WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambiguous external genitalia

  1. Ambiguous genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. ... chromosome. The male and female reproductive organs and genitals ... physical appearance may be fully developed as the opposite of ...

  2. Ambiguous genitalia: a clinical and chromosomal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anantha Kumari

    2015-12-01

    Methods: The study is undertaken with forty cases with ages ranging from new borne to 20 yrs. Out of these 40 cases eight cases are below one year. In these cases physical examination is correlated with ultrasonography and chromosomal analysis. Results: In chromosomal analysis three persons out of forty cases were mosaics with 45, XO/46, twenty one cases who showed the chromosomal pattern as 46, XY mostly showed with no mullarian reminents. On examination palpable gonads were found in labio-scrotal sacs in seventeen cases. One of these cases was reared as girl found cytogenetically as 46, XY with the ultrasonographic impression as small uterus with no ovaries. Nineteen cases who with ambiguous genitalia showed the chromosomal pattern as 46, XX one out of these cases showed enlargement of the breast, and on examination of external genitalia found enlarged clitoris with labiamajora and minora. The child was brought up as male. Genitogram showed the absence of uterus. Conclusions: Chromosomal studies with ultrasonography can help in rearing a child male or female in young generation by surgical and Hormonal therapy. This prevents many problems in later life. This fact should be advertised openly in the public so that illiterate people should be alert. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3743-3748

  3. Differential diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia in Chines e patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秦杰; 葛秦生

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and differential diagnos is of ambiguous genitalia.Methods: One hundred and five cases of ambiguous genitalia with disorders of sexual differentiation were analyzed based on clinical characterist ics and basic research. Results: Ambiguous genitalia are closely related to the functio n of androgen. It could be classified into 3 groups: androgen excess, androgen d eficiency and failure of gonadal differentiation. Differential diagnosis depends on clinical manifestations, chromosome examination, serum hormone determination s, final gonadal pathology, receptor study etc.Conclusion: Ambiguous genitalia are related to abnormal androgen ic effect and early correct etiological diagnosis is the key to its management.

  4. Assignment of sex in neonates with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, W G

    1999-08-01

    Sex assignment in the newborn with ambiguous genitalia has been based on the adequacy of the phallus in the male, potential fertility in the female, and cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed genitalia. Recent data from both the neurosciences and from clinical research, however, casts doubt on the validity of such criteria for clinical decision making. Current knowledge suggests a need to shift away from the current clinical approach and to incorporate these new data into decisions based on a broader understanding of the etiology of gender identity. Recognition of the primacy of psychosocial and psychosexual developmental outcomes for children with ambiguous genitalia is lending direction to longitudinal outcomes research. New approaches to sex assignment have been suggested, and the paradigm for sex assignment in the newborn period is in transition.

  5. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

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    Anubhav Thukral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  6. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

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    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  7. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

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    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  8. Approach to assigning gender in 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia with male external genitalia: replacing dogmatism with pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Christopher P; Lee, Peter A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of sex assignment is to facilitate the best possible quality of life for the patient. Factors such as reproductive system development, sexual identity, sexual function, and fertility are important considerations in this regard. Although some DSD gender assignments are relatively straightforward, those with midstage genital ambiguity and unclear gonadal function represent a major challenge. A recent major change in DSD care has been to encourage a male assignment for 46,XY infants with ambiguous genitalia who have evidence of testicular function and in utero central nervous system androgen exposure. In contrast, assignment of virilized 46,XX DSD patients remains female when ovaries and internal organs are present, regardless of the extent of virilization of the external genitalia. In this paper, we propose consideration of male assignment for these 46,XX patients who have fully developed male genitalia based on available outcome data. PMID:20926538

  9. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes longer. What factors should you consider in making a sex assignment for your child? You may be faced with ... are considering this option. To help you make decisions about managing your ... there support groups for people dealing with this condition? • Should my ...

  10. X-Linked Lissencephaly with Absent Corpus Callosum and Ambiguous Genitalia: A Case Report

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    Alireza Jashni Motlagh

    2016-03-01

    Case presentation: The patient was a one-day-old term neonate admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit due to refractory seizure. He was the second child of the family, born to non-consanguineous and healthy parents. His midface was slightly hypoplastic with long and smooth philtrum; the neonate had ambiguous genitalia, as well. Hormonal investigation demonstrated elevated serum 17OH-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone levels. Chromosomal analysis showed a normal male karyotype (46, XY. Brain computed tomography scan showed a typical pattern of lissencephaly with a posterior-to-anterior gradient of severity consisting of frontal pachygyria, posterior agyria, and absence of corpus collosum

  11. Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834

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    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley, and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.

  12. Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834

    OpenAIRE

    Pires Herton Helder Rocha; Barbosa Silvia Ermelinda; Margonari Carina; Jurberg José; Diotaiuti Liléia

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia) and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley), and to investigate the correlation between the morphological an...

  13. Fetal sexing by ultrasonography identifying the genital tubercle or external genitalia of american alpine goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to diagnostic previously the gender of American Alpine fetuses by ultrasonography identifying the final position of the genital tubercle (GT) or viewing the anatomical structures of external genitalia, as well as to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sexing by single or repeated exams. In Group I (GI), the gender was defined by the final position of the GT and in Group II (GII) by the anatomical structures of external genitalia. The examinations were carried out with an ultrasound device by via transrectal equipped with a linear transducer with 6.0 and 8.0 MHz. In GI, 52 fetuses of 32 goats were monitored each 12 hours, from 40th to the 60th day of pregnancy. In GII, the examination was performed only once in 34 fetuses of 24 goats with pregnancy between 45 and 70 days. The accuracy in GI was 100% in single, 87.5% in twin and 66.7% in triple pregnancy, with significant difference (P 0.05) between single and twin pregnancies. The final migration of GT occured on the 46.4 ± 2.1 days of pregnancy. The results allow to conclude that ultrasonography is a suitable method to early diagnostic the fetal sex by visualization of final position of GT or by identification of external genitalia structures and that repeated exams did not increase the accuracy of fetal sexing on the multiple pregnancy

  14. Ultra Morphological Structure of Sensory Sensillae on the Legs and External Genitalia of the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is a major pest infesting date trees in the Gulf region. Chemoreceptors play an important role for insects behaviour in detecting their defined host for feeding, egg laying or mating. The present study is aimed to study morphological structure of sensillae on different legs and external genitalia of both sexes. Three kinds of sensillae are found on the different parts of the three pairs of fore, mid and hind legs, these sensillae are identified as ( Trichoid in three types, coeloconic in two types and one type of Basiconic sensillae). Fore legs bear the highest number of different forms of sensillae, males contained realatively greater number than females. Mid femur only in female bears a dense hair of trichoid sensillae, while they are found on fore- mid and hind femur of males, this may be used for differentiating two sexes. Female ovipositor contained trichoid sensilla can be subdivided into three distinct type1,2, and 3 in addition placoid sensillae, it could be identified four types of trichoid sensilla on the male external genitalia and numerous of placoid sensillae.These may be for hygroreception. (author)

  15. Rotation of the external genitalia in male Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in laboratory conditions and in captured specimens in Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrolho, J; Maia, C; Gomes, J; Alves-Pires, C; Cristóvão, J M; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2015-10-01

    Protozoal parasites are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases worldwide with impact on human and animal health. Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania spp. and transmitted by female Phlebotomine sand flies. In Portugal, two species of Phlebotomus (Larroussius), namely Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi are the proven vectors of Leishmania infantum. Phlebotomine females and males rest and breed in the same sites; and these locations can be predicted according to the male external genitalia maturation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the timing of complete rotation of the male external genitalia in laboratory conditions and to characterize the external genitalia rotation in field captured males to predict the male and female sand fly breeding and resting sites. This knowledge can be applied in the design and implementation of integrated sand fly control strategies targeting these sites.

  16. Specific morphogenetic events in mouse external genitalia sex differentiation are responsive/dependent upon androgens and/or estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A; Ferretti, Max; Wang, Hong; Menshenia, Julia; Risbridger, Gail; Handelsman, David; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive morphologic analysis of developing mouse external genitalia (ExG) and to determine specific sexual differentiation features that are responsive to androgens or estrogens. To eliminate sex steroid signaling postnatally, male and female mice were gonadectomized on the day of birth, and then injected intraperitoneally every other day with DES (200 ng/g), DHT (1 μg/g), or oil. On day-10 postnatal male and female ExG were dissected, fixed, embedded, serially sectioned and analyzed. We identified 10 sexually dimorphic anatomical features indicative of normal penile and clitoral differentiation in intact mice. Several (but not all) penile features were impaired or abolished as a result of neonatal castration. Those penile features remaining after neonatal castration were completely abolished with attendant clitoral development in androgen receptor (AR) mutant male mice (X(Tfm)/Y and X/Y AR-null) in which AR signaling is absent both pre- and postnatally. Administration of DHT to neonatally castrated males restored development of all 10 masculine features to almost normal levels. Neonatal ovariectomy of female mice had little effect on clitoral development, whereas treatment of ovariectomized female mice with DHT induced partial masculinization of the clitoris. Administration of DES to neonatally gonadectomized male and female mice elicited a spectrum of development abnormalities. These studies demonstrate that the presence or absence of androgen prenatally specifies penile versus clitoral identity. Differentiated penile features emerge postnatally and are sensitive to and dependent upon prenatal or pre- and postnatal androgen. Emergence of differentiated clitoral features occurs postnatally in either intact or ovariectomized females. It is likely that each penile and clitoral feature has a unique time-course of hormonal dependency/sensitivity.

  17. Evulvalution: the portrayal of women's external genitalia and physique across time and the current barbie doll ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rima, Brandi N; Calabrese, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Media images of the female body commonly represent reigning appearance ideals of the era in which they are published. To date, limited documentation of the genital appearance ideals in mainstream media exists. Analysis 1 sought to describe genital appearance ideals (i.e., mons pubis and labia majora visibility, labia minora size and color, and pubic hair style) and general physique ideals (i.e., hip, waist, and bust size, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) across time based on 647 Playboy Magazine centerfolds published between 1953 and 2007. Analysis 2 focused exclusively on the genital appearance ideals embodied by models in 185 Playboy photographs published between 2007 and 2008. Taken together, results suggest the perpetuation of a "Barbie Doll" ideal characterized by a low BMI, narrow hips, a prominent bust, and hairless, undefined genitalia resembling those of a prepubescent female.

  18. Evulvalution: the portrayal of women's external genitalia and physique across time and the current barbie doll ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rima, Brandi N; Calabrese, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Media images of the female body commonly represent reigning appearance ideals of the era in which they are published. To date, limited documentation of the genital appearance ideals in mainstream media exists. Analysis 1 sought to describe genital appearance ideals (i.e., mons pubis and labia majora visibility, labia minora size and color, and pubic hair style) and general physique ideals (i.e., hip, waist, and bust size, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) across time based on 647 Playboy Magazine centerfolds published between 1953 and 2007. Analysis 2 focused exclusively on the genital appearance ideals embodied by models in 185 Playboy photographs published between 2007 and 2008. Taken together, results suggest the perpetuation of a "Barbie Doll" ideal characterized by a low BMI, narrow hips, a prominent bust, and hairless, undefined genitalia resembling those of a prepubescent female. PMID:19916105

  19. Ambigüidade genital: a percepção da doença e os anseios dos pais Ambiguous genitalia: perception of the disease and parents anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2006-03-01

    anguish noted in the neonatal period are expressed by the fear of death, incurable disease and medication. During childhood, of the surgical procedure (ambiguous genitalia and sexuality (homosexuality. During puberty and adulthood there's the fear of marginalization, prejudice, homosexuality and infertility. There is anguish related to pointing at the guilty party, sexual definition (ambiguity and the need for secrecy. CONCLUSIONS: ambiguous genitalia is a highly complex condition affecting the family psychological balance. In situations of genital ambiguity determining and demystifying fears and expectations should be part of the therapeutic plan.

  20. Surface Rendering of External Genitalia of a Fetus at the 32nd Week of Gestation Affected by Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

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    Vincenzo Mazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the feasibility of the prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome by 3D-4D ultrasound. Methods. To report prenatal diagnosis of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome at 32nd week of gestation by 3D-4D ultrasound in a fetus with a 46XY karyotype, testing negative to the mutation analysis of SRY gene and the 5α-reductase 2 gene (SRD5A2. Results. 3D-4D surface rendering allows the detection of external and internal genital malformations and can address the prenatal diagnosis of PAIS and can exclude associated complications. Conclusions. Prenatal diagnosis of PAIS allows an adequate parental counseling and an early optimal management of the condition, not only for the psychological and social reflections but also for the avoidance of complications and postnatal morbidity due to misdiagnosis or delays in the treatment of the genital ambiguity.

  1. A codon-usage variant in the (GGN){sub n} trinucleotide polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene as an aid in the prenatal diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia due to partial androgen insensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbroso, R.; Vasiliou, M.; Beitel, L.K. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Exon 1 at the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) locus encodes an N-terminal modulatory domain that contains two large homopolyamino acid tracts: (CAG;glutamine;Gln){sub 11-33} and (GGN;Glycine;Cly){sub 15-27}. Certain AR mutations cause partial androgen insensitivity (PAI) with frank genital ambiguity that may engender appreciable parental anxiety and patient morbidity. If the AR mutation in a PAI family is unknown, the AR`s intragenic trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms may be used for prenatal diagnosis. However, intergenerational instability of repeat-size may be worrisome, particularly when the information alleles differ by only a few repeats. Here, we report the discovery of a codon-usage (silent substitution) variant in the GGN repeat, and describe its use as a source of complementary information for prenatal diagnosis. The standard sense sequence of the (GGN){sub n} tract is (GGT){sub 3} GGG(GGT){sub 2} (GGC){sub 9-21}. On 4 of 27 X chromosomes we noted that the internal GGT sequence was expanded to 3 or 4 repeats. We used an internal (GGT){sub 4} repeat in a total (GGN){sub 24} tract together with a (CAG){sub 20} tract to distinguish an X chromosome with a mutant AR allele from another X chromosome, bearing a normal allele, that had an internal (GGT){sub 2} repeat in a total (GGN){sub 23} tract together with a (CAG){sub 21} tract. Subsequently, we found the base change leading to a pathogenic amino acid substitution (M779I) in codon 6 of the mutant AR gene in an affected maternal aunt and the fetus at risk. This confirmed the prenatal diagnosis based on the intragenic trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms, and it strengthened the prediction of external genital ambiguity using our previous experience with M779I in another family.

  2. Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 com um estudo sobre a genitália externa masculina (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 with a study on the external male genitalia (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Herman Lent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors complement the description of Triatoma matsunoi Fernandez-Loayza, 1989 and present the morphology of the male external genitalia, characterized by the presence of conjuntiva process (PrCj denticulate, basal plate (Eplb too long and median process pygophore (PrP showing the apex streched and the surface rugose and scaled. The specimens examined (holotype [male symbol] and allotype [female symbol] were deposited in the Collection Herman Lent of Triatomines of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, IOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Giant seborrheic keratosis of the genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiya Kumar Nath; Rashmi Kumari; G Rajesh; Devinder Mohan Thappa; Debdatta Basu

    2012-01-01

    Genital seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a rare entity, which can be easily misdiagnosed as genital warts. Dermoscopy is a useful tool to make diagnosis of SK in such cases. We report a 50-year-old woman with a large polypoidal growth on the external genitalia. Dermoscopic examination showed fissures and ridges, cerebriform appearance, and comedo-like openings consistent with SK. The histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of SK.

  4. Giant seborrheic keratosis of the genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiya Kumar Nath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital seborrheic keratosis (SK is a rare entity, which can be easily misdiagnosed as genital warts. Dermoscopy is a useful tool to make diagnosis of SK in such cases. We report a 50-year-old woman with a large polypoidal growth on the external genitalia. Dermoscopic examination showed fissures and ridges, cerebriform appearance, and comedo-like openings consistent with SK. The histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of SK.

  5. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as the translation language of a grammar covering sentences that display three classes of semantic ambiguity: lexical ambiguity, scopal ambiguity, and referential ambiguity. The expressions of this language denote sets of senses. A formalization of defeasible reasoning with underspecified representations is presented, based on Default Logic. Some issues to be confronted by such a formalization are discussed.

  6. Are the Genitalia of Anatomical Dolls Distorted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Jan

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the genitalia of anatomical dolls are disproportionately large and may suggest sexual activity to children who have not been abused, the genitalia and breasts of 17 sets of anatomical dolls were measured. When the measurements were extrapolated to adult human proportions, the sizes were not found to be exaggerated. (Author/JDD)

  7. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

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    Mazur Tom

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5- reductase-2 deficiency, or 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  8. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5α-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Wisniewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5-α reductase-2 deficiency, or 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  9. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Poesio, Massimo

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as t...

  10. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  11. Situs ambiguous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a female child is described who presented with recurrent respiratory infections and 'recurrint right subphrenic abscess.' Detailed radiological work-up identified situs ambiguous abdominis with bronchiectasis, duodenal malrotation, umbilical hernia and spina bifida. (author)

  12. Lissencephaly, abnormal genitalia and refractory epilepsy: case report of XLAG syndrome Lisencefalia, genitália ambígua e epilepsia refratária: relato de caso da síndrome XLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Jaques Spinosa; Paulo Breno Noronha Liberalesso; Simone Carreiro Vieira; Alaídes Susana Fojo Olmos; Alfredo Löhr Júnior

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG) is a recently described genetic disorder caused by mutation in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene (Xp22.13). Patients present with lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, refractory epilepsy of neonatal onset, acquired microcephaly and male genotype with ambiguous genitalia. CASE REPORT: Second child born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents, presented with seizures within the first hour of life that remained...

  13. Aesthetic Surgery of the Male Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Alter, Gary J.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revis...

  14. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

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    Mirko Bertozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  15. SIMPLE VIRILIZING CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA: Presentation in a Female Child with Genital Ambiguity undergoing Genitoplasty (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nurhaen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: our objective was to display the presentation of simple virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH with genital ambiguity and severe virilization of the external genitalia, influencing growth, height and weight, bone maturation, quality of life and hence undergoing genitoplasty. Surgical treatment was aimed to obtain a more natural psychological and sexual development and the type of surgical repair performed was tailored based on individual patient’s anatomy findings.Case: we report a case of a 3-year old female with simple virilizing CAH, diagnosed due to genital ambiguity, severe virilization, clitoromegaly, external genital pigmentation, precocious pubic hair, previously was under treatment with glucocorticoid replacement therapy for 2years since newborn and neglected due to discontinuing the hormonal treatment for one year duration, underwent several clinical studies including chromosomal study for sex determining, pelvic ultrasonography for internal anatomical details and bone age study for skeletal maturation, givenstress dose steroids pre-operatively and followed by genital reconstructive surgery (genitoplasty. A clitorectomy and labioplasty approach were performed. At time of surgery cystoscopy was carried out prior to the surgical repair.Results: Management of virilizing CAH child with ambiguous genitalia demands multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach. The team‘s major challenge is to use thefeasible means to make the least bad choice in order to select a gender able to match the individualidentity, social identity, and behavioral identity. Surgical option should be tailored, one stage surgery,at early age and performed according to the individual anatomy findings.

  16. Extramammary Paget's Disease of External Genitalia with Bowenoid Features

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jimin; Kim, Jee Young; Gye, Jiwon; Namkoong, Sun; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma, primarily affecting the apocrine-bearing skin. Bowen disease is an intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma having the potential to become invasive carcinoma. The histopathological concomitant features between EMPD and Bowen disease have been described. One theory is that primary EMPD arises multicentrically, within the epidermis from the pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we describe a case of EMPD that had boweno...

  17. Anatomical and functional outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty for ambiguous genitalia in patients with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia Existem muitas controvérsias quanto à melhor técnica e a idade ideal para a realização da genitoplastia feminizante e poucos trabalhos relatam seus resultados em longo prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palma Sircili

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ideal surgical technique and appropriate age for performing feminizing genitoplasty are debatable, and few long-term outcome studies have been reported. PURPOSE: To report a retrospective study on anatomical and functional outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty in patients with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia. METHODS: We selected 34 patients (mean age = 3.4 ± 2.5 yr with genital ambiguity classified according to Prader stage. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 16 years. Clitoral length ranged from 1.9 to 5.0 cm; 28 patients had a single perineal orifice, and 6 had a double orifice. The surgical technique included clitorovaginoplasty in a single procedure and was carried out before 2 years of age in 18 patients. Clitoroplasty was performed with glans preservation in all patients. Blood supply was exclusively maintained by the frenular pedicle in 97% of the cases, whereas clitoral dorsal nerves and vessels were preserved in the remaining 3%. The opening of the urogenital sinus was performed using either the Y-V perineal flap procedure (25 patients or the cut-back incision procedure (8 patients. RESULTS: Good morphological and functional results were achieved in 68% of the patients; 21% of the patients had surgical complications, such as incision bleeding (2 cases, glans necrosis (1 girl with Prader V, and vaginal introitus stenosis (4 cases. Three of the latter underwent dilation with acrylic molds in the post-pubertal period with good functional results. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that single-stage feminizing genitoplasty consisting of vulvoplasty, clitoroplasty, and Y-V perineal flap produced good cosmetic and functional results in virilized girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with few complications. In addition, this surgical approach prevented the need for neovaginaplasty even in patients with high vaginal insertion.OBJETIVO: Apresentar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os resultados cosméticos e funcionais da genitoplastia feminizante

  18. On the Spatial Ambiguity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Yuryev, Arthur N

    2014-01-01

    The ambiguity function of a spatial signal in the "signal spatial frequency displacement vs antenna linear displacement" coordinates is considered in this paper; in case of a monochromatic signal with known carrier frequency, spatial signal vector angular displacement is considered as the second coordinate. The analysis is made taking into account an external (reradiated or thermal) background which contributes considerable peculiarities in the properties of the spatial ambiguity function. Accuracy of measuring the signal linear or angular displacement and resolution are determined. Examples for the Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones are given.

  19. Female genitalia of the species of Depressaria Hw. s.l. (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae) occuring in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van W.

    1961-01-01

    It is generally understood that characters of the genitalia are indispensable for the natural classification of most groups of the Lepidoptera. The genital structures are of great value, especially in cases where difficulties may arise in distinguishing groups on external characters, like venation,

  20. How Ambiguous is the Structural Ambiguity.

    OpenAIRE

    Masda Surti Simatupang

    2007-01-01

    A word, phrase, or sentence is ambiguous if it has more than one meaning. The ambiguity, however, can be noticed if one really has a linguistic knowledge on how to analyze the phrase or sentence. Of the two kinds of ambiguity, lexical and structural, the latter is the one which is explored further in this paper. Structural ambiguity occurs when a phrase or sentence has more than one underlying structure. The phrase can be disambiguated by putting it in a sentence with some sort of...

  1. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest. As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a, but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b. Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3. Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  2. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  3. On Ambiguity and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Allan W.

    1978-01-01

    Ambiguity in the structure of decision-makers relationships is considered for the strategic opportunities it offers calculating actors. Ambiguity is discussed in the context of reciprocity, authority, and jurisdictional facets of relationships. The value of ambiguity as a common theme linking rational actor and system level concepts is also…

  4. Scope ambiguities and conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, David; Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Scope ambiguities in natural language have been much discussed by linguists and philosophers. There has been some psychological work on the scope ambiguities of negation, but we present the first experiments on modal scope ambiguities in conditionals, with special attention paid to the scope ambigui

  5. Primary Caregivers of Children Affected by Disorders of Sex Development: Mental Health and Caregiver Characteristics in the Context of Genital Ambiguity and Genitoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullins LarryL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2, Beck Anxiety Index (BAI, Parent Protection Scale (PPS, Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF. Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported . For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age ; , respectively.

  6. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  7. Ambiguity in Securitization Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Alyssa G.

    2015-01-01

    During the financial crisis of 2008, origination and trading in asset-backed securities markets dropped dramatically. I present a model with ambiguity averse investors to explain how such a market freeze could occur and to investigate how ambiguity affects origination and securitization decisions. The model captures many features of the crisis, including market freezes and fire sales, as well as the timing and duration of the freeze. The presence of ambiguity also reduces real economic activi...

  8. Ambiguous Proximity Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanquan; Li, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Proximity Distribution Kernel is an effective method for bag-of-featues based image representation. In this paper, we investigate the soft assignment of visual words to image features for proximity distribution. Visual word contribution function is proposed to model ambiguous proximity distributions. Three ambiguous proximity distributions is developed by three ambiguous contribution functions. The experiments are conducted on both classification and retrieval of medical image data sets. The ...

  9. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  10. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of the male genitalia of Sarcophagidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Souza Lopes

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genitalia of nine species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera - Goniophyto honsuensis Rohdendorf, 1962, Tricharaea brevicornis (Wiedemann, 1830, Chaetoravinia derelicta (Walker, 1852, Austrohartigia spinigena (Rondani, 1864, Chrysagria duodecimpunctata Townsend, 1935, Boettcheria bisetosa Parker, 1914, Lipoptilocnema lanei Townsend, 1934, L. crispina (Lopes, 1938 and Euboettcheria alvarengai Lopes & Tibana, 1982 - were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM and the main morphological features are descirbed.

  12. The Ambiguity of Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松健

    2014-01-01

    The hero Macbeth in Shakespeare’s play Macbeth is a man of ambiguity. He feels like getting the throne, but dares not take responsibility to be a king. He seems courageous, but deep in his character he is inferior.

  13. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera...... interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills....

  14. Chirality of male genitalia in Otomantis casaica Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae, Acromantinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Francesco; Stiewe, Martin B D; Ippolito, Salvatrice

    2016-01-01

    Reversal of male genitalia are known in various insect orders, such as in Odonata, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera and Trichoptera (Schilthuizen 2007) and, within the Dictyoptera, in several species of Ectobiinae (Blattodea) (Bohn 1987), and Mantodea. Balderson (1978) first described reversal of the phallic complex in Stenomantis Saussure and Ciulfina Giglio-Tos, reporting this condition in eleven of 17 specimens representing two species of the latter-informally named as "Ciulfina sp.2" and "Ciulfina sp.7" (see Balderson 1978: 238). Subsequently, Anisyutkin & Gorochov (2004) reported the same condition at the time of describing Haania doroshenkoi from Cambodia. The male external genitalia within the Mantodea ("praying mantises") are markedly asymmetrical and generally develop in a single orientation (Klass 1997; Huber et al. 2007). Typically, the phallic complex consists of three phallic lobes surrounding the gonopore, all contained in a genital chamber between the ninth sternite and the paraprocts. Two of the three phallic lobes (phallomeres of La Greca 1955) are situated above the gonopore-one to the left and one to the right-while the third lies ventral to the genital opening. The right phallomere (RP) (Fig.1) ("right epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is usually dorsally positioned and its base extends almost completely across the wall of the genital chamber. The left phallomere (LP) (Fig.1) ("left epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is the most complex of the three lobes and it lies above the ventral phallomere (VP) (Fig.1) (hypophallus of Beier 1964). PMID:27394773

  15. Ambiguities in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On one hand, thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of most reliable, rugged and economical system of passive dosimetry but on the other hand there are several ambiguities, which need attention. The PTTL is a complex phenomenon and it is difficult to identify the source for the transfer of the charge carrier to repopulate the traps related to the glow peaks. For the photon energy dependence it is difficult to explain the change in the response for 662 keV gamma rays of 137Cs as compared to the response for 1.25 MeV gamma rays of 60Co. The increase in the response of a TLD with increasing heating rate poses another ambiguity and so is the case with the observations of the supra linearity of different glow peaks. To over come the ambiguities, efforts have to continue to enhance the understanding and to harmonize the protocol for reliable experimental data

  16. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  17. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  18. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    and volunteered participation. Typically, the social interaction was experienced as giving and was referred to in positive terms but recurrently, the opposite was experienced too. The ambiguity of the relationship clearly emerged in all of the synthesized themes presented in this article. Implications...

  19. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Søndergaard; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    . Typically, the social interaction was experienced as giving and was referred to in positive terms but recurrently, the opposite was experienced too. The ambiguity of the relationship clearly emerged in all of the synthesized themes presented in this article. Implications for practice: Hospitalized patients...

  20. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  1. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical?: A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person’s reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance, are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, ambiguity aversion represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, ambiguity intolerance describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  2. Quantum Entropic Ambiguities: Ethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, A P; Vaidya, S

    2013-01-01

    In a quantum system, there may be many density matrices associated with a state on an algebra of observables. For each density matrix, one can compute its entropy. These are in general different. Therefore one reaches the remarkable possibility that there may be many entropies for a given state [Private communication from R. Sorkin]. This ambiguity in entropy can often be traced to a gauge symmetry emergent from the non-trivial topological character of the configuration space of the underlying system. It can also happen in finite-dimensional matrix models. In the present work, we discuss this entropy ambiguity and its consequences for an ethylene molecule. This is a very simple and well-known system where these notions can be put to tests. Besides its intrinsic conceptual interest, the simplicity of this model can serve as an introduction to a similar discussion of systems such as coloured monopoles and the breaking of colour symmetry.

  3. Ambiguity in language networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2014-01-01

    Human language defines the most complex outcomes of evolution. The emergence of such an elaborated form of communication allowed humans to create extremely structured societies and manage symbols at different levels including, among others, semantics. All linguistic levels have to deal with an astronomic combinatorial potential that stems from the recursive nature of languages. This recursiveness is indeed a key defining trait. However, not all words are equally combined nor frequent. In breaking the symmetry between less and more often used and between less and more meaning-bearing units, universal scaling laws arise. Such laws, common to all human languages, appear on different stages from word inventories to networks of interacting words. Among these seemingly universal traits exhibited by language networks, ambiguity appears to be a specially relevant component. Ambiguity is avoided in most computational approaches to language processing, and yet it seems to be a crucial element of language architecture. ...

  4. Facing ambiguous threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  5. Ambiguity in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, G T

    1998-04-01

    As listeners and readers, we rarely notice the ambiguities that pervade our everyday language. When we hear the proverb `Time flies like an arrow' we might ponder its meaning, but not the fact that there are almost 100 grammatically permissible interpretations of this short sentence. On occasion, however, we do notice sentential ambiguity: headlines, such as `Two Sisters Reunited After 18 Years in Checkout Counter', are amusing because they so consistently lead to the unintended interpretation (presumably, the sisters did not spend 18 years at the checkout). It is this consistent preference for one interpretation-and one grammatical structure-rather than another that has fuelled research into sentence processing for more than 20 years. Until relatively recently, the dominant belief had been that these preferences arise from general principles that underlie our use of grammar, with certain grammatical constructions being preferred over others. There has now accrued, however, a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that these preferences are not absolute, but can change in particular circumstances. With this evidence have come new theories of sentence processing, some of which, at first glance, radically question the standard notions of linguistic representation, grammar and understanding.

  6. Evolution of genitalia: theories, evidence, and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, William G

    2010-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why male intromittent genitalia consistently tend to diverge more rapidly than other body traits of the same individuals in a wide range of animal taxa. Currently the two most popular involve sexual selection: sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) and cryptic female choice (CFC). A review of the most extensive attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses indicates that SAC is not likely to have played a major role in explaining this pattern of genital evolution. Promising lines for future, more direct tests of CFC include experimental modification of male genital form and female sensory abilities, analysis of possible male-female dialogues during copulation, and direct observations of genital behavior.

  7. Disambiguation of ambiguous figures in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eIshizu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disambiguation refers to the ability to interpret ambiguous information in a sensible way, which is important in an ever-changing external environment. Disambiguation occurs when prior knowledge is given before an ambiguous stimulus is presented. For example, labeling a series of meaningless blobs as the human body can change the observer’s perception. The aim of this experiment was to study the neural circuitry underlying disambiguation caused by prior knowledge. We presented to participants a series of meaningless blobs with different contextual information. As participants performed this task, we used magnetoencephalography to map the brain areas that were activated when participants perceived blobs as a human body. The participants were presented identical sets of blob stimuli, and were instructed that a human body would appear more frequently in the high body condition than in the low body condition. We found the blob stimuli were more frequently perceived as the human body when they were presented in the high body condition. Such contextual modulation correlated with activity in the extrastriate body area (EBA and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Furthermore, we observed that IFG activation preceded EBA activation. These findings suggest that top-down processing in the IFG plays a role in disambiguating ambiguous information and modifying an individual’s perceptions.

  8. Primary caregivers of children affected by disorders of sex development: mental health and caregiver characteristics in the context of genital ambiguity and genitoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, David A; Kirk, Katherine; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI), Parent Protection Scale (PPS), Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS) and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF). Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported (F(1, 40) = 5.08, p = .03). For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age (F(1, 13) = 6.16, p = 0.28); F(1, 15) = 6.70, p = .021), respectively). PMID:20628508

  9. Primary Caregivers of Children Affected by Disorders of Sex Development: Mental Health and Caregiver Characteristics in the Context of Genital Ambiguity and Genitoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Chernausek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2, Beck Anxiety Index (BAI, Parent Protection Scale (PPS, Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF. Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported (F(1,40=5.08,  p=.03. For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age (F(1,13=6.16,  p=0.28; F(1,15=6.70,  p=.021, respectively.

  10. Responses of medullary reticular formation neurons to input from the male genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubscher, C H; Johnson, R D

    1996-10-01

    1. The medullary reticular formation (MRF) is known to be involved in the modulation of certain reproductive behaviors. Ejaculation in the male, disrupted after spinal transection, may depend on a spinal-bulbo-spinal connection. To determine whether single neurons in the MRF receive sensory input from the male genitalia, the present study was undertaken using electrophysiological techniques. 2. The MRF of 14 urethan-anesthetized mature male rats was searched for single neurons responsive to bilateral electrical stimulation of the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP). In addition, each DNP-responsive neuron was tested for responsiveness to bilateral electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve (PN) and to mechanical stimulation (gentle touch, pressure, pinch) of the external genitalia, anus, urethra, and skin over most regions of the body. 3. A total of 165 single neurons responsive to bilateral electrical stimulation of the DNP were isolated and characterized throughout the MRF. All neurons responded to both ipsilateral and contralateral DNP stimulation. The majority of responses were excitatory, and most neurons had no background activity. Some neurons required wind-up with bilateral electrical stimulation of the DNP to respond. 4. About half of the neurons were located in the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi); the remainder were located in surrounding (dorsal, ventral, lateral) regions of the MRF. Variations in response properties were found among neurons located in different MRF regions. 5. Eighty-eight DNP-responsive neurons were additionally responsive to bilateral electrical stimulation of the PN. None of the responses to bilateral PN were stronger than those for bilateral DNP and many (48%) were weaker. 6. Of the 165 DNP-responsive neurons, all were responsive to pressure/pinching of the penis; 16% responded to gentle stroking of the glans. Most of these neurons were additionally responsive (bilaterally) to pinching more than one (often all) of the

  11. Missile injuries to the external genitalia: a five year experience in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohammed Dogo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Genital missile injuries are on the increase with militarization of civilian population. Goals of treatment still remain cosmesis, preservation of erectile and voiding function. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2964-2966

  12. Strategic ambiguity in minority targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); R. Visscher (Ruben)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmbiguous cues in advertising offer companies the chance to reach multiple consumer segments with the one economical campaign. ‘Purposeful polysemy’ can indeed be an effective strategy – but it may not always deliver what it promises.

  13. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  14. Plutonium disproportionation: the ambiguity phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    2003-05-01

    Plutonium oxidation-state studies may yield ambiguous results if the parameters are not carefully chosen. The effect can be related to environmental plutonium as illustrated by an example. PMID:12735968

  15. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  16. Lexical ambiguity in sentence comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2007-01-01

    An event-related fMRI paradigm was used to investigate brain activity during the reading of sentences containing either a lexically ambiguous word or an unambiguous control word. Higher levels of activation occurred during the reading of sentences containing a lexical ambiguity. Furthermore, the activated cortical network differed, depending on: (1) whether the sentence contained a balanced (i.e., both meanings equally likely) or a biased (i.e., one meaning more likely than other meanings) am...

  17. Ways of Conceptualising Male and Female Genitalia in Spanish and Polish: a Contrastive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Popek-Bernat

    2015-01-01

    Ways of Conceptualising Male and Female Genitalia in Spanish and Polish: a Contrastive StudyThe article deals with the reconstruction of the ways of conceptualising male and female genitalia encoded in Spanish and Polish lexicon. In order to carry out our investigation we propose a 5-stage analytical procedure based on the ideas developed previously by Pragglejaz Group in 2007 and by the investigators from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in 2009. We pretend to demonstrate that the m...

  18. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Schilthuizen, M

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary biology of genitalia. Here, I review the current knowledge on the taxonomic distribution, phylogenetic patterns, genetics, development, and ecology of asymmetric (chiral) genitalia. Asymmetric gen...

  19. The Ambiguity in Who Goes with Fergus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿丽园

    2015-01-01

    Yeats is one of the most distinguished Irish poets. In poem Who Goes with Fergus displays his ambiguous attitude to the imagined nature and chaotic Irish society. Based on Empson’s ambiguity theory, the paper is to analyze the ambiguity art of the poem and get the conclusion that its ambiguity is due to Yeats’ambivalent spirit and mind.

  20. A Brief Discussion of eliminating Grammatical Ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2014-01-01

    As we all know that one kind of language structure has more than one meaning,to be called ambiguity.Generally thought,the grammatical ambiguity is quite complex in English,and this article pays attention to eliminating English grammatical ambiguity and making the shallow analysis on the three kinds of strategies of eliminating ambiguity.

  1. On ambiguity. Its locus in the architecture of Language and its origin in efficient communication

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuny, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguity is an indisputable and ubiquitous feature of linguistic products. In this article we investigate both the locus of ambiguity in the architecture of Language and the origin of ambiguity in natural communication systems. We locate ambiguity at the \\textit{externalization branch} of Language and we study the emergence of ambiguity in communication through the concept of logical irreversibility and within the framework of Shannon's information theory. This leads us to a precise and general expression of the intuition behind Zipf's vocabulary balance in terms of a symmetry equation between the complexities of the coding and the decoding processes that imposes an unavoidable amount of logical uncertainty in natural communication. Accordingly, the emergence of irreversible computations is required if the complexities of the coding and the decoding processes are balanced in a symmetric scenario, which means that the emergence of ambiguous codes is a necessary condition for natural communication to succeed.

  2. Hierarchical Morphological Structure and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Carl; Vikner, Sten

    2008-01-01

    English has a number of adjectives of the type unXable, adjectives that contain the prefix un- and the adjectivising suffix -able, e.g. unlockable or undoable. Many of these adjectives are ambiguous. If a door is unlockable, it may either mean that it cannot be locked (it is not lockable), as exp......English has a number of adjectives of the type unXable, adjectives that contain the prefix un- and the adjectivising suffix -able, e.g. unlockable or undoable. Many of these adjectives are ambiguous. If a door is unlockable, it may either mean that it cannot be locked (it is not lockable...

  3. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  4. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  5. A Tableaux Calculus for Ambiguous Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Monz, Christof; de Rijke, Maarten

    2000-01-01

    Coping with ambiguity has recently received a lot of attention in natural language processing. Most work focuses on the semantic representation of ambiguous expressions. In this paper we complement this work in two ways. First, we provide an entailment relation for a language with ambiguous expressions. Second, we give a sound and complete tableaux calculus for reasoning with statements involving ambiguous quantification. The calculus interleaves partial disambiguation steps with steps in a t...

  6. Ambiguity Resolution in English Language Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧君; 黄曦

    2013-01-01

    Language ambiguity resolution has been widely studied by psycholinguists. Studies of lexical ambiguity resolution, syn⁃tactic ambiguity resolution and anaphoric ambiguity resolution have showed different results. One account assumes that ambigui⁃ty resolution involves“competition”of analysis which causes processing difficulties. The other account claims that an initial analy⁃sis is adopt and“reanalysis”occurs when the initial analysis turns out to be implausible.

  7. Ambiguity Aversion and Variance Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Miao; Bin Wei; Hao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an ambiguity-based interpretation of variance premium - the differ- ence between risk-neutral and objective expectations of market return variance - as a com- pounding effect of both belief distortion and variance differential regarding the uncertain economic regimes. Our approach endogenously generates variance premium without impos- ing exogenous stochastic volatility or jumps in consumption process. Such a framework can reasonably match the mean variance premium as well a...

  8. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse. PMID:2329432

  9. Animal bite of genitalia in a child: A rare case of anterior urethral injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Sidani; Jason K. Au; Rodolfo A. Elizondo; Thomas G. Smith III; Roth, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric genital injuries are relatively uncommon. Urethral injuries occur in 3.4% of genitourinary injuries in children. The majority of urethral injuries in boys are to the anterior urethra. We review the diagnosis and management of anterior urethral injuries in the setting of a dog bite to the genitalia in child.

  10. Limb defects and congenital anomalies of the genitalia in an infant with homozygous alpha-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Forman, E N; Rubin, L P

    1997-01-20

    We describe an infant with homozygous alpha-thalassemia, genital abnormalities, and terminal transverse limb defects, whose limbs demonstrate evidence of loss of tissue and abnormal morphogenesis. We propose these defects were due to either severe fetal anemia or to vascular occlusion by abnormal erythrocytes, resulting in hypoxia of the developing distal limbs and genitalia.

  11. NEW ALGORITHM FOR FAST INTEGER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEXiao-feng; HUXiao-ping

    2005-01-01

    Fast integer ambiguity resolution is referred as a key part in precision relative positioning of the GPS carrier phase. A new algorithm for fast integer ambiguity resolution based on LAMBDA and FASF methods is proposed. This algorithm integrates the LAMBDA method and the FASF method, thus improving the efficiency of the ambiguity resolution. Firstly, the ambiguity search space transformation in the LAMBDA method is used,and then the FASF method is used to search ambiguities. Experiments in the relative positioning of about 1 km static baseline demonstrate that the error is less than 1 cm.

  12. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  13. Three to six ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J Ross

    2012-05-01

    Several important ambiguities in immittance spectroscopy (IS) model data-fitting results are identified and illustrated by means of complex-nonlinear-least-squares (CNLS) fits of experimental and synthetic frequency response data. A well-known intrinsic ambiguity, following from Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, arises from the indistinguishability in external measurements of conduction and displacement currents. Usual fit models for either dielectric or conductive-system situations, such as the Davidson-Cole one, only involve a strength parameter, a dielectric constant, a characteristic relaxation time, and a fractional exponent and lead to no additional ambiguities. But the situation is different for more powerful and useful general models, such as ordinary or anomalous diffusion Poisson-Nernst-Planck ones: PNP and PNPA, used here, whose historical background, current status, and applicability are described and discussed herein. They apply to two different kinds of experimental IS situations and involve several additional, potentially free fit parameters, such as the mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers, and generation-recombination parameters that determine the partial or complete dissociation of a neutral entity of concentration N(0) into positive and negative charge carriers of equal concentration, c(0). Then, several additional ambiguities appear that may require information about the material system involved for their adequate resolution. PMID:22481085

  14. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXIV. Genus Vansomerenis Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Vansomerenis was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Va. pulchrithorax (Edwards), are...

  15. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXIII. Genus Tanakaius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Tanakaius was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ta. togoi (Theobald), are illustrat...

  16. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXV. Genus Dobrotworskyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Dobrotworskyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, ...

  17. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  18. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon;

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the benefit of ambiguity in describing goals in requirements modelling for the design of socio-technical systems using concepts from Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) and ethnographic and cultural probe methods from Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The authors’ aim......-technological systems. Currently social needs are modelled as coordinative and collaborative goals; however the domestic space surfaces a range of purely communicative activities, which are not calculated to serve any external productive purpose (i.e., it is communication often for the sake of pleasure).The authors use...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...

  19. Ambiguities and Symmetry Relations in a Free Fermion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Battistel, O A

    1999-01-01

    We present a systematic study of one, two and three point functions of vector, axial-vector, scalar and pseudoscalar densities constructed in a free fermion model. The divergent content of the amplitudes are left in the form of (external momenta independent) 4-D integrals for which an appropriate regulating function is only implicitly assumed, and the integrals are not evaluated at any step of the calculation. The ambiguities and Symmetries Violations, in all cases, are shown to be associated with coefficients involving three relations between divergent integrals of the same degree of divergence. Setting these coefficients to zero is mandatory, e.g., for preserving gauge symmetry in QED. The implications for the ambiguities and symmetry violations are investigated. The results emerging from this alternative approach allow us to conclude that the traditional method used to establish the triangular anomalies could be questionable.

  20. Lissencephaly, abnormal genitalia and refractory epilepsy: case report of XLAG syndrome Lisencefalia, genitália ambígua e epilepsia refratária: relato de caso da síndrome XLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Jaques Spinosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG is a recently described genetic disorder caused by mutation in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX gene (Xp22.13. Patients present with lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, refractory epilepsy of neonatal onset, acquired microcephaly and male genotype with ambiguous genitalia. CASE REPORT: Second child born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents, presented with seizures within the first hour of life that remained refractory to phenobarbital, phenytoin and midazolam. Examination identified microcephaly, axial hypotonia, pyramidal signs and ambiguous genitalia. EEG showed disorganized background activity and seizures starting at the right midtemporal, central and occipital regions. MRI showed diffuse pachygyria, moderate thickening of the cortex, enlarged ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. Karyotype showed a 46,XY genotype. Additional findings were hypercalciuria, vesicoureteral reflux, patent ductus arteriosus and chronic diarrhea.INTRODUÇÃO: Lisencefalia com genitália ambígua ligada ao X (XLAG é doença genética recentemente descrita, causada por mutação no gene aristaless-related homeobox (ARX (Xp22.13. Os pacientes apresentam lisencefalia, agenesia de corpo caloso, epilepsia refratária com início no período neonatal, microcefalia adquirida e genótipo masculino com genitália ambígua. RELATO DE CASO: Segundo filho de pais não-consangüíneos, apresentou crises na primeira hora de vida que permaneceram refratárias a fenobarbital, fenitoína e midazolam. Apresentava microcefalia, hipotonia axial, sinais de liberação piramidal e genitália ambígua. EEG demonstrou atividade de base desorganizada, crises convulsivas com início nas regiões temporal-média, central e occipital direitas. RNM demonstrou paquigiria difusa, moderado espessamento do córtex, ventrículos aumentados, agenesia de corpo caloso e septo pel

  1. Ambiguity in Keats’s Lamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Keats’s Lamia is usually read as an ambiguous poem. The paper will focus on the causes of Lamia’s ambiguity. Her ambiguity presents Keats’s vacillation between two poetic realms—the beautiful and the sublime. And the poem tries to offer his solution to his dilemma. While Wordsworth prefers the sublime in Tintern Abbey and Intimations on Immortality, Keats offers a different choice in Lamia.

  2. Primordial function and ambiguity in its determination

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V K

    2003-01-01

    We study the possibility to reconstruct the primordial function for some periodic function. The procedure includes an analytical continuation of a discrete function for Fourier coefficients computation, that introduces an ambiguity. To establish conditions under which no ambiguity appears, the modification of Carlson theorem is suggested. In a case when no subsidiary condition is imposed, ambiguity in the definition of primordial function does not go beyond the functions which belong to space $\\Omega^{\\prime}$.

  3. Power and optimism : interpreting ambiguous information

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Lindsey Erin

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous statements is a common and inescapable aspect of everyday life. Previous research suggests that elevated power leads to the optimistic interpretation of ambiguous information while diminished power leads to the pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous information. However, empirical evidence does not speak to situations that are (1) absent of rewards or punishments and (2) operate at a high cognitive level. The current investigation attempts to address this empirical gap...

  4. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  5. Morphology of the male genitalia of Brachymyrmex and their implications in the Formicinae phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Christopher M.; Smith-Herron, Autumn; Cook, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    The male genitalia of Brachymyrmex are examined and terminology clarified. We document two conformation groups based on the lateral carina, conformation 1 has a complete lateral carina that reaches the apex of the valviceps and in conformation 2 the lateral carina is broken with the apical end projected dorsally. Previously documented species are evaluated in the context of this new information. We offer support for the movement of Brachymyrmex into the resurrected tribe Myrmelachistini based...

  6. Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections of the Perineum and Genitalia: Etiology and Early Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Peter R. Carroll; Cattolica, Eugene V.; Turzan, Charles W.; McAninch, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitalia is a rare, rapidly progressive, often fatal infection whose unique bacterial involvement has frequently been ignored. From our experience with 14 patients, we recommend the following: early, aggressive surgical debridement and drainage to reduce morbidity and mortality; prompt institution of antimicrobial therapy directed at both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, with subsequent tailoring to the specific bacteria cultured, and early surgical ...

  7. Explosive eversion and functional morphology of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Clark, Christopher J.; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the functional morphology of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the functional morphology of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and ...

  8. Human-caused habitat fragmentation can drive rapid divergence of male genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen-Kay, Justa L; Noel, Holly G; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study rests on three premises: (i) humans are altering ecosystems worldwide, (ii) environmental variation often influences the strength and nature of sexual selection, and (iii) sexual selection is largely responsible for rapid and divergent evolution of male genitalia. While each of these assertions has strong empirical support, no study has yet investigated their logical conclusion that human impacts on the environment might commonly drive rapid diversification of male genital morphology. We tested whether anthropogenic habitat fragmentation has resulted in rapid changes in the size, allometry, shape, and meristics of male genitalia in three native species of livebearing fishes (genus: Gambusia) inhabiting tidal creeks across six Bahamian islands. We found that genital shape and allometry consistently and repeatedly diverged in fragmented systems across all species and islands. Using a model selection framework, we identified three ecological consequences of fragmentation that apparently underlie observed morphological patterns: decreased predatory fish density, increased conspecific density, and reduced salinity. Our results demonstrate that human modifications to the environment can drive rapid and predictable divergence in male genitalia. Given the ubiquity of anthropogenic impacts on the environment, future research should evaluate the generality of our findings and potential consequences for reproductive isolation.

  9. Remarkable morphological features of taxonomic interest in the female genitalia of five Erythrogonia species (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rachel A; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The female genitalia of the Cicadellidae (leafhoppers) are usually considered more morphologically conservative (i.e., less variable) than the male genitalia at the generic and specific levels. However, various recent publications on the Cicadellinae (sharpshooters) have demonstrated the existence of useful characters in the female genitalia for the recognition of genera and species. Here we describe, illustrate, compare, and discuss peculiar processes, sclerites, and other features of the first pair of valvifers, sternite VIII, and ovipositor valvulae I and II of five species of the sharpshooter genus Erythrogonia (E. calva (Taschenberg, 1884), E. hertha Medler, 1963, E. phoenicea (Signoret, 1853), E. proterva Melichar, 1926, and E. sexguttata (Fabricius, 1803)). This genus includes currently the highest species diversity among the New World Cicadellinae, an agriculturally important subfamily. Comparative notes on other genera of the Cicadellini are added. In agreement with other recent publications, our results challenge the view that the morphology of the female genitalia is almost always conservative in the Cicadellidae.

  10. Mental retardation, premature balding, small genitalia, small acra and small patellae in brothers: Confirmation of an entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Vandersteen; R.C. Hennekam

    2010-01-01

    We describe two brothers with moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, an unusual skull shape, early anterior balding, unusual facial morphology, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, small genitalia, and small patellae. The older sib had generalized hypotonia without focal neurological abnor

  11. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  12. Deliberate ambiguity in slogans: recognition and appreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, Luuk

    2002-01-01

    In slogans used in public information, politics, and advertising, and also in titles of books, documentaries, or articles, ambiguity is often employed to pique the interest of the reader in the message that is conveyed. According to several theories of text processing, this deliberate ambiguity may

  13. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  14. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  15. Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

  16. On Infinite Quon Statistics and "Ambiguous" Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Meljanac, S.; Milekovic, M.; Ristic, R.

    1999-01-01

    We critically examine a recent suggestion that "ambiguous" statistics is equivalent to infinite quon statistics and that it describes a dilute, nonrelativistics ideal gas of extremal black holes. We show that these two types of statistics are different and that the description of extremal black holes in terms of "ambiguous" statistics cannot be applied.

  17. Ambiguity noise analysis of a SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haishan; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    The presence of range and azimuth (or Doppler) ambiguities in synthetic aperture radars (SARs) is well known. The ambiguity noise is related to the antenna pattern and the value of pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Because a new frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) SAR has the characters of low cost and small size, and the capacity of real-time signal processing, the antenna will likely vibrate or deform due to a lack of the stabilized platform. And the value of PRF cannot be much high because of the high computation burden for the real-time processing. The aim of this study is to access and improve the performance of a new FMCW SAR system based on the ambiguity noise. First, the quantitative analysis of the system's ambiguity noise level is performed; an antenna with low sidelobes is designed. The conclusion is that the range ambiguity noise is small; the azimuth ambiguity noise is somewhat increased, however, it is sufficiently small to have marginal influence on the image quality. Finally, the ambiguity noise level is measured using the imaging data from a Ku-band FMCW SAR. The results of this study show that the measured noise level coincides with the theoretical noise level.

  18. Equity Trading under Heterogeneity in Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    -relevant, but hard-to-interpret information: a situation like that during the onset of the recent crisis in financial markets. During this episode, market participants appeared unsure of the values of a variety of assets, trading all but stopped. Ambiguity aversion, it appears to us, offers a tractable way......We examine the potential importance of heterogeneity in consumers' ambiguity aversion for asset pricing, portfolio allocation, and the wealth distribution. A main focus is to explore a situation in which ambiguity aversion is \\above normal", such as when there has been a sudden inflow of market...

  19. A Systemic-Functional Approach to English Ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2014-01-01

    This thesis chooses the theory of rank scale and the theory of meta-function in the framework of Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG) to study ambiguity. It firstly analyzes ambiguities occurring at the rank of morpheme, word or phrase. Then it studies ambiguities at the rank of clause, from ideational ambiguity to textual ambiguity. This study shows that SFG can give a sys-tematic and comprehensive interpretation of English ambiguity.

  20. Brucella melitensis: a rarely suspected cause of infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stamatiou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the clinical presentation and outcome of Brucellar infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract through a review of the medical records of 10 cases of male patients with brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract. The mean age of the patients with brucellosis was 49.2, (median 52, range 15-77 years. Eleven out of 17 patients were rural residents, 15 reported that they might have consumed unpasteurized dairy products and four reported occupational exposure. Symptoms onset was acute in almost all cases. Scrotal pain, epidedimal swelling and fever were the most common symptoms. The Wright test was positive in 13 patients, while Brucella sp. was isolated from blood cultures in six cases. Only two patients were found with abnormal liver ultrasonography. All patients underwent treatment with doxycycline and aminoglycoside for seven days and doxycycline alone for two months. Most of them responded to antibiotic therapy with rapid regression of symptoms. One patient failed to respond to therapy and presented necrotizing orchitis, as well as abscesses, which required orchectomy. Brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract have no specific clinical presentation; the usual laboratory examination is not sufficient to diagnose this kind of infection, therefore it could easily be misdiagnosed. An analytical medical history (including overall dietary habits and recent consumption of non-pasteurized dairy products could indicate Brucelosis as would the persistence of symptoms despite a one-week antibiotic treatment. In general, patients afflicted by brucellar epididymoorchitis respond to Brucellosis antibiotic therapy, except for some rare cases that present necrotizing orchitis and require surgical treatment.

  1. 46,XX Karyotype in a Male with Ambigious Genitalia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available 40 days old case who were diagnosed with ambigious genitalia were sentto laboratory of cytogenetics. Mother was 26 years old and have to alivechildren and case were the second child and applied to Child SurgeryDepartment due to continiously vomiting and uneasy conditions. Sexualdevelopment were as male on physical examinations. Cell culture wasapplied for chromosomal analysis. Slides were stained with GiemsaBanding Staining (GTG and 100 cells were totaly counted and karyotypingwere done with 15 metaphase. Chromosome with 46,XX karyotype. Casewere taken under consideration of congenital adrenel hyperplasia afterevalution of karyotype. Case were discussed according to by information ofpresents literatures.

  2. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... and ambiguity attitudes interact in nontrivial ways to determine the change of coinsurance demand. I derive sufficient conditions to guarantee that the optimal coinsurance demand is decreasing in wealth. When a non-traded asset is introduced, my model predicts behavior that is inconsistent with the classical...... a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....

  3. How to Distinguish Ambiguity and Vagueness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪石

    2008-01-01

    This thesis mainly deals with the problem about ambiguity and vagueness through the example of‘ease'.The tests of"do so identity"and"sense relation"will be used here to illustrate the distinction of them.

  4. Cognitive Interpretations of Ambiguous Visual Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, Marnix

    2012-01-01

    Brains can sense and distinguish signals from background noise in physical environments, and recognize and classify them as distinct entities. Ambiguity is an inherent part of this process. It is a cognitive property that is generated by the noisy character of the signals, and by the design of the sensory systems that process them. Stimuli can be ambiguous if they are noisy, incomplete, or only briefly sensed. Such conditions may ...

  5. Negotiating Ambiguity: Dynamic Structure in Schoenberg Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background Schoenberg’s Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten (1909) has been the subject of many analytical treatments. Work has focused on the relationship between words and music and on the (a)tonal language. Underpinning both of these historically/philosophically important themes is the ambiguous structure of the songs. Developing an understanding of structure is one way in which a framework is provided for learning music preparation for performance. How do performers negotiate ambiguous st...

  6. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Tullis, Jonathan G.; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Remindings–stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events–may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw, 1994); here we evaluate whether remindings influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were either pre...

  7. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    OpenAIRE

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ER...

  8. Ambiguities and Image Quality in Staggered SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Michelangelo; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Staggered SAR is an innovative synthetic aperture radar (SAR) concept, where the pulse repetition interval (PRI) is continuously varied. This, together with digital beamforming (DBF) in elevation, allows high-resolution imaging of a wide continuous swath without the need for a long antenna with multiple azimuth apertures. As an additional benefit, the energy of range and azimuth ambiguities is spread over large areas: Ambiguities therefore appear in the image as a noise-like disturbance rathe...

  9. A Method to Identify Potential Ambiguous Malay Words Through Ambiguity Attributes Mapping: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlina Haron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a methodology to identify a list o f ambiguous Malay words that are commonly being used in Malay documentations such as Requirem ent Specification. We compiled several relevant and appropriate requirement quality attrib utes and sentence rules from previous literatures and adopt it to come out with a set of ambiguity attributes that most suit Malay words. The extracted Malay ambiguous words (potenti al are then being mapped onto the constructed ambiguity attributes to confirm their v agueness. The list is then verified by Malay linguist experts. This paper aims to identify a lis t of potential ambiguous words in Malay as an attempt to assist writers to avoid using the vague words while documenting Malay Requirement Specification as well as to any other related Malay documentation. The result of this study is a list of 120 potential ambiguous Malay words that co uld act as guidelines in writing Malay sentences.

  10. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  11. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  12. A method to identify potential ambiguous Malay words through Ambiguity Attributes mapping: An exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlina Haron; Abdul Azim Abd Ghani

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a methodology to identify a list o f ambiguous Malay words that are commonly being used in Malay documentations such as Requirem ent Specification. We compiled several relevant and appropriate requirement quality attrib utes and sentence rules from previous literatures and adopt it to come out with a set of ambiguity attributes that most suit Malay words. The extracted Malay ambiguous words (potenti al)...

  13. New Treatment on Bone Marrow Suppress after Chemotherapy of Female Genitalia Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuepeng; MEI Zhuoxian; HE Ke; CHEN Wei

    2002-01-01

    Objective This study is to find valid medication to improve the condition of bone marrow suppress in a short period of time after chemotherapy of female genitalia cancer and to create a condition for second - time chemotherapy. Method Thirty- five cases using rhG- CSF were included in the experiment group while cases without rhG - CSF were set as control group. The wbc level in two groups are compared. Result The comparison shows that wbc resumes normal within 22 days in the experiment group while 35 days in the control group. The duration is 13 days less in the experiment group than the control group. From the 21st day after chemotherapy, patients in the experiment group need 2.5 days before another chemotherapy while 12 days for the control group. The average account of wbc in the experiment group is 9.5 × 109/L while 6.2 × 109/L in the control group. The variation in the comparison of 3 groups of data is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The above results show that rhG - CSF has positive efficacy on the treatment of bone marrow suppress after chemotherapy of female genitalia cancer and helps the regular chemotherapy proceed smoothly.

  14. A Newborn with Genital Ambiguity, 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism, a Jumping Chromosome Y, and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD, formerly termed “intersex” conditions, arise from numerous causes. CAH secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of DSD. Sex chromosome disorders, including sex chromosome mosaicism, are the second most common cause of DSD. We discuss a medically complex neonate with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia. Hormone levels suggested 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2, confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Chromosome analysis revealed sex chromosome mosaicism with three cell lines: 45,X[8]/45,X,tas(Y;16(p11.32;p13.3[8]/45,X,t(Y;8(p11.32;p23.3[4] with the Y chromosome in telomere association with chromosomes 8p and 16p in different cell lines, a “jumping translocation.” Histologically, the right gonad had irregular, distended seminiferous tubules with hyperplastic germ cells contiguous with ovarian stroma and primordial follicles. The left gonad had scant ovarian stroma and embryonic remnants. Chromosome analyses showed mosaicism in both gonads: 45,X[17]/45,X,tas(Y;8(p11.32;p23.3[3]. This is the first case of coexisting CAH and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism reported in the English literature and the third case of a constitutional chromosome Y “jumping translocation.” Our report documents the medical and genetic complexity of children such as this one with ambiguous genitalia and discusses the need for a multidisciplinary team approach.

  15. Clarity and ambiguity in psychoanalytic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajnberg, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    The author explores the presence and the essential tension between clarity and ambiguity as processes within our minds that become prominent in psychoanalysis. We learn from aesthetics and literary criticism that ambiguity can shade from taut disorganization to tolerating life's richness; clarity can range from a concrete fixity to a lucid grasp of one's state of mind. This article responds to Wallerstein's (1991) challenge to find common ground in psychoanalytic practice: We attempt this by avoiding metapsychological jargon and relying on more experience-near terms, such as clarity and ambiguity. The article also refers to Sandler's (1983) concept of implicit theory-that psychoanalysts use "preconscious, overlapping but not fully integrated models" (Sandler, 1988, p. 388)-in this case explicating how clarity and ambiguity are frequent but implicit phenomena in clinical work. Identifying these and the essential tension between them permits us to both improve training and identify our clinical efforts. The analyst's and analysand's tolerance of the tension between clarity and ambiguity facilitates increased structuralization and emotional robustness. PMID:21500957

  16. Role ambiguity among school principals in China and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role-ambiguity phenomenon among public secondary school principals in China and Finland. Organizational dysfunction caused by role ambiguity in professional organizations has been studied since the 1960s (Kahn et al, 1964). Although role ambiguity occurs most frequently in educational organizations, few studies on role ambiguity are found on school leaders. This study contributes to this topic by building a multidimensional knowledge structure of role ambiguity amon...

  17. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVII. Genus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Hk. ingrami (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Hopkinsius is divide...

  18. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVI. Genus Collessius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Collessius was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Co. macfarlanei (Edwards), are illustrated. Collessius is divided into two subgenera, Alloeom...

  19. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIII. Genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ln. muelleri (Dyar), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a detailed de...

  20. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  1. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  2. [The serum copper/serum iron ratio in malignant tumors of the female genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, D H; Hinckers, H J

    1975-08-01

    Copper and iron in blood of 83 women with maligne tumors of the genitalia were regulary controled before, during and till 69 weeks after therapy. The relation between the copper/iron-ratio and the expansion and histology of the tumors, the success of the therapy and the incidence of a recurrence was checked for any significancy. Our results show the improtance of the ratio in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of the ovarian-cancer and the corpus-uteri-cancer, and in the success-controll during tumor-therapy. In the group of the patients with collum-uteri-cancer we found a significant difference in the copper/iron-ratio of the patients with and without a recurrence during the controllperiod after therapy, which emphasizes the importance of this copper/iron-ratio.

  3. Notes on Neotropical Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: VII: First detailed description of the female genitalia of a Diestostemma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diestostemma Amyot & Serville, 1843 is a diverse sharpshooter genus with 32 species. A description and illustrations of Diestostemma nasutum Schmidt, 1910 are provided. The species, previously known from Ecuador, is newly recorded from Colombia. Both the male and female genitalia are described for the first time. This is the first detailed description of the female genitalia of a Diestostemma species. Diestostemma nasutum can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the following features of the aedeagus: shaft with the distal third distinctly curved dorsally; base of basiventral aedeagal process with a lobe directed anteriorly; and basiventral aedeagal process bifurcated on its basal portion. The style of D. nasutum, whose apical portion is broad, distinctly curved inward, and with the apex subtruncate, is also quite distinctive. We compared the female genitalia of D. nasutum with those of other Proconiini genera. Our results confirm the perception that the female genitalia in this tribe can be a source of useful taxonomic characters.

  4. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  5. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  6. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find

  7. Comment on Lexical Ambiguity in Understanding of the Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨楠

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is a natural property of language and may happen anywhere. This paper aims to present a detailed analysis of one of these types:the lexical ambiguity, which exerts great influence on the understanding in communications.

  8. Male-female conflict and genitalia: failure to confirm predictions in insects and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, William G

    2004-02-01

    Some recent models suggest a new role for evolutionary arms races between males and females in sexual selection. Female resistance to males is proposed to be driven by the direct advantage to the female of avoiding male-imposed reductions in the number of offspring she can produce, rather than by the indirect advantage of selecting among possible sires for her offspring, as in some traditional models of sexual selection by female choice. This article uses the massive but hitherto under-utilized taxonomic literature on genitalic evolution to test, in a two-step process, whether such new models of arms races between males and females have been responsible for rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia. The test revolves around the prediction that 'new arms races' are less likely to occur in species in which females are largely or completely protected from unwanted sexual attentions from males (e.g. species which mate in leks or in male swarms, in which males attract females from a distance, or in which females initiate contact by attracting males from a distance). The multiple possible mechanical functions of male genitalia are summarized, and functions of male genitalic structures in 43 species in 21 families of Diptera are compiled. Functions associated with intromission and insemination (e.g. seizing and positioning the female appropriately, pushing past possible barriers within the female, orienting within the female to achieve sperm transfer), which are unlikely to be involved in new arms races when females are protected, are shown to be common (> 50 % of documented cases). This information is then used to generate the new arms race prediction: differences in genitalic form among congeneric species in which females are protected should be less common than differences among congeneric species in which females are vulnerable to harassment by males. This prediction was tested using a sample of 361 genera of insects and spiders. The prediction clearly failed, even

  9. Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Semantic Ambiguity Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vitello, S

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of language comprehension is to obtain meaning. However, this is difficult because many words are semantically ambiguous, mapping onto multiple meanings. Semantic ambiguity resolution has proven a useful tool to investigate language processing in general. However, the majority of research has focused on the initial encounter of an ambiguous word. Less work has investigated the processes occurring after an ambiguous word is encountered, when the initially understood meaning n...

  10. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    OpenAIRE

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inad...

  11. Ambiguities in Quantizing a Classical System

    CERN Document Server

    Redmount, I H; Young, K; Redmount, Ian; Suen, Wai-Mo; Young, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    One classical theory, as determined by an equation of motion or set of classical trajectories, can correspond to many unitarily {\\em in}equivalent quantum theories upon canonical quantization. This arises from a remarkable ambiguity, not previously investigated, in the construction of the classical (and hence the quantized) Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. This ambiguity is illustrated for systems with one degree of freedom: An arbitrary function of the constants of motion can be introduced into this construction. For example, the nonrelativistic and relativistic free particles follow identical classical trajectories, but the Hamiltonians or Lagrangians, and the canonically quantized versions of these descriptions, are inequivalent. Inequivalent descriptions of other systems, such as the harmonic oscillator, are also readily obtained.

  12. Integration, differentiation and ambiguity in safety cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne; Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses safety cultures, drawing on the differentiation, integration and ambiguity-scheme introduced by scholars of organizational culture. An ethnographic approach has been applied in the study of meaning and symbols relating to work, hazards, occupational accidents and prevention....... Although some common elements are present across cultures, they are indeed a multiple configuration of cultures. The article illustrates this by providing one case showing a configuration of three cultures, metaphorically labelled Production, Welfare and Master. For example, the former views risk...

  13. The Psychological Study of Lexical Ambiguity in Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玥

    2016-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity is the common phenomenon people encounter when they do reading comprehensions. Studying mental decoding process of the ambiguous words helps improve reading instruction skills efficiently. From the perspec-tive of psychology, this thesis tries to analyze the decoding process of lexical ambiguity in reading and raise some sug-gestions for reading instruction.

  14. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

  15. A mixture approach to vagueness and ambiguity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Verheyen

    Full Text Available When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness. The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions.

  16. Possible Removal of Rival Sperm by the Elongated Genitalia of the Earwig, Euborellia plebeja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Y

    2000-07-01

    Sperm displacement is a sperm competition avoidance mechanism that reduces the paternity of males that have already mated with the female. Direct anatomical sperm removal or sperm flushing is known to occur in four insect orders: Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In a fifth order, Dermaptera (earwigs), I found that the virga (the elongated rod of the male genitalia) of Euborellia plebeja seems to be used to remove rival sperm from the spermatheca (a fine-tubed female sperm storage organ). In this species, copulation lasted on average 4.6 minutes, during which time the male inserted the virga deep into the spermatheca, and then extracted it ejaculating semen from the opening of the virgal tip. The extraction of virgae (with its brim-like tip) appeared to cause removal of stored sperm in the spermatheca. The virga was as long as the body length of males, and the spermatheca was twice the female body length. The long length of the spermatheca and the possible removal function of the virga may select for virgal elongation. PMID:18517303

  17. The identification of a spontaneous 47, XX, +21/46, XY chimeric fetus with male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kuei-Fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 30 sex-chromosome discordant chimera cases have been reported to date, of which only four cases carried trisomy 21. Here, we present an additional case, an aborted fetus with a karyotype of 47,XX, +21/46,XY. Case presentation Autopsy demonstrated that this fetus was normally developed and had male genitalia. Major characteristics of Down syndrome were not observed except an enlarged gap between the first and second toes. Karyotyping of tissues cultured from the fetus revealed the same chimeric chromosomal composition detected in the amniotic fluid but with a different ratio of [47,XX,+21] to [46,XY]. Further short tandem repeat analysis indicated a double paternal contribution and single maternal contribution to the fetus, with the additional chromosome 21 in the [47,XX,+21] cell lineage originating from the paternal side. Conclusion We thus propose that this chimeric fetus was formed via the dispermic fertilization of a parthenogenetic ovum with one (Y sperm and one (X,+21 sperm.

  18. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  19. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  20. Research on ambiguity resolution aided with triple difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ambiguity resolution in the field of GPS is investigated in detail. A new algorithm to resolve the ambiguity is proposed. The algorithm first obtains the floating resolution of the ambiguity aided with triple difference measurement. Decorrelation of searching space is done by reducing the ambiguity covariance matrix's dimension to overcome the possible sick factorization of the matrix brought by Z-transformation. In simulation, the proposed algorithm is compared with least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment (LAMBDA). The result shows that the proposed algorithm is better than LAMBDA because of lesser resolving time, which approximately reduces 20% resolving time. Thus, the proposed algorithm adapts to the high dynamic real-time applications.

  1. Mapping, filtering and measuring impact of ambiguous words in Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Jorge; Faísca, Luís

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with ambiguous simple words of Portuguese. The Portuguese dictionary of simple inflected words contains (DELAF) 936.215 entries, from which there are 889.986 different inflected forms. It is possible to obtain the full list of ambiguous inflected forms (43.126), that is, word forms belonging to different categories and/or lemmas: capital,A/N/N (capital). We may consider A/N/N an ambiguity class. There are 137 ambiguity classes. Each ambiguity class presents a certain level of...

  2. Assessment of The Lymphatic System of the Genitalia Using Magnetic Resonance Lymphography Before and After Treatment of Male Genital Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Jiang, Zhaohua; Zhao, Zizhou; Wu, Lianming; Wu, Guangyu; Suo, Shiteng; Xu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment for chronic male genital lymphedema (GL) is limited. No standard treatment or validated instrument to assess GL is available. The aim of this study was to explore whether magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) could be used to assess GL, select proper treatment for patients, and monitor postoperative progress. This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired cohort of men with GL presenting for MRL over a 7-year period. Thirty-six of 47 eligible men were included. All men were offered preoperative and postoperative MRL and assigned a morphology and function classification. Men with mild, moderate, and severe nodal dysfunction underwent complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP), lymphoveneous microsurgery, and surgical excision, respectively. The volume reductions in the genitalia of patients with mild and moderate nodal dysfunction were recorded and compared using Student t test. The abnormal superficial and deep lymphatic vessels in the lymphedematous genitalia were detected by MRL, and inguinal lymph node dysfunction was classified by MRL. Seven patients with mild dysfunction who underwent CDP showed a more significant mean volume reduction in the genitalia than did 9 patients with moderate dysfunction. Three patients with hyperplasia and moderate dysfunction who underwent microsurgical operations and 17 patients with hypoplasia and moderate or severe nodal dysfunction who underwent surgical excision had excellent cosmetic results with no lymphedema at the 3- to 5-year follow-up. MRL can be used to assess morphological and functional lymphatic abnormalities in GL, preoperatively select appropriate treatment, and postoperatively evaluate treatment outcomes. PMID:27227943

  3. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We solve, in closed form, a stock-bond-cash portfolio problem of a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor when interest rates and the inflation rate are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor can learn about it from observing realized inflation and stock and bond...... prices. The investor is ambiguous about the inflation model and prefers a portfolio strategy which is robust to model misspecification. Ambiguity about the inflation dynamics is shown to affect the optimal portfolio fundamentally different than ambiguity about the price dynamics of traded assets, for...... example the optimal portfolio weights can be increasing in the degree of ambiguity aversion. In a numerical example, the optimal portfolio is significantly affected by the learning about expected inflation and somewhat affected by ambiguity aversion. The welfare loss from ignoring learning or ambiguity...

  4. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  5. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  6. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  7. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  8. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  9. The Strategic Uses of Ambiguity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Libicki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategic ambiguity has an honored place in the mores of statecraft. The studied unwillingness of states to say what they have done (or would do coupled with the lack of proof that they have done it (or would do it liberates other states. They can argue that something was done, but if their purposes so dictate, they can pretend that it was not done. The degree of doubt can vary: from thorough (no one is sure what has happened or would happen to nominal (no one is fooled. In either case, however, those who did it have provided a fig leaf, however translucent, that other states can adopt.

  10. Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

    2014-01-01

    In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography.

  11. Management of ambiguities in magnetostratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Florent; Antoine, Christophe; Charreau, Julien; Caumon, Guillaume; Ruiu, Jeremy

    2013-06-01

    Magnetostratigraphy is a powerful tool to provide absolute dating of sediments enabling robust and detailed chronostratigraphic correlations. It is based on the correlation of a magnetic polarity column, observed and measured in a given sediment section, to a magnetic polarity reference scale where polarity changes are well dated via other independent methods. However, magnetostratigraphic correlations are loose as they are only constrained by binary magnetic chrons (i.e. normal or reversal) and their thickness, which are both defined from depth variations of the magnetic remanent directions. The thickness of a given magnetic polarity zone is a function of time and sediment accumulation rate, which may not be stationary, leading to ambiguities when performing the correlations. To address these ambiguities, a numerical method based on the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is proposed. Magnetostratigraphic correlations are computed in order to minimise the local variation of the accumulation rate. The main advantage of the proposed method is to automatically provide a set of reasonably likely correlations. This set can then be scrutinised for further analysis and interpretation. However, the likelihood of a correlation should be handled carefully as it depends on the information content of the magnetostratigraphic section itself and remain ultimately valid by ancillary constraint. Nevertheless, the method gives consistent results on difficult synthetic cases that simulate abrupt variations of the sedimentation rate. Insights on true sections debated by previous authors are also given.

  12. The ambiguous nature of epigenetic responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic studies have been providing further evidence of the molecular interplay between gene expression and its health outcomes on one hand, and the physical and social environments in which individuals are conceived, born and live on the other. As knowledge of epigenetic programming expands, a growing body of literature in social sciences and humanities is exploring the implications of this new field of study for contemporary societies. Epigenetics has been mobilised to support political claims, for instance, with regard to collective obligations to address socio-environmental determinants of health. The idea of a moral 'epigenetic responsibility' has been proposed, meaning that individuals and/or governments should be accountable for the epigenetic programming of children and/or citizens. However, these discussions have largely overlooked important biological nuances and ambiguities inherent in the field of epigenetics. In this paper, we argue that the identification and assignment of moral epigenetic responsibilities should reflect the rich diversity and complexity of epigenetic mechanisms, and not rely solely on a gross comparison between epigenetics and genetics. More specifically, we explore how further investigation of the ambiguous notions of epigenetic normality and epigenetic plasticity should play a role in shaping this emerging debate. PMID:27015741

  13. The clock ambiguity: Implications and new developments

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We consider the ambiguity associated with the choice of clock in time reparameterization invariant theories. This arbitrariness undermines the goal of prescribing a fixed set of physical laws, since a change of time variable can completely alter the predictions of the theory. We review the main features of the clock ambiguity and our earlier work on its implications for the emergence of physical laws in a statistical manner. We also present a number of new results: We show that (contrary to suggestions in our earlier work) time independent Hamiltonians may quite generally be assumed for laws of physics that emerge in this picture. We also further explore the degree to which the observed Universe can be well approximated by a random Hamiltonian. We discuss the possibility of predicting the dimensionality of space, and also relate the 2nd derivative of the density of states to the heat capacity of the Universe. This new work adds to the viability of our proposal that strong predictions for physical laws may eme...

  14. GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution based on integrity restriction in ambiguity domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiying; Chen, Zhiming; Ye, Weisong; Wang, Huinan

    2014-04-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a key technology for high-precision navigation and positioning, and it is a challenge for applications which require both high accuracy and high integrity. This paper proposes efficient ambiguity resolution methods based on integrity restriction using Fixed Failure rate Ratio Test (FF-RT) and Doubly Non-central F-distribution Ratio Test (DNF-RT), and derives the related processing models and numerical algorithms compared with the traditional Ratio Test (RT) method. Firstly, the integer ambiguity resolution and validation procedures, especially the Least squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (LAMBDA) estimation and RT validation are analyzed. Then the quality evaluation using success rate, the FF-RT method using Integer Aperture (IA) estimation and the NDF-RT method are proposed. Lastly, the simulation and analysis for LAMBDA using RT, FF-RT and DNF-RT methods are performed. Simulation results show that in case of unbiased scenario FF-RT and DNF-RT have similar performances, which are significantly better than RT. In case of biased scenario it is difficult for FF-RT to predict the biased success rate thus it should not be used for bias detection, while DNF-RT can detect biases in most cases except for the biases are approximate or equal to integer, which has the important benefit for early detection of potential threat to the position solution.

  15. Azimuth Phase Coding for Range Ambiguity Suppression in SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders

    2004-01-01

    excels by actually eliminating the ambiguities rather than just defocusing them as most other techniques do. This makes the proposed technique applicable to distributed targets. The range ambiguity suppression permits the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to exceed the upper limit otherwise defined...... by the antenna elevation dimension. The fundamental antenna area constraint still applies, but the PRF can be chosen with more freedom. In addition to ambiguity suppression, potential applications include nadir return elimination and signal-to-noise ratio improvement....

  16. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  17. Lexical Ambiguity in Nouns: Frequency Dominance and Declensional Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Azzurra; Laudanna, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The existence of differences in lexical processing between ambiguous and unambiguous words is still controversial. Many factors seem to play a role in determining different ambiguity effects in word recognition, such as ambiguity type, experimental paradigm, frequency dominance, etc. The aim of this study is to investigate the role played by frequency dominance and declensional class in recognizing Italian homonymous nouns, namely, forms with multiple unrelated meaning...

  18. Elimination Method Study of Ambiguous Words in Chinese Automatic Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Wang; Xiaorong, Yang; Jie, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Faced with huge amounts of information to realize the accurate retrieval under the network environment, the first step is indexing words cannot appear ambiguity word. Because Chinese’s the basic unit is Chinese characters, Chinese characters form words, Word is divided into monosyllabic word and compound word, and there’s no space between Chinese keywords and there are a lot of ambiguous concept. Therefore a lot of ambiguity in the indexing process will be produced. The result detected inform...

  19. Ambiguous science and the visual representation of the real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Curtis Robert

    The emergence of visual media as prominent and even expected forms of communication in nearly all disciplines, including those scientific, has raised new questions about how the art and science of communication epistemologically affect the interpretation of scientific phenomena. In this dissertation I explore how the influence of aesthetics in visual representations of science inevitably creates ambiguous meanings. As a means to improve visual literacy in the sciences, I call awareness to the ubiquity of visual ambiguity and its importance and relevance in scientific discourse. To do this, I conduct a literature review that spans interdisciplinary research in communication, science, art, and rhetoric. Furthermore, I create a paradoxically ambiguous taxonomy, which functions to exploit the nuances of visual ambiguities and their role in scientific communication. I then extrapolate the taxonomy of visual ambiguity and from it develop an ambiguous, rhetorical heuristic, the Tetradic Model of Visual Ambiguity. The Tetradic Model is applied to a case example of a scientific image as a demonstration of how scientific communicators may increase their awareness of the epistemological effects of ambiguity in the visual representations of science. I conclude by demonstrating how scientific communicators may make productive use of visual ambiguity, even in communications of objective science, and I argue how doing so strengthens scientific communicators' visual literacy skills and their ability to communicate more ethically and effectively.

  20. Ambiguous Loss Experienced by Transnational Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Catherine; Zaid, Samantha; Ballard, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an ambiguous loss framework as described by Boss (1999, Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief, First Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA) was used to examine and understand the family experiences of Mexican immigrant agricultural workers in Minnesota. Transcripts from interviews with 17 workers in Minnesota and 17 family members in Mexico were analyzed using qualitative methodology to identify experiences of ambiguous loss in the participants' narratives. Key dimensions of ambiguous loss identified in the transcripts include: psychological family, feelings of chronic/recurring loss, finding support, and meaning making. In the category of psychological family, participants in both Mexico and the United States mourned the physical absence of their family members and experienced ambiguity regarding family responsibilities, but worked to maintain their psychological roles within the family. In the category of chronic/recurring loss, participants in both countries experienced chronic worry from not knowing if family members were safe, ambiguity regarding when the immigrant would return, and chronic stressors that compounded these feelings of loss. Participants in both countries coped with both real and ambiguous losses by accessing family support and by using ambiguous communication to minimize worry. Participants in Mexico also accessed work and community-based support. Participants in both countries made meaning of the ambiguous loss by identifying ways their lives were improved and goals were met as a result of the immigration for agricultural work in Minnesota. PMID:25619113

  1. Dealing with the Ambiguities of Science Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2016-03-01

    The current vision of science education in myriad educational contexts encourages students to learn through the process of science inquiry. Science inquiry has been used to promote conceptual learning and engage learners in an active process of meaning-making and investigation to understand the world around them. The science inquiry process typically involves asking questions and defining problems; constructing explanations and designing solutions; planning and carrying out investigations; analyzing and interpreting data; and engaging in argument from evidence. Despite the importance and provision of new directions and standards about science inquiry, ambiguities in conceptualizations of inquiry still exist. These conceptualizations may serve as barriers to students learning science. In this article, we detail three main concerns related to teachers' conceptualization of science inquiry in the context of a Singapore classroom—concerns that may be similarly faced by teachers elsewhere.

  2. Fast Computation of Cross-Ambiguity Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel method based on zoom fast Fourier transform(FFT) is proposed for minimizing the burden processing of cross-ambiguity functions without affecting performance. The low-pass anti-aliasing filter in zoom FFT is realized by using the multistage filtering technique and the weighting processing is employed in the first stage filter to get rid of the redundancy of the computation. In practical systems, the input data is divided into overlapped data frames to avoid loss of detection ability which results in the rapid increase of computational complexity. A segment technique is also proposed in which CAF calculation of overlapped data frames is viewed as slide window FFT to decrease the computational complexity. The experimental results show that compared to the conventional methods, the proposed method can lower computational complexity and is consistent with the real time implementation in existing high-speed digital processors.

  3. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  4. [Ambiguity role of neutrophils in oncogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tseva, V N; Safronova, V G

    2009-01-01

    The review is focused on the participation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (neutrophils) in development and spreading of a tumor. We consider both the well known functions of neutrophils (degranulation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and the recently shown one (presentation of an antigene). The special attention is focused on the ambiguity of the neutrophil role in oncogenesis. The dominant view is that neutrophils display exclusively antitumor properties. The update information testifies about protumoral activity of neutrophils: they migrate to a tumor and promote angiogenesis and metastasis at late stages of the tumor. It is interesting that certain components of neutrophil cytotoxic arsenal (ROS, cytokines, specific enzymes) participate both in antitumoral defenses of an organism and protumoral activity. PMID:19637749

  5. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  6. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

  7. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed.

  8. Risk, ambiguity and quantum decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    In the present article we use the quantum formalism to describe the effects of risk and ambiguity in decision theory. The main idea is that the probabilities in the classic theory of expected utility are estimated probabilities, and thus do not follow the classic laws of probability theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to use consistently the classic expected utility formula, where the probability associated to the events are computed with the equation of quantum interference. Thus we show that the correct utility of a lottery can be simply computed by adding to the classic expected utility a new corrective term, the uncertainty utility, directly connected with the quantum interference term.

  9. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  10. Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

  11. Ambiguity Tolerance and Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…

  12. DIRECTION AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION FROM SAR IMAGERY: A NEW APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ambiguity problem is inherent in synthetic aperture radar (SAR)images of ocean waves. A new method is developed based on the propagation theory of gravity waves to remove this kind of ambiguity from a single frame of real image. The results from a case study presented in this paper show good agreement to in-phase wave data.

  13. Kindergarten Children Can Be Taught to Detect Lexical Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamowski-Shakibai, Margaret T.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of metalinguistic skills, particularly ambiguity detection, and whether training accelerates this development for prereaders in kindergarten (5;5-6;6). It is the first to compare homophone detection with lexically ambiguous sentence detection in which the same homophones appear. The experimental group…

  14. Ambiguity and the ‘mental eye’ in pictorial relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Photographs of scenes do not determine scenes in the sense that infinitely many different scenes could have given rise to any given photograph. In psychophysical experiments, observers have (at least partially) to resolve these ambiguities. The ambiguities also allow them to vary their response with

  15. An Analysis on Positive Impacts of Communication Ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Siyu

    2015-01-01

    This essay briefly introduces the factors of communication ambiguity and makes an analysis on them. Accordingly,several suggestions are given to help people to deal with the difficulties it brings to their life.In terms of the influence of communication ambiguity,the essay mainly focuses on the positive side.

  16. An Analysis on Positive Impacts of Communication Ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Siyu

    2015-01-01

    This essay briefly introduces the factors of communication ambiguity and makes an analysis on them.Accordingly,several suggestions are given to help people to deal with the difficulties it brings to their life.In terms of the influence of communication ambiguity,the essay mainly focuses on the positive side.

  17. GLONASS ionosphere-free ambiguity resolution for precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Current GLONASS satellites transmit signals based on the frequency division multiple access (FDMA) technology. Due to equipment delays occurring within GNSS receivers, GLONASS carrier phase and code observations are contaminated by inter-frequency biases. As a consequence, GLONASS ambiguity parameters in long-baseline processing are typically estimated as float values. In this paper, a strategy is investigated which benefits from the frequency spacing of GLONASS frequencies on the L1 and L2 bands, allowing for an ionosphere-free ambiguity with a wavelength of approximately 5 cm to be defined; therefore, avoiding the problematic wide-lane ambiguity resolution. Based on 12 independent baselines with a mean inter-station distance of about 850 km over a 1-week period, it is demonstrated that close to 95 % of the estimated double-differenced ionosphere-free ambiguities are within 0.15 cycles of an integer, thereby suggesting that long-baseline ambiguity resolution can be achieved for GLONASS. Applying between-station ambiguity constraints in precise point positioning (PPP) solutions was found to improve longitudinal repeatability in static mode by more than 20 % for sessions between 2 and 6 h in duration. In kinematic mode, only limited improvements were made to the initial convergence period since the short wavelength of GLONASS ionosphere-free ambiguities requires the solution to be nearly converged before successful ambiguity resolution can be achieved.

  18. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  19. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Idioms and Conversational Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Bernard, Stephane; Deleau, Michel; Brule, Lauriane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall…

  20. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  1. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  2. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    . These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...

  3. One-shot genitalia are not an evolutionary dead end - Regained male polygamy in a sperm limited spider species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monogynous mating systems with extremely low male mating rates have several independent evolutionary origins and are associated with drastic adaptations involving self-sacrifice, one-shot genitalia, genital damage, and termination of spermatogenesis immediately after maturation. The combination of such extreme traits likely restricts evolutionary potential perhaps up to the point of making low male mating rates irreversible and hence may constitute an evolutionary dead end. Here, we explore the case of a reversion to multiple mating from monogynous ancestry in golden orb-web spiders, Nephila senegalensis. Results Male multiple mating is regained by the loss of genital damage and sexual cannibalism but spermatogenesis is terminated with maturation, restricting males to a single loading of their secondary mating organs and a fixed supply of sperm. However, males re-use their mating organs and by experimentally mating males to many females, we show that the sperm supply is divided between copulations without reloading the pedipalps. Conclusion By portioning their precious sperm supply, males achieve an average mating rate of four females which effectively doubles the maximal mating rate of their ancestors. A heritage of one-shot genitalia does not completely restrict the potential to increase mating rates in Nephila although an upper limit is defined by the available sperm load. Future studies should now investigate how males use this potential in the field and identify selection pressures responsible for a reversal from monogynous to polygynous mating strategies.

  4. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raval, Haresh [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-15

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S{sup 3}, when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  5. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

  6. Understanding resarchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  7. Understanding researchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  8. Practice makes perfect: Training the interpretation of emotional ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Jessica L; Hedley, Sophie; Mountier, Emily; Tiszai, Boglarka; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of emotionally ambiguous words, sentences, or scenarios can be altered through training procedures that are collectively called cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I). In three experiments, we systematically manipulated the nature of the training in order to discriminate between emotional priming and ambiguity resolution accounts of training effects. In Experiment 1 participants completed word fragments that were consistently related to either a negative or benign interpretation of an ambiguous sentence. In a subsequent semantic priming task they demonstrated an interpretation bias, in that they were faster to identify relatedness of targets that were associated with the training-congruent meaning of an emotionally ambiguous homograph. We then manipulated the training sentences to show that interpretation bias was eliminated when participants simply completed valenced word fragments following unrelated sentences (Experiment 2), or completed fragments that were related to emotional but unambiguous sentences (Experiment 3). Only when participants were required to actively resolve emotionally ambiguous sentences during training did changes in interpretation emerge at test. Findings suggest that CBM-I achieves its effects by altering a production rule that aids the selection of meaning from emotionally ambiguous alternatives, in line with an ambiguity resolution account. PMID:25807872

  9. Statistical resolution of ambiguous HLA typing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Listgarten

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution HLA typing plays a central role in many areas of immunology, such as in identifying immunogenetic risk factors for disease, in studying how the genomes of pathogens evolve in response to immune selection pressures, and also in vaccine design, where identification of HLA-restricted epitopes may be used to guide the selection of vaccine immunogens. Perhaps one of the most immediate applications is in direct medical decisions concerning the matching of stem cell transplant donors to unrelated recipients. However, high-resolution HLA typing is frequently unavailable due to its high cost or the inability to re-type historical data. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate a method for statistical, in silico refinement of ambiguous and/or low-resolution HLA data. Our method, which requires an independent, high-resolution training data set drawn from the same population as the data to be refined, uses linkage disequilibrium in HLA haplotypes as well as four-digit allele frequency data to probabilistically refine HLA typings. Central to our approach is the use of haplotype inference. We introduce new methodology to this area, improving upon the Expectation-Maximization (EM-based approaches currently used within the HLA community. Our improvements are achieved by using a parsimonious parameterization for haplotype distributions and by smoothing the maximum likelihood (ML solution. These improvements make it possible to scale the refinement to a larger number of alleles and loci in a more computationally efficient and stable manner. We also show how to augment our method in order to incorporate ethnicity information (as HLA allele distributions vary widely according to race/ethnicity as well as geographic area, and demonstrate the potential utility of this experimentally. A tool based on our approach is freely available for research purposes at http://microsoft.com/science.

  10. A method to reduce ambiguities of qualitative reasoning for conceptual design applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amelio, V.; Chmarra, M.K.; Tomiyama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative reasoning can generate ambiguous behaviors due to the lack of quantitative information. Despite many different research results focusing on ambiguities reduction, fundamentally it is impossible to totally remove ambiguities with only qualitative methods and to guarantee the consistency o

  11. Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...

  12. Ambiguities in order-theoretic formulations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marsland, Robert; Valente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1909 work of Carath\\'eodory, formulations of thermodynamics have gained ground which highlight the role of the the binary relation of adiabatic accessibility between equilibrium states. A feature of Carath\\'eodory's system is that the version therein of the second law contains an ambiguity about the nature of irreversible adiabatic processes, making it weaker than the traditional Kelvin-Planck statement of the law. This paper attempts first to clarify the nature of this ambiguity, by defining the arrow of time in thermodynamics by way of the Equilibrium Principle ("Minus First Law"). It then argues that the ambiguity reappears in the important 1999 axiomatisation due to Lieb and Yngvason.

  13. Characteristics of a pure-state ambiguity function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praxmeyer, Ludmila; Vitanov, Nikolay [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stenholm, Stig [Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm Sweden (Sweden)

    2009-12-11

    We present the necessary and sufficient condition for a square integrable function on R{sup 2N} to be an ambiguity function corresponding to a square integrable function on R{sup N}. This condition has the form of an integral equation. We also list some easier to check necessary conditions that must be fulfilled by a function that is an ambiguity function of a pure state. We show how to construct a wavefunction corresponding to a given ambiguity function and we present examples of how our formal results can be used in practice.

  14. Tool for Automatic Discovery of Ambiguity in Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Arya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are the foundation for delivering quality software. Often it is found that the short development cycle lead teams to cut short the time they will spend on Requirement Analysis. In this work we developed a tool which can quickly review requirements by identifying ambiguous words and provide us the possible sources of wrong interpretation. Currently tool supports identification of Lexical, Syntactic and Syntax ambiguities. The tool will assist requirement analysis personnel while reviewing specifications, highlighting ambiguous words and providing graphical snapshot to gauge the correctness of documents.

  15. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  16. Unraveling the Symmetry Ambiguity in a Hexamer: Calculation of the R6 Human Insulin Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Sean I.; Chang, Xiaoqing; Abseher, Roger;

    2000-01-01

    ambiguous distance restraints, insulin hexamer, principal component analysis, solution structure, symmetric oligomers......ambiguous distance restraints, insulin hexamer, principal component analysis, solution structure, symmetric oligomers...

  17. On the characteristics of ASCAT wind direction ambiguities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inversion of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT backscatter measurement triplets generally leads to two wind ambiguities with similar wind speed values and opposite wind directions. However, for up-, down- and cross-wind (with respect to the mid beam azimuth direction cases, the inversion often leads to three or four wind solutions. In most of such cases, the inversion residual or maximum likelihood estimator (MLE of the 3rd and 4th solutions (i.e. high-rank solutions are substantially higher than those of the first two (low rank ambiguities, indicating a low probability of the former and thus essentially dual ambiguity. This paper investigates the characteristics of ASCAT high-rank wind solutions under different conditions with the objective to develop a method for rejecting the spurious high-rank solutions. The implementation of this rejection procedure improves the effectiveness of the ASCAT wind quality control (QC and ambiguity removal procedures.

  18. Ambiguous and forbidden parameter combinations for aqueous plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of forbidden and ambiguous oxidation-state distributions for plutonium are easier to understand when presented graphically. This note describes two diagrams that illustrate the phenomena. PMID:18986812

  19. Rapid integer ambiguity resolution in GPS precise point positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Jianghui

    2011-01-01

    GPS precise point positioning (PPP) has been used in many scientific and commercial applications due to its high computational efficiency, no need for any synchronous measurements from a nearby reference receiver and homogeneous positioning quality on a global scale. However, these merits are devalued significantly by unresolved ambiguities and slow convergences of PPP. Therefore, this thesis aims at improving PPP’s performance by resolving ambiguities for a single receiver and accelerating t...

  20. The clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The process of identifying a time variable in time reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or ``clock''. In this article we demonstrate how this ``clock ambiguity'' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific pre...

  1. Ambiguity, Processing Strategy, and Advertising-Evidence Interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Young-Won; Stephen J. Hoch

    1989-01-01

    Although advertising persuades through overt appeals to reason or emotion, we focus on the indirect process by which advertising influences the interpretation of objective product evidence. We investigate how two factors moderate advertising-evidence interactions: the ambiguity of the evidence and consumer information processing strategies. We provide a theoretical account of ambiguity, identifying structural characteristics that render evidence about product quality open to either one or mul...

  2. Minimizing the Integer Ambiguity Search Space for RTK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yun-chun; R. R. Hatch; R. T. Sharpe

    2003-01-01

    Differential GPS carrier phase measurements have much lower noise and multipath error than that of pseudorange measurements.The result is centimeter accuracy for Real-Time Kinematic (RTK).However, the measurement of the carrier phase has a constant unknown integer ambiguity. Several technical issues are related to solving the integer ambiguity correctly. They are: proper stochastic model, search space definition and initialization, search space reduction, state and standard deviation calculation, validation and rejection criteria for the unique and correct candidate. Search space reduction is critically important. It not only affects the ambiguity resolution speed, but also defines the ambiguity resolution success rate. The smaller the search space, the easier it is to find the unique and correct candidate set. The paper analyzes the integer ambiguity search space in its residual domain.The search space is minimized by: Analyzing the maximum independent integer ambiguity measurement set theoretically; Selecting the best initial measurement set that minimizes the search range of each satellite in the set and reduces the error effects from noise that may cause the wrong integer ambiguity solution for the remaining satellites not contained in the initial measurement set.Since the Residual Sensitive Matrix (S-Matrix) relates the integer ambiguity candidate set directly to post-fix residuals, it is not necessary to compute a fix for each candidate set thus making the integ erambiguity search process much more efficient. Also, minimizing the search space in the residual domain improves the search efficiency significantly and at the same time improves its reliability. Performance issues, such as recursive and weighted search techniques as well as methods for improving reliability, are also discussed in the article.

  3. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested three possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first two characters and the last two characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that wo...

  4. Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words

    OpenAIRE

    Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous words (e.g., ball) or unambiguous words (e.g., athlete), and targets were either semantically related to the dominant (i.e., most frequent) meaning of ...

  5. Tool for Automatic Discovery of Ambiguity in Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Arya; Bhawna Nigam; Deepika Jain; Ayan Nigam

    2012-01-01

    Requirements are the foundation for delivering quality software. Often it is found that the short development cycle lead teams to cut short the time they will spend on Requirement Analysis. In this work we developed a tool which can quickly review requirements by identifying ambiguous words and provide us the possible sources of wrong interpretation. Currently tool supports identification of Lexical, Syntactic and Syntax ambiguities. The tool will assist requirement analysis personnel while r...

  6. The interpretation of ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context

    OpenAIRE

    Pollatsek, Alexander; Drieghe, Denis; Stockall, Linnaea; de Almeida, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Many trimorphemic words are structurally and semantically ambiguous. For example, unlockable can either be un-lockable (can’t be locked) or unlock-able (can be unlocked). Which interpretation is preferred and whether prior sentence context affects the initial interpretation is not clear from prior research. The present experiment embedded ambiguous trimorphemic words in sentence context and manipulated whether prior context disambiguated the meaning or not and examined the pattern of fixation...

  7. Isoclinic Ambiguity Unwrapping of Circular Ring under Diametric Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang M.-J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isoclinic and isochromatic parameters in photoelastic analysis are formulated by arc tangent function of several phase shifting frames but for isochromatic calculation it is, in addition, in terms of isoclinic data also. Thus, any isoclinic phase ambiguity would also result in the phase inconsistencies of isochromatic calculation and cause unwrapping problems and difficulties. Many methods had been proposed to treat these kinds of isochromatic fringes but lots of treatments were needed for the correct retrieval. In this work, the isoclinic ambiguity problem is investigated and solved directly by a novel regional phase unwrapping technique. Once the isoclinic phase ambiguity problems are solved, a correct isoclinic result can be obtained. Then, substituting this result into the isochromatic formation yields an ambiguity free isochromatic phase map, which can be easily restored by any phase unwrapping algorithm. A stress frozen sample - circular ring under diametric compression verifies its effectiveness. Usually happened is that this kind of sample is with ambiguous isoclinic data which would cause phase ambiguities of the isochromatic formulation if not treated well first.

  8. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  9. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  10. Classical Noncommutative Electrodynamics with External Source

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    In a $U(1)_{\\star}$-noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory we extend the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map to include the (gauge-invariance-violating) external current and formulate - to the first order in the NC parameter - gauge-covariant classical field equations. We find solutions to these equations in the vacuum and in an external magnetic field, when the 4-current is a static electric charge of a finite size $a$, restricted from below by the elementary length. We impose extra boundary conditions, which we use to rule out all singularities, $1/r$ included, from the solutions. The selected solutions neither should nor do withstand the limiting transition $a \\rightarrow 0$. The static charge proves to be a magnetic dipole, with the magnetic moment depending on its size $a$. The external magnetic field modifies the long-range Coulomb field and some electromagnetic form-factors. We also analyze the ambiguity in the SW map and show that at least to the order studied here it is equivalent to the ambiguity of adding a ho...

  11. The Usability of Ambiguity Detection Methods for Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, H.J.S.; Johnstone, A.; Vinju, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of verifying a grammar is the detection of ambiguities. Ambiguities are not always unwanted, but they can only be controlled if their sources are known. Unfortunately, the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable in the general case. Various ambiguity detection methods (ADM

  12. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Leidi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57, Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22 and human (strain EP. Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs.

  13. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  14. Neural substrates for judgment of self-agency in ambiguous situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available The sense of agency is the attribution of oneself as the cause of one's own actions and their effects. Accurate agency judgments are essential for adaptive behaviors in dynamic environments, especially in conditions of uncertainty. However, it is unclear how agency judgments are made in ambiguous situations where self-agency and non-self-agency are both possible. Agency attribution is thus thought to require higher-order neurocognitive processes that integrate several possibilities. Furthermore, neural activity specific to self-attribution, as compared with non-self-attribution, may reflect higher-order critical operations that contribute to constructions of self-consciousness. Based on these assumptions, the present study focused on agency judgments under ambiguous conditions and examined the neural correlates of this operation with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed a simple but demanding agency-judgment task, which required them to report on whether they attributed their own action as the cause of a visual stimulus change. The temporal discrepancy between the participant's action and the visual events was adaptively set to be maximally ambiguous for each individual on a trial-by-trial basis. Comparison with results for a control condition revealed that the judgment of agency was associated with activity in lateral temporo-parietal areas, medial frontal areas, the dorsolateral prefrontal area, and frontal operculum/insula regions. However, most of these areas did not differentiate between self- and non-self-attribution. Instead, self-attribution was associated with activity in posterior midline areas, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that deliberate self-attribution of an external event is principally associated with activity in posterior midline structures, which is imperative for self-consciousness.

  15. Value transfer contributes to ambiguous-cue discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J; Michalek, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Pigeons learned two concurrent simultaneous discriminations in which the S- for one served as the S+ for the other. When all correct choices were reinforced, accuracy on the former (positive vs. ambiguous-cue or PA) discrimination was lower than on the latter (negative vs. ambiguous-cue or NA) discrimination. When correct choices on the PA discrimination were intermittently reinforced, however, pigeons chose the S- more often than the S+ on those trials. By contrast, intermittently reinforcing correct choices on the NA discrimination did not affect NA-trial accuracy but yielded higher PA-trial accuracy relative to continuous reinforcement. Together with a separate preference assessment, these results indicate that value transfer, in which some of the positive value accrued by an S+ transfers to its companion S-, contributes to ambiguous-cue performances. PMID:17972729

  16. CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for understanding how lack of clarity in business press coverage of corporate social responsibility functions as a mediated and emergent form of strategic ambiguity. Many stakeholders expect CSR to exhibit clarity, consistency, and discursive closure. But stakeholders also...... expect CSR to conform to varying degrees of both formal and substantive rationality. These diverse expectations conflict with each other and change over time. A content analysis of press coverage in Denmark suggests that the business media reflect and amplify the ambiguity generated by these shifting...... demands. We propose that this very public lack of discursive closure provides strategic advantages to CSR stakeholders by rendering the concept of CSR adaptable, resilient, and meaningful to diverse interests. From this perspective, strategic ambiguity emerges from a relational and mediated process...

  17. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    In 3 experiments, we tested 3 possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first 2 characters and the last 2 characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that words in different positions are processed simultaneously and independently, and the word segmentation ambiguity cannot be settled without the help of sentence context. The competition hypothesis assumes that all of the words compete for a single winner. The results support a competition account that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough. PMID:24417292

  18. Value transfer contributes to ambiguous-cue discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J; Michalek, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Pigeons learned two concurrent simultaneous discriminations in which the S- for one served as the S+ for the other. When all correct choices were reinforced, accuracy on the former (positive vs. ambiguous-cue or PA) discrimination was lower than on the latter (negative vs. ambiguous-cue or NA) discrimination. When correct choices on the PA discrimination were intermittently reinforced, however, pigeons chose the S- more often than the S+ on those trials. By contrast, intermittently reinforcing correct choices on the NA discrimination did not affect NA-trial accuracy but yielded higher PA-trial accuracy relative to continuous reinforcement. Together with a separate preference assessment, these results indicate that value transfer, in which some of the positive value accrued by an S+ transfers to its companion S-, contributes to ambiguous-cue performances.

  19. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  20. Ambigüidade genital: a percepção da doença e os anseios dos pais Ambiguous genitalia: perception of the disease and parents anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva; Heleni B. de Brito; Erlane Marques Ribeiro; José Brandão-Neto

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: identificar a percepção e os mecanismos de enfrentamento utilizados por pais frente à ambigüidade genital de seus filhos em suas diversas etapas evolutivas. MÉTODOS: estudo qualitativo, baseado nos relatos de 15 pais, todos de diferentes famílias, sobre seus anseios no desenvolvimento da criança. Realizado no ambulatório de patologias endócrino-genéticas do Hospital Geral César Cals, no Ceará, em 2004. RESULTADOS: as categorias que emergiram através do discurso dos sujeitos foram: ...

  1. Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is

  2. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Eduardo Escovar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy.

  3. Neural response to modulating the probability that actions of self or other result in auditory tones: A parametric fMRI study into causal ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; Gouws, André; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2016-09-01

    In normal circumstances we can easily distinguish between changes to the external world brought about by our own actions from those with external causes. However, in certain contexts our sense of ownership and agency over acts is not so clear. Neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of regions in the sense of agency, some of which have been shown to vary continuously with action-outcome discordance. However, little is known about dynamic, ambiguous contexts characterised by a lack of information for self-other differentiation, yet such ambiguous states are important in relation to symptoms and levels of consciousness that characterise certain mental health conditions. With a block-design fMRI paradigm, we investigated neural responses to changes in the probability that a participant's irregular finger taps over 12s would result in auditory tones as opposed to tones generated by 'another's finger taps'. The main findings were that misattribution increased in ambiguous conditions where the probability of a tone belonging to self and other was equal. Task-sensitive brain regions, previously identified in self-agency, motor cognition, and ambiguity processing, showed a quadratic response to our self-to-other manipulation, with particular sensitivity to self-control. Task performance (low error and bias) was related to attenuated response in ambiguous conditions while increased response in regions associated with the default mode network was associated with greater overall error and bias towards other. These findings suggest that causal ambiguity as it occurs over time is a prominent feature in sense of agency, one that may eventually contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of positive symptoms of psychosis.

  4. Ambiguity Function Analysis and Side Peaks Suppression of WiFi Signal for Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Yun-hua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available WiFi (Wireless Fidelity is widely deployed all the world. When it is utilized as external illuminaor in Passive Radar, its broadband singal make the high resolution of detection be obtained in both the range and Doppler domains. In this paper, the typical WiFi signal format and its characters are analyzed, then the theoretical signal model is setup. Based on the theory of bistatic passive radar, the relationship between typical IEEE 802.11 signals format and the characters of its Ambiguity Function (AF is analyzed. Moreover, the position and amplitude of side peaks in time and frequency domain is analyzed and its causes from the signal structure is also discussed. In this paper, a method for suppressing the side peaks based on the correction of direct-path reference signal is proposed, therefore to avoid the false alarm brought in target detection caused by side peak interference. Experimental results valid the proposed signal processing method.

  5. How to Capture and Present Complexity, Ambivalence and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Bakhtin was a literary theorist and was the widely acknowledged father of dialogism. This working paper shows how Bakhtin and dialogism can be used to capture complexity, ambivalence and ambiguity in the social world. In following the spirit of dialogism, I will refer to my own research experiences...

  6. Handling Ambiguity Problems of Natural Language Interface for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alharbi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Natural language question (NLQ processing module is considered a fundamental component in the natural language interface of a Question Answering (QA system, and its quality impacts the performance of the overall QA system. The most difficult problem in developing a QA system is so hard to find an exact answer to the NLQ. One of the most challenging problems in returning answers is how to resolve lexical semantic ambiguity in the NLQs. Lexical semantic ambiguity may occurs when a user's NLQ contains words that have more than one meaning. As a result, QA system performance can be negatively affected by these ambiguous words. In this research, we aim to resolve this problem by introducing CKCO (Context Knowledge Concepts Ontology approach. This approach integrates context knowledge and concepts ontology of a domain, into a shallow natural language processing (SNLP technique. Concepts knowledge is modeled using ontology, while context knowledge contains a set of words with their senses obtained from WordNet Domain and a group of words within the proposed domain serve as context labels, and it is determined based on neighborhood words in the NLQ. We applied CKCO approach to a university QA domain for new students to examine the impact of WSD in retrieving correct answers. Experimental results show that the CKCO approach together with other components of our QA system yield a result which is 83.4% for precision. We focus on the ambiguity of nouns in the NLQ.

  7. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  8. What Is Reflection? Looking for Clarity in an Ambiguous Notion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarà, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The notion of reflection nowadays is considered crucial in the field of teaching and teacher education. However, although the great majority of approaches to reflection are grounded on the same main theoretical sources, the meaning of this notion is unanimously recognized in the field to be ambiguous. This article aims to look for clarity about…

  9. Ambiguities of arrival-time distributions in quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, J

    1998-01-01

    We consider the definition that might be given to the time at which a particle arrives at a given place, both in standard quantum theory and also in Bohmian mechanics. We discuss an ambiguity that arises in the standard theory in three, but not in one, spatial dimension.

  10. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  11. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  12. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be twice the value usually considered.

  13. Ambiguity Aversion and Household Portfolio Choice Puzzles: Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWe test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambig

  14. Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences…

  15. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  16. GNSS integer ambiguity validation based on posterior probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zemin; Bian, Shaofeng

    2015-10-01

    GNSS integer ambiguity validation is considered to be a challenge task for decades. Several kinds of validation tests are developed and widely used in these years, but theoretical basis is their weakness. Ambiguity validation theoretically is an issue of hypothesis test. In the frame of Bayesian hypothesis testing, posterior probability is the canonical standard that statistical decision should be based on. In this contribution, (i) we derive the posterior probability of the fixed ambiguity based on the Bayesian principle and modify it for practice ambiguity validation. (ii) The optimal property of the posterior probability test is proved based on an extended Neyman-Pearson lemma. Since validation failure rate is the issue users most concerned about, (iii) we derive the failure rate upper bound of the posterior probability test, so the user can use the posterior probability test either in the fixed posterior probability or in the fixed failure rate way. Simulated as well as real observed data are used for experimental validations. The results show that (i) the posterior probability test is the most effective within the R-ratio test, difference test, ellipsoidal integer aperture test and posterior probability test, (ii) the posterior probability test is computational efficient and (iii) the failure rate estimation for posterior probability test is useful.

  17. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  18. Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

  19. Interpretation of Ambiguous Information in Girls at Risk for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Dearing, Karen F.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently documented that depressed individuals process information in a negatively biased manner. There is little evidence, however, concerning whether these biases represent risk factors for depression, as is hypothesized by cognitive models. In the present study we investigated whether a particular cognitive bias observed in currently depressed individuals, the tendency to interpret ambiguous information negatively, characterizes daughters of depressed mothers, a population...

  20. Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous…

  1. Resolving distance ambiguities towards 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, J D; Goldsmith, P F

    2008-01-01

    Distances to most star forming regions are determined using kinematics, through the assumption that the observed radial velocity arises from the motion of the source with respect to the Sun resulting from the differential rotation of Galaxy. The primary challenge associated with the application of this technique in the inner Galaxy is the kinematic distance ambiguity. In this work, we aim to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity towards a sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which are signposts of the early stages of massive star formation. We measured 21 cm HI absorption spectra using the Very Large Array in C and CnB configurations. A comparison of the maximum velocity of HI absorption with the source velocity and tangent point velocity was used to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity. We resolved the distance ambiguity towards 41 sources. Distance determinations that are in conflict with previous measurements are discussed. The NE2001 spiral arm model is broadly consistent with the locations of the st...

  2. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  3. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show...

  4. Persistence of Initial Misanalysis With No Referential Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Chie; Arai, Manabu

    2016-05-01

    Previous research reported that in processing structurally ambiguous sentences comprehenders often preserve an initial incorrect analysis even after adopting a correct analysis following structural disambiguation. One criticism is that the sentences tested in previous studies involved referential ambiguity and allowed comprehenders to make inferences about the initial interpretation using pragmatic information, suggesting the possibility that the initial analysis persisted due to comprehenders' pragmatic inference but not to their failure to perform complete reanalysis of the initial misanalysis. Our study investigated this by testing locally ambiguous relative clause sentences in Japanese, in which the initial misinterpretation contradicts the correct interpretation. Our study using a self-paced reading technique demonstrated evidence for the persistence of the initial analysis with this structure. The results from an eye-tracking study further suggested that the phenomenon directly reflected the amount of support given to the initial incorrect analysis prior to disambiguating information: The more supported the incorrect main clause analysis was, the more likely comprehenders were to preserve the analysis even after the analysis was falsified. Our results thus demonstrated that the preservation of the initial analysis occurs not due to referential ambiguities but to comprehenders' difficulty to fully revise the highly supported initial interpretation.

  5. Auditory scene analysis: The sweet music of ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePressnitzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis, or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, auditory scene analysis uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener. After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather to express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit knowledge of the rules of auditory scene analysis and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music.

  6. European starlings unriddle the ambiguous-cue problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eVasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue problem is deceptively simple. It involves two concurrently trained simultaneous discriminations (known as PA and NA trials, but only three stimuli. Stimulus A is common to both discriminations, but serves as non-reinforced stimulus (S- on PA trials and as reinforced stimulus (S+ on NA trials. Typically, animals’ accuracy is lower on PA trials—the ambiguous-cue effect. We conducted two experiments with European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris using Urcuioli and Michalek’s [2007, Psychon B Rev 14, 658-662] experimental manipulations as a springboard to test the predictions of two of the most important theoretical accounts of the effect: the interfering cue hypothesis and value transfer theory. Both experiments included two groups of birds, one trained with a regular ambiguous-cue problem (Group Continuous and another trained with partial reinforcement on PA trials (Group PA-Partial. The experiments differed only in the number of sessions (18 vs. 36 and daily trials (360 vs. 60. As previously observed, we found faster acquisition on NA trials than on PA trials in both experiments, but by the end of training PA performance was surprisingly high, such that no ambiguous-cue effect was present in Group Continuous of either experiment. The effect was still present in both PA-Partial groups, but to a smaller degree than expected. These findings are inconsistent with the literature, in particular with the results of Urcuioli and Michalek with pigeons, and question the aforementioned theoretical accounts as complete explanations of the ambiguous-cue effect. In our view, to achieve such high levels of accuracy on PA trials, starlings must have attended to configural (i.e., contextual cues, thus differentiating stimulus A when presented on PA trials from stimulus A when presented on NA trials. A post hoc simulation of a reinforcement-based configural model supported our assertion.

  7. To mind the mind: An event-related potential study of word class and semantic ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to jointly examine the effects of word class, word class ambiguity, and semantic ambiguity on the brain response to words in syntactically specified contexts. Four types of words were used: (1) word class ambiguous words with a high degree of semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘duck’); (2) word class ambiguous words with little or no semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘vote’); (3) word class unambiguous nouns (e.g., ‘sofa’); and (4) word class unambiguous verbs (e.g., ‘eat’). These w...

  8. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  9. Cognitive Models of Lexical Ambiguity Resolution%词汇歧义消解的认知模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明强

    2011-01-01

    The internal factor of lexical ambiguity is the polysemy of words,and the context variable is the external cause.Only by effectively mobilizing cognitive context can lexical ambiguity be eliminated.The methods of resolving lexical ambiguity in the cogniti%词语的一词多义是引起词汇歧义的内因,语境不定是形成词汇歧义的外因。要真正消除词汇歧义,必须有效地调动认知语境。在认知语境里消解词汇歧义有词义层次网络、激活—抑制、词义通达、特征比较等多种认知模式,各认知模式或单独作用,或协同作用影响人们对词汇歧义的认知。

  10. Sentiment Analysis Based on Expanded Aspect and Polarity-Ambiguous Word Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfang Cao; Pu Zhang; Anping Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the task of disambiguating polarity-ambiguous words and the task is reduced to sentiment classification of aspects, which we refer to sentiment expectation instead of semantic orientation widely used in previous researches. Polarity-ambiguous words refer to words like” large, small, high, low ”, which pose a challenging task on sentiment analysis. In order to disambiguate polarity-ambiguous words, this paper constructs the aspect and polarity-ambiguous lexicon using a mu...

  11. Integer-ambiguity resolution in astronomy and geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Lannes, André

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in astronomical aperture synthesis have revealed the existence of integer-ambiguity problems. Those problems, which appear in the self-calibration procedures of radio imaging, have been shown to be similar to the nearest-lattice point (NLP) problems encountered in high-precision geodetic positioning, and in global navigation satellite systems. In this paper, we analyse the theoretical aspects of the matter and propose new methods for solving those NLP problems. The related optimization aspects concern both the preconditioning stage, and the discrete-search stage in which the integer ambiguities are finally fixed. Our algorithms, which are described in an explicit manner, can easily be implemented. They lead to substantial gains in the processing time of both stages. Their efficiency was shown via intensive numerical tests.

  12. Obstetricians' choice of cesarean delivery in ambiguous cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    . The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that obstetricians' choice of delivery method is influenced by their risk attitude and perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation. STUDY DESIGN: The choice of delivery method in ambiguous cases was studied in a nationwide...... survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios...

  13. Polysemy, syntactic constraints and reduction of ambiguity in controlled languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bogacki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers such peculiarities of the controlled languages as the choice of lexical units and constraints on their syntax. We review various difficulties that arise during the selection of forms we would like to put in the lexicon of a controlled language. We compare the index of multiple meanings of the words used to form the vocabulary of a controlled language before and after the lexical control and calculate the change in the ambiguity rate of sentences due to the elimination of polysemy. The words allowed in the lexicon of a controlled language usually have a high polysemy index in the standard language. This is evident especially as far as grammatical and non-technical words are concerned. In contrast, technical terms are much more often monosemic. Thus the observation of the “one token = one meaning” principle in the lexicon for the controlled language has a great effect on the decline of ambiguity.

  14. Punctuated equilibrium based on a locally ambiguous niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Sakiyama, Tomoko; Murakami, Hisashi

    2014-09-01

    Punctuated equilibrium, recently regarded as the power law distribution of lifespan, is estimated with respect to self-organized criticality. Previous explanations were based on a global property, such as the selection of species depending on their fitness, however a particular entity defined through such global property cannot be relevant to the notion of "self". Here, we introduce local ambiguity of a niche with respect to function and define a function network by using two types of maps. Due to the local complex structure of the function network, motif and lateral connections, some species are easily replaced by others, and other species have long lives. Punctuated equilibrium can, therefore, be explained by local ambiguous interaction, which suggests the notion of self and supports the idea of self-organized criticality. PMID:24905426

  15. Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

    1997-10-01

    Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

  16. Phonetic Ambiguity Approaches, Touchstones, Pitfalls and New Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1996-01-01

    Phonetic ambiguity and confusibility are bugbears for any form of bottom-up or data-driven approach to language processing. The question of when an input is ``close enough'' to a target word pervades the entire problem spaces of speech recognition, synthesis, language acquisition, speech compression, and language representation, but the variety of representations that have been applied are demonstrably inadequate to at least some aspects of the problem. This paper reviews this inadequacy by examining several touchstone models in phonetic ambiguity and relating them to the problems they were designed to solve. An good solution would be, among other things, efficient, accurate, precise, and universally applicable to representation of words, ideally usable as a ``phonetic distance'' metric for direct measurement of the ``distance'' between word or utterance pairs. None of the proposed models can provide a complete solution to the problem; in general, there is no algorithmic theory of phonetic distance. It is unc...

  17. Smelling directions: olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shenbing; Zhang, Tao

    2014-07-23

    Senses of smells are often accompanied by simultaneous visual sensations. Previous studies have documented enhanced olfactory performance with concurrent presence of congruent color- or shape- related visual cues, and facilitated visual object perception when congruent smells are simultaneously present. These visual object-olfaction interactions suggest the existences of couplings between the olfactory pathway and the visual ventral processing stream. However, it is not known if olfaction can modulate visual motion perception, a function that is related to the visual dorsal stream. We tested this possibility by examining the influence of olfactory cues on the perceptions of ambiguous visual motion signals. We showed that, after introducing an association between motion directions and olfactory cues, olfaction could indeed bias ambiguous visual motion perceptions. Our result that olfaction modulates visual motion processing adds to the current knowledge of cross-modal interactions and implies a possible functional linkage between the olfactory system and the visual dorsal pathway.

  18. Interpretation bias in responses to ambiguous cues in pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, T; Pearce, S; McClelland, A; Farley, S; Vogel, S

    1994-05-01

    Pain patients and control subjects responses to ambiguous cues were compared in two separate investigations. In the first, pain patients, control subjects and physiotherapists were asked to produce a list of spontaneous associations to ambiguous cues (such as terminal and growth). To control for mood effects the experiment was repeated with three more groups: Pain patients, osteopaths and a control group. Measures of anxiety and depression were incorporated in the analysis. Results indicate that pain patients systematically produce more pain related associations than the other groups, and that this effect is independent of anxiety and depression levels. The discussion concentrates on the implications of these findings both for the theory of pain processing and for clinical interventions.

  19. Representation and productive ambiguity in mathematics and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Grosholz, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    Emily Grosholz offers an original investigation of demonstration in mathematics and science, examining how it works and why it is persuasive. Focusing on geometrical demonstration, she shows the roles that representation and ambiguity play in mathematical discovery. She presents a wide range of case studies in mechanics, topology, algebra, logic, and chemistry, from ancient Greece to the present day, but focusing particularly on the seventeenth and twentieth centuries. Anyone interested in how mathematics works will find this a stimulating read.

  20. HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY AND LOGARITHMIC HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY FOR AMBIGUITY FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Guji

    2000-01-01

    In this article we discuss the relation between Heisenberg's inequality and logarithmic Heisenberg's (entropy) inequality for ambiguity function. After building up a Heisenberg's inequality, we obtain a connection of variance with entropy by variational method. Using classical Taylor's expansion, we prove that the equality in Heisenberg's inequality holds if and only if the entropy of 2k - 1 order is equal to (2k - 1)!.

  1. Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has found that listeners prefer to attach ambiguous syntactic constituents to nouns produced with a pitch accent (Schafer et al., 1996). This study examines what factors underlie previously established accent attachment effects by testing whether these effects are driven by a preference to attach syntactic constituents to new or important information (the Syntax Hypothesis) or whether there is a bias to respond to post-sentence probe questions with an accented word (the Salience...

  2. Another Kind of Ambiguous Loss: Seventh-Day Adventist Women in Mixed-Orientation Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara C.; Wilson, Colwick M.

    2007-01-01

    Narratives of five Seventh-day Adventist heterosexual women whose mixed-orientation marriages ended were analyzed through the lens of ambiguous loss. Thematic coding identified a wave-like process of changing emotional foci that emerged from their experience during marital dissolution. Elements of ambiguous loss included boundary ambiguity,…

  3. Semantic ambiguity processing in sentence context : Evidence from event-related fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C. J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most frequent

  4. Inherent ambiguities in the determination of phase-shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observables in an elastic scattering process are unchanged if all the scattering amplitudes are multiplied by the same angle-dependent phase. The non-spin-flip and spin-flip amplitudes remain unchanged by the substitution: g(cos theta)→g(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)] and h(cos theta)→h(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)]. Unless some extra and hoc assumption is made, there is a continuum ambiguity, which has been explored some time ago, with specific models for the phase phi by members of the Birmingham group. In the ordinary quantum mechanics of scattering, one writes a wave-function asymptotically as psi(r-) approximately esup(ikr costheta)+f(cos theta)esup(ikr)/r where f is the scattering amplitude. The ambiguity which is a change in the phase of the scattering amplitude, and thus of the scattered part of the wavefunction, but with no change of the first term in (the unscattered plane wave coming along the z-axis is discussed in detail. Preliminary results in the energy-range 1550-1750 MeV cm and their implications are given. Argand plots of ambiguities at various energies are presented. (K.B.)

  5. Perceptual learning of a talker resolves lexical ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Rebecca L.; Badecker, William

    2005-09-01

    Recent evidence [Allen and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 3171 (2004)] suggests that listeners are sensitive to talker-specific acoustic-phonetic properties. The present study examines whether experience with a particular talker's realization of place of articulation can eliminate the ambiguity that arises when a word like ``hen'' assimilates in place of articulation to ``hem'' in a labial context (hen best). Using a cross-modal priming paradigm, the priming effect of words that assimilate to other words was measured in two conditions. In the first condition, listeners heard examples of the talker's assimilation style in the form of words that assimilate to nonwords in a labial context (green beer) before the critical trials were heard. In the second condition, listeners did not hear any examples of the talker's assimilation style before the critical trials were heard. Evidence will be presented showing that, without previous experience with the talker's assimilation style, words that assimilate to other words create a lexical ambiguity for the listener. Additionally, evidence will be presented showing that experience with the talker's assimilation style eliminates this lexical ambiguity and allows the listener to perceive the talker's intended lexical form.

  6. Right semantic modulation of early MEG components during ambiguity resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Yuval; Lavidor, Michal; Goldstein, Abraham

    2013-11-15

    The time-line of lexical ambiguity resolution in bilateral neuronal networks was investigated using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a semantic decision task. Dominant and subordinate associations of ambiguous words are considered to be processed in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. In the experiment, ambiguous words were followed by dominant or subordinate associations (manipulated between blocks) or by unrelated target words, and participants (N=25) decided whether the words in each pair were related or not. Subordinate meaning blocks elicited greater changes in the magnetic fields relative to dominant ones over the right, but not the left hemisphere (LH) at 150-235 ms from target onset, a time window corresponding to the M/N170 M/EEG component. Beamforming analysis localized the differential right hemisphere (RH) activity at the perisylvian area, including the homologue regions of Broca's and Wernicke's. At a later stage (235-390 ms) there was no significant difference between the two meaning conditions. We suggest that the RH language regions assist the LH in integrating subordinate disambiguating clues to preceding context during the M170 time window. PMID:23707585

  7. Semantics and ambiguity of stochastic RNA family models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegerich, Robert; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic models, such as hidden Markov models or stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) can fail to return the correct, maximum likelihood solution in the case of semantic ambiguity. This problem arises when the algorithm implementing the model inspects the same solution in different guises. It is a difficult problem in the sense that proving semantic nonambiguity has been shown to be algorithmically undecidable, while compensating for it (by coalescing scores of equivalent solutions) has been shown to be NP-hard. For stochastic context-free grammars modeling RNA secondary structure, it has been shown that the distortion of results can be quite severe. Much less is known about the case when stochastic context-free grammars model the matching of a query sequence to an implicit consensus structure for an RNA family. We find that three different, meaningful semantics can be associated with the matching of a query against the model--a structural, an alignment, and a trace semantics. Rfam models correctly implement the alignment semantics, and are ambiguous with respect to the other two semantics, which are more abstract. We show how provably correct models can be generated for the trace semantics. For approaches, where such a proof is not possible, we present an automated pipeline to check post factum for ambiguity of the generated models. We propose that both the structure and the trace semantics are worth-while concepts for further study, possibly better suited to capture remotely related family members.

  8. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  9. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  10. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal: Presentation of an extremely rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumor, other sites are larynx, oesophagus, and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45-year-old woman who came to the ENT and Head Neck Surgery department of Delta Medical College with discharg from left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed that the skin of external auditory canal was thickened, papillary and blackish. External auditory canal bone was found eroded. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Excision of the external auditory canal mass was done under G/A. Whole skin from external auditory canal was excised under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The specimen was sent for histopathological examination which revealed as verrucous carcinoma. Subsequently, she was treated by radiotherapy. Six months follow-up shows no recurrence.

  11. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray ... sources, the difference being that in the external beam the treatment comes from outside the patient, whereas ...

  12. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  13. Generalized Network Externality Function

    OpenAIRE

    A. Paothong; G.S. Ladde

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the development of mathematical modeling of network externality processes. The introduction of the generalized network externality function provides a unified source of a tool for developing and analyzing the planning, policy and performance of the network externality process and network goods/services in a systematic way. This leads to fulfill all existing network externality assumptions as special cases. We study its properties and applications. This study provides...

  14. Suppressing azimuth ambiguity in spaceborne SAR images based on compressed sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze; LIU Min

    2012-01-01

    In spaceborne synthetic aperture radar,undersampling at the rate of the pulse repetition frequency causes azimuth ambiguity,which induces ghost into the images.This paper introduces compressed sensing for azimuth ambiguity suppression and presents two novel methods from the perspectives of system design and image formation,known as azimuth random sampling and ambiguity separation,respectively.The first method makes the imaging results for the ambiguity zones as disperse as possible while ensuring that the imaging results for the main scene are affected as little as possible.The second method separates the ambiguity signals from the echoes and achieves imaging results without the ambiguity effect.Simulation results show that the two methods can reduce the ambiguity levels by about 16 dB and 99.37%,respectively.

  15. Notes on Neotropical Proconiini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. VIII: morphology of the male and female genitalia of Paraulacizes munda, revalidated from synonymy of P. confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paraulacizes munda (Fowler, 1899 has been considered a junior synonym of P. confusa (Signoret, 1855. These two species were described from Mexico. Here it is shown that P. munda can be distinguished from P. confusa by the color and size of the body. Hence, the former is revalidated from synonymy of the latter. Descriptions and illustrations of the male and female genitalia of P. munda, which are necessary for an accurate identification of leafhopper species in general, are provided for the first time. Paraulacizes munda can be distinguished from the other 11 species currently included in Paraulacizes by the following combination of features: ground color of anterior dorsum yellow or pale yellow; dorsal processes of male pygofer strongly inflated apically; style with apex transversely truncate, not projected inward; atrial processes of aedeagus, in lateral view, not distinctly curved apically; female sternite VII with small median lobe on posterior margin and pair of dark brown marks posteromedially. This is the first detailed description of the first and second ovipositor valvulae of a Paraulacizes species. The female genitalia of Paraulacizes are compared with those of the related genera Aulacizes Amyot & Serville, 1843 and Proconosama Young, 1968.

  16. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  17. Reconsideration of Ambiguities in Quad-Pol SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Michelangelo; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Merging the complex signals available from both cross-polarized (cross-pol) channels of a quad-polarimetric (quad-pol) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) may lead not only to a 3-dB gain in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but also to a remarkable improvement in the azimuth and range ambiguity-to-signal ratios (AASR, RASR) of cross-pol data, especially if azimuth phase coding is employed. Staggered SAR operation is also addressed, for which a novel azimuth phase code is proposed. Range ambiguitie...

  18. On the Problem of Ambiguity of Electromagnetic Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsunov, A V

    2013-01-01

    In the self-sufficient potential formalism, treating all electromagnetic phenomena as natural or forced oscillations of some distributed electromagnetic oscillating system (Minkowski space-time), the electromagnetic potential must be considered as some relative measure describing deviation of the system from its "undisturbed" state (when both natural and forced oscillations are absent). Therefore, there is no ambiguity in the gauge of one: all components of the potential four-vector are asymptotically verging towards zero while the distance from all free charges and currents enlarges. Such interpretation turns the electromagnetic potential into a physically real value.

  19. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  20. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  1. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  2. New Ambiguity in Probing C P Violation in Neutrino Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, O. G.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-08-01

    If neutrinos get mass via the seesaw mechanism the mixing matrix describing neutrino oscillations can be effectively nonunitary. We show that in this case the neutrino appearance probabilities involve a new C P phase ϕ associated with nonunitarity. This leads to an ambiguity in extracting the "standard" three-neutrino phase δC P, which can survive even after neutrino and antineutrino channels are combined. Its existence should be taken into account in the planning of any oscillation experiment aiming at a robust measurement of δC P.

  3. New ambiguity in probing CP violation in neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, O G; Valle, J W F

    2016-01-01

    If neutrinos get mass a la seesaw the mixing matrix describing neutrino oscillations can be effectively non-unitary. We show that in this case the neutrino appearance probabilities involve a new CP phase, phi, associated to non-unitarity. This leads to an ambiguity in extracting the "standard" three--neutrino phase delta_CP, which can survive even after neutrino and antineutrino channels are combined. Its existence should be taken into account in the planning of any oscillation experiment aiming at a robust measurement of delta_CP.

  4. Optimal ambiguity functions and Weil's exponential sum bound

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, John J.; Benedetto, Robert L.; Woodworth, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    Complex-valued periodic sequences, u, constructed by Goran Bjorck, are analyzed with regard to the behavior of their discrete periodic narrow-band ambiguity functions A_p(u). The Bjorck sequences, which are defined on Z/pZ for p>2 prime, are unimodular and have zero autocorrelation on (Z/pZ)\\{0}. These two properties give rise to the acronym, CAZAC, to refer to constant amplitude zero autocorrelation sequences. The bound proven is |A_p(u)| \\leq 2/\\sqrt{p} + 4/p outside of (0,0), and this is o...

  5. Removing grammar ambiguity of word forms by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Karnaukh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Removing grammar ambiguity of word forms by statistical methodsResearch is devoted to the study of behaviour of linguistic processor at simultaneous application of software supporting functions (taking into account the characteristics of the writing word forms (capital / small letters, punctuation marks in trigrams and location of trigrams within a sentence. The article analyses qualitative quantitative characteristics of the results removing grammatical homonyms of word forms using statistical methods in compliance with requirements. The research is based on the texts of normative legal document.

  6. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts. PMID:20234007

  7. A Computational Model of Syntactic Processing Ambiguity Resolution from Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Niv, M

    1994-01-01

    Syntactic ambiguity abounds in natural language, yet humans have no difficulty coping with it. In fact, the process of ambiguity resolution is almost always unconscious. But it is not infallible, however, as example 1 demonstrates. 1. The horse raced past the barn fell. This sentence is perfectly grammatical, as is evident when it appears in the following context: 2. Two horses were being shown off to a prospective buyer. One was raced past a meadow. and the other was raced past a barn. ... Grammatical yet unprocessable sentences such as 1 are called `garden-path sentences.' Their existence provides an opportunity to investigate the human sentence processing mechanism by studying how and when it fails. The aim of this thesis is to construct a computational model of language understanding which can predict processing difficulty. The data to be modeled are known examples of garden path and non-garden path sentences, and other results from psycholinguistics. It is widely believed that there are two distinct loci...

  8. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  9. Ambivalence and Ambiguity in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Michlin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?

  10. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  11. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  12. Review of externality valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1998-11-01

    This report covers the work done regarding assessment of externalities in the project `Investigation of Pricing Incentives in a Renewable Energy Strategy in Thailand`. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycles using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities, and less attention is paid to the non-environmental externalities. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. For instance some studies transfer dose-response functions and monetization values from other studies. It is in this case important to consider for each of the functions if it is possible to use functions from other studies, or if it is necessary to develop a function for a new region. An important parameter in estimating externalities based on earlier studies is the fact that some studies only include regional and local impacts and do not take the global impacts related to greenhouse gasses into account. Considerable uncertainty is related to the global externalities regarding time horizon for the greenhouse effect, choice of dose-response function and monetization values. Assumptions on famine and the monetization of human life may be the totally dominating factor estimating external costs. 7 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The studies have been chosen in order to cover as well old, well-known studies as new, unknown, but interesting studies. Some of the new studies are based on results from earlier studies, while others implement new ideas concerning the methodology. (au) 21 refs.

  13. Sentiment Analysis Based on Expanded Aspect and Polarity-Ambiguous Word Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Cao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the task of disambiguating polarity-ambiguous words and the task is reduced to sentiment classification of aspects, which we refer to sentiment expectation instead of semantic orientation widely used in previous researches. Polarity-ambiguous words refer to words like” large, small, high, low ”, which pose a challenging task on sentiment analysis. In order to disambiguate polarity-ambiguous words, this paper constructs the aspect and polarity-ambiguous lexicon using a mutual bootstrapping algorithm. So the sentiment of polarity-ambiguous words in context can be decided collaboratively by the sentiment expectation of the aspects and polarity-ambiguous words’ prior polarity.At sentence level, experiments show that our method is effective in sentiment analysis.

  14. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max;

    2016-01-01

    instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...

  15. SAR Cross-Ambiguities in SAOCOM-CS Large Baseline Bistatic Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, Federica; Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Younis, Marwan; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Lopez-dekker, Paco; Krieger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the ambiguous signal level, the Ambiguity-to-Signal Ratio (ASR), plays a key role in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) design and performance prediction. In conventional SAR acquisition scenarios, the computation of the ASR is based on the evaluation of the range and azimuth ambiguous contributes. Though appealing for its simplicity, this approach could be inaccurate in case of complex SAR acquisition geometries. In this paper we focus on the ASR performance of the SAOCOM-...

  16. Global motion coherence can influence the representation of ambiguous local motion

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, P.; Johnston, A.

    2011-01-01

    Early cortical responses to visual motion are inherently ambiguous as to underlying motion in the world. This ambiguity derives from the fact that directionally selective cells in early visual areas, such as V1, can predominantly signal only 1D motion orthogonal to image contours spanning their small, spatially localized, receptive fields. One way in which local ambiguity could be overcome is by integrating motion signals over orientation and space. Here, we show that the direction of an afte...

  17. Achieving collaboration with diverse stakeholders - the role of strategic ambiguity in CSR communication

    OpenAIRE

    Scandelius, C; Cohen, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how the concept of strategic ambiguity could have a role in CSR communication to stimulate collaboration with diverse stakeholders. The research is undertaken through a multiple case study in the food and drink value chain in Western Europe. The findings suggest a number of drivers for strategic ambiguity and connect these to active versus passive stakeholder response. Further it advises how strategic ambiguity may be applied in CSR communication both across the wi...

  18. Lexical ambiguity resolution for Turkish in direct transfer machine translation models

    OpenAIRE

    Tantuğ, A. Cüneyd; Tantug, A. Cuneyd; Oflazer, Kemal; Adalı, Eşref; Adali, Esref

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical lexical ambiguity resolution method in direct transfer machine translation models in which the target language is Turkish. Since direct transfer MT models do not have full syntactic information, most of the lexical ambiguity resolution methods are not very helpful. Our disambiguation model is based on statistical language models. We have investigated the performances of some statistical language model types and parameters in lexical ambiguity resolution for o...

  19. Improving the Estimation of Uncalibrated Fractional Phase Offsets for PPP Ambiguity Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Xingxing Li; Zhang, X

    2012-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can shorten convergence time and improve accuracy significantly. Uncalibrated Fractional Offsets (UFOs) originating in the satellites destroy the integer nature of carrier phase ambiguities observed at a single station. Several methods have been developed to estimate UFO information from a reference network for PPP ambiguity resolution. In this paper, we present a new approach for estimating Zero-Differenced (ZD) UFOs via float Z...

  20. AMBIGUITY TOLERANCE LEVELS IN SPANISH ACCOUNTING STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Tejero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La ambigüedad es la percepción de la inadecuación de la información que resulta de determinadas características de un escenario. En situaciones de toma de decisiones, la percepción de ambigüedad puede percibirse como una amenaza y supone un reto cognitivo. En esta línea la literatura ha tratado la incidencia de los niveles de tolerancia a la ambigüedad (AT en la toma de decisiones en contextos empresariales y financieros.Este trabajo trata de estudiar los niveles de AT en una muestra de estudiantes de contabilidad comparándolos con los niveles de otros estudiantes de otras carreras de ciencias sociales. El instrumento usado es la versión española del MSTAT-II (McLain, 2008 y la muestra está compuesta por estudiantes de distintas carreras de ciencias sociales de la Universidad de Huelva. Los resultados indican un alto nivel de consistencia interna del instrumento con esta muestra. Los estudiantes de contabilidad presentan niveles de tolerancia a la ambigüedad más bajos que el resto de sus compañeros en otras carreras. Por último, se debaten las implicaciones educativas para las universidades de estos resultados.Ambiguity is the perception of inadequate information arising from certain characteristics of a situation. In a situation that demands evaluation or choice, the perception of ambiguity is threatening and presents a cognitive challenge. Research has examined AT (Ambiguity Tolerance levels and their influence on decision making in business and financial scenarios. Aims –This paper aims to investigate the AT levels of a sample of accounting students and to compare them with the AT levels of students on other social sciences degree courses. Instrument and Sample - The instrument used is the Spanish version of MSTAT-II (McLain, 2008. The sample is composed of students enrolled on various degree courses at a Spanish University (Universidad de Huelva.Results and implications - The results of the questionnaire present high

  1. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...... and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense...... making in conceptualisation in the early phases of innovation....

  2. Application of genetic algorithm with approximation crossover strategy to ambiguity resolution in PD radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangGong; ZhuZhaoda; ZhuNingyi

    2003-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) designed as a general optimization method was applied to the ambiguity resolution of pulse Doppler (PD) radar. The fitness, based on squared error for multi-PRF (pulse repeat frequency) consecutive ordered ranges, was designed. The crossover operator and the conditions of ending in GA were discussed. The relations among the probability of ambiguity resolution of this algorithm, the measurement error and the computational efficiency were analyzed.Simulation results show the GA ambiguity resolution algorithm does better than the sliding window algorithm on the probability of ambiguity resolution.

  3. Inverse variational problem and ambiguity of classical system quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the problem of ambiguity of classical systems quantization is not limited by substitution of classical values for operators and by ordering of noncommutating operators. It is demonstrated that one and the same classical system can be described. Using an infinite number of various (differing more than for a total derivative) Lagrangians or Hamiltonians. The Feynman quantization is used by means of trajectory integrals. The problem of quantization of the classical system of equations of motion turns to be closely related to the inverse variational calculation problem. The inverse variational problem consists in finding a functional proceeding, from given equations, the extremals of which coincide with the solutions of the given equations. It is shown by concrete examples that with different Lagrangians though leading to identical classic equations of motion various quantum systems are obtained

  4. In Praise of Ambiguity: Musical Subtlety and Merleau-Ponty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiger C. Roholt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When a jazz, rock, or hip-hop drummer strikes certain notes in each measure slightly late, instead of hearing the degree to which those notes are late, we typically hear the effects of those variations; namely, a groove, the "feel" of a rhythm. Slight variations of pitch function similarly. In this essay, I argue that certain analytic theorists go astray due to their preoccupation with the variations themselves. By invoking Maurice Merleau-Ponty's insights into subtle visual perceptions, and his notion of perceptual indeterminacy, I avoid an account of musical subtlety suggested by Daniel Dennett that is too coarse-grained, as well as the bleak conclusion that certain musical subtleties are ineffable, Diana Raffman's view. I conclude that elements of music that are perceived ambiguously can perform a positive function in such aesthetic experiences: they can mediate or foster emergent qualities; moreover, they must be perceived in this way to do so.

  5. Success, failure and ambiguity of the dilution effect among competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alexander T; Civitello, David J; Cáceres, Carla E; Hall, Spencer R

    2015-09-01

    It remains challenging to predict variation in the magnitude of disease outbreaks. The dilution effect seeks to explain this variation by linking multiple host species to disease transmission. It predicts that disease risk increases for a focal host when host species diversity declines. However, when an increase in species diversity does not reduce disease, we are often unable to diagnose why. Here, we increase mechanistic and predictive clarity of the dilution effect with a general trait-based model of disease transmission in multi-host communities. Then, we parameterise and empirically test our model with a multi-generational case study of planktonic disease. The model-experiment combination shows that hosts that vary in competitive ability (R*) and potential to spread disease (R0 ) can produce three qualitatively disparate outcomes of dilution on disease: the dilution effect can succeed, fail, or be ambiguous/irrelevant.

  6. Ambiguity as an Essential Aesthetic Principle in Musical Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Stravinsky’s Symphonies of Wind Instruments represents a remarkable example of discontinuity. Here, a traditional sense of continuous development is troubled by a sequence of segments, which at first sight seems non-related. However, the noticeable discontinuous gestures appear only as a superfic......Stravinsky’s Symphonies of Wind Instruments represents a remarkable example of discontinuity. Here, a traditional sense of continuous development is troubled by a sequence of segments, which at first sight seems non-related. However, the noticeable discontinuous gestures appear only...... connections’ in the ‘disguise’ of discontinuity implies an either-or viewpoint, which tends to overlook the fact that the musical progression suggests mutually contradistinctive impressions and, as such, is essentially ambiguous. Thus, in this paper it is not my intention to assert that the Symphonies...

  7. Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.

  8. Resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings based on maximum entropy model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2006-01-01

    The resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings (OAS) is studied based on the maximum entropy model.There are two model outputs,where either the first two characters form a word or the last two characters form a word.The features of the model include one word in context of OAS,the current OAS and word probability relation of two kinds of segmentation results.OAS in training text is found by the combination of the FMM and BMM segmentation method.After feature tagging they are used to train the maximum entropy model.The People Daily corpus of January 1998 is used in training and testing.Experimental results show a closed test precision of 98.64% and an open test precision of 95.01%.The open test precision is 3,76% better compared with that of the precision of common word probability method.

  9. Effects of the quantisation ambiguities on the Big Bounce dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hrycyna, Orest; Szydlowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate dynamics of the modified loop quantum cosmology models using dynamical systems methods. Modifications considered come from the choice of the different field strength operator $\\hat{F}$ and result in different forms of the effective Hamiltonian. Such an ambiguity of the choice of this expression from some class of functions is allowed in the framework of loop quantisation. Our main goal is to show how such modifications can influence the bouncing universe scenario in the loop quantum cosmology. In effective models considered we classify all evolutional paths for all admissible initial conditions. The dynamics is reduced to the form of a dynamical system of the Newtonian type on a 2-dimensional phase plane. These models are equivalent dynamically to the FRW models with the decaying effective cosmological term parametrised by the canonical variable $p$ (or by the scale factor $a$). We find that for the positive cosmological constant there is a class of oscillating models without the ...

  10. On the female morphs, ecology and male genitalia of Callerebia dibangensis Roy (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae recorded near Mayodia Pass in lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Callerebia dibangensis was recently described from a single specimen collected in 1987 from Upper Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh along with comparison of wing morphology of this single male individual with the congeners.  However, there is no other information on the species.  The current study recorded a large number of live individuals of such a species around Mayodia pass and was thus able to note the variations in wing morphology, the wing morphology of the female, distinguishing features between the sexes, observations on biology and ecology of C. dibangensis from Mayodia pass (1,900–2,265 m in lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India along with comparison of male genitalia of C. dibangensis with its closest ally C. scanda opima from the same locality. 

  11. The fungus Candida albicans tolerates ambiguity at multiple codons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Salvador Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions 3% of leucine and 97% of serine are incorporated at CUG sites on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1 gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  12. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  13. Assimilating ambiguous observations to jointly estimate groundwater recharge and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In coupled modelling of catchments, the groundwater compartment can be an important water storage as well as having influence on both rivers and evapotranspirational fluxes. It is therefore important to parameterize the groundwater model as correctly as possible. Primarily important to regional groundwater flow is the spatially variable hydraulic conductivity. However, also the groundwater recharge, in a coupled system coming from the unsaturated zone but in a stand-alone groundwater model a boundary condition, is also of high importance. As with all subsurface systems, groundwater properties are difficult to observe in reality and their estimation is an ongoing topic in groundwater research and practice. Commonly, we have to rely on time series of groundwater head observations as base for any parameter estimation. Heads, however, have the drawback that they can be ambiguous and may not uniquely define the inverse problem, especially if both recharge and conductivity are seen as unknown. In the presented work we use a 2D virtual groundwater test case to investigate how the prior knowledge of recharge and conductivity influence their respective and joint estimation as spatially variable fields using head data. Using the Ensemble Kalman filter, it is shown that the joint estimation is possible if the prior knowledge is good enough. If the prior is erroneous the a-priori sampled fields cannot be corrected by the data. However, it is also shown that if the prior knowledge is directly wrong the estimated recharge field can resemble the true conductivity field, resulting in a model that meets the observations but has very poor predictive power. The study exemplifies the importance of prior knowledge in the joint estimation of parameters from ambiguous measurements.

  14. Improved ambiguity resolution for URTK with dynamic atmosphere constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Liu, Wenjian; Zou, Xuan; Li, Zongnan; Chen, Liang; Deng, Chenlong; Shi, Chuang

    2016-06-01

    Raw observation processing method with prior knowledge of ionospheric delay could strengthen the ambiguity resolution (AR), but it does not make full use of the relatively longer wavelength of wide-lane (WL) observation. Furthermore, the accuracy of calculated atmospheric delays from the regional augmentation information has quite different in quality, while the atmospheric constraint used in the current methods is usually set to an empirical value. A proper constraint, which matches the accuracy of calculated atmospheric delays, can most effectively compensate the residual systematic biases caused by large inter-station distances. Therefore, the standard deviation of the residual atmospheric parameters should be fine-tuned. This paper presents an atmosphere-constrained AR method for undifferenced network RTK (URTK) rover, whose ambiguities are sequentially fixed according to their wavelengths. Furthermore, this research systematically analyzes the residual atmospheric error and finds that it mainly varies along the positional relationship between the rover and the chosen reference stations. More importantly, its ionospheric part of certain location will also be cyclically influenced every day. Therefore, the standard deviation of residual ionospheric error can be modeled by a daily repeated cosine or other functions with the help of data one day before, and applied by rovers as pseudo-observation. With the data collected at 29 stations from a continuously operating reference station network in Guangdong Province (GDCORS) in China, the efficiency of the proposed approach is confirmed by improving the success and error rates of AR for 10-20 % compared to that of the WL-L1-IF one, as well as making much better positioning accuracy.

  15. GLONASS fractional-cycle bias estimation across inhomogeneous receivers for PPP ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    The key issue to enable precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) is to estimate fractional-cycle biases (FCBs), which mainly relate to receiver and satellite hardware biases, over a network of reference stations. While this has been well achieved for GPS, FCB estimation for GLONASS is difficult because (1) satellites do not share the same frequencies as a result of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) signals; (2) and even worse, pseudorange hardware biases of receivers vary in an irregular manner with manufacturers, antennas, domes, firmware, etc., which especially complicates GLONASS PPP-AR over inhomogeneous receivers. We propose a general approach where external ionosphere products are introduced into GLONASS PPP to estimate precise FCBs that are less impaired by pseudorange hardware biases of diverse receivers to enable PPP-AR. One month of GLONASS data at about 550 European stations were processed. From an exemplary network of 51 inhomogeneous receivers, including four receiver types with various antennas and spanning about 800 km in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions, we found that 92.4 % of all fractional parts of GLONASS wide-lane ambiguities agree well within ± 0.15 cycles with a standard deviation of 0.09 cycles if global ionosphere maps (GIMs) are introduced, compared to only 51.7 % within ± 0.15 cycles and a larger standard deviation of 0.22 cycles otherwise. Hourly static GLONASS PPP-AR at 40 test stations can reach position estimates of about 1 and 2 cm in RMS from ground truth for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, which is comparable to hourly GPS PPP-AR. Integrated GLONASS and GPS PPP-AR can further achieve an RMS of about 0.5 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical components. We stress that the performance of GLONASS PPP-AR across inhomogeneous receivers depends on the accuracy of ionosphere products. GIMs have a modest accuracy of only 2-8 TECU (Total Electron Content Unit) in vertical

  16. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small area, as when pus accumulates in a boil (furuncle) or pimple. Malignant external otitis is a ... Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus . Certain people, ...

  17. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  18. Evaluating External Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, James R.

    1978-01-01

    Effective external communication by higher education institutions is described as an ongoing program, based on objective research, continuous informal feedback, and informed anticipation of changes in the environment that will force changes in the institution. (JMF)

  19. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... boil down to two different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from ... ready to go. Technician: Okay, Mr. Fabec, here we go. [beeping] Al Fabec: You keep your hands ...

  20. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. There's what we call external beam ... and lay on the table. Count like, "One, two, three," up to 15. So, just about that ...

  1. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  2. External and internal audit

    OpenAIRE

    Froňková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation includes problems of internal and external audit. The goal of this work is on the basis teoretical knowledge and information got from experience, to do internal and external audit of fulfilment by drawings of financial subvence. The result of both made audits is final report.Work is composed from three parts, first part- theoretical-describes progress of internal audit, its essence and definitions, regulation frame, which characteristics ought to fulfil an internal auditor, then ...

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity of EFL Learners and Their Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basöz, Tutku

    2015-01-01

    Learning a new language is akin to exploring an unknown land as ambiguous situations are prevalent in language learning. Ambiguity tolerance, which can hinder or facilitate language learning, is considered as an important learning style. The purpose of the present study was to understand how tolerant/intolerant EFL learners are of foreign language…

  4. Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

  5. Medical Student and Junior Doctors' Tolerance of Ambiguity: Development of a New Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…

  6. Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. We utilized a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which biology majors spontaneously used lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Three categories of language were identified and examined in this study: terms with Dual Ambiguity, Incompatible Ambiguity, and Unintended Ambiguity. In the sample of 1282 initial evolutionary explanations, 81 % of students spontaneously incorporated lexically ambiguous language at least once. Furthermore, the majority of these initial responses were judged to be inaccurate from a scientific point of view. While not significantly related to gender, age, or reading/writing ability, students' use of contextually appropriate evolutionary language ( pressure and adapt) was significantly associated with academic performance in biology. Comparisons of initial responses to follow-up responses demonstrated that the majority of student explanations were not reinterpreted after consideration of the follow-up response; nevertheless, a sizeable minority was interpreted differently. Most cases of interpretation change were a consequence of resolving initially ambiguous responses, rather than a change of accuracy, resulting in an increased understanding of students' evolutionary explanations. We discuss a series of implications of lexical ambiguity for evolution education.

  7. Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

  8. Exploiting Degrees of Inflectional Ambiguity: Stem Form and the Time Course of Morphological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvikivi, Juhani; Pyykkonen, Pirita; Niemi, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared sublexical and supralexical approaches to morphological processing with unambiguous and ambiguous inflected words and words with ambiguous stems in 3 masked and unmasked priming experiments in Finnish. Experiment 1 showed equal facilitation for all prime types with a short 60-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) but significant…

  9. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically…

  10. Morpho-Semantic Processing in Word Recognition: Evidence from Balanced and Biased Ambiguous Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In…

  11. Early Morphological Processing Is Sensitive to Morphemic Meanings: Evidence from Processing Ambiguous Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    In three priming experiments, we investigated whether the meanings of ambiguous morphemes were activated during word recognition. Using a meaning generation task, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the dominant meaning of individually presented ambiguous morphemes was reported more often than did other less frequent meanings. Also, participants tended…

  12. In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of Ambiguous Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of ambiguity. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed ambiguous word and scenario interpretations,…

  13. As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding Ambiguous Language and Humor, Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…

  14. A study of the ambiguity in the solutions to the Diophantine equation for Chern numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avron, J. E.; Kenneth, O.; Yehoshua, G.

    2014-05-01

    The Chern numbers for Hofstadter models with rational flux 2πp/q are partially determined by a Diophantine equation. A mod q ambiguity remains. The resolution of this ambiguity is only known for the rectangular lattice with nearest neighbors hopping where it has the form of a ‘window condition’. We study a Hofstadter butterfly on the triangular lattice for which the resolution of ambiguity is open. In the model many pairs (p, q) satisfy a window condition which is shifted relative to the window of the square model. However, we also find pairs (p, q) where the Chern numbers do not belong to any contiguous window. This shows that the rectangular model and the one we study on the triangular lattice are not adiabatically connected: many gaps must close. Our results suggest the conjecture that the mod q ambiguity in the Diophantine equation generically reduces to a sign ambiguity.

  15. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking. PMID:27028162

  16. Emolabeling effectively reduces the influence of ambiguous labeling on food packages among grocery store shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Brown, Caitlin J; Gillespie, James J

    2014-12-16

    Despite increased regulations and policy enforcement for nutrition labeling, ambiguous labels on food items can still have deleterious effects on consumer perceptions of health. The present study used a counterbalanced within-subjects design to test if emolabeling - the use of emoticons to convey health information (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy) - will reduce the effects of ambiguous labels on consumer perceptions of the healthfulness of a food item. 85 grocery store shoppers were shown nutrition labels for a low calorie (LC) and a high calorie (HC) food with/without emolabels, and with an ambiguous label that either implied the food was healthy or unhealthy. Results showed that emolabels reduced the effectiveness of ambiguous labels: consumers rated the LC food as healthier and the HC food as less healthy when emolabels were added. The results suggest that, if implemented, this image-based emolabeling system could possibly be an effective buffer against the use of ambiguous labeling by food manufacturers.

  17. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy

  18. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  19. Decoding covert shifts of attention induced by ambiguous visuospatial cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eTrachel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple and unambiguous visual cues (e.g. an arrow can be used to trigger covert shifts of visual attention away from the center of gaze. The processing of visual stimuli is enhanced at the attended location. Covert shifts of attention modulate the power of cerebral oscillations in the alpha band over parietal and occipital regions. These modulations are sufficiently robust to be decoded on a single trial basis from electro-encephalography (EEG signals. It is often assumed that covert attention shifts are under voluntary control, and also occur in more natural and complex environments, but there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. We address this important issue by using random-dot stimuli to cue one of two opposite locations, where a visual target is presented. We contrast two conditions in which the random-dot motion is either predictive of the target location or contains ambiguous information. Behavioral results show attention shifts in anticipation of the visual target, in both conditions. In addition, these attention shifts involve similar neural sources, and the EEG can be decoded on a single trial basis. These results shed a new light on the behavioral and neural correlates of visuospatial attention, with implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI based on covert attention shifts.

  20. Ambiguous Capture: Collaborative Capitalism and the Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The primary health care approach advanced at Alma Ata to address social determinants of health was replaced by selective health care a year later at Bellagio. Subsequently, immunization was endorsed as a cost-effective technical intervention to combat targeted infectious diseases. Multilateral efforts to collaborate on immunization as a universal public health good ambiguously capture the interests of the world's governments as well as private, public, and not-for-profit institutions. Global assemblages of scientists, governments, industry and nongovernmental organizations now work in public-private partnerships to develop and make essential vaccines accessible, with vaccines marketed as single fix solutions for global health. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork in France and Burkina Faso that followed the development, regulation, and implementation of the group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, in this article I describe events during and after the development of MenAfriVac. A technological success narrative steeped in collaborative capitalist rhetoric disguises neglected health care systems.

  1. Ambiguous Capture: Collaborative Capitalism and the Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The primary health care approach advanced at Alma Ata to address social determinants of health was replaced by selective health care a year later at Bellagio. Subsequently, immunization was endorsed as a cost-effective technical intervention to combat targeted infectious diseases. Multilateral efforts to collaborate on immunization as a universal public health good ambiguously capture the interests of the world's governments as well as private, public, and not-for-profit institutions. Global assemblages of scientists, governments, industry and nongovernmental organizations now work in public-private partnerships to develop and make essential vaccines accessible, with vaccines marketed as single fix solutions for global health. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork in France and Burkina Faso that followed the development, regulation, and implementation of the group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, in this article I describe events during and after the development of MenAfriVac. A technological success narrative steeped in collaborative capitalist rhetoric disguises neglected health care systems. PMID:27027575

  2. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  3. Constrained quantities in uncertainty quantification. Ambiguity and tips to follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community relies heavily on computer codes and numerical tools. The results of such computations can only be trusted if they are augmented by proper sensitivity and uncertainty (S and U) studies. This paper presents some aspects of S and U analysis when constrained quantities are involved, such as the fission spectrum or the isotopic distribution of elements. A consistent theory is given for the derivation and interpretation of constrained sensitivities as well as the corresponding covariance matrix normalization procedures. It is shown that if the covariance matrix violates the “generic zero column and row sum” condition, normalizing it is equivalent to constraining the sensitivities, but since both can be done in many ways different sensitivity coefficients and uncertainties can be derived. This makes results ambiguous, underlining the need for proper covariance data. It is also highlighted that the use of constrained sensitivity coefficients derived with a constraining procedure that is not idempotent can lead to biased results in uncertainty propagation. The presented theory is demonstrated on an analytical case and a numerical example involving the fission spectrum, both confirming the main conclusions of this research. (author)

  4. Possible ambiguities in the equation of state for neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Miyatsu, Tsuyoshi; Ryu, C. Y. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Deliduman, Cemsinan [Department of Physics, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Bomonti 34380, Istanbul (Turkey); Güngör, Can; Keleş, Vildan [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Physics Engineering Department, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    We addressed possible ambiguities on the properties of neutron stars (NSs) estimated in theoretical sides. First, roles of hyperons inside the NS are discussed through various relativistic mean field (RMF) theories. In particular, the extension of SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry to SU(3) flavor symmetry is shown to give rise to the increase of hyperon threshold density, similarly to the Fock term effects in RMF theories. As a result, about 2.0 solar mass is obtained with the hyperons. Second, the effect by the modified f(R) gravity, which leaves a room for the dark energy in the Einstein equation to be taken into account, is discussed for the NS in a strong magnetic field (MF). Our results show that the modified gravity with the Kaluza-Klein electro-magnetism theory expanded in terms of a length scale parameter may reasonably describe the NS in strong MF, so called magnetar. Even the super-soft equation of state is shown to be revived by the modified f(R) gravity.

  5. Ambiguities and Asymmetries in Consent and Refusal: Reply to Manson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Rob

    2016-06-01

    John Harris claims that is it 'palpable nonsense' to suggest that 'a child (or anyone) might competently consent to a treatment but not be competent to refuse it.' In 'Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal' Neil Manson aims to explain away the apparent oddness of this asymmetry of consent and refusal, by appealing to the idea of shared normative powers, presenting joint bank accounts as an example. In this article, I will argue that Manson's account fails to explain away the oddness. Rather, I will argue that there are ambiguities to which Manson has not paid sufficient attention. In fact, as odd as it may sound, I argue that Manson actually agrees with Harris (at least in relation to the asymmetry of competence). He fails to recognize that he agrees with Harris because he is not careful enough to distinguish between different asymmetries, which I have labelled the asymmetries of choice, permissibility and competence.

  6. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  7. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  10. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Lesh, Tyler A.; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners’ sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension. PMID:26401815

  11. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience.

  12. The effect of stereotypical primes on the neural processing of racially ambiguous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kittel, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an early attentional component of the event-related potential (ERP), the P2, is sensitive to the distinction between the processing of racial outgroup and ingroup faces but may not be sensitive to the distinction between racially ambiguous and ingroup faces. Recent behavioral work, however, has suggested that contextual information may affect the processing of racially ambiguous faces. Thus, the first goal of this study was to examine whether the early neural processing of racially ambiguous faces would be affected by primed stereotypes. White college student participants (n = 29) completed a task in which they racially categorized monoracial Black and White faces and racially ambiguous Black-White morphs. These faces were preceded by positive and negative Black and White stereotypical primes. Results indicated that P2 amplitude to the racially ambiguous faces was moderated by the valence of the primes such that negative primes led to greater neural processing of the racially ambiguous faces than positive primes. Furthermore, the extent to which P2 amplitude was affected by prime valence was moderated by individual differences in preference for structure and categorical thinking, as well as comfort with ambiguity.

  13. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eVitello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., bark, bank. Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretation of an ambiguous word. Here we used fMRI to investigate this hypothesis. 20 native British English monolinguals were scanned whilst listening to sentences that contained an ambiguous word. To induce semantic reinterpretation, the disambiguating information was presented after the ambiguous word and delayed until the end of the sentence (e.g., the teacher explained that the BARK was going to be very damp. These sentences were compared to well-matched unambiguous sentences. Supporting the reinterpretation hypothesis, these ambiguous sentences produced more activation in both the LIFG and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex. Importantly, all but one subject showed ambiguity-related peaks within both regions, demonstrating that the group-level results were driven by high inter-subject consistency. Further support came from the finding that activation in both regions was modulated by meaning dominance. Specifically, sentences containing biased ambiguous words, which have one more dominant meaning, produced greater activation than those with balanced ambiguous words, which have two equally frequent meanings. Because the context always supported the less frequent meaning, the biased words require reinterpretation more often than balanced words. This is the first evidence of dominance effects in the spoken modality and provides strong support that frontal and temporal regions support the updating of semantic representations during speech comprehension.

  14. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Sylvia; Warren, Jane E; Devlin, Joseph T; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., "bark," "bank"). Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretation of an ambiguous word. Here we used fMRI to investigate this hypothesis. 20 native British English monolinguals were scanned whilst listening to sentences that contained an ambiguous word. To induce semantic reinterpretation, the disambiguating information was presented after the ambiguous word and delayed until the end of the sentence (e.g., "the teacher explained that the BARK was going to be very damp"). These sentences were compared to well-matched unambiguous sentences. Supporting the reinterpretation hypothesis, these ambiguous sentences produced more activation in both the LIFG and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex. Importantly, all but one subject showed ambiguity-related peaks within both regions, demonstrating that the group-level results were driven by high inter-subject consistency. Further support came from the finding that activation in both regions was modulated by meaning dominance. Specifically, sentences containing biased ambiguous words, which have one more dominant meaning, produced greater activation than those with balanced ambiguous words, which have two equally frequent meanings. Because the context always supported the less frequent meaning, the biased words require reinterpretation more often than balanced words. This is the first evidence of dominance effects in the spoken modality and provides strong support that frontal and temporal regions support the updating of semantic representations during speech comprehension. PMID:25120445

  15. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  16. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D.: There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray ... the prostate. [beeping] Narrator: The more common form of radiation ...

  17. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  18. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used is radiation therapy. Gunnar Zagars, M.D.: There are different forms ... different types. There's what we call external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray machine, ...

  19. External Radiation Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... external beam treatment, which is given from an x-ray machine, and there's a variety called interstitial implantation, ... the treatment. You can't really feel the x-rays going into you and so they feel no ...

  20. [The ambiguous concept of predialysis: proposal for a model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberghini, Elena; Gambirasio, Maria Cristina; Sarcina, Cristina; Biazzi, Cecilia; Ferrario, Francesca; Corghi, Enzo; Baragetti, Ivano; Buzzi, Laura; Visciano, Bianca; Terraneo, Veronica; Santagostino, Gaia; Pozzi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 90% of nephrology centers in Lombardy declared to have a ''predialysis'' outpatient department, without, however, specifying its meaning. Research carried out in 2008 among nephrology centers in Piemonte showed how ambiguous this term was. According to the 2007 EDTA-ERA Registry, about 68% of European nephrology centers stated that they had an outpatient department for stage 4-5 CKD patients, but no information was available about the role of patients in the choice of dialysis. It is known that when the predialysis phase is poorly managed, the patient's rehabilitation will be more difficult. Dissatisfaction with dialysis often leads to withdrawal from dialysis, as several registries have shown. For this reason, we created a predialysis course at our center, involving a nephrologist, a nurse, and a dietician. The nephrologist helps the patient choose the most suitable therapeutic strategy, which means that doctor and patient share the responsibility for the treatment choice. The offered options are hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, preemptive kidney transplant, and a conservative dietary-pharmacological program. The nurse plans at least 4 meetings: 1) to talk with the patient in order to get to know him or her and his/her family; 2) to provide information about the dialysis procedure and establish the patient's preferences; 3) to clear any doubts about the treatment and deliver a booklet with information about the chosen dialysis procedure; 4) to explain the chosen dialysis procedure; 5) to meet the patient after their preparation for dialysis (vascular access or peritoneal catheter). The dietician manages the dietary programs both for patients who are close to starting dialysis and those on a longlasting conservative program. The predialysis course includes a meeting among all those involved with the patient (nephrologists, nurses, dieticians) to exchange information with the purpose of shared evaluation and decision-making. PMID:22028269

  1. Processing ambiguous Spanish se in a minimal chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Enrique; Acuña-Fariña, Carlos; Carreiras, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    The recovery of pieces of information that are not linguistically expressed is a constant feature of the process of language comprehension. In the processing literature, such missing information is generally referred to as "gaps". Usually, one resolves gaps by finding "fillers" in either the sentence or the context. For instance, in Peter seemed to be upset, Peter is really the subject of being upset but appears as surface subject of seems. Sometimes constituents move, leaving gaps behind. Various Romance languages such as Spanish or Italian have a grammatical particle se/si, which, as it is extremely ambiguous, licenses different sorts of gaps. In Spanish, se can encode at least reflexive, impersonal, and passive meanings. In an eye-tracking experiment we contrast reflexive structures containing postverbal subjects with impersonal structures with no subjects (GAP se vendó apresuradamente el corredor/"the runner bandaged himself hurriedly" vs. GAP se vendó apresuradamente al corridor/"(someone) bandaged the runner hurriedly"). In a second manipulation we contrast the presence of an extra argument with se-passives (GAP se vendó el tobillo el corredor/"the runner bandaged his ankle" vs. GAP se vendó el tobillo al corridor/"the runner's ankle was bandaged"). Our comparisons involve contrasting standard transitive structures with nonstandard word order (postverbal subject and a preverbal subject gap) against inherently complex and less habitual structures such as impersonals (with no subject) or se-passives (with subjects in canonical object position). We evaluate the minimal chain principle (de Vincenzi, 1991), according to which displacement is costly because it entails complex (derivational) "chains" that must be undone before phrasal packaging can commence. We show the minimal chain principle to be essentially correct when contrasting more complex but more frequent structures with less complex but less frequent structures. A noteworthy feature of this research

  2. A STUDY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH MAJORS' SCORES OF TEM4 AND TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenWencun

    2004-01-01

    This is a study of the effect of English majors' tolerance ofambiguity on their scores of TEM4. The subjects for the surveyare 193 English major students. Statistical results of the surveyshow that the students' tolerance of ambiguity distributesnormally and their scores of listening comprehension and totalscores are significantly correlated with their tolerance ofambiguity. A weak positive correlation is also found betweentheir scores of dictation, cloze as well as reading comprehensionand tolerance of ambiguity. Students' scores in writing,structure and vocabulary are not significantly correlated withtolerance of ambiguity. The author makes some analysesassociating the results of the investigation with some scholarlyinferences and gives some suggestions on foreign languageteaching.

  3. Decision Lists for Lexical Ambiguity Resolution Application to Accent Restoration in Spanish and French

    CERN Document Server

    Yarowsky, D

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical decision procedure for lexical ambiguity resolution. The algorithm exploits both local syntactic patterns and more distant collocational evidence, generating an efficient, effective, and highly perspicuous recipe for resolving a given ambiguity. By identifying and utilizing only the single best disambiguating evidence in a target context, the algorithm avoids the problematic complex modeling of statistical dependencies. Although directly applicable to a wide class of ambiguities, the algorithm is described and evaluated in a realistic case study, the problem of restoring missing accents in Spanish and French text.

  4. The Complex Ambiguity Function Based on Downsampled Fourth-Order Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYongfeng; ZHANGWeiqiang; TAORan

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of target detection in passive radar in correlated noise surroundings, we present a new estimation of the Complex ambiguity function based on Downsampled fourth-order statistics (CAF-DFOS) to improve the performances of the traditional Complex ambiguity function based on Second-order statistics (CAF-SOS) and the existing Complex ambiguity function based on Fourth-order statistics (CAF-FOS). Both the theory and the simulations show that in the aspect of Gaussian noise suppression, its performance is better than the CAF-SOS algorithm; in the aspect of estimate variance and frequency resolution, its performance is better than the CAF-FOS algorithm.

  5. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  6. Network Externality: An Uncommon Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Liebowitz; Stephen E. Margolis

    1994-01-01

    Economists have defined 'network externality' and have examined putative inframarginal market failures associated with it. This paper distinguishes between network effects and network externalities, where the latter are market failures. The authors argue that while network effects are important, network externalities are theoretically fragile and empirically undocumented. Some network externalities are merely pecuniary. Network ownership or transactions among network participants can internal...

  7. Description of a New Species of the Andean Butterfly Genus Forsterinaria Gray (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Considerations on an Apparently New Structure in Male Genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, A; Pyrcz, T W; Boyer, P

    2014-02-01

    The butterfly genus Forsterinaria Gray is the only strictly montane representative of the diverse Neotropical subtribe Euptychiina (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), with 24 described species. Recent research in some of the most isolated and highly diverse Andean regions, such as central Peru, show that its total species richness is still underestimated. An example is the new species described here, Forsterinaria emo n. sp., which is particularly interesting because of an unusual structure discovered in its male genitalia which consists of a bunch of bristle-like processes, composing a fringe-like formation on the dorsum of the tegumen. No similar, homologous structure was found in any congener, nor indeed, in any species of diurnal Lepidoptera. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that the microstructure of the processes resembles a membrane lining the tegumen. Its function is unknown but two hypotheses are discussed based on a comparative study with other genital structures of butterflies. We argue that it may help stabilizing the partners in the process of mating or it may serve as a 'mating plug', preventing the female from multiple copulations.

  8. PRF-ambiguity resolution for SAR by contrast minimization in range-Doppler domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingcheng; XU Jia; PENG Yingning

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to accurately estimate the Doppler centroid,which is needed for high-quality synthetic aperture radar(SAR)image formation by resolving the SAR pulse repetition frequency(PRF)ambiguity.The algorithm uses the SAR range migration to resolve the PRF-ambiguity by searching for a PRF-ambiguity number that minimizes the intensity contrast in the range-Doppler domain.Experimental results show that the approach.compared with traditional methods for resolving the SAR PRF ambiguity,is more suitable for both high contrast scenes such as urban areas and low contrast scenes such as mountains.Moreover,the approach is more computationally efficient for there are no time-consuming correlations or fast Fourier transform(FFT)operations needed in the range-Doppler domain and only part of the range cells are used in the calculation.

  9. A Test of Rank-Dependent Utility in the Context of Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigations of nonexpected utility have primarily concentrated on decision under risk ("probability triangles"). The literature suggests, however, that ambiguity is one of the main causes for deviations from expected utility. This paper investigates the descriptive performance of ran

  10. From Ambiguity Aversion to a Generalized Expected Utility. Modeling Preferences in a Quantum Probabilistic Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity and ambiguity aversion have been widely studied in decision theory and economics both at a theoretical and an experimental level. After Ellsberg's seminal studies challenging subjective expected utility theory (SEUT), several (mainly normative) approaches have been put forward to reproduce ambiguity aversion and Ellsberg-type preferences. However, Machina and other authors have pointed out some fundamental difficulties of these generalizations of SEUT to cope with some variants of Ellsberg's thought experiments, which has recently been experimentally confirmed. Starting from our quantum modeling approach to human cognition, we develop here a general probabilistic framework to model human decisions under uncertainty. We show that our quantum theoretical model faithfully represents different sets of data collected on both the Ellsberg and the Machina paradox situations, and is flexible enough to describe different subjective attitudes with respect to ambiguity. Our approach opens the way toward a quan...

  11. Games of mirrors and ambiguous fictions. The unheimliche in Italian Realismo magico

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluca Nardoni

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on some problems of Italian Realismo magico analyzed by means of Sigmund Freud’s Das Unheimliche, particularly through the topics of mirrors, déjà-vu and ambiguity between fiction and reality.

  12. Facilitated lexical ambiguity processing by transcranial direct current stimulation over the left inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Aya S; Mimura, Takanori; Soshi, Takahiro; Yorifuji, Shiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yoshinime, Toshiki; Umehara, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the left inferior frontal cortex is involved in the resolution of lexical ambiguities for language comprehension. In this study, we hypothesized that processing of lexical ambiguities is improved when the excitability of the left inferior frontal cortex is enhanced. To test the hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We investigated the effect of anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex on behavioral indexes for semantic judgment on lexically ambiguous and unambiguous words within a context. Supporting the hypothesis, the RT was shorter in the anodal tDCS session than in the sham session for ambiguous words. The results suggest that controlled semantic retrieval and contextual selection were facilitated by anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex. PMID:25208744

  13. Enhancing lexical ambiguity resolution by brain polarization of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Yael; Lavidor, Michal

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported a hemispheric asymmetry in processing dominant (e.g., paper) and subordinate (e.g., farmer) associations of ambiguous words (pen). Here we applied sham and anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area and its right homologue to test whether we can modulate the selective hemispheric expertise in processing lexical ambiguity. Ambiguous prime words were presented followed by target words that could be associated to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the prime in a semantic relatedness task. Anodal stimulation of the right Wernicke's area significantly decreased response time (RTs) to subordinate but not dominant associations compared to sham stimulation. There was also a complementary trend of faster responses to dominant associations following anodal stimulation of Wernicke's area. The results support brain asymmetry in processing lexical ambiguity and show that tDCS can enhance complex language processing even in a sample of highly literate individuals. PMID:22513342

  14. Angry-happy interpretations of ambiguous faces in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Keren; Eldar, Sharon; Stoddard, Joel; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-07-30

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by a tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as negative. Here we tested whether interpretation of ambiguous faces differs between participants with SAD and non-anxious controls. Twenty-seven individuals with SAD and 21 non-anxious control participants completed an emotion recognition task in which they judged ambiguous morphed faces as happy or angry. Participants with SAD judged a higher proportion of the faces as angry compared to non-anxious participants, and were slower to judge faces as angry compared to happy, while no such reaction time bias manifested in the control group. Finally, happy judgments were slower in the SAD group compared to the control group, while angry judgments were faster in the SAD group compared to the control group. These findings provide evidence for a negative bias in resolving emotional ambiguity in facial expressions among individuals with SAD. PMID:27173656

  15. Four-dimensional aether-like Lorentz-breaking QED revisited and problem of ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Rua Hugo D' Antola, 95, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mariz, T. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, we consider the perturbative generation of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED within different approaches and discuss its ambiguities. (orig.)

  16. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  17. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.;

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  18. Externalities in Urban Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Erik T. Verhoef; Nijkamp, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies urban sustainability from the perspective ofexternalities. We develop a general spatialequilibrium model of a monocentric city, in which two types ofexternalities occur. On the one hand, pollution inthe industrial centre leads to a spatially differentiateddeterioration of the environmental quality in the residentialarea. On the other hand, the existence of the city is explained byagglomeration economies, represented as simpleMarshallian external benefits in production. We i...

  19. CO2 laser ablation of external genital lesions with a SwiftLase flashscanner: treatment of extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva, penile condylomata, and other lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacknoff, Eric J.; Schweitzer, Jay; Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.

    1995-05-01

    The ability to vaporize extremely thin layers of epithelial tissue without any char and with minimal thermal necrosis is extremely advantageous in the treatment of superficial lesions of the external genitalia. We present a novel CO2 laser `SwiftLase' flashscan technology capable of providing char free ablation of 3 mm diameter lesions with only 150 micron residual thermal necrosis depth at power level as low as 10 watts. These power levels are achievable with a small transportable CO2 laser. The SwiftLaser is a miniature opto- mechanical scanner which homogeneously covers a 3 mm diameter surface with a 0.1 mm spot size focused beam within 0.1 seconds. The instantaneous beam's dwelling time is 1 millisecond. The instantaneous power density level at the focal point is higher than the threshold for char free ablation, thus providing a large char free ablation crater. Since depth of each ablated layer is 0.1 mm, the depth of treatment can be precisely controlled. The SwiftLaser technology has extensively and successfully been used in the last two years for the treatment of HPV in female lower tracts (Vulvectomy). The same technique may be performed with extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva, penile condylomata, and other epithelial disorders of the external genitalia without damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Technique and clinical results will be discussed.

  20. A Quick Method of Phase Ambiguity Resolution with X-Ray Pulsar Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposes a quick resolution method based on space search method which is based on least square method, space search method and ambiguity covariance method. The results of simulation indicate that this method can effectively improve the speed and efficiency of phase ambiguity resolution and has some certain reference value to the researches which is related to X-ray pulsar navigation.

  1. Role Satisfaction Mediates the Relation between Role Ambiguity and Social Loafing among Elite Women Handball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Hoigaard, Rune; Fuglestad, Susanne; Peters, Derek M.; De Cuyper, Bert; De Backer, Maarten; Boen, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to develop a questionnaire on self-reported social loafing (SRSLQ), and then to examine its relations with role ambiguity and role satisfaction in a sample of 110 women handball players competing at the elite level in Norway. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the SRSLQ was a psychometrically sound measure. In line with the expectations, role satisfaction fully mediated the positive relation between role ambiguity and self-reported s...

  2. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Chief Executive Officers in International Joint Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Shenkar; Yoram Zeira

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and personal correlates of role conflict and role ambiguity of chief executive officers heading international joint ventures. Role conflict was found to be lower when the number of parent firms was higher and when the CEO had spent more years with the organization. Role ambiguity was found to be lower when the CEO had more years of education, when the Power Distance and Masculinity/Femininity gap between parents were lower, and when the Individualism/Col...

  3. Market Shaping as an Answer to Ambiguities. : The Case of Credit Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Huault, Isabelle; Rainelli-Le Montagner, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    International audience Building on Smith (1989), we describe the social processes surrounding a new financial OTC derivatives market, the market for credit derivatives. We show that in contradiction with more traditional derivatives, credit derivatives generate ambiguities of a cognitive and political nature. By conducting an in-depth longitudinal qualitative study from 1996 to 2004, we document the efforts made by the promoters of the market to alleviate these ambiguities and show how the...

  4. Resolving the Theoretical Ambiguities of Social Exclusion with reference to Polarisation and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper addresses several ambiguities in the social exclusion literature that fuel the common criticism that the concept is redundant with respect to already existing poverty approaches, particularly more multidimensional and processual approaches such as relative or capability deprivation. It is argued that these ambiguities arise from the fact that social exclusion is generally not differentiated from poverty, even though it is widely acknowledged that social exclusi...

  5. Ionosphere influence on success rate of GPS ambiguity resolution in a satellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Satellite formation flying is one of the most promising technologies for future space missions. The distribution of sensors and payloads among different satellites provides more redundancy, flexibility, improved communication coverage, among other advantages. One of the fundamental issues in spacecraft formation flying is precise position and velocity determination between satellites. For missions in low Earth orbits, GPS system can meet the precision requirement in relative positioning, since the satellite dynamics is modeled properly. The key for high accuracy GPS relative positioning is to resolve the ambiguities to their integer values. Ambiguities resolved successfully can improve the positioning accuracy to decimetre or even millimetre-level. So, integer carrier phase ambiguity resolution is often a prerequisite for high precision GPS positioning. The determination of relative position was made using an extended Kalman filter. The filter must take into account imperfections in dynamic modeling of perturbations affecting the orbital flight, and changes in solar activity that affects the GPS signal propagation, for mitigating these effects on relative positioning accuracy. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the impact of ionosphere variation, caused by changes in solar activity, in success rate of ambiguity resolution. Using the Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP) concept, the ambiguity success rate is analyzed and the expected precision of the ambiguity-fixed solution is calculated. Evaluations were performed using actual data from GRACE mission and analyzed for their performance in real scenarios. Analyses were conducted in different configurations of relative position and during different levels of solar activity. Results bring the impact of various disturbances and modeling of solar activity level on the success rate of ambiguity resolution.

  6. Anxiety and Outcome Evaluation: The Good, the Bad and the Ambiguous

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ruolei; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Yang; Luo, Yue-jia

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that anxious individuals are more prone to evaluate ambiguous information as negative compared to non-anxious individuals. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of event-related brain potential (ERP) has been shown to be sensitive to outcome evaluation. The current ERP study aimed to test the hypothesis that the FRNs associated with ambiguous outcomes and negative outcomes are different between high trait-anxiety (HTA) and low trait-anxiety (LTA) indi...

  7. The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancheng Zhu; Xiaoping Hu; Jingyu Zhang; Tao Li; Jinling Wang; Meiping Wu

    2014-01-01

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compas...

  8. Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Talley, Amelia E.; Brown, Sarah L.; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ...

  9. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Vitello, Sylvia; Warren, Jane E; Devlin, Joseph T.; Rodd, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “bark,” “bank”). Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretati...

  10. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Vitello; Warren, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “bark”, “bank”). Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretati...

  11. Understanding ambiguous words in sentence contexts: Electrophysiological evidence for delayed contextual selection in Broca's aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Swaab, T.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates whether spoken sentence comprehension deficits in Broca's aphasics results from their inability to access the subordinate meaning of ambiguous words (e.g. bank), or alternatively, from a delay in their selection of the contextually appropriate meaning. Twelve Broca's aphasics and twelve elderly controls were presented with lexical ambiguities in three context conditions, each followed by the same target words. In the concordant condition, the sentence context biased th...

  12. LIFG-based attentional control and the resolution of lexical ambiguities in sentence context

    OpenAIRE

    L. Vuong; MARTIN,R

    2010-01-01

    The role of attentional control in lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in two patients with damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and one control patient with non-LIFG damage. Experiment 1 confirmed that the LIFG patients had attentional control deficits compared to normal controls while the non-LIFG patient was relatively unimpaired. Experiment 2 showed that all three patients did as well as normal controls in using biasing sentence context to resolve lexical ambiguities inv...

  13. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  14. Understanding words in sentence contexts: The time course of ambiguity resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Swaab, T.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.

    2003-01-01

    Spoken language comprehension requires rapid integration of information from multiple linguistic sources. In the present study we addressed the temporal aspects of this integration process by focusing on the time course of the selection of the appropriate meaning of lexical ambiguities (“bank”) in sentence contexts. Successful selection of the contextually appropriate meaning of the ambiguous word is dependent upon the rapid binding of the contextual information in the sentence to the appropr...

  15. The kindergarten-path effect revisited: children’s use of context in processing structural ambiguities

    OpenAIRE

    Weighall, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that ambiguous spoken sentences are resolved efficiently, exploiting multiple cues—including referential context—to select the intended meaning. Paradoxically, children appear to be insensitive to referential cues when resolving ambiguous sentences, relying instead on statistical properties intrinsic to the language such as verb biases. The possibility that children’s insensitivity to referential context may be an artifact of the experimental design used in prev...

  16. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Moustafa; Jony Sheynin; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as i...

  17. Why clowns taste funny: the relationship between humor and semantic ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Davis, Matthew H; Rodd, Jennifer M; Owen, Adrian M

    2011-06-29

    What makes us laugh? One crucial component of many jokes is the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings. In this functional MRI study of normal participants, the neural mechanisms that underlie our experience of getting a joke that depends on the resolution of semantically ambiguous words were explored. Jokes that contained ambiguous words were compared with sentences that contained ambiguous words but were not funny, as well as to matched verbal jokes that did not depend on semantic ambiguity. The results confirm that both the left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in processing the semantic aspects of language comprehension, while a more widespread network that includes both of these regions and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally is involved in processing humorous verbal jokes when compared with matched nonhumorous material. In addition, hearing jokes was associated with increased activity in a network of subcortical regions, including the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and the midbrain, that have been implicated in experiencing positive reward. Moreover, activity in these regions correlated with the subjective ratings of funniness of the presented material. These results allow a more precise account of how the neural and cognitive processes that are involved in ambiguity resolution contribute to the appreciation of jokes that depend on semantic ambiguity. PMID:21715632

  18. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  19. Mediating Effect of Role Ambiguity on Communication Climate: A Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was an attempt to explore the relationship and contribution of supportive and defensive communication climate with role ambiguity amongst subordinate staff of Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The total questionnaires included in the study were 368 subordinate staff working in different divisions in the university. Communication climate inventory and role ambiguity scale were used to explore the experiences of subordinate staff. The data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlation and step wise multiple regression. The results appeared that (i strategy one of the facet of defensive communication climate were showed inverse significant relationship with role ambiguity, (ii strategy and control facets of defensive communication climate were emerged most dominant predictors of role ambiguity, (iii supportive communication climate and their dimensions were found positive significant relationship with role ambiguity and (iv total supportive communication climate revealed as one of the most significant predictor of role ambiguity. Implication of this investigation and suggestions for future research were discussed to add value in the current areas of knowledge.

  20. Role ambiguity and role conflict among employees in a provincial public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Tsiriga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals' role ambiguity and role conflict jeopardize the functionality and efficiency of hospitals. Aim: Documentation and exploration of the role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by employees in a Greek provincial public hospital. Material and methods: One hundred four employees aged 22-53 years old. Doctors, nurses technical and administrative personnel working in a provincial public hospital were enrolled in the study. This survey took place in July 2010. The Rizzo's et al role conflict and role ambiguity scales adopted in Greek were used. Scoring is based on a seven point Likert scale. Statistical significance level was set at p<0.05. Analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. Results: Role conflict and ambiguity score was (4.10± 1.17 and 2.63 ± 1.29 respectively. Regarding role ambiguity, statistically significant differences were observed between employees aged 22-32 yrs old and employees aged 47-53 yrs old (p=0.05. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding role conflict. Conclusions: Role conflict and role ambiguity exist among hospital employees. The present study emphasizes critical issues, with considerable consequences threatening the viability and the efficiency of the health care system.

  1. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  2. Ambiguity: A new way of thinking about responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A; Howden, S M

    2016-11-15

    Diversity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are now recognized as vital to tackling wicked problems such as those presented by a changing climate (Nature editorial 2015, Ledford 2015; Dick et al., 2016). Including diverse disciplines in science projects enables a range of different views which often facilitate the creation of innovative solutions. Supporting multiple views and options requires a different way of working beyond traditional reductionist approaches to science, communication and decision-making. To embrace diversity in scientific project teams in order to tackle complex, integrated and urgent issues but to expect singular and linear pathways forward is paradoxical. Much has been written about the need for the scientific community to embrace uncertainty (e.g. Popper, Lempert & Bankes 2005; Lempert et al., 2004; Nelson, Howden & Hayman 2013; Bammer & Smithson 2008). We argue that this in itself will not suffice, and that there is also a need to embrace ambiguity in certain situations. Thus, in this article we explore: (1) what ambiguity is, including the benefits it can offer to climate adaptation in particular, using existing approaches to ambiguity in the arts and humanities as examples (2), we discuss practical meanings of ambiguity in relation to climate change, (3) we propose possible next steps for bringing ambiguity into interdisciplinary practice, and (4) we identify some challenges and necessary preconditions to successfully and appropriately embracing ambiguity. PMID:27486065

  3. Non-ambiguity of blind watermarking: a revisit with analytical resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG XianGui; HUANG JiWu; ZENG WenJun; SHI Yun Q.

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to ambiguity attack is an important requirement for a secure digital rights management (DRM) system. In this paper, we revisit the non-ambiguity of a blind watermarking based on the compu-tational indistinguishability between pseudo random sequence generator (PRSG) sequence ensemble and truly random sequence ensemble. Ambiguity attacker on a watermarking scheme, which uses a PRSG sequence as watermark, is viewed as an attacker who tries to attack a noisy PRSG sequence. We propose and prove the security theorem for binary noisy PRSG sequence and security theorem for gen-(α is a normalized detection threshold; n is the length of a PRSG sequence) and n≥1.39×m/a2 (mis the key length), the success probability of an ambiguity attack and the missed detection probability can both be made negligibly small thus non-ambiguity and robustness can be achieved simultaneously for both practical quantization-based and blind spread spectrum (SS) watermarking schemes. These analytical resolutions may be used in designing practical non-invertible watermarking schemes and measuring the non-ambiguity of the schemes.

  4. Ambiguity: A new way of thinking about responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A; Howden, S M

    2016-11-15

    Diversity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are now recognized as vital to tackling wicked problems such as those presented by a changing climate (Nature editorial 2015, Ledford 2015; Dick et al., 2016). Including diverse disciplines in science projects enables a range of different views which often facilitate the creation of innovative solutions. Supporting multiple views and options requires a different way of working beyond traditional reductionist approaches to science, communication and decision-making. To embrace diversity in scientific project teams in order to tackle complex, integrated and urgent issues but to expect singular and linear pathways forward is paradoxical. Much has been written about the need for the scientific community to embrace uncertainty (e.g. Popper, Lempert & Bankes 2005; Lempert et al., 2004; Nelson, Howden & Hayman 2013; Bammer & Smithson 2008). We argue that this in itself will not suffice, and that there is also a need to embrace ambiguity in certain situations. Thus, in this article we explore: (1) what ambiguity is, including the benefits it can offer to climate adaptation in particular, using existing approaches to ambiguity in the arts and humanities as examples (2), we discuss practical meanings of ambiguity in relation to climate change, (3) we propose possible next steps for bringing ambiguity into interdisciplinary practice, and (4) we identify some challenges and necessary preconditions to successfully and appropriately embracing ambiguity.

  5. Ambiguity in English Humor%英语笑话的歧义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温美霞

    2015-01-01

    The linguistic ambiguity,which can be taken as a communication barrier in actual exchanges,is often employed in the realization of jokes to display humorous effect.This paper tentatively explores the inference and appreciation of English jokes from three perspectives,including phonological ambiguity,lexical ambiguity and syntactic ambiguity to illuminate the fact that linguistic ambiguity is an important mechanism for the birth of humors and that humor can be understood effectively with the help of the analysis of ambiguity.%歧义在正常交际中可被视为交际的障碍,然而运用到笑话中却能产生幽默诙谐的效果。本文根据触发歧义的语言层次,试从语音歧义,词汇歧义和句法歧义三方面理解和欣赏英语笑话,表明歧义机制是建构幽默的重要手段,通过分析歧义能有效解读幽默。

  6. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  7. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...... and quadratic costs. We will start with the basic minimal variance problem and then move on to more complex and applicable strategies such as GMV, GPC and LQG control. These methods can be regarded as extension to the basic minimal variance strategy and have all a close relation to prediction. Consequently...... a section on that topic can be found in appendix....

  8. Opposite influence of perceptual memory on initial and prolonged perception of sensory ambiguity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Cathelijne de Jong

    Full Text Available Observers continually make unconscious inferences about the state of the world based on ambiguous sensory information. This process of perceptual decision-making may be optimized by learning from experience. We investigated the influence of previous perceptual experience on the interpretation of ambiguous visual information. Observers were pre-exposed to a perceptually stabilized sequence of an ambiguous structure-from-motion stimulus by means of intermittent presentation. At the subsequent re-appearance of the same ambiguous stimulus perception was initially biased toward the previously stabilized perceptual interpretation. However, prolonged viewing revealed a bias toward the alternative perceptual interpretation. The prevalence of the alternative percept during ongoing viewing was largely due to increased durations of this percept, as there was no reliable decrease in the durations of the pre-exposed percept. Moreover, the duration of the alternative percept was modulated by the specific characteristics of the pre-exposure, whereas the durations of the pre-exposed percept were not. The increase in duration of the alternative percept was larger when the pre-exposure had lasted longer and was larger after ambiguous pre-exposure than after unambiguous pre-exposure. Using a binocular rivalry stimulus we found analogous perceptual biases, while pre-exposure did not affect eye-bias. We conclude that previously perceived interpretations dominate at the onset of ambiguous sensory information, whereas alternative interpretations dominate prolonged viewing. Thus, at first instance ambiguous information seems to be judged using familiar percepts, while re-evaluation later on allows for alternative interpretations.

  9. Searching for the best model: ambiguity of inverse solutions and application to fetal magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, J [VSM MedTech Ltd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 7B2 (Canada); Robinson, S E [VSM MedTech Ltd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 7B2 (Canada); McCubbin, J [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Lowery, C L [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Eswaran, H [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Murphy, P [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Preissl, H [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    Fetal brain signals produce weak magnetic fields at the maternal abdominal surface. In the presence of much stronger interference these weak fetal fields are often nearly indistinguishable from noise. Our initial objective was to validate these weak fetal brain fields by demonstrating that they agree with the electromagnetic model of the fetal brain. The fetal brain model is often not known and we have attempted to fit the data to not only the brain source position, orientation and magnitude, but also to the brain model position. Simulation tests of this extended model search on fetal MEG recordings using dipole fit and beamformers revealed a region of ambiguity. The region of ambiguity consists of a family of models which are not distinguishable in the presence of noise, and which exhibit large and comparable SNR when beamformers are used. Unlike the uncertainty of a dipole fit with known model plus noise, this extended ambiguity region yields nearly identical forward solutions, and is only weakly dependent on noise. The ambiguity region is located in a plane defined by the source position, orientation, and the true model centre, and will have a diameter approximately 0.67 of the modelled fetal head diameter. Existence of the ambiguity region allows us to only state that the fetal brain fields do not contradict the electromagnetic model; we can associate them with a family of models belonging to the ambiguity region, but not with any specific model. In addition to providing a level of confidence in the fetal brain signals, the ambiguity region knowledge in combination with beamformers allows detection of undistorted temporal waveforms with improved signal-to-noise ratio, even though the source position cannot be uniquely determined.

  10. Separable responses to error, ambiguity, and reaction time in cingulo-opercular task control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Maital; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-10-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), along with the closely affiliated anterior insula/frontal operculum, have been demonstrated to show three types of task control signals across a wide variety of tasks. One of these signals, a transient signal that is thought to represent performance feedback, shows greater activity to error than correct trials. Other work has found similar effects for uncertainty/ambiguity or conflict, though some argue that dACC activity is, instead, modulated primarily by other processes more reflected in reaction time. Here, we demonstrate that, rather than a single explanation, multiple information processing operations are crucial to characterizing the function of these brain regions, by comparing operations within a single paradigm. Participants performed two tasks in an fMRI experimental session: (1) deciding whether or not visually presented word pairs rhyme, and (2) rating auditorily presented single words as abstract or concrete. A pilot was used to identify ambiguous stimuli for both tasks (e.g., word pair: BASS/GRACE; single word: CHANGE). We found greater cingulo-opercular activity for errors and ambiguous trials than clear/correct trials, with a robust effect of reaction time. The effects of error and ambiguity remained when reaction time was regressed out, although the differences decreased. Further stepwise regression of response consensus (agreement across participants for each stimulus; a proxy for ambiguity) decreased differences between ambiguous and clear trials, but left error-related differences almost completely intact. These observations suggest that trial-wise responses in cingulo-opercular regions monitor multiple performance indices, including accuracy, ambiguity, and reaction time. PMID:24887509

  11. Ambiguity Resolution for GPS/GNSS Network Solution Implemented in SPODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUAN Rengui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity resolution plays an essential role in global GPS/GNSS network solution. In order to fix as many double-difference(DD ambiguities to the nearest integers as possible, a set of "most-easy-to-fix" independent DD-ambiguities has to be defined. The most usable state-of-art method (the "traditional" methodat present is to make the independency checking on two levels firstly on the baseline level and then the network level, in which the DD-ambiguity candidates are sorted by their fixing probabilities on both levels. Considering the fact that, in general global network solution, the number of stations involved is usual times larger than that of satellites, a new approach for independent DD-ambiguities selection was presented, which makes the independency checking in an analogous two-level way firstly on the constellation level and then the network level. Together with a new procedure for sequential ambiguity fixing base on updating the upper triangular square root of covariance matrix, the new approach is implemented in the satellite positioning and orbit determination system (SPODS software which is designed and developed at Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying & Mapping. Validation experiment with GPS observation data collected from about 64 IGS stations was carried out, which demonstrate that 1D RMSs for daily orbit solution, compared with IGS final combined solution, are about 0.012 m, and about 92% of DD-ambiguities were fixed, with only neglectable tiny difference for both the new and traditional method. Another experiment with varied number of stations indicates that the ratio of the number of DD-ambiguities candidates to be checked for independency on the network level between the new and the traditional approach is nearly equal to the ratio of satellites to stations involved. For the cases that more stations are involved than satellites, which are common in actual GPS/GNSS network solution, the computation time for independent DD-ambiguities

  12. Rate-gyro-integral constraint for ambiguity resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping

    2013-06-21

    In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations.

  13. Practical ambiguities during calculation of energy ratios and their impacts on life cycle assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy ratio metrics are increasingly important means of assessing the efficiency of energy production for emerging biofuels platforms, making comparisons among multiple alternatives, and formulating policies to foster commercialization of sustainable energy systems. However, these metrics are susceptible to inadvertent or meaningful mathematical manipulation, whereby the same dataset can be used to compute dramatically different values of energy return on investment (EROI). In this study, previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) data for algal biofuels, corn ethanol, and switchgrass ethanol are used to demonstrate how seven seemingly reasonable EROI formulations give rise to a wide range of output values. It is then demonstrated that production of bioelectricity, and to a lesser extent, other co-products, significantly increases EROI ambiguity. Overall, the EROI results are used to illustrate how EROI ambiguity makes it difficult to properly assess the energetic favorability of a particular energy system or to make accurate comparisons among multiple systems. It is then recommended that all future biofuels studies restrict themselves to usage of “EROI1”, which documents all input and outputs as explicit terms, to mitigate EROI ambiguity and improve policy decision-making. - Highlights: ► Energy ratios are appealing but potentially ambiguous sustainability metrics. ► Various ratio formulations can give different metrics for the same dataset. ► Production of electricity or other co-products exacerbates ratio ambiguity

  14. An improved regularization method to resolve integer ambiguity in rapid positioning using single frequency GPS receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Jikun; WANG Zhenjie

    2004-01-01

    A new approach is employed in GPS rapid positioning using several-epoch single frequency phase data. Firstly, the structure characteristic of the normal matrix in GPS rapid positioning is analyzed. Then, in the light of the characteristic, based on TIKHONOV regularization theorem, a new regularizer is designed to mitigate the ill-condition of the normal matrix. The accurate float ambiguity solutions and their MSEM (Mean Squared Error Matrix) are obtained using several-epoch single frequency phase data. Combined with LAMBDA method, the new approach was used to fix the integer ambiguities correctly and quickly using MSEM instead of the cofactor matrix of the ambiguities. Finally, a baseline over 3 km is taken as an example. The fixed integer ambiguities by the new approach using five epoch single frequency phase data are the same as those fixed by Bernese software using long time data. The success rate of fixing the integer ambiguities is 100 percent using 197 group data. Compared with the traditional methods, the new approach provides better accuracy and efficiency in GPS rapid positioning. So, the new approach has an extensive application outlook in deformation monitoring, pseudokinematic relative positioning, and attitude determination, etc.

  15. High fives motivate: the effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J; Zentall, Shannon R

    2014-01-01

    The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child "You got an A on the test because you're smart," provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is ambiguous, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., "yea" or a thumbs up). To investigate the effects of ambiguous praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5-6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal ambiguous; or gestural) and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. Ambiguous praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort, which may suggest that children interpret ambiguous praise in the most beneficial manner. PMID:25221532

  16. Role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction: Perceptions of the Brazilian controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Nuñez Palomino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT From early times to the present, accounting literature has recorded several situations involving role conflict and ambiguity that cause tension among controllers. The theoretical framework was comprised of the seminal work on Role Theory by Katz and Kahn (1970, and empirical evidence regarding the evolution of the role of controllers in the enterprises. In this study, we used the structural equations technique, which allowed for non-rejection of the two study hypotheses, thus providing evidence that role conflict and ambiguity adversely affect job satisfaction among Brazilian controllers. The sample was comprised of 114 controllers. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the data, allowing information about the respondents to be captured, along with their perceptions regarding levels of role conflict and ambiguity and job satisfaction. For this, the tools developed by Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970 were used, as well as the Job Satisfaction Index presented by Tarrant and Sabo (2010. The results indicated that Brazilian controllers perceive role conflict and role ambiguity while they perform their duties. Job satisfaction of the controllers isaffected more strongly by role ambiguity than by role conflict. However, despite perceiving these two tensions, executives are moderately satisfied with their current working conditions.

  17. Essentialist thinking predicts decrements in children's memory for racially ambiguous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E; Schultz, Jennifer R; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Maddox, Keith B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-02-01

    Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. In the present study, the authors examined whether children also show this pattern of results. They also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts children's memory for faces. Seventy-four White children (ages 4-9 years) completed a face-memory task comprising White, Black, and racially ambiguous Black-White faces. Essentialist thinking about race was also assessed (i.e., thinking of race as immutable and biologically based). White children who used essentialist thinking showed the same bias as White adults: They remembered White faces significantly better than they remembered ambiguous and Black faces. However, children who did not use essentialist thinking remembered both White and racially ambiguous faces significantly better than they remembered Black faces. This finding suggests a specific shift in racial thinking wherein the boundaries between racial groups become more discrete, highlighting the importance of how race is conceptualized in judgments of racially ambiguous individuals.

  18. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  19. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  20. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens;

    this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... to the listener in rooms 2 and 3 than in room 1, with a larger effect in the reverberant than in the dry environment. In room 2, the perceived distance of the virtual sounds was more accurate in condition V than in conditions A and AV, where it was reduced. In room 3, differences in distance judgments between A...... the more reverberant the listening environment was. While the visual impression of the playback room did not affect perceived distance, visual cues helped resolve localization ambiguities and improved compactness perception....

  1. RECONSTRUCT AZIMUTH SIGNAL AND SUPPRESS INTERBEAM AMBIGUITIES OF SPCMB SAR WITH HYBRID FILTERBANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Xiufeng; Yu Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Conventional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems cannot obtain high-resolution and wide-swath illumination area due to the well-known minimum antenna area constraint. Single Phase Center MultiBeam (SPCMB) technique can overcome this limitation by adding spatial sampling through multiple receivers in azimuth direction. Unfortunately, this approach will lead to an increase of azimuth ambiguities (interbeam ambiguities), because each receive beam's mainlobe overlaps with the other ones' sidelobes. This paper proves that the front part of SPCMB SAR systems can be considered to be a hybrid filterbank. Therefore, the azimuth signal can be reconstructed and the interbeam ambiguities can be effectively suppressed by a well-designed hybrid filterbank.

  2. Automated detection of ambiguity in BI-RADS assessment categories in mammography reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Selen; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An unsolved challenge in biomedical natural language processing (NLP) is detecting ambiguities in the reports that can help physicians to improve report clarity. Our goal was to develop NLP methods to tackle the challenges of identifying ambiguous descriptions of the laterality of BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories in mammography radiology reports. We developed a text processing system that uses a BI-RADS ontology we built as a knowledge source for automatic annotation of the entities in mammography reports relevant to this problem. We used the GATE NLP toolkit and developed customized processing resources for report segmentation, named entity recognition, and detection of mismatches between BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories and mammogram laterality. Our system detected 55 mismatched cases in 190 reports and the accuracy rate was 81%. We conclude that such NLP techniques can detect ambiguities in mammography reports and may reduce discrepancy and variability in reporting. PMID:24743074

  3. Resolving Ambiguity in Emotional Disorders: The Nature and Role of Interpretation Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Colette R; Meeten, Frances; Krahé, Charlotte; Reeder, Clare

    2016-01-01

    People with emotional disorders, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression, demonstrate a consistent tendency, or bias, to generate negative interpretations of ambiguous material. This is different from people without emotional disorders who tend, in general, to make positive interpretations of ambiguity. If central components of an emotional disorder have high levels of inherent ambiguity (e.g., concern about the negative perceptions of others in SAD, or worry in GAD), then interpretive bias may have a causal maintaining role, and this has been demonstrated in studies using cognitive bias modification techniques. This research has also shown that interpretation biases combine with other cognitive processes, such as imagery and memory, which could exacerbate distress. Psychological interventions will benefit from effectively targeting negative interpretations, and future experimental research can inform ways to improve facilitation of more benign inferential processing to maximize amelioration of key components of emotional disorders. PMID:27019398

  4. Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Sarah L; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ideation is found when perceptions of burden and feelings of thwarted belonging co-occur with feelings of hopelessness. Results support relevant theory useful for understanding suicide risk among sexual minority women who acknowledge ambiguity with regard to their sexual orientation. PMID:26190166

  5. Ambiguity resolved precise point positioning with GPS and BeiDou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li; Xiaohong, Zhang; Fei, Guo

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of the global positioning system (GPS) and BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) observations to precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR). A GPS + BDS fractional cycle bias (FCB) estimation method and a PPP AR model were developed using integrated GPS and BDS observations. For FCB estimation, the GPS + BDS combined PPP float solutions of the globally distributed IGS MGEX were first performed. When integrating GPS observations, the BDS ambiguities can be precisely estimated with less than four tracked BDS satellites. The FCBs of both GPS and BDS satellites can then be estimated from these precise ambiguities. For the GPS + BDS combined AR, one GPS and one BDS IGSO or MEO satellite were first chosen as the reference satellite for GPS and BDS, respectively, to form inner-system single-differenced ambiguities. The single-differenced GPS and BDS ambiguities were then fused by partial ambiguity resolution to increase the possibility of fixing a subset of decorrelated ambiguities with high confidence. To verify the correctness of the FCB estimation and the effectiveness of the GPS + BDS PPP AR, data recorded from about 75 IGS MGEX stations during the period of DOY 123-151 (May 3 to May 31) in 2015 were used for validation. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS-only AR, GPS-only AR and GPS + BDS AR. Numerous experimental results show that the time to first fix (TTFF) is longer than 6 h for the BDS AR in general and that the fixing rate is usually less than 35 % for both static and kinematic PPP. An average TTFF of 21.7 min and 33.6 min together with a fixing rate of 98.6 and 97.0 % in static and kinematic PPP, respectively, can be achieved for GPS-only ambiguity fixing. For the combined GPS + BDS AR, the average TTFF can be shortened to 16.9 min and 24.6 min and the fixing rate can be increased to 99.5 and 99.0 % in static and kinematic PPP, respectively. Results also show that GPS + BDS PPP AR outperforms

  6. Ambiguity Function and Resolution Characteristic Analysis of DVB-S Signal for Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the performance research on the ambiguity function and resolution of passive radar based on DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting-Satellite signal. The radar system structure and signal model of DVB-S signal are firstly studied, then the ambiguity function of DVB-S signal is analyzed. At last, it has been obtained how the bistatic radar position impacts the resolution. Theoretical analyses and computer simulation show that DVB-S signal is applicable as an illuminator for passive radar.

  7. Analysis of Location Ambiguity, GDOP and Station Layout of Threestation in Multilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the two-dimensional TDOA source location in the case of three stations would encounter the ambiguity problem of dual solutions. The relationship between distributions of location curve intersections, GDOP and receiving station layout is numerically analyzed, namely the distributions of location curve intersections and GDOP are determined by the receiving station layout, and the areas of two curve intersections are consistent with these of larger GDOP. These analysis results could serve as reference for avoiding or dealing with the ambiguity problem when multilateration is in application.

  8. Fence - An Efficient Parser with Ambiguity Support for Model-Driven Language Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Quesada, Luis; Cortijo, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    Model-based language specification has applications in the implementation of language processors, the design of domain-specific languages, model-driven software development, data integration, text mining, natural language processing, and corpus-based induction of models. Model-based language specification decouples language design from language processing and, unlike traditional grammar-driven approaches, which constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars, it needs general parser generators able to deal with ambiguities. In this paper, we propose Fence, an efficient bottom-up parsing algorithm with lexical and syntactic ambiguity support that enables the use of model-based language specification in practice.

  9. Holding on to hope: A review of the literature exploring missing persons, hope and ambiguous loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Sarah; Maple, Myfanwy; McKay, Kathy; Glassock, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    When a person goes missing, those left behind mourn an ambiguous loss where grief can be disenfranchised. Different to bereavement following death, hope figures into this experience as a missing person has the potential to return. This review explores hope for families of missing people. Lived experience of ambiguous loss was deconstructed to reveal responses punctuated by hope, which had practical and psychological implications for those learning to live with an unresolved absence. Future lines of enquiry must address the dearth of research exploring the role of hope, unresolved grief, and its clinical implications when a person is missing.

  10. Ambiguity function and accuracy of the hyperbolic chirp: comparison with the linear chirp

    OpenAIRE

    Balleri, A.; Farina, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the Ambiguity Function (AF) of a narrowband and a wideband hyperbolic chirp. We calculate the second derivatives of the squared amplitude of the narrowband Complex Ambiguity Function (CAF) and use them to calculate the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) of the estimators of the target range and velocity. The FIM is then used to calculate the Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB) of the variance of the estimators and to ´ carry out an analysis of estimation performance and a com...

  11. Studies on male genitalia of sarcophagidae (Diptera based on scanning electron microscope observations Estudos sobre a genitália masculina de Sarcophagidae (Diptera baseados em observações de microscópio de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Male genitalia of Oxyvinia exicisa (Lopes, Oxysarcodexia thomax (Walker, O. fluminensis Lopes, Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann and Liopygia ruficornis (Fabricius were studied based on scanning electron microscope photography. Some important details were evidentiated with this method.As genitálias dos machos de Oxyvinia excisa (Lopes, Oxysarcodexia tornax (Walker, O. fluminensis Lopes, sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann e Liopygia ruficornis (Fabricius foram estudadas com base em fotografias de microscópio de varredura. Alguns detalhes importantes foram evidenciados por este método.

  12. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok; Yi, Kyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal.

  13. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok; Yi, Kyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal. PMID:26817010

  14. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal. PMID:26817010

  15. Explanation of Ambiguous Advertisements: A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Forty students aged 9-18 were asked to explain the meanings of lexically ambiguous advertisements from magazines, newspapers, and brochures. Older subjects explained the meanings correctly more frequently than younger subjects. The psychological meanings of the ads were found to be more difficult to explain than the physical meanings. (Author/JDD)

  16. Tinkering with Material Resources: Operating under Ambiguous Conditions in Rock Construction Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styhre, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ethnographic studies of, for instance, laboratory work show that practices never reach a full closure but are always open to contingencies and ambiguities, making it possible to accommodate new empirical findings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that this is true also for less "high-brow" work in, for example, the construction…

  17. Film as a Lens for Teaching Culture: Balancing Concepts, Ambiguity, and Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Mark; Rossy, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to apply dimensions of an integrated cultural framework (ability to influence, comfort with ambiguity, achievement orientation, individualism/collectivism, time orientation, space orientation) to analysis of films as part of the study of culture. Gives an application example and selection guidelines and discusses limitations. (SK)

  18. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  19. Work Design, Role Conflict, and Role Ambiguity: The Case of Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Work design outcomes (role conflict, role ambiguity, stress symptomatology, turnover, and militancy) were assessed in New York State. Out of 3,200 mailed surveys, 2,247 teacher questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Managerial and educational policy implications of the findings for elementary school and secondary schools are discussed. (SLD)

  20. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanqing; Verhagen, Sandra; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity Resolution (AR) plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT) has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher) and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value. PMID:27347949

  1. Network Structure and Innovation Ambiguity Effects on Diffusion in Dynamic Organizational Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Deborah E.

    2004-01-01

    Computational modeling simulated innovation diffusion through six prototypical interregional network structures and two distributions of partnering tendencies in dynamic organizational fields. Compared to regional constraints, connections among all geographic regions decreased clearly beneficial innovation diffusion (a low-threshold adoption model) but increased ambiguous innovation diffusion (a social influence model). Compared with uniform partnering tendencies, normally dist...

  2. Are Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the links between multilingualism, the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA), and attitudes toward linguistic variation among 379 mono-, bi-, and multilingual adults who completed an online questionnaire. A self-reported high level of proficiency in multiple languages, short- and long-term residence abroad, and high…

  3. Conflict and Ambiguity over Work Roles: The Impact on Child Care Worker Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relation of occupational stress in the child care workplace to three facets of staff burnout: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and personal accomplishment. Results showed that work role conflict and ambiguity predicted a significant portion of variance in the three aspects of staff burnout, and that social support buffered the…

  4. Improving the GNSS attitude ambiguity success rate with the multivariate constrained LAMBDA method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgi, G.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Verhagen, S.; Buist, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    GNSS Attitude Determination is a valuable technique for the estimation of platform orientation. To achieve high accuracies on the angular estimations, the GNSS carrier phase data has to be used. These data are known to be affected by integer ambiguities, which must be correctly resolved in order to

  5. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanqing; Verhagen, Sandra; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-23

    Ambiguity Resolution (AR) plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT) has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher) and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value.

  6. An Exploration of Aspects of Boundary Ambiguity among Young, Unmarried Fathers during the Prenatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Randall

    2007-01-01

    This research represents an exploration of patterns of boundary ambiguity among poor, young, unmarried men and their reproductive partners. Interviews were conducted with men and their partners during the third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews focused on patterns of men's physical and psychological presence in relationships with their partners…

  7. Ambiguities in visual perception. The aperture problem and the role of eye movements in perceptual bistability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.C.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis is devoted to visual ambiguities. First, we investigated the assigned binocular disparity for an 'infinitely' long line, which was occluded at the flanks (aperture problem). We showed that from a geometrical point of view, matching of the partially occluded line

  8. Hybrid analytical resolution approach based on ambiguity function for attitude determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-rui JIN; Chuan-run ZHAI; Liduan WANG; Yan-hua ZHANG; Xing-qun ZHAN

    2009-01-01

    When satellite navigation receivers are equipped with multiple antennas, they can deliver attitude information. In previous researches, carrier phase differencing measurement equations were built in the earth-centered, earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinate, and attitude angles could be obtained through the rotation matrix between the body frame (BF) and the local level frame (LLF). Different from the conventional methods, a hybrid algorithm is presented to resolve attitude parameters utilizing the single differencing (SD) carrier phase equations established in LLF. Assuming that the cycle integer ambiguity is known, the measurement equations have attitude analytical resolutions by using simultaneous single difference equations for two in-view satellites. In addition, the algorithm is capable of reducing the search integer space into countable 2D discrete points and the ambiguity function method (AFM) resolves the ambiguity function within the analytical solutions space. In the case of frequency division multiple access (FDMA) for the Russian Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), a receiver clock bias estimation is employed to evaluate its carrier phase. An evaluating variable and a weighted factor are introduced to assess the integer ambiguity initialization. By static and dynamic ground experiments, the results show that the proposed approach is effective, with enough accuracy and low computation. It can satisfy attitude determination in cases of GPS alone and combined with GLONASS.

  9. The truth about chickens and bats: ambiguity avoidance distinguishes types of polysemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    Words mean different things in different contexts, a phenomenon called polysemy. People talk about lines of both people and poetry, and about both long distances and long times. Polysemy lets a limited vocabulary capture a great variety of experiences, while highlighting commonalities. But how is this achieved? Are polysemous senses contextually driven modifications of core meanings, or must each sense be memorized separately? We show that participants' ability to avoid referentially ambiguous descriptions of pictures named by polysemous words provides evidence for both possibilities. When senses followed a regular pattern (e.g., animals and the foodstuffs derived from them; noisy chicken, tasty chicken), participants avoided using ambiguous labels in referentially ambiguous situations (e.g., both types of chicken were present), a result indicating that they noticed a common meaning. But when senses were idiosyncratically related (e.g., sheet of glass, drinking glass), participants frequently produced ambiguous labels, a result indicating that the meanings were separately stored. We discuss implications for the relationship between word meanings and concepts.

  10. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  11. Resolving the Theoretical Ambiguities of Social Exclusion with reference to Polarisation and Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper addresses several ambiguities in the social exclusion literature that fuel the common criticism that the concept is redundant with respect to already existing poverty approaches, particularly more multidimensional and processual approaches such as relative or capabili

  12. Resolving the Theoretical Ambiguities of Social Exclusion with reference to Polarisation and Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses several ambiguities in the social exclusion literature that fuel the common criticism that the concept is redundant with respect to already existing poverty approaches, particularly more multidimensional and processual approaches such as relative or capability depriv

  13. Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children's Memory for Racially Ambiguous Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Schultz, Jennifer R.; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R.; Maddox, Keith B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. In the present study, the authors examined whether children also show this pattern of results. They also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts…

  14. The indexing ambiguity in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX resolved using an expectation maximization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiguang Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these `stills'. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity, the method is validated.

  15. High fives motivate: The effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley eMorris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child You got an A on the test because you’re smart, provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is ambiguous, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., yea or a thumbs-up. To investigate the effects of ambiguous praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5-6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal ambiguous; or gestural and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. Ambiguous praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort.

  16. Ambiguity in deriving Larmor's formula from the LAD equation of motion

    CERN Document Server

    Faci, Sofiane

    2016-01-01

    Larmor's formula provides the power radiated by an accelerated electric charge. This can be derived from the Li\\'enard-Wiechert retarded potential. However, extracting the same result from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation of motion is ambiguous. The present letter discusses this difficulty and reviews other problems of the LAD equation.

  17. When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

    2013-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

  18. A Fine Risk To Be Run? The Ambiguity of Eros and Teacher Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Describes teachers as often being in a place of tension between responding to students as persons and responding to students in their institutional-defined roles. Studies the significance of communicative ambiguity for responsibility, and explores what is ethically at stake for teachers in erotic form of communication. Contains 14 references. (JS)

  19. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents and Ambiguous Discrimination: The Role of Cognitive Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita G.; Tabb, Kevin M.; Strambler, Michael J.; Eltareb, Fazia

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal has been shown to mediate the relationship between stressors and internalizing symptoms, but not among newcomer immigrant youth facing ambiguous discrimination. Using a mixed-methods design with a sample of newcomer adolescents from African, Arab, Asian, Caribbean, European, and Latin American countries, this study measured the…

  20. Ambiguity and Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the literature of group studies is controversial and confusing on the effect of communicative variables on small-group decision making. Postulates that two classes of variables (homogeneity and task) moderate the relationship between group communication and group performance. Advances the ambiguity model to reconcile the contradictory…

  1. Children's Trait and Emotion Attributions in Socially Ambiguous and Unambiguous Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J.; Lapan, Candace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Children's attributions about story characters in ambiguous and unambiguous social situations were assessed. One hundred and forty-four 6-7-year-olds and 10-11-year-olds heard about actors who slighted a recipient intentionally or for an undetermined reason and then made causal attributions about the events, an emotion attribution about the…

  2. Effects of representational distance between meanings on the neural correlates of semantic ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Christopher M; Garnett, Emily O; Malyutina, Svetlana; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2014-12-01

    Psycholinguistic research demonstrates that representational distance between meanings influences recognition of ambiguous words. Our goal was to investigate whether the neural correlates of ambiguity are also modulated by representational distance as a function of syntactic similarity (i.e., grammatical class) and meaning dominance. In an event-related fMRI experiment, participants completed a visual lexical decision task that included balanced and unbalanced noun-noun and noun-verb homonyms, unambiguous words, and nonwords. Syntactic similarity effects were observed in left inferior frontal regions, with greater activation for noun-verb than noun-noun homonyms. Meaning dominance effects were observed in left middle and superior temporal regions, with greater activation for balanced than unbalanced homonyms. These findings indicate that the behavioral cost associated with processing ambiguous word meanings, modulated by syntactic similarity and meaning dominance, is reflected in the neural systems underlying ambiguity processing, as frontal and temporal regions are recruited by increased competition as a function of representational distance. PMID:25463814

  3. An Eye-Movement Analysis of Ambiguity Resolution: Beyond Meaning Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Katherine S.; Morris, Robin K.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here addresses the status of the unselected meaning of a lexically ambiguous word in developing the larger meaning of the text by independently manipulating lexical and discourse-level variables in the text. In a series of 3 eye-movement experiments, participants read passages that contained 2 occurrences of an ambiguous…

  4. Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…

  5. Not All Ambiguous Words Are Created Equal: An EEG Investigation of Homonymy and Polysemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Pike, G. Bruce; Steinhauer, Karsten; Gracco, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time-course of meaning activation of different types of ambiguous words. Unbalanced homonymous ("pen"), balanced homonymous ("panel"), metaphorically polysemous ("lip"), and metonymically polysemous words ("rabbit") were used in a visual single-word priming delayed lexical decision task.…

  6. The truth about chickens and bats: ambiguity avoidance distinguishes types of polysemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    Words mean different things in different contexts, a phenomenon called polysemy. People talk about lines of both people and poetry, and about both long distances and long times. Polysemy lets a limited vocabulary capture a great variety of experiences, while highlighting commonalities. But how is this achieved? Are polysemous senses contextually driven modifications of core meanings, or must each sense be memorized separately? We show that participants' ability to avoid referentially ambiguous descriptions of pictures named by polysemous words provides evidence for both possibilities. When senses followed a regular pattern (e.g., animals and the foodstuffs derived from them; noisy chicken, tasty chicken), participants avoided using ambiguous labels in referentially ambiguous situations (e.g., both types of chicken were present), a result indicating that they noticed a common meaning. But when senses were idiosyncratically related (e.g., sheet of glass, drinking glass), participants frequently produced ambiguous labels, a result indicating that the meanings were separately stored. We discuss implications for the relationship between word meanings and concepts. PMID:23722978

  7. Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

  8. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  9. Neural correlates of syntactic ambiguity in sentence comprehension for low and high span readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebach, C.J.; Vos, S.H.; Friederici, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Syntactically ambiguous sentences have been found to be difficult to process, in particular, for individuals with low working memory capacity. The current study used fMRI to investigate the neural basis of this effect in the processing of written sentences. Participants with high and low working mem

  10. CTV delineation for rectal cancer treatment: ambiguities defined by a national review project

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, Ines; Van Herck, Hans; Slagmolen, Pieter; Defraene, Gilles; Hortobagyi, Eszter; Maes, Frederik; Haustermans, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Joye I., Van Herck H., Slagmolen P., Defraene G., Hortobagyi E., Maes F., Haustermans K., ''CTV delineation for rectal cancer treatment: ambiguities defined by a national review project'', Radiotherapy and oncology, vol. 111 suppl. 1, pp. S195, April 2014 (European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology - ESTRO 33, April 4-8, 2014, Vienna, Austria).

  11. Seeing love, or seeing lust : How people interpret ambiguous romantic situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, Kai; Foerster, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous situations is a task individuals face on a daily basis. In romantic contexts the accurate interpretation of these situations is of particular importance. In the present set of studies we investigated how level of construal guides individual perception in these cases. When a hi

  12. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mohamad; S.E. Wieringa

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  13. Implementation ambiguity: The fifth element long lost in uncertainty budgets for land biogeochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified four major sources of predictive uncertainty in modeling land biogeochemical (BGC) processes: (1) imperfect initial conditions (e.g., assumption of preindustrial equilibrium); (2) imperfect boundary conditions (e.g., climate forcing data); (3) parameterization (type I equifinality); and (4) model structure (type II equifinality). As if that were not enough to cause substantial sleep loss in modelers, we propose here a fifth element of uncertainty that results from implementation ambiguity that occurs when the model's mathematical description is translated into computational code. We demonstrate the implementation ambiguity using the example of nitrogen down regulation, a necessary process in modeling carbon-climate feedbacks. We show that, depending on common land BGC model interpretations of the governing equations for mineral nitrogen, there are three different implementations of nitrogen down regulation. We coded these three implementations in the ACME land model (ALM), and explored how they lead to different preindustrial and contemporary land biogeochemical states and fluxes. We also show how this implementation ambiguity can lead to different carbon-climate feedback estimates across the RCP scenarios. We conclude by suggesting how to avoid such implementation ambiguity in ESM BGC models.

  14. How I handled ambiguity in a system to read music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, Alan

    1992-11-01

    In a program for reading printed music, a variety of low level feature detectors were used to extract sufficient information to reconstruct the score. All feature detectors were unreliable to some extent, and were biased towards yielding false positives rather than missing features. In order to reconstruct the score, conflicting information from the feature detectors needed to be recognized and eliminated. All objects as well as their geometric and semantic relations were represented in an object oriented framework. Ambiguity (implemented as a generic predicate) was defined -- and explicitly represented -- in terms of these relationships. Examples of ambiguous relationships include: An accidental and a note head having an on-top-of geometric relationship, or the total duration of notes in a measure not being equal to the notated time signature. A method inspired by Waltz filtering was used to produce a consistent, unambiguous interpretation. Waltz filtering is a symbolic constraint propagation technique which has been applied to line drawings. During interpretation attention was focused on objects which had ambiguous relations. Ambiguity was iteratively reduced or removed by using a variety of methods employing information gathered from local unambiguous relations.

  15. Processing the noun phrase versus sentence coordination ambiguity : Thematic information does not completely eliminate processing difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, John C. J.; Hendriks, Petra; Vonk, Wietske; Brown, Colin M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    When faced with the noun phrase (NP) versus sentence (S) coordination ambiguity as in, for example, The thief shot the jeweller and the cop..., readers prefer the reading with NP-coordination (e.g., "The thief shot the jeweller and the cop yesterday") over one with two conjoined sentences (e.g., "Th

  16. Processing coordinated structures in context : The effect of topic-structure on ambiguity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, JCJ; Vonk, W; Schriefers, H

    2002-01-01

    When a sentence such as The model embraced the designer and the photographer laughed is read, the noun phrase the photographer is temporarily ambiguous: It call be either one of the objects of embraced (NP-coordination) or the subject or a new, conjoined sentence (S-coordination). It has been shown

  17. Hey Little Sister, Who's the Only One? Modulating Informativeness in the Resolution of Privative Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroni, Luisa; Foppolo, Francesca; Marelli, Marco; Gualmini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments on the interpretation of sentences like “The tall girl is (not) the only one that …,” which are ambiguous between the anaphoric (the only girl that …) and the exophoric interpretation (the only individual that …). These interpretations differ in informativenes

  18. Processing coordinated structures in context: The effect of topic-structure on ambiguity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, J.C.J.; Vonk, W.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    When a sentence such as The model embraced the designer and the photographer laughed is read, the noun phrase the photographer is temporarily ambiguous: It can be either one of the objects of embraced (NP-coordination) or the subject of a new, conjoined sentence (S-coordination). It has been shown f

  19. The Advantage of Hiding Both Hands : Foreign Exchange Intervention, Ambiguity and Private Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Verhagen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes a dynamic exchange rate policy game in which the central bank has private information about its short-term exchange rate target, on the one hand, and in which the market is faced with a certain degree of ambiguity concerning the actual intervention volume, on the other. Sterilize

  20. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR. We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2 ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.