果 (1)手术前:两组患者手术年龄、病程的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组斜视度和发病年龄的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组患者的同时视、融合功能及融合范围、立体视的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)手术后:①两组间同时视功能的比较:术后1、3、6个月同时视功能两组之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).年龄≤9岁组同时视功能的恢复明显优于年龄>9岁组.②两组间融合功能及融合范围的比较:术后1个月融合功能及融合范围两组间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),术后3、6个月融合功能及融合范围两组间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).年龄≤9岁组在术后3、6个月融合功能的恢复明显优于年龄>9岁组.③两组间立体视功能的比较:术后1、3个月立体视两组间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),术后6个月立体视两组间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).年龄≤9岁组在术后6月立体视功能的恢复明显优于年龄>9岁组.④总体手术前后的比较:术后1个月同时视功能较术前有明显恢复(P<0.05),融合