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Sample records for ambiente tabuleiros costeiros

  1. Caracterização de óxidos de ferro de solos do ambiente tabuleiros costeiros Characterizing iron oxides from coastal and central plain soils

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    Marcelo Metri Correa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vários têm sido os trabalhos contemplando a gênese e as conseqüências da coesão em Argissolos e Latossolos nos tabuleiros costeiros e interioranos. Poucos, entretanto, sãos os estudos referentes à mineralogia da fração argila, sobretudo aqueles referentes à uma completa caracterização dos óxidos de Fe. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características químicas e cristalográficas dos óxidos de Fe de solos vermelhos e amarelos, derivados de sedimentos da Formação Barreiras ou de materiais do Pré-Cambriano, que ocorrem na região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros ou Interioranos de diversos Estados do País. Para tanto, foram realizadas análises de difratometria de raios X, em amostras concentradas de óxidos de Fe, extrações sucessivas com DCB e extração com oxalato de amônio em amostras de argila, caracterização espectral por ERD, estimativa das propriedades cristalográficas da goethita, quantificação da substituição isomórfica de Fe por Al e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: (a a goethita mostrou-se como óxido de Fe predominante em todos os solos, mesmo naqueles com matizes 2,5YR, cujo valor de hematita foi inferior a 2,5 dag kg-1 de argila; (b os valores de substituição isomórfica de Fe por Al das goethitas foram de três a seis vezes superiores aos da hematita, bem como não condizem com os valores estimados por modelos matemáticos, propostos pela literatura científica, indicando a necessidade de realização de novos estudos, a fim de demonstrar a existência de relações entre os parâmetros cristalográficos de goethitas naturais e suas propriedades químicas; (c os resultados obtidos por difratometria de raios X e análise de dissolução química revelaram que as goethitas dos solos são distintas daquelas citadas, até o momento, na literatura; e (d a posição das bandas obtidas nos espectros de espectroscopia de refletância difusa

  2. Seleção inicial e caracterização parcial de rizóbios de tabuleiros costeiros quando associados ao guandu

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    M. F. Fernandes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e caracterizar parcialmente rizóbios de tabuleiros costeiros com alta capacidade de fixação biológica do N, quando associados ao guandu. Dezesseis isolados de rizóbios de diferentes regiões desse ecossistema foram avaliados em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros (Aracaju, SE. Quatro isolados destacaram-se quanto ao N acumulado (Nac, matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, área foliar (AF e matéria seca de nódulos (MSN. A MSN correlacionou-se com a MSPA, AF e Nac. A relação N-ureído/N-total na seiva xilemática correlacionou-se com Nac e MSN. Três desses isolados foram caracterizados (R1, R5 e R11 e apresentaram crescimento rápido e acidificaram o meio de cultura com manitol. Comparado ao R1 e R5, o isolado R11 foi o mais sensível aos antibióticos e o menos tolerante ao Al e às temperaturas elevadas.

  3. Caracterização física de uma classe de solo do ecossistema do tabuleiro costeiro

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    CINTRA F.L.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora haja grande potencial dos tabuleiros costeiros do nordeste brasileiro para exploração agrícola, relacionado à topografia favorável à mecanização e proximidade de grandes centros consumidores, a má distribuição das chuvas, associada aos horizontes coesos situados próximos à superfície e presentes em muitas classes de solo deste ecossistema, promove, com freqüência, sérios problemas no suprimento de água para as plantas. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de algumas características físicas, especialmente das camadas coesas no desenvolvimento de citros, a fim de fornecer subsídios para a geração de tecnologias adaptadas a este ecossistema e capazes de permitir o suprimento adequado de água para as plantas pelo maior período de tempo possível. Para isso, foram feitas avaliações físicas e químicas do solo, com ênfase nas características responsáveis pelas alterações dos fatores físicos de crescimento (potencial de água, aeração e resistência do solo à penetração e das condições climáticas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a presença de camadas adensadas extensas e próximas à superfície do solo, associada ao regime climático característico da unidade geoambiental estudada, é uma indicação de que deverão ocorrer grandes alterações nos fatores físicos de crescimento, na redistribuição da água no solo e no sistema radicular dos citros que, nessas circunstâncias, deverá ficar restrito a um pequeno volume de solo próximo à superfície do solo.

  4. Cultivo de Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala em alamedas visando a melhoria dos solos dos tabuleiros costeiros

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    Barreto Antônio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a biomassa da parte aérea de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala em cultivos em alameda, e o efeito da adição dessa biomassa sobre propriedades químicas e físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. A produção de mandioca nas alamedas dessas leguminosas também foi determinada. A gliricídia foi plantada, em 1994, por estacas, e a leucena, em 1995, por mudas, utilizando-se o espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, para ambas as espécies. Em intervalos de três a cinco meses, foram realizados cortes e incorporação do material ao solo. Caules com diâmetro superior a 1 cm foram desconsiderados na biomassa. A matéria seca desses cortes foi determinada anualmente, e em 1998 realizaram-se análises químicas e físicas do solo. Amostras de solo de área contígua foram utilizadas como controle. Foram produzidas, respectivamente, 4,87 e 5,80 t ha-1 ano-1 de parte aérea, em média, por leucena e gliricídia. A gliricídia exerceu menor competição com a mandioca na entrelinha. Com a incorporação dessas leguminosas ao solo elevaram-se o pH e os teores de Ca+Mg, não sendo alteradas, porém, a matéria orgânica e a CTC. Também foi observada redução de densidade e elevação da macroporosidade em resposta à adição das leguminosas. Esses efeitos foram mais acentuados em menores profundidades.

  5. Mineralogia, química e micromorfologia de solos de uma microbacia nos tabuleiros costeiros do Espírito Santo

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    DUARTE MARIZA NASCIMENTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solos dos tabuleiros costeiros do Estado do Espírito Santo foram estudados, com o objetivo de investigar e inter-relacionar suas características mineralógicas, químicas e micromorfológicas e fornecer subsídios para a reconstrução do ambiente pedogenético. Onze perfis de solos foram descritos, coletados e caracterizados analiticamente. Em amostras de perfis selecionados, determinou-se o Fe extraído pelo ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio. Determinou-se também o Fe menos cristalino pelo oxalato ácido de amônio e o Si amorfo pelo NaOH 0,5 mol L-1. Nas amostras de mosqueados e nódulos determinou-se a proporção de hematita e goethita e a substituição em Al na goethita. Análises mineralógicas foram realizadas por métodos óticos, difratometria de raios X e análise térmica diferencial. De amostras indeformadas dos horizontes subsuperficiais foram confeccionadas lâminas delgadas para análise micromorfológica. Constatou-se que o ambiente pedogenético atual está propiciando a estabilização da caulinita e formação de goethita, removendo a hematita e possivelmente sendo responsável pelo amarelecimento (xantização dos horizontes superficiais. O processo de segregação de ferro é evidenciado pelo seu acúmulo nos nódulos e mosqueados em relação à matriz do solo, provavelmente por difusão, sendo a fonte a matriz. Os nódulos e mosqueados vermelhos estão em processo de destruição e não de formação. As gotículas de ferro, que com freqüência ocorrem no interior dos nódulos e concreções, constituem uma etapa do processo de formação ou destruição dessas estruturas.

  6. Crescimento e produtividade de cana-de-açúcar em função da disponibilidade hídrica dos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas

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    Magno Luiz de Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações entre variáveis meteorológicas e os componentes de produção e produtividade de seis variedades de cana-de-açúcar nos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas visando o manejo varietal adequado. O plantio da cana-de-açúcar foi realizado em setembro de 2005 na região de Rio Largo (AL e as três colheitas foram feitas em novembro de 2006, novembro de 2007 e novembro de 2008. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com o tratamento constituído pelas variedades RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003 e RB951541, com quatro repetições. As variáveis de crescimento avaliadas foram número, comprimento e produtividade dos colmos, índice de área foliar e produtividade de açúcar. O balanço hídrico da cultura em média apresentou déficit hídrico de 869 mm nos meses de setembro a março e excesso hídrico de 837 mm nos meses de abril a agosto. A irregularidade das precipitações nos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas promove respostas diferenciais no desenvolvimento e na produtividade das variedades de cana-de-açúcar nos diferentes ciclos de cultivo. As variedades RB93509 e RB931003 são consideradas as melhores opções para o manejo varietal nessa região.

  7. Seleção de rizóbios nativos para guandu, caupi e feijão-de-porco nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe

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    Fernandes Marcelo Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de estirpes de rizóbios em sementes de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, caupi (Vigna unguiculata e guandu (Cajanus cajan, recomendadas para outras regiões do País, não tem resultado em incrementos nas taxas de fixação biológica de N2 nem no crescimento dessas leguminosas em solos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros associados a essas leguminosas e a tolerância deles a estresses. Das 17 estirpes de rizóbios isoladas e analisadas em casa de vegetação, quatro foram selecionadas para o guandu, sete para o caupi e três para o feijão-de-porco. O número e a massa de nódulos secos por planta correlacionaram-se com a massa da parte aérea seca, a área foliar e o N total acumulado nas folhas das três leguminosas. Os mesmos rizóbios foram eficientes para o caupi e para o guandu. Três estirpes do guandu (R35, R43 e R45 e duas do caupi (R10 e R17 foram caracterizadas in vitro e todas apresentaram tolerância às concentrações elevadas de ácido nalidíxico, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, porém, foram sensíveis à estreptomicina e à kanamicina. Todas as estirpes cresceram a 35masculineC e, exceto a R17, toleraram o alumínio (10 mg L-1.

  8. Caracterização física, química, mineralógica e micromorfológica de horizontes coesos e fragipãs de solos vermelhos e amarelos do ambiente Tabuleiros Costeiros Physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization of cohesive horizons and fragipans of red and yellow soils of Coastal Tablelands

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    Marcelo Metri Corrêa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar física, química, mineralógica e micromorfologicamente solos vermelhos, amarelos e acinzentados coesos em três toposseqüências na região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do sul da Bahia e norte do Espírito Santo, desenvolvidos a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras ou de rochas gnáissicas do Pré-Cambriano, assim como os possíveis mecanismos físicos e, ou, mineralógicos que promovem a coesão dos solos e formação de fragipãs. Para isso, foram realizadas análises físicas; determinadas a relação argila fina/argila grossa, superfícies específicas por BET-N2 e adsorção de vapor de água, susceptibilidade magnética; e analisados os constituintes por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e micromorfologia em lâminas delgadas. As análises físicas e micromorfológica indicam que a gênese dos horizontes coesos deve-se ao maior conteúdo de argilas muito finas, principalmente menores que 0,2 µm, translocadas entre horizontes ou dentro do mesmo horizonte como argila dispersa. A maior coesão observada para o Argissolo Amarelo localizado em clima mais seco, em relação àqueles em clima mais úmido, pode ser devido à sua granulometria menos argilosa e maior quantidade de feições de iluviação de argila.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of cohesive red, yellow and grayish soils in a toposequence of the Coastal Tablelands region in southern Bahia and northern Espirito Santo states. It was also sought to understand the mechanisms promoting their cohesion and fragipan formation. Therefore, the routine physical analyses, determination of the coarse clay/fine clay ratio, specific surface by BET-N2 and water vapor adsorption, magnetic susceptibility, scanning-electron microscopy analyses and the micromorphology of thin plates were carried out. Physical and micromorphological analyses indicated that the high

  9. Influência da irrigação no ciclo do abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola em área de tabuleiro costeiro da Bahia

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    ALMEIDA OTAVIO ALVARES DE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da irrigação sobre o ciclo do abacaxizeiro-'Pérola'. O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas (BA, num Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico A moderado textura franco argilo-arenosa fase transição floresta tropical subperenifólia/subcaducifólia, típico dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, situado a uma altitude de 220 m, com pluviosidade média anual de 1.170 mm e temperatura média de 24,5 ºC. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados e as lâminas de água, aplicadas por aspersão, num esquema "line source", foram de 608; 568; 525; 468 e 334 mm/ano. Durante o período experimental (09/94 a 12/95, ocorreu uma precipitação efetiva de 671 mm/ano. Houve efeito positivo das lâminas crescentes de irrigação sobre a diferenciação floral natural e antecipação no período de colheita do fruto, o que resultou no encurtamento do ciclo da planta, sem que se observasse prejuízo ao peso médio do fruto, das parcelas submetidas às maiores lâminas d'água. Nestas, mais de 70% dos frutos foram colhidos com uma antecipação de 22 dias em relação ao final da colheita. As maiores lâminas de irrigação permitiram igualmente uma distribuição mais eqüitativa da colheita, no período em que ela ocorreu.

  10. Qualidade física de Latossolo Amarelo de tabuleiros costeiros em diferentes sistemas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar

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    Romero F. B. de Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os atributos físicos do solo são indicativos imprescindíveis quando se pretende avaliar sistemas de manejo. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, estudar as alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo Distrocoeso dos tabuleiros costeiros de Alagoas cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. Foram selecionadas áreas em talhões de produção de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos avaliados corresponderam a área cultivada sob sistema de manejo irrigado (SMI, área sob sistema de manejo fertirrigado com vinhaça (SMFV e área com aplicação de vinhaça + torta de filtro (SMVT, além de área de mata nativa (MN com fragmento de mata atlântica, tomada como referência. Avaliaram-se a densidade do solo, porosidade total do solo, diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados, condutividade hidráulica, carbono orgânico total, grau de compactação nas profundidades de 0-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m. Os sistemas de manejo cultivados com cana-de-açúcar que receberam adição de resíduos da cana (SMFV + SMVT apresentaram alterações nas propriedades físicas do solo mais favoráveis ao adequado desenvolvimento desta cultura. Dentre os diferentes sistemas de manejo cultivados com cana-de-açúcar, o que sofreu menor degradação física foi a área sob SMVT, seguido da área sob SMFV.

  11. Caracterização genética de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros eficientes em culturas do guandu e caupi

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    Fernandes Marcelo Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar geneticamente sete estirpes de rizóbios nativos dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe com alta eficiência de fixação biológica do N2 em associação com guandu (Cajanus cajan e caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A amplificação do DNA pela técnica de PCR (polymerase chain reaction com o oligonucleotídeo específico BOX indicou um grau elevado de diversidade genética, uma vez que todas as estirpes apresentaram perfis únicos de DNA. A análise por BOX-PCR revelou, ainda, que essa metodologia é eficiente para diferenciar estirpes, mas não para a diferenciação de espécies de rizóbio. Pela técnica do RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism da região do DNA que codifica o gene 16S rRNA e da região intergênica entre os genes 16S e 23S rRNA, com cinco enzimas de restrição, bem como pelo seqüenciamento parcial da região do 16S rRNA, foi possível classificar as estirpes nos gêneros Bradyrhizobium e Rhizobium. Houve coerência entre as análises envolvendo a região do 16S rRNA, mas o agrupamento com uma das estirpes diferiu pela análise do espaço intergênico. Os resultados obtidos com a estirpe R11 indicam variabilidade genética elevada em relação às espécies de rizóbios descritas, inclusive diferindo em diversas bases da região do 16S rRNA, e podem indicar uma nova espécie.

  12. Morphology, mineralogy and micromorphology of soils associated to summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains Morfologia, mineralogia e micromorfologia de solos de depressões de topo de Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of comprehensive characterizations of soils associated to gentle summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains justifies this work, which had as objective to provide basic information for the more diverse agricultural and non-agricultural uses. For that, representative soils (Spodosols or similar soils from these environments were selected in Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia states. This approach included characterization of morphological, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the soil profiles, employing standard procedures. The morphological characterization corroborated the effect of the podzolization process during the formation of these soils. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of these soils was basically composed of kaolinite and quartz, which, associated to the very sandy texture, helped in the understanding of the obtained data. The soil micromorphological study, besides confirming the field morphology, mainly in regard to the strong cementation, aggregated value to the work in terms of the secure identification of the clay illuviation process (non-identified in the field, in association with the dominant podzolization process.A carência de caracterizações abrangentes de solos associados às depressões suaves de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do nordeste brasileiro justifica este trabalho, o qual objetivou fornecer informações básicas para as mais diversas finalidades agrícolas e não-agrícolas. Para tal, foram selecionados solos representativos (Espodossolos ou solos afins desses ambientes nos estados de Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia. A abordagem utilizada englobou a caracterização de atributos morfológicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de perfis dos solos, empregando-se metodologia padronizada. A caracterização morfológica corroborou o efeito do processo de podzolização na formação desses solos. A mineralogia da fração argila desses solos foi composta basicamente por

  13. Compactabilidade de um Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso dos tabuleiros costeiros de Alagoas sob diferentes sistemas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar

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    Romero Falcão Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A compactação do solo agrícola é um fenômeno de grande interesse para a Ciência do Solo. O estudo investigativo de diferentes sistemas de manejo visando encontrar aquele que degrade menos o solo é o objetivo maior da pesquisa sobre o comportamento mecânico do solo. De maneira geral, para um mesmo nível de energia de compactação, quanto maior o teor de matéria orgânica, menor a densidade máxima do solo e maior a umidade crítica de compactação; consequentemente, o risco de degradação física do solo se reduz. O objetivo deste trabalho experimental foi estudar a compactabilidade de um Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso dos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas. Foram selecionadas três áreas em talhões sob cultivo da cana-de-açúcar, representativos de três sistemas de manejo adotados pela Usina Santa Clotilde. Os três sistemas de manejo investigados foram: uma área cultivada sob sistema de manejo irrigado (SMI, uma área sob sistema de manejo de fertirrigação com vinhaça (SMV e uma área com aplicação de vinhaça + torta de filtro (SMVT. Os três sistemas de manejo foram implantados na safra 2003/2004, e a coleta de amostras do solo, realizada em fevereiro de 2007. Esses sistemas foram comparados entre si e em relação a uma testemunha-padrão, representada por uma mata nativa (MN. A densidade máxima do solo e a umidade crítica de compactação foram avaliadas nas profundidades de 0-0,20, 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m. Para avaliar a capacidade dos resíduos da cana-de-açúcar em dissipar parte da energia compactante, foram realizados ensaios de Proctor, utilizando quatro níveis de energia de compactação. A avaliação da energia dissipada pelos resíduos foi feita em amostras deformadas apenas da profundidade de 0-0,20 m. O sistema de manejo irrigado (SMI, que não recebeu adição de resíduo da cana-de-açúcar, foi o que apresentou maior densidade máxima do solo e menor umidade crítica de compactação. Entre os

  14. Soil attributes under agroecosystems and forest vegetation in the coastal tablelands of northestern Brazil Atributos de solo de agroecossistemas e coberturas florestais dos tabuleiros costeiros do nordeste do Brasil

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    João Bosco Vasconcellos Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the changes occurred in a set of soil attributes, particularly those related to the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC, as a function of the replacement of native forest for agricultural ecosystems of regional importance in the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil (orange, coconut, eucalyptus and sugarcane. Six commercial sites under these agroecosystems were compared to neighboring areas of native forest in five areas along this region (Coruripe, Umbaúba, Acajutiba, Cruz das Almas and Nova Viçosa. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-20 cm depth and analyzed for particle size distribution, bulk density, organic C (OC, particulate organic matter, C in soil solution, microbial biomass C, total cation exchange capacity and water stable aggregates. Linear correlation and multivariate techniques were used for data analysis. The values of base saturation and Al saturation for the 0-20 cm depth layer were also calculated. In all the studied areas, soils under native forest presented better status of physical and chemical attributes than their agroecosystem counterparts, especially in the 0-5 cm layer. For both layers, OC content was the attribute most strongly correlated with the overall changes in all attributes. Unexpectedly, the OC content showed no significant correlation with the sum of silt and clay contents. The set of variables investigated in this study is sensitive to differentiate the quality of soils under perennial and semi-perennial land uses from their counterparts under natural vegetation in the landscapes of the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil.Este trabalho avaliou as alterações de um conjunto de atributos de solos dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste do Brasil, em especial os relacionados à dinâmica do C orgânico (CO, em função da substituição da vegetação florestal nativa por agroecossistemas de importância regional (laranja, coco, eucalipto e cana-de-açúcar. Seis s

  15. Variabilidade e comportamento de cultivares de coqueiro anão nos tabuleiros costeiros do norte de Sergipe Variability and behavior to cultivars of dwarf coconut in the costal boards of the North of Sergipe

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    Eric Xavier de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade de cultivares de coqueiro anão para caracteres morfológicos nos tabuleiros costeiros do Norte de Sergipe. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com seis cultivares de coqueiro anão, quatro blocos, sendo 16 plantas úteis/parcela. O experimento foi desenvolvido desde 1997, na Fazenda Agreste em Neópolis (SE. As cultivares Anão vermelho do Brasil de Gramame (AVBrG, da Malásia (AVM e de Camarões (AVC, Anão amarelo do Brasil de Gramame (AABrG e da Malásia (AAM e o Anão Verde do Brasil de Jiqui (AVeBrJ. Para cada característica avaliada trimestralmente de 2001 a 2004, foi realizada análise de variância e estimados os componentes de variação fenotípica, genética e ambiental. Existe variabilidade entre os anões para as características: número de folhas vivas (NFV e emitidas (NFE, circunferência do estipe (CircE, comprimento do estipe (CE, número de inflorescências emitidas (NIE e número de flores femininas por inflorescência (NFFI. O AVC e o AVeBrJ apresentaram menores CE que os demais, característica importante por redução do porte do coqueiro. O anão amarelo da malásia (AAM foi superior aos AVeBrJ, AVM e AVC quanto ao NFE. O AVM foi superior aos AAM, AABrG, AVeBrJ e AVC quanto à CircE. O AVC apresentou comportamento inferior aos demais para NFV, NFE, CircE e NIE, sendo semelhante a eles para NFFI. O AVeBrJ foi superior ao AAM, AVBrG e AVM quanto à NFFI.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of dwarf coconut palm cultivars for morphologic characters in the Coastal Boards of the North of Sergipe State. The experimental design was randomized block, with six cultivars, four blocks and 16 usefull plants/plot. The experiment was driven since 1997, in the Agreste farm in Neópolis (SE. The cultivars dwarf coconut palm red dwarf of Brazil Gramame (AVBrG, of Malaysia (AVM and Cameroon (AVC, yellow dwarf of Brazil de Gramame (AABr

  16. Podzolização em solos de áreas de depressão de topo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro Podzolization in soils of depressed summit areas on the coastal plains of the brazilian Northeastern region

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    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros são diferenciados sob vários aspectos ainda pouco estudados no Brasil. Geralmente, à medida que se aproxima dessas depressões, nota-se que a textura dos solos é mais arenosa e o hidromorfismo, mais acentuado, sendo comum a ocorrência de Espodossolos. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar diferentes extrações de Fe, Al, Si e C orgânico com o intuito de compreender o processo de podzolização em solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro. Foram descritos perfis e coletadas amostras de solo em quatro áreas: Coruripe, AL; Neópolis, SE; Acajutiba, BA; e Nova Viçosa, BA. Nas amostras, determinou-se o teor de Fe, Al e Si pelos extratores ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio, oxalato de amônio e pirofosfato de sódio e realizou-se o fracionamento químico da matéria orgânica do solo. Os aumentos nos teores de C orgânico e de Fe e Al pelos diferentes extratores nos horizontes iluviais (de acúmulo de cada solo, relativamente aos horizontes eluviais (de perda, refletiram a morfologia de campo e reforçaram a importância do processo de podzolização nos solos estudados. Complexos Al-húmus dominam inteiramente a matriz dos horizontes iluviais associados ao hidromorfismo, enquanto naqueles sem hidromorfismo a influência das diferentes formas de Fe é variável. O perfil de Espodossolo Ferrihumilúvico é o único, dos quatro estudados, que possui horizontes espódicos com subscrito "s" e, portanto, onde os teores de Fe extraídos refletiram-se diferencialmente na morfologia.The soils associated to depressed summits on the Coastal Plains are still little studied in Brazil and are differentiated in several aspects. Generally, the closer a soil is to these depressions, the sandier is the texture and the more accentuated the hydromorphism, where the occurrence of Spodosols is common. The objective of this

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DETERMINATION OF THE MASTITIS IN DAIRY CATTLE HERDS FROM “TABULEIROS COSTEIROS” REGION IN SERGIPE STATE, BRAZIL DIAGNÓSTICO E DETERMINAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA MASTITE EM REBANHOS BOVINOS LEITEIROS NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS DE SERGIPE.

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    Hymerson Costa Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine the occurrence of the mastitis and the microbiological relationhip between the lab tests and the auxiliary tests which are done in the field, two cattle herds were studied for 18 months and 893 milk samples were collected. The udders were clinically examined, and the milk was tested using the strip cup test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT. The Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 196 (21.95% samples, the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. (SCN in 104 (11.65%, the  Streptococcus agalactiae in 67 (7.50%, the esculin-positive Streptococcus sp. (ESCPOS in 20 (2.24%, the esculin-negative Streptococcus sp. (ESCNEG in 29 (3.25%, leavenings in one (0.11% and the Corynebacterium sp. in 16 (1.68% samples. In the total, 433 microrganisms were isolated, 350 milk samples were negative and in 110 (12.32% samples the isolation and identification were not possible. Out of all the isolated microrganisms, the contagious were more frequent, when compared to the positive reaction for the CMT. The CMT test showned to be important in the presuntive diagnose, demanding, however, a periodic microbiologic analyses of the herd.

    KEY WORDS: Dairy cattle,  mastitis, diagnostic, mastitics, Tabuleiros Costeiros.
    Com objetivo de determinar a ocorrência da mastite e a relação microbiológica entre os testes laboratoriais e auxiliares realizados de campo, foram acompanhados dois rebanhos bovinos leiteiros por dezoito meses e coletadas 893 amostras de leite. Procedeu-se a exames clínicos dos úberes, ao teste da caneca telada e ao Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT. Isolaram-se Staphylococcus aureus em 196 (21,95% amostras, Staphylococcus sp. Coagulase Negativa (SCN em 104 (11,65%, Streptococcus agalactiae, em 67 (7,50%, Streptococcus sp. Esculina Positivos (ESCPOS em 20 (2,24%, Streptococcus sp. Esculina Negativos (ESCNEG em 29 (3,25%, leveduras em uma (0,11% e Corynebacterium sp. em dezesseis (1,68% amostras. No total, foram

  18. Efeito da saturação por bases sobre a atividade de fosfatases em um solo de tabuleiro costeiro cultivado com citros. II. Constantes cinéticas das enzimas

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    M. F. Fernandes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as constantes cinéticas Km app e Vmax app de fosfatases de um solo de tabuleiro costeiro com diferentes valores de saturação por bases (32,0; 45,0; 64,0 e 76,6%. As constantes foram determinadas tanto em condições de reação com pH ótimo para atividade das fosfatases alcalinas e ácidas, quanto em valores de pH correspondentes aos de cada nível de saturação por bases. As fosfatases apresentaram cinética michaeliana, independentemente da saturação por bases ou da condição de pH utilizada para determinar a atividade enzimática. A elevação da saturação por bases resultou em redução dos valores de Km app das fosfatases ácidas e alcalinas, avaliadas nos respectivos valores de pH ótimo; ao passo que a Vmax app foi incrementada para as fosfatases alcalinas e permaneceu aproximadamente constante para as ácidas. Reduções do Km app e incrementos da Vmax app, em função do aumento da saturação por bases, também foram observados para fosfatases avaliadas nos valores de pH equivalentes aos dos tratamentos com saturação por base. As maiores variações nos valores de Km app e Vmax app, em função da saturação por base, ocorreram em resposta às alterações no pH. Outras características do solo alteradas pela saturação por bases também apresentaram efeito sobre as constantes cinéticas das fosfatases, porém em menor intensidade do que o pH.

  19. Lime and gypsum to improve root depth of orange crop in an Ultisol of the Coastal Tablelands Calcário e gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira em um Argissolo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros

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    Lafayette F. Sobral

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal Tableland is a landscape unit in the North East of Brazil in which the main soils are Ultisols. In these soils, a compacted layer denominated "cohesive horizon" occurs and root growth is limited by it. An experiment with five treatments and six replications was set up in order to study how liming and gypsum could improve root depth of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck crop in an Ultisol in which a compacted layer was found at 0.3 m. Treatments were: A - No liming and no gypsum; B - Liming to achieve 60% base saturation; C - B + 1 t of gypsum ha-1 ; D - B + 2 t of gypsum ha-1 and E - B + 3 t of gypsum ha-1. Gypsum increased calcium and sulfate in the cohesive horizon. Surface application of lime and gypsum did not cause changes in soil density and total porosity in the cohesive horizon. An improvement of root length was observed at the cohesive horizon.Os tabuleiros costeiros são uma unidade de paisagem em que um dos principais solos são os Argissolos, nos quais, uma camada compactada, denominada "horizonte coeso" ocorre e o crescimento radicular é por ela limitado. Um experimento com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições foi implantado para se estudar os efeitos da calagem e do gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck em um Argissolo onde o horizonte coeso está a 0,3 m de profundidade. Os tratamentos foram: A - Sem gesso e sem calagem; B - Calagem para atingir 60% de saturação por bases; C - B + 1 t ha-1 de gesso ; D - B + 2 t ha-1 de gesso; e E - B + 3 t ha-1 de gesso. A calagem e o gesso aumentaram significativamente os teores de sulfato e de calcio no solo até a profundidade de 0,40 m. A aplicação a lanço de calcário e gesso não causaram modificações na densidade do solo e na porosidade total da camada compactada "horizonte coeso". Foi observado um aumento do comprimento das raízes da laranjeira na camada compactada.

  20. Avaliação de plantas cítricas, em diferentes profundidades de plantio, em latossolo amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros Avaliation of citros crop using differents depths of planting in yellow latosol of the coastal table band

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    Laercio Duarte Souza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura dos Estados da Bahia e Sergipe representa cerca de 103.000 ha e está localizada nos Tabuleiros Costeiros, onde predominam Latossolos Amarelos, com horizontes coesos que se apresentam endurecidos quando secos. Esse fenômeno impede o desenvolvimento das raízes ao longo do perfil, diminuindo o volume de solo explorado e a disponibilidade de água e nutrientes. Para romper os horizontes coesos e aumentar o volume de solo ocupado pelas raízes, foram utilizados plantios com profundidades de cova de 0,40; 0,60; 0,80; 1,00 e 1,20 m, com laranjeira 'Valência' enxertada sobre limoeiro 'Volkameriano', que apresentaram maior desenvolvimento de raízes quando plantadas em covas de 1,00 m e 1,20 m de profundidade. Não houve diferenças significativas para diâmetro da copa, diâmetro do caule, altura de planta e produção de frutos entre os tratamentos.The citros crop in Bahia and Sergipe, represents about 103.000 hectares and is established in the Coastal Table Land, where Yellow Latosol prevail, with cohesive horizons that become hardned when dry. This problem restrains the development of the roots along the profile of the soil, promoting the decrease of soil volume explored and consequently the availability of water and nutrients. To solve this problem, breaking the cohesive layer and increase the volume of soil roots it was used several depths of planting with holes of 0,40; 0,60; 0,80; 1,00 and 1,20 m, using orange tree 'Valência' grafted on lemon tree 'Volkameriano'. The best development of the roots was obtained with the 1,00 m and 1,20 m of depth. No significant statistical results was obtained for diameter of the cup and the stem, plant height and production of fruits among the treatments.

  1. Mineralogia e cristalografia da fração argila de horizontes coesos de solos nos tabuleiros costeiros Crystallography and mineralogy of the clay fraction of hardsetting horizons in soils of coastal tablelands in Brazil

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    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A coesão de horizontes de solos do Brasil vem sendo associada, principalmente, a fatores físicos e químicos inter-relacionados, mas a influência das propriedades mineralógicas e cristalográficas dos minerais da fração argila também foi aventada por alguns pesquisadores. Neste trabalho, testou-se a hipótese de que a fração argila de horizontes coesos de solos do Sedimento Barreiras da faixa dos Tabuleiros Costeiros é dominantemente caulinítica e apresenta elevado grau de cristalinidade e ordenamento, o que pode favorecer o ajuste face a face dos cristais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características mineralógicas e cristalográficas dos minerais da fração argila de horizontes coesos provenientes de solos de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras e uma possível contribuição para a ocorrência do caráter coeso. Para isso, foram analisados cinco horizontes coesos e um não-coeso de solos distribuídos ao longo da faixa dos Tabuleiros Costeiros. Também foi incluída, como referência, uma caulinita com elevado grau de cristalinidade. Todos os perfis foram analisados para classificação taxonômica e localização dos horizontes de interesse. Nas amostras dos horizontes selecionados, foram removidos a matéria orgânica e os óxidos. Após a dispersão de partículas, a fração argila foi individualizada, tratada e analisada por difração de raios X (DRX para determinar os minerais e o grau de ordem/desordem estrutural, segundo o Método Especialista de Plançon & Zacharie (1990. Todos os horizontes coesos apresentaram caulinitas com grau de ordenamento estrutural similar ao do horizonte não-coeso e inferior à caulinita de referência, o que não permitiu associar o empacotamento da fração argila com a manifestação do caráter coeso nos horizontes estudados, a partir das avalioações obtidas pelo método utilizado.The cohesion of hardsetting horizons of Brazilian soils has been mainly associated to inter

  2. Gênese de horizonte coeso, fragipã e duripã em solos do tabuleiro costeiro do sul da Bahia Genesis of hardened horizons, fragipan and duripan in soils of the coastal tablelands of south Bahia

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    Ana Maria Souza dos Santos Moreau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A gênese de horizontes coesos em solos tem explicações não consistentes e, em muitos casos, contraditórias. Objetivou-se avaliar, em solos dos tabuleiros costeiros, os possíveis mecanismos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos que ocasionam o endurecimento em horizonte coeso, fragipã e duripã. Para isso, coletaram-se amostras de solos em duas toposseqüências. Na primeira, foram reconhecidas as classes Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico argissólico e Argissolo Amarelo distrófico latossólico e, na segunda, Argissolos Amarelo abrúptico e típico, e Espodossolo Cárbico órtico dúrico. As análises químicas consistiram da extração de Fe, Si e Al com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio e oxalato ácido de amônio. A mineralogia da fração argila foi avaliada por difratometria de raios-X. Os teores de Fe, Si e Al recuperados com o ditionito e com o oxalato foram bastante baixos nos solos com presença de horizonte coeso. Por outro lado, no solo com fragipã e duripã, os teores de Si e Al do oxalato foram elevados, indicando a participação desses elementos como agentes cimentantes. A fração argila dos Argissolos é predominantemente caulinítica, sendo registrada a gibbsita apenas nos horizontes Bt1, Bt2 e Bw do Argissolo Amarelo latossólico. Para o solo com fragipã e duripã (Espodossolo Cárbico órtico dúrico, identificou-se a presença de gibbsita, e, apesar de ser a gibbsita considerada como desorganizadora do ajuste entre as lâminas de caulinita, a manifestação de endurecimento foi mantida. Assim, os mecanismos de endurecimento parecem distintos para horizonte coeso, fragipã e duripã.The genesis of cohesive horizons in some soils is not well known yet and, in many cases, it is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical, chemical and mineralogical mechanisms that cause hardening in soils with cohesive horizons, fragipan and duripan in Brazilian Coastal Plain soils. Soil samples of two

  3. Caracterização de solos de duas toposseqüências em tabuleiros costeiros do sul da Bahia Soil characterization of two toposequences in the coastal tablelands of southern Bahia

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    Ana Maria Souza dos Santos Moreau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar, física, química e micromorfologicamente, solos desenvolvidos de sedimentos pertencentes ao Grupo Barreiras, no sul da Bahia, bem como solo formado a partir de rocha do embasamento cristalino, sendo este tomado como diferencial entre os demais. Para isso, foram selecionadas e analisadas amostras de horizontes de solos de duas toposseqüências representativas dos solos dos tabuleiros costeiros: (1 Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico argissólico, Argissolo Amarelo distrófico latossólico e Espodossolo Ferrocárbico órtico dúrico; (2 Argissolo Amarelo distrófico abrúptico, Argissolo Amarelo distrófico típico e Espodossolo Cárbico órtico dúrico. A caracterização física constou da determinação da textura, argila dispersa em água, grau de floculação e densidade do solo. As análises químicas consistiram da determinação do pH em H2O e em KCl, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Al3+, H + Al, P, C-orgânico e ataque sulfúrico. Os solos das duas toposseqüências apresentaram diferenciação quanto às características morfológicas e físicas (textura, principalmente no que se refere à manifestação do caráter coeso. Os Argissolos inseridos no platô mais amplo e menos dissecado apresentaram maior gradiente textural e estado de coesão mais pronunciado. Os valores de densidade do solo, tanto para os horizontes coesos quanto para o fragipã e duripã, foram elevados, guardando uma relação inversa com o teor em matéria orgânica. As principais características micromorfológicas observadas nos horizontes coesos dos Argissolos Amarelos estudados foram: pequena quantidade de poros, atividade biológica e presença de argilãs de iluviação, confirmando a presença de B textural.The objective of the present study was to make the physical and chemical characterization of soils developed on sediments of the Barreiras group, in southern Bahia, as well as soils formed from rocks of the crystalline

  4. Disponibilidade de água em pomar de citros submetido a poda e subsolagem em latossolo amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros Water availability in citros orchard, under prunning and subsoiling, on yellow latosol of coastal table land

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    Laercio Duarte Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um pomar de laranja 'Baianinha' enxertada sobre limão 'Cravo' com 10 anos de idade, recebeu, neste período, práticas culturais de roçadeira no inverno e grade no verão, com três capinas manuais na linha por ano. Instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, nos Tabuleiros Costeiros, apresentava problemas de fitossanidade e produtividade, oriundos do impedimento ao desenvolvimento de raízes e exploração do solo e da água, ocasionados pelas camadas coesas características destes solos. Com o objetivo de aumentar a disponibilidade de água no solo para as plantas, aplicaram-se tratamentos de subsolagem, em interação com diferentes sistemas de poda da parte aérea. Realizaram-se uma amostragem de parâmetros físicos e químicos do solo, e um monitoramento da água nas profundidades de 0,30; 0,50; 0,70; 0,90; 1,10; 1,30 e 1,50 m com sonda de nêutrons, no período de dois anos ( 1º março/96 a 1º março/98, com duas repetições, em leituras semanais. As melhores respostas foram obtidas com os tratamentos subsolados sem poda e com poda leve. O tratamento subsolado com poda brusca apresentou as maiores deficiências de água disponível no solo, superando, inclusive, a testemunha.A ten years old orchard of orange 'Baianinha' grafted on lemon 'Cravo' was submitted, to cultural practices of mower in the winter and grating in the summer, with three hand weedings, within crop line, a year. The work was carried out in a Yellow Latosol in the Coastal Table Land ecosystem. The orchard presented phytopathological and production problems, which were attributed to the impediment of the development of roots and storage of water, caused by the cohesive layers, characteristics of these soils. This study was to increase the water availability to the plants by treatments with subsoiling combined with different pruning systems. Physical and chemical parameters of the soil were evaluated and the behavior of the water, in the depths of 0,30; 0,50; 0,70; 0,90; 1,10; 1

  5. Retenção da água em solo sob diferentes usos no ecossistema tabuleiros costeiros Water retention in a tableland ecosystem soil under different land use

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    Jeane C. Portela

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos poros de um Latossolo-Amarelo álico coeso, do ecossistema Tabuleiros Costeiros, em função do uso (citros, mandioca e mata com base nas curvas de retenção do solo, determinadas com 10 repetições em amostras de solo com estrutura indeformada, coletadas aleatoriamente na profundidade de 0,10 e 0,30 m, em cada tratamento. As tensões aplicadas foram de 0,5; 1; 2 e 5 kPa em funil de placa porosa e 30, 70, 100, 500 e 1500 kPa em câmara de pressão, também com placa porosa. Os resultados de cada tensão foram avaliados pelo teste de Tukey, a nível de 5% de probabilidade e, para fins de cálculo da condutividade hidráulica relativa, os valores de umidade versus tensão foram ajustados à equação de van Genuchten. Verificou-se que houve redução da macroporosidade do solo com o cultivo e o manejo na cultura de citros; além disso, constatou-se, ainda, que o uso do solo com mandioca aumentou a capacidade de água disponível do solo a 0,10 m de profundidade, em relação ao citros. Também relevante e que depreende dos resultados, é o fato de que, no citros, o manejo compactou o solo de maneira mais intensa que na mandioca, levando o solo, com esse cultivo (citros a reter menos água que a mata a baixas tensões e mais água que a mata a altas tensões. A condutividade hidráulica relativa foi sempre inferior para o citros, fato que, aliado à macroporosidade inferior, faz com que se conclua que o solo com citros apresenta valores de condutividade hidráulica sempre inferiores que os da mata e mandioca.Modifications in the quantity and quality of soil pores of a "Latossolo Amarelo alico" located in the Brazilian tableland ecosystem under three circumstances (natural forestry, cropped to citrus and cropped to cassava were evaluated through analysis of water retention curves. These were determined with 10 replications using undisturbed soil samples (randomly collected in each

  6. Efeito da saturação por bases sobre a atividade de fosfatases em um solo de tabuleiro costeiro cultivado com citros. I. Correlações entre a atividade enzimática e as diferentes características do solo alteradas pela calagem

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    M. F. Fernandes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se amostras de um Podzol cultivado com citros, na Estação Experimental de Umbaúba, Umbaúba-SE (Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Tabuleiros Costeiros-EMBRAPA, para avaliar a atividade de fosfatases ácidas e alcalinas em solo de tabuleiro costeiro submetido a diferentes porcentagens de saturação por base (32, 45, 68 e 76,6%, bem como as relações entre essas atividades e algumas características do solo. Respostas positivas ao incremento da saturação por bases foram observadas para pH, teor de matéria orgânica, fósforo disponível e atividade de fosfatases ácidas e alcalinas, em seus respectivos valores de pH ótimo de 6,5 e 11,0, ao passo que a biomassa microbiana não foi alterada significativamente por esse fator. Observou-se que a atividade da fosfatase ácida apresentou correlação significativa e positiva com a matéria orgânica e teores de cálcio e de magnésio trocáveis. A resposta das fosfatases alcalinas à saturação foi influenciada pelo pH, pela matéria orgânica, pelos teores de cálcio e de magnésio e pela biomassa microbiana do solo. Nenhuma das duas enzimas apresentou correlação com os teores de fósforo encontrados no solo analisado. No entanto, observou-se inibição da atividade das enzimas, quando a análise foi realizada em uma solução de reação com concentração de 124 ∝g mL-1 de P.

  7. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

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    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  8. Aspectos técnicos e econômicos da bananeira 'Prata-Anã' sob fertirrigação nos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe Technical and economical aspects of the banana tree "Prata-Anã" under fertirrigation in the coastal tablelands of Sergipe

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    Alberto Soares de Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio e potássio via água de irrigação, sobre o tempo de colheita, componentes da produção: número de pencas, número de frutos pencas-1, número de frutos cacho-1 e massa do cacho planta-1, e lucratividade da bananeira Prata-Anã em tabuleiros costeiros do Estado de Sergipe. O experimento foi conduzido no campo, utilizando um arranjo fatorial 4x4 com quatro blocos casualizados, na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Foram testados dois fatores: nitrogênio (0; 350; 700 e 1050, em kg ha-1 de N, na forma de uréia e potássio (0; 400; 800 e 1200, em kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. O primeiro ciclo da bananeira 'Prata-Anã' é prolongado em situações de deficiências de N e K. O maior rendimento do cacho (32,56t ha-1 é obtido com a aplicação de 1050kg ha-1 ano-1 de N e 1112kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, cujas doses proporcionam uma lucratividade de 27,75 % e uma redução do custo de produção de 40,54%.The objective of the work was to study the effects of doses of N and K applied through irrigation water, on the number of days between planting and harvesting, yield components (number of hands, number of fruits per hands, number of fruits per bunch, bunch weight per plant and the profitability of the 'Prata-Anã' banana, in the coastal tablelands of Sergipe State. The experiment was carried out in the field at the Sergipe Federal University Experimental Station. A 4² factorial in a randomized block experimental design was used. Treatments were nitrogen (0; 350; 700 e 1050, kg ha-1 of N, as urea and potassium (0; 400; 800 e 1200, kg ha-1 of K2O, as potassium chloride. Nitrogen and potassium deficiencies increased the number of days between planting and harvesting in the first cycle. Maximum yield of 32.56 t ha-1 was associated with 1050 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 1112kg ha-1 year -1 of K2O. These doses were able to increase net income by 27

  9. Calibração e aplicação do modelo MUSLE em uma microbacia hidrográfica nos Tabuleiros Costeiros brasileiros Calibration and application of the MUSLE model in a small watershed of the Coastal Table Lands of Brazil

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    Junior C. Avanzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é uma das principais preocupações relacionadas ao manejo de solos tropicais e o escoamento superficial o responsável pelo transporte e deposição desses sedimentos, razão por que se objetivou, com este estudo, ajustar um modelo semi-empírico às variáveis hidrológicas do escoamento superficial, aplicando-se a Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo Modificada - MUSLE, em uma microbacia hidrográfica ocupada por plantações de eucalipto e floresta nativa, na região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, Aracruz, ES. As classes de solo ocorrentes na microbacia são o Argissolo Amarelo textura média/argilosa (PA1, Argissolo Amarelo moderadamente rochoso (PA8 e Plintossolo Háplico (FX. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de 1997 a 2004. Modelos para o deflúvio e vazão de pico foram ajustados, obtendo-se estimativas adequadas, podendo-se utilizá-los para simulação hidrológica. O modelo MUSLE mostrou-se apropriado para predições das perdas de solo na microbacia, recomendando-se os coeficientes "a" e "b" iguais a 14,96 e 0,59, respectivamente, com fator topográfico de 1,28.Water erosion is one of the main worries linked to tropical soil management, surface runoff being responsible for sediment transportation and bedding particles. The objective of this study was to adopt a semi-empirical hydrological model to surface runoff and peak discharge, applying the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE to a small watershed occupied by eucalyptus plantations and native forest, in the Coastal Table Land region, Aracruz, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Medium clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA8, and Haplic Plinthosol (FX are the main soil classes. Hydrological data were monitored from 1997 to 2004. Models for surface runoff and peak discharge were adjusted, obtaining adequate estimates which can be used for hydrological simulation. The MUSLE model showed itself to be appropriate for

  10. Atributos químicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de horizontes coesos de latossolos e argissolos dos tabuleiros costeiros do estado de Alagoas Mineralogy and micromorphology of cohesive horizons in oxisols and ultisols of the coastal tablelands of Alagoas, Brazil

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    José de Almeida Lima Neto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O caráter coeso é um atributo característico de horizontes subsuperficiais que, quando secos, apresentam consistência muito dura e extremamente dura, passando a friável ou firme quando úmidos. A formação desses horizontes, entretanto, ainda é um assunto polêmico, não estando completamente esclarecida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma caracterização química, mineralógica e micromorfológica de solos coesos, visando entender a sua gênese e definir características que possam complementar a definição do caráter coeso no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Quatro perfis de solos foram coletados na região dos tabuleiros costeiros de Alagoas, envolvendo um Argissolo Amarelo, um Argissolo Acinzentado e dois Latossolos Amarelos. Os solos foram descritos morfologicamente, e as amostras dos horizontes coesos e não coesos foram coletadas para execução de análises químicas de Fe, Al e Si por extração com DCB, oxalato, CaCl2 e água quente, análises mineralógicas por DRX e caracterização micromorfológica. Os solos apresentaram baixos teores de Fe, com domínio das formas de baixa cristalinidade e predominância de caulinitas com moderado a alto grau de desordem estrutural em todos os horizontes. Não foi observada, nos horizontes coesos, tendência de aumento dos teores de Al e Si extraídos com DCB e oxalato, indicando que a sua gênese não se deve à presença de agentes cimentantes. Os resultados das análises mineralógicas e micromorfológicas sugerem que a gênese do caráter coeso apresenta duas fases distintas, sendo formado inicialmente pelo entupimento dos poros decorrente da iluviação de argila fina, havendo posteriormente uma perda de Fe na parte superior, que colapsa a estrutura e provoca um ajuste face a face da caulinita.The cohesive character is a property of subsurface soil horizons with hard to extremely hard consistency when dry, and friable or firm when wet. Despite the agricultural

  11. Atributos físicos do solo e distribuição do sistema radicular de citros como indicadores de horizontes coesos em dois solos de tabuleiros costeiros do estado da Bahia Soil physical attributes and citrus root system distribution as indicators of cohesive layers in soils of coastal table lands in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Marlete Bastos Santana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 2001, foram realizadas a caracterização física e a avaliação do sistema radicular de citros em dois solos típicos de Tabuleiros Costeiros (Latossolo Amarelo-LA e Argissolo Acinzentado-PAC do Estado da Bahia, visando estabelecer atributos que melhor identifiquem horizontes coesos. Em cada um dos solos, foram coletadas amostras nos primeiros quatro horizontes, para determinar granulometria, densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade e condutividade hidráulica saturada. Também foram determinadas a resistência do solo à penetração e a umidade crítica de resistência à penetração. Amostras de raízes de citros foram coletadas nos mesmos horizontes. Foi brusca a diminuição da densidade de raízes de citros nos horizontes AB, Bw1, BA e Bt1, associada ao aspecto coeso, sendo um indicador direto de horizonte coeso; no entanto, pela dificuldade de medição, buscou-se identificar atributos do solo mais bem relacionados com a densidade de raízes. A resistência do solo à penetração foi o atributo que melhor identificou a presença de horizonte coeso, devendo ser avaliada em umidade abaixo daquela considerada crítica para expressar a coesão. A condutividade hidráulica saturada também se revelou adequada para identificar horizonte coeso, podendo ser substituída pela macroporosidade, atributo igualmente importante para tal finalidade e com menor variabilidade e de mais fácil medição que aquele. A densidade do solo pode ser considerada um atributo para indicar a presença de horizontes coesos, tendo como principal limitação a interferência da granulometria na manifestação dos seus valores. Os indicadores recomendados permitem detectar a presença de horizontes coesos, orientando intervenções de manejo para superar os problemas de aprofundamento do sistema radicular que tais solos apresentam.The physical characterization of two typical Coastal Tableland soils (Yellow Latosol-YL and Gray Argisol

  12. Estabilidade de agregados de um latossolo amarelo distrocoeso de tabuleiro costeiro sob diferentes aportes de resíduos orgânicos da cana-de-açúcar Aggregate stability in a dystrophic cohesive yellow latosol of a costal plain under different sugarcane residue application

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    Romero Falcão Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial produtivo da cana-de-açúcar decorre de fatores relacionados ao clima, ao solo e à variedade cultivada. Sistemas de manejo que proporcionem a adição de resíduos orgânicos ao solo podem provocar alterações em seus atributos físicos, favorecendo o crescimento do sistema radicular e a produtividade da canade-açúcar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de manejo com cana-de-açúcar com diversos níveis de adição de resíduos orgânicos sobre a distribuição e os índices de estabilidade de agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo distrocoeso dos tabuleiros costeiros de Alagoas. Foram selecionadas áreas em talhões de produção com a cultura da cana-de-açúcar: uma área cultivada sob sistema de manejo irrigado (SMI, uma área sob sistema de manejo de fertirrigação com vinhaça (SMV e uma área sob sistema de manejo com aplicação de vinhaça + torta de filtro (SMVT. Esses sistemas de manejo foram comparados entre si e em relação a uma testemunha-padrão, representada por um fragmento de Mata Atlântica (MN. Para avaliar a distribuição e os índices de estabilidade de agregados, amostras do solo foram coletadas ao acaso, nas áreas submetidas aos diferentes sistemas de manejo, nas profundidades de 0-0,20, 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m, sendo retiradas num ponto situado nas entrelinhas da cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 %. Estudos de correlações simples foram realizados entre algumas variáveis medidas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que os diferentes sistemas de manejo promoveram alterações na distribuição de agregados do solo e a estabilização dos agregados na camada superficial dependeu do teor de matéria orgânica e da ação dos ciclos sucessivos de umedecimento e secagem do solo. Os estudos de correlações entre o carbono orgânico total e os índices de estabilidade dos agregados

  13. Crescimento e rendimento do abacaxizeiro nas condições climáticas dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Estado da Paraíba Growth and yield of pineapple under climatic conditions of the Coastal Table Lands of Paraíba State

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    Cleber B. de Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido com a cultura do abacaxi, cv. Pérola, em Santa Rita, PB, durante o período março de 2001 a junho de 2002; na ocasião, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e o rendimento dessa cultivar, em condições de irrigação suplementar, visando obter informações que possam adequar o manejo da cultura à região. De forma geral, as variáveis de crescimento e rendimento foram compatíveis com o descrito na literatura, destacando-se que o índice de área foliar (IAF alcançou o valor 12, aos 308 dias após plantio e os frutos com peso acima de 1,7 kg, representaram 60% do total colhido (57.000 kg. Os frutos de segunda compreenderam 30% dos frutos colhidos com peso variando de 1,3 a 1,7 kg e os frutos com peso inferior a 1,3 kg, correspondente aos 10% restantes, foram considerados de qualidade inferior e destinados principalmente à indústria de sucos e rações. O abacaxizeiro, cv Pérola, cultivado com suplementação de irrigação, nas condições de clima e solo dos tabuleiros de Santa Rita, PB, apresentou IAF, tamanho de frutos e rendimento superiores aos obtidos em outras regiões do Brasil, seja em sequeiro ou em condições irrigadas.A field experiment was carried out with the pineapple, cultivar Pérola, in Santa Rita in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, during the period from March, 2001 to June, 2002. The development and yield of crop under supplemental irrigation conditions was evaluated in order to obtain information for improving crop management in the region. The growth and yield variables were compatible with those obtained in other studies. The results showed that the leaf area index (LAI reached a value of 12, 308 days after planting and the fruits with weight above 1.7 kg reached 60% of the total harvested fruits. The fruit of 2nd category, with weight between 1.3 and 1.7 kg, represented 30% of the total fruit production while the remaining 10% of fruits harvested with weight less than 1.3 kg, were

  14. Distribuição do sistema radicular de citros em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro costeiro do Estado da Bahia Citrus root system distribution in a coastal table land soil toposequence of the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O aprofundamento do sistema radicular dos citros é importante para aumentar a produtividade e a longevidade dessa cultura, principalmente em solos que apresentam horizontes coesos subsuperficiais. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição das raízes da laranjeira 'Hamlin' enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo', com 15 anos de idade, em uma toposseqüência de tabuleiro de Sapeaçu-BA, composta por Latossolo Amarelo argissólico (LAx e Argissolo Amarelo (PAx, ambos coesos, e Argissolo Acinzentado (PAC, não coeso. Em 2001, retiraram-se amostras de raízes em uma planta no LAx e no PAx e em duas no PAC, em quatro horizontes, em quatro pontos na linha e em cinco na entrelinha, distanciados por 0,50 m, usando-se um cilindro de aço de 1,20 m de comprimento e 0,085 m de diâmetro. As raízes foram digitalizadas em escaner e processadas no aplicativo GSRoot. As raízes da laranjeira 'Hamlin' enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram grande sensibilidade à coesão, sendo a densidade de raízes 3,4 a 4,1 vezes maior no solo PAC, não coeso. A densidade das raízes encontradas nos horizontes superficiais do LAx e do PAx foi próxima daquela do horizonte mais profundo do PAC. A profundidade efetiva do sistema radicular, até onde se encontraram 80 % das raízes, foi maior no PAC não coeso, e a distância efetiva do sistema radicular, até onde se encontraram 80 % das raízes a partir do tronco, foi maior no PAx coeso, que foi o solo que apresentou a menor profundidade efetiva das raízes. Nos três solos, houve predominância de raízes com diâmetros 2 mm.The deepening of citrus root system is important to increase crop productivity and longevity, especially in soils with subsurface cohesive horizons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root distribution of 'Hamlim' sweet orange grafted onto Rangpur lime. The 15 year-old plants were located in a coastal plain soil toposequence in Sapeaçu county, Bahia, Brazil. The soils were

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India Caracterização bioquímica e molecular de Bacillus pumilus isolado do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia

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    Ammini Parvathi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR, antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus.As espécies de Bacillus constituem um grupo diversificado de bactérias amplamente distribuídas no solo e no ambiente aquático. Neste estudo, cepas de Bacillus isoladas do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia, foram identificadas através de métodos bioquímicos convencionais, análise de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME e sequenciamento de 16S rDNA. A análise dos dados revelou que Bacillus pumilus foi a espécie predominante na região estudada, seguido de B. cereus e B. sphaericus. Os isolados de B. pumilus foram caracterizados através da reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR, perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos e triagem por PCR de genes de toxinas associadas com Bacillus spp. Todos os isolados de B. pumilus foram bioquimicamente idênticos, apresentaram elevada atividade de protease e lipase e foram uniformemente sens

  16. Diversidade de Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil: uma comparação entre Mata Atlântica e Tabuleiro Nordestino Diversity of Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraiba, Brazil: a comparison between Atlantic Forest and northeast's Tabuleiro

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    Ana Aline Endres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os Scarabaeidae consomem fezes e carcaças de grandes vertebrados. Comunidades de escarabeídeos foram comparadas entre áreas de Mata e Tabuleiro da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraíba. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente durante o período de Novembro/2001 a Abril/2002 em áreas de Tabuleiro e Mata. Para coleta dos insetos foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas pitfall iscadas, 12 em cada área, sendo seis iscadas com fezes humanas e seis com fígado apodrecido. Na área de Mata foram coletados 15 espécies e 1298 indivíduos. Na área de Tabuleiro, 25 espécies e 2235 indivíduos. Onze espécies ocorrem conjuntamente nos dois ambientes, sendo 14 registradas apenas para o Tabuleiro e 4 para a Mata. Dichotomius sericeus (Harold, 1867 foi a espécie mais abundante nas duas áreas. A área de Tabuleiro apresentou maior riqueza, entretanto a Mata apresentou maior dominância. O compartilhamento de espécies comuns entre a Mata e o Tabuleiro confere a estes ambientes similaridade moderada.Diversity of Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraiba, Brazil: a comparison between Atlantic Forest and northeast's Tabuleiro. Scarabaeid beetles consume dung and carcasses of large vertebrates. Guilds of scarabeids were compared between Forest and Tabuleiro at the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, in the state of Paraíba. Samples were collected monthly from November 2001 to April 2002 in Forest and Tabuleiro. Insects were collected by using 24 pitfall-traps, 12 in each area, with six traps baited with human excrement and six with rotten liver. Fifteen species and 1298 specimens were collected in the Forest and 25 species and 2235 specimens in the Tabuleiro. Eleven species occurred in both areas, whereas 14 were found only in the Tabuleiro and four in the Forest. Dichotomius sericeus (Harold, 1867 was the most abundant species in the two areas. The Tabuleiro was the most species-rich; however

  17. Transformações do espaço urbano costeiro: patrimonialização do meio ambiente na cidade de Florianópolis/Santa Catarina - Brasil

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    Gisele Moser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho problematizo a cidade de Florianópolis sob os aspectos do desenvolvimento da maricultura, projetando-a como grande produtora nacional de ostras e mariscos, e da praia, que outrora servia para receber os despejos da cidade e foi elevada à condição de espaço de lazer e veraneio. Estes elementos - mar e praia - passaram por novas configurações, a partir da apropriação e ressignificação de antigos usos dos recursos naturais, de tal modo que ocorrem transformações na perspectiva social e ambiental. A patrimonialização do meio ambiente insere-se numa perspectiva turística como um processo que se apresenta indissociável das novas estratégias de apropriação das imagens da cidade e de marketing da cidade, tornado a cidade uma imagem a ser consumida com um modelo idealizado de espaços urbanos padronizados.

  18. Água no solo influenciada pela posição na paisagem, em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro do estado da Bahia

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    L. S. Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Em relevo ondulado, a posição do solo na paisagem é importante quanto à quantidade de água armazenada e disponível para as plantas. A camada coesa dos solos dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste do Brasil prejudica o fluxo de água no perfil. Em períodos mais chuvosos, pode ocorrer a formação de lençol freático suspenso acima dos horizontes coesos, em decorrência da restrição ao fluxo vertical descendente causada por tais horizontes. Dessa forma, em áreas declivosas, é possível ocorrer o interfluxo (fluxo lateral subsuperficial da água no sentido morro abaixo sobre os horizontes coesos. Tal hipótese foi avaliada em uma toposseqüência com 190 m de comprimento e 0,097 m m-1 de declividade média, composta por Latossolo Amarelo argissólico coeso-LAx (terço superior, Argissolo Amarelo coeso-PAx (terço médio, solo transicional-PAx/PAC e Argissolo Acinzentado-PAC, não-coeso (terço inferior. Dados de umidade, medidos semanalmente durante o ano de 1996 (53 semanas, em 10 pontos ao longo da toposseqüência e em sete profundidades, permitiram comprovar a hipótese citada, com o interfluxo, acima dos horizontes coesos, proporcionando um aporte maior e mais contínuo de umidade ao longo do tempo, no sentido LAx → PAx → PAx/PAC → PAC.

  19. Disponibilidade energética para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar nos tabuleiros costeiros do estado da Paraíba

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    Pedro V. de Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com a cultivar de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. RB92579, no período de 2010 a 2011 em Capim, PB, tendo como objetivo a análise dos componentes dos balanços de radiação e energia. Monitoraram-se as variáveis: radiação solar incidente e refletida; saldo de radiação; radiação atmosférica incidente à superfície, radiação efetiva emitida e o albedo da superfície vegetada. O balanço de energia, fundamentado na razão de Bowen, foi utilizado na determinação dos fluxos de calor latente e sensível para o ar e o solo. Para as fases de crescimento máximo e maturação observou-se que: a não houve mudanças significativas no comportamento dos componentes do balanço de radiação; b o albedo variou de 0,17 a 0,27 com média de 0,23; c as regressões lineares entre o saldo de radiação e o saldo de radiação de ondas curtas apresentaram elevados níveis de correlação; d o coeficiente térmico diminuiu e o coeficiente de transformação em ondas longas aumentou com o aumento da cobertura vegetal; e o saldo de radiação diário e os fluxos de calor latente e sensível aumentaram do período chuvoso para o período seco e f 82% do saldo de radiação foram utilizados como calor latente, 16% como calor sensível para aquecimento do ar e 2% como calor sensível para aquecimento do solo.

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOMÉTRICA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES DE GENÓTIPOS DE MURICI (Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. Rich. DO TABULEIRO COSTEIRO DE ALAGOAS

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    Rychardson Rocha de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize plants and fruits of native muricy (Byrsonima verbascifolia Rich. former. Juss, a tropical underutilized and endangered fruit tree in a coastal area of Northeast Brazil. There were evaluated the main biometric parameters of 20 plants and 200 fruits collected from a natural occurring area in Alagoas. The fresh fruits weight 1,21 g in average, the longitudinal and transversal diameter of the fruits were, respectively, 8,5 mm and 7,4 mm with an average income of 63% of pulp. The fresh mass of the fruit was proportional to the amount of pulp (r = 0,605; P < 0,05, indicating an interesting potential to select elite trees with fruit quality for futures works on genetic improvement.

  1. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE RETENÇÃO E DISPONIBILIDADE DE ÁGUA EM SOLOS DE TABULEIRO COSTEIRO PARAIBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson Guedes Correia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was done in order to characterize the water holding capacity and availability to plants in three soils of coastal tablelands in the state of Paraíba using tensiometry in areas cultivated with sugarcane. The water retention curves were determined for the Neossolo Quartzarenico, Latossolo Amarelo, Latossolo Coeso soils in the depths of 0 - 30cm and from 30 - 60 cm, by the Richards extractor method and by tensiometens in PVC columns in a greenhouse in the first phase and in a battery of field tensiometers in the second phase, in the tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 cm Hg. The water retention in the soils was significantly affected (p<0,01 as a function of the tensions (TS applied. The same effect (p<0,01 was seen for the factor soil (S and for the interaction (TS x S both for the extractor and the greenhouse methods as well as for the field method. According to the study of the regression analysis, the mathematical model that showed the best adjustment was the decreasing quadratic. The values of moisture content found showed the most abrupt variations at the lowest tensions. The moisture content for the Neossolo Quartzarenico demonstrated under field conditions the importance of the structure for soils retaining more moisture in the tensions studied in relation to the laboratory and greenhouse methods. Even though the clay content were similar for the Latossolo Amarelo and the Latossolo. Coeso the greatest moisture retentions were observed in the Latossolo Coeso.

  2. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  3. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae indicators of some coastal habitats in South America: redescriptions and key to identification Esponjas de água doce (Porifera, Demonspongiae indicadoras de alguns ambientes costeiros na América do Sul: redescrição e chave para identificação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Surveys for freshwater sponges were performed at several water bodies at sandy environments along a north-south direction of particularly the Brazilian coastal line. The results allowed for the distinction of four different species-specific environments along this coastal border. The main fact considered was the dominant or the sole recurrent occurrence of a single sponge species at one particular habitat. The first one is that of the lagoonal mesohaline habitats at the tropical and subtropical realms, indicated by Spongilla alba Carter, 1849. The second one refers to shallow ponds among dunes at the tropical area indicated by Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974. The third one is that of also shallow ponds close to the dune belt at the temperate region indicated by Racekiela sheilae (Volkmer-Ribeiro, De Rosa-Barbosa & Tavares, 1988. The fourth one is that of organically enriched environments, at the marginal areas of lagoons and mouth of small rivers, evolving towards freshwater muddy ponds and coastal swamps, not far from the ocean border: Ephydatia facunda Weltner, 1895 is the species to occupy this habitat with almost exclusiveness. The above species are thus proposed as indicators of such habitats and have their descriptions improved and that of their environments summarized. A taxonomic key based on the spicules of the four species is proposed. The results presented aim to contribute to the identification of spicules of these sponges in sediment columns recovered at the Brazilian and South American coastal area. Determination of paleo ocean borders are a present issue of upmost importance in what respects projections of timing and fluctuations of ascending/regressing sea levels.Levantamentos para detecção de esponjas dulcícolas foram conduzidos em diversos corpos d'água da faixa arenosa costeira, de norte a sul, particularmente no Brasil. Os resultados permitiram a distinção de quatro ambientes específicos em rela

  4. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...

  5. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Milena Wachlevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.

  6. Fruit-feeding butterflies in the Atlantic Forest at Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Gabriela Corso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-feeding butterflies are used in ecological studies following standardized sampling protocols because they are easily collected using traps baited with food. This trait, and the fact that their populations respond rapidly to changes in habitat, make them good biological indicators. The goal of this study is to present a list of fruit-feeding butterfly species, including morphological and ecological characteristics of this group, for the Atlantic Forest of Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (Santa Catarina, to improve the knowledge about the butterflies from this region. Six field expeditions were carried out between November 2009 and August 2010. Twenty-five bait traps were used, which remained active for ten days and were checked every 48 h to replace the bait and collect individuals. Twenty species and 331 individuals were captured, which belonged to three subfamilies: Biblidinae, Charaxinae and Satyrinae. The study added eleven new species to the already existing list of the Atlantic Forest butterflies of Santa Catarina.

  7. The Amphibolites of the Costeiro Complex in the São Sebastião Region, SP

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    Coriolano de Marins e Dias Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochronological, petrographic and lithochemical data have been used to characterize the crustal evolution and thethermochronology of the Costeiro Complex, São Paulo State, Brazil. This part of the Ribeira Fold Belt is composed ofparaderived rocks to the East, and orthoderived rocks to the West, which are organized along a ductile shear zone forminga positive fl ower structure whose axis runs ENE-WSW. The main amphibolite occurrences are found within predominantgarnet-paragneisses along this axis. The age of crystallization of the intrusive basic magmas which originated the amphiboliteswas 580 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP. They formed tabular intrusions or secondary magma chambers, that locally still preservecontinental tholeiitic geochemical characteristics. The close proximity of the basic magmatism and the metamorphic peakis evident from the 570 Ma, U-Pb age determination of the overgrowths on detritic zircon crystals in the paragneisses.This suggests a tectonic environment where the basic magmas intruded a back-arc sedimentary basin established overcontinental crust. The source areas were probably rocks differentiated from the mantle between the Paleoproterozoic andNeoproterozoic.

  8. Atuação de Acidithiobacillus na solubilização de fosfato natural em solo de tabuleiro cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus Effect of Acidithiobacillus on solubilization of natural phosphate in a coastal tableland soil under yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Stamford

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar a atuação do enxofre (S inoculado com Acidithiobacillus na disponibilidade de fósforo (P de fosfato natural (FN, em diferentes modos de aplicação do fertilizante, em um Espodossolo Ferrocárbico Órtico, do tabuleiro costeiro da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus. As plantas foram inoculadas com rizóbio (NFB 747 e NFB 748 e adicionado tratamento-controle sem inoculação com rizóbio. Os tratamentos com P foram: (1 FN revestindo o enxofre inoculado com Acidithiobacillus (FN S*, (2 FN revestido com S e com Acidithiobacillus (S* FN, (3 mistura FN com S e com Acidithiobacillus (FN + S*, (4 mistura FN com S e sem Acidithiobacillus (FN + S, (5 superfosfato triplo (ST e (6 sem aplicação de fósforo (P0. Os tratamentos foram aplicados: (a na superfície, (b em sulco 10 cm abaixo da semente, e (c em sulco 10 cm abaixo e ao lado da semente. A biomassa nodular foi maior no tratamento (FN + S* com melhor efeito quando aplicado ao lado e abaixo das sementes. O (FN + S* também aumentou a altura das plantas, a biomassa da parte aérea e das túberas e o N total da parte aérea, especialmente quando aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. O P total da parte aérea foi mais elevado com (S* FN aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. Os melhores teores de P no solo foram obtidos com (FN + S* e (S* FN, com efeito mais evidente quando aplicados 10 cm abaixo das sementes.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sulphur (S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus on phosphorus (P availability from natural phosphate (NP using different fertilizer application methods on yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus grown in a "Tableland Forest" soil (Podzol Hydromorphic dystrophic of the "Zona da Mata" in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plants were inoculated with rhizobia strains (NFN 747 and NFB 748 and control treatments added without rhizobia inoculation. The P

  9. Potencial visual evocado por padrão reverso com tabuleiro de xadrez em gatos domésticos adultos

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    Nathalia Veronica Carneiro Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O potencial visual evocado por padrão reverso (PVE-PR é um método objetivo, não invasivo e estabelecido para as investigações funcionais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de dados do PVE-PR com tabuleiro de xadrez em gatos domésticos adultos, além de verificar a influência de diferentes ângulos visuais sobre os picos de tempo implícito e amplitude das ondas N75 e P100. Foram utilizados 13 gatos adultos (2-4 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Cada animal foi posicionado 100cm de distância de um monitor de vídeo situado a 17,2º. O estímulo gerado para a formação dos PVEs foi uma onda "quadrada" com a frequência de 6 Hz, apresentados em cinco frequências espaciais (16', 32', 64', 130' e 260'de arco. Os valores médios dos tempos implícitos (ms e amplitudes (µV de P100 não foram diferentes estatisticamente e nem estavam correlacionados (r=0,067. Com a mudança de tamanho do ângulo de estímulo apresentado, os picos de tempo implícito e amplitude do P100 apresentaram uma discreta variação. Aos 32' de arco, a amplitude de P100 atingiu seu pico máximo, com 14,94±1,13µV (média±erro padrão da média. N75 não mostrou nenhuma variação de amplitude. Com 16' de arco, o tempo implícito de N75 diminuiu, não havendo correlação com os valores de amplitude (r=0,26. O ângulo visual que desencadeou um maior pico de amplitude e tempo implícito constante para P100, foi o de 32' de arco. Em gatos adultos, um PVE-PR pode ser obtido sem o uso de midriáticos e sedativos, com estímulos subtendidos entre ângulos grandes como 64' e pequenos como 16'

  10. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  11. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O livro Epistemologia Ambiental traz uma rica discussão sobre a questão ambiental, abordando teorias relevantes para o entendimento e interpretação da crise atual, orientando para a construção de novas racionalidades e a constituição de um saber ambiental. A obra vem compartimentada em cinco capítulos distribuídos em 240 páginas. 

  12. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  13. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  14. Derecho Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Es indudable la relevancia para la vida del planeta proteger el ambiente. De ahí que a lo largo de las últimas decadas el derecho ambiental se ha consolidado como una nueva y vital rama del derecho público.

  15. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  16. Caracterização físíca e hídrica em solos dos Tabuleiros Costeiros no Distrito de Irrigação Platô de Neópolis Characterization of physical and water attributes of the Coastal Tablelands soils in Irrigation District of "Platô de Neópolis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. D. Cintra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os principais problemas relacionados á produção de fruteiras no Distrito de Irrigação Platô de Neópolis, destaca-se a carência de informações sobre os atributos físíco e hídricos dos solos e suas relações com o manejo da irrigação e a produtividade das culturas. Este fato assume grande relevância, em virtude da provável existência de variações significativas entre os solos quanto á capacidade de armazenamento e suprimento de água para as plantas, e suas conseqüências na eficácia da irrigação e no custo da atividade agrícola. A comparação entre as áreas estudadas indicou que, apesar da proximidade e de se situarem no mesmo plano da paisagem, as propriedades físicas e hídricas foram afetadas pelas camadas coesas, em intensidade variável, a depender da posição ocupada no perfil do solo e do grau do adensamento apresentado, ante o que se acredita ser necessário a adoção de cuidados especiais e, diferenciados, na seleção das práticas de manejo do solo e da irrigação, como forma de promover o desenvolvimento da fruticultura no Platô de Neópolis.The lack of information about physical and water attributes in soils and their relationships with the irrigation management and crop productivity is one of the most important problem related to productivity of fruit crops at the Irrigation District of "Platô de Neopolis". This fact is of great relevance considering the clear evidence of the occurrence of expressive soil variations, regarding the water holding capacity and plant water supplies in such soils and the consequences in irrigation effectiveness and crop costs. Despite the proximity of the areas and their location in the same landscape, their physical and water proprieties are affected in different intensities by the hardened soil layers, depending on the position in soil profile and degree of soil hardening, thus it is necessary to adopt specific and differentiated pratices of soil and irrigation management for the development of fruit crop in the "Platô de Neópolis".

  17. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  18. Variações temporais no grau de glicemia e condição corporal de Artibeus planirostris em áreas de tabuleiro e mata atlântica no estado da Paraíba

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As variações no Índice de Condição Corporal (ICC), glicemia e cetonemia de Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) foram analisadas em áreas de Tabuleiro e Mata Atlântica da Paraíba em campo e cativeiro. O ICC escolhido foi baseado na menor influência do comprimento do antebraço na massa corporal e avaliado de acordo com o sexo, estado reprodutivo, local e horário de coleta. A glicemia e cetonemia também foram correlacionadas entre si, com o ICC e as demais variáveis...

  19. Produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro (Lippia gracilis Schauer em função de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes Seedling production of two "alecrim-de-tabuleiro" (Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes under mineral fertilizer, limestone, substrates and containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.L Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia gracilis Schauer popularmente conhecida como alecrim-de-tabuleiro possui moderada atividade antibacteriana, antimicrobiana e antiséptica. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de doses de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes na produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro realizou-se experimentos com estacas de dois genótipos de L. gracilis. No experimento 1, foram utilizadas estacas apicais distribuídas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células com o substrato pó-de-coco + areia (1:1, três repetições e oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo quatro doses do fertilizante (6-24-12+micronutrientes (1, 2, 3 e 4 g L-1, duas doses de calcário (0 e 1 g L-1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 após plantio, foram avaliadas a sobrevivência (%, enraizamento (%, comprimento de raiz (cm e massa seca de raiz (mg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas três repetições com oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas onde foram testados nas parcelas dois recipientes (bandeja de poliestireno expandido de 128 alvéolos e tubetes de 110 cm³, na sub parcela foram testadas as combinações de quatro substratos (PC - pó de coco; PCA (1:1 - pó de coco + areia (1:1; PCA (2:1 - pó de coco + areia (2:1 e PCA (3:1 - pó de coco + areia (3:1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 dias após o plantio foram analisadas as mesmas variáveis do experimento 1, além de altura de parte aérea (cm e massa seca de parte aérea (mg. A utilização de 1 g L-1 do fertilizante na ausência de calcário foi efetivo para sobrevivência de plantas e enraizamento de estacas de alecrim-de-tabuleiro. Com base nesses experimentos, concluiu-se que o genótipo LGRA106 é superior ao LGRA201 nas variáveis analisadas e recomenda-se a bandeja de poliestireno expandido para

  20. Spodosols pedogenesis under barreiras formation and sandbank environments in the south of Bahia Pedogênese de espodossolos em ambientes da formação barreiras e de restinga do sul da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Pacobahyba de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically differentiated Spodosols usually occur in the Coastal Plain of the South of Bahia and North of Espírito Santo. They are found in profiles known as "muçungas", i.e. sandy soils that accumulate water. In these areas, two kinds of Spodosols, different from those in the Restinga area, can be found: Spodosols with E albic horizon (white muçunungas and without this horizon (black muçunungas. Eight soil profiles with spodic characteristics were collected and described in order to evaluate differences in the formation process of Barreiras and Restinga Spodosols in the South of Bahia. The soil profiles were also characterized chemically, physically and mineralogically. Additionally, texture and chemical analysis, Fe and Al extraction by sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DBC, acid ammonium oxalate and sodium pyrophosphate, ammonium oxalate extract optic density (DOox, sulphuric acid attack, and X ray difractometry of the clay fraction were performed. In the Spodosols of the Barreiras area, fragipan was found the spodic layers. Cemented B spodic horizon were observed in the white muçunungas, and granular structure and dark color from the surface in the black muçunungas. There was no fragipan or hard spodic horizon in the Restinga Spodosol. This soil is acid, dystrophic and alic, with sandy texture and high clay percentages in the spodic horizons. The CEC, based on H + Al, is predominantly represented by the organic matter. The most representative components of the mineral phase of the clay fraction are kaolinite and possibly vermiculite traces with interlayered hydroxy. Chemical, physical, morphological and mineralogical differences were observed between the Barreiras and Restinga environments. The black and white muçunungas differ in morphologic and chemical properties only.Nos domínios dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do sul da Bahia e norte do Espírito Santo é comum a ocorrência de Espodossolos morfologicamente diferenciados, que

  1. Diagramas de perfil e de cobertura de um trecho da floresta de tabuleiro na Reserva Florestal de Linhares (Espírito Santo, Brasil Profile and cover diagram of a section of the "tabuleiro" forest at the Linhares Forest Reserve; [Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Luna Peixoto

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O diagrama de perfil e de cobertura de um trecho de mata alta na floresta de tabuleiro da Reserva Florestal de Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil, foram obtidos a partir de duas amostras de 60m x 10m e 30m x 20m, respectivamente, parcialmente superpostas. Todos os indivíduos com altura igual ou superior a 6m e dap igual ou superior a 5cm foram identificados e tiveram medidos a altura total, altura do fuste, dap e diâmetro da copa. Foram desenhados o fuste e as formas horizontal e vertical da copa. Os indivíduos foram classificados de acordo com o seu estádio de desenvolvimento em árvores potenciais, árvores do presente e árvores em decrepitude. Foram identificados três estratos com características próprias quanto às dimensões, composição florística e fase de desenvolvimento. Características estruturais da vegetação sucessora estão relacionadas com a maneira pela qual os indivíduos do dossel morrem, abrindo uma clareira ao cair, danificando indivíduos dos estratos inferiores ou perdendo lentamente partes vegetativas.The profile and the cover diagram of a section of the "tabuleiro" forest at the Linhares Forest Reserve, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were obtained from two samples of 60m x 10m and 30m x 20m, respectively, partially overlapping. All trees in the sample which exceeded 6m high and has 5cm dbh or more were identified and measured for total height, trunk height, dbh and crown diameter. The trunk and the shapes of the crowns were dravvn. The trees were classified according to their developmental degree into potential trees, present trees end decrepit trees. Three strata were found with distint dimensional, taxonomic and developmental features. Structural characteristic of the succeeding vegetation are related to the vvay trees in the upper stratum die, standing or falling.

  2. Microplásticos no ambiente marinho: mapeamento de fontes e identificação de mecanismos de gestão para minimização da perda de pellets plásticos

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Cabral Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente, a poluição marinha por microplásticos é uma grande preocupação ambiental, considerando principalmente a capacidade de dispersão e resistência à degradação que estes materiais possuem. A matéria prima plástica é normalmente comercializada na forma de \\"pellets\\", grânulos com cerca de 5 mm de diâmetro, que são encontrados em ambientes marinhos e costeiros de todo mundo, inclusive do Brasil. Estes podem ser perdidos nas etapas pré-consumo da cadeia produtiva dos plásticos e chegar d...

  3. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  4. Caracterização de ecossistemas da mata atlântica de tabuleiros por meio das formas de húmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kindel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das formas de húmus permite a caracterização de ecossistemas primários, bem como dos interferidos. Dentro desta perspectiva, pretendeu-se identificar as formas de húmus, estudando-se os horizontes holorgânicos em relação às variáveis do solo mineral, em três áreas de Mata Atlântica de Tabuleiros do norte do Espírito Santo: duas matas primárias, a Mata Alta e a Mata de Córrego, e uma mata secundária, resultante do corte e da queima da vegetação há mais de 40 anos (Capoeira Queimada. Na Mata Alta, encontrou-se um mull mesotrófico tropical, caracterizado por uma rápida decomposição dos aportes foliares dos horizontes holorgânicos e por uma percentagem de saturação por bases em torno de 50-70% no horizonte hemiorgânico. A Mata de Córrego teve a estrutura do seu perfil húmico alterado em comparação com a Mata Alta, ou seja, verificou-se maior acúmulo nas camadas holorgânicas, representando menor velocidade na decomposição, como o oligotrofismo do solo mineral (V%: 14-35%. Estes resultados levaram à classificação da forma de húmus na Mata de Córrego como um mull oligotrófico. Na Capoeira Queimada, o estoque dos horizontes holorgânicos foi de 2 t ha-1 maior que na Mata Alta, com o desenvolvimento esporádico da camada F2. No horizonte A1, porém, o estoque de matéria orgânica foi inferior e observou-se, igualmente, uma percentagem de saturação por bases menor (30-56%, indicando que o ciclo de carbono e de nutrientes ainda não foi restabelecido. A forma de húmus da Capoeira Queimada foi classificada como mull mesotrófico.

  5. Contribuições dos métodos GPR e Eletromagnético Indutivo em estudos de sítios arqueológicos de sambaquis costeiros no Estado de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Nesta pesquisa são apresentadas as contribuições dos métodos GPR e eletromagnético indutivo (equipamento EM-38) nos estudos de sítios arqueológicos de sambaquis costeiros Jabuticabeira II, Santa Marta IV, V, VII e VIII, e Encantada III, localizados no município de Jaguaruna, litoral centro-sul de Santa Catarina. Estes sítios são caracterizados por acúmulos de conchas carbonáticas construídos por sociedades do período pré-colonial (7,5 a 1,3 mil anos AP). Os estudos foram desenvolvidos, visand...

  6. O uso de tecnologias móveis no ensino de ciências: uma experiência sobre o estudo dos ecossistemas costeiros da mata atlântica sul capixaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Maciel Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso das tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TICs é objeto de discussão por grande parte dos educadores brasileiros. Se por um lado é reconhecido como potencial recurso em favor dos processos ensino-aprendizagem, por outro, desperta grandes polêmicas no contexto escolar. Dessa forma, a partir de uma sequência didática fundamentada nos Três Momentos Pedagógicos de Delizoikov et al. (2002, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo promover uma discussão sobre o uso das tecnologias móveis no estudo dos ecossistemas costeiros de Mata Atlântica com alunos de uma escola pública municipal de Marataízes/ ES. Como fonte de obtenção de dados, realizou-se pesquisas bibliográficas em fontes de papel e virtuais, por intermédio smartphones. Além disso, promoveu-se uma aula de campo nos ecossistemas costeiros de Mata Atlântica situados na área geoescolar, ocasião em que as tecnologias móveis atuaram como instrumentos para identificação da fauna e flora mediante o uso de aplicativo, além de servir para o registro audiovisual que, posteriormente, foi transformado em objetos educativos que foram expostos para a comunidade escolar. Foi diagnosticado o grande interesse dos estudantes em utilizar as tecnologias móveis em situações de aprendizagem, o que sinaliza para a importância do uso das TICs como ferramentas educacionais, reforçando a potencial articulação dos recursos tecnológicos nos processos de ensino e aprendizagem em Ciências.

  7. Psicologia do Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Dalila; Bernardo, Fátima; Palma-Oliveira, José-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Na aplicação da Psicologia à área do AMBIENTE importa em primeiro lugar definir o que se entende, neste contexto, por ambiente. O conceito é entendido como toda a envolvente que rodeia o ser humano. Referimo-nos pois ao espaço físico e aos estímulos que nele existem (som, ar, paisagem…), dirigindo-se a Psicologia do Ambiente ao estudo e intervenção sobre a forma como o ambiente influencia o indivíduo ou grupos, e sobre o modo como o comportamento dos indivíduos e grupos influenciam o ambiente...

  8. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  9. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regularoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argent...

  10. Radiactividad y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, José Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    En los medios de comunicación frecuentemente aparecen noticias que hacen referencia a la radiactividad y al medio ambiente y, sin embargo, lo que es la radiactividad y como influye ésta sobre el medio ambiente suele ser poco conocido, incluso por personas de formación científica.

  11. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  12. Aspectos Hidrodinâmicos, Balanço Hídrico e Simulação de Fluxo no Aquífero Costeiro de Itaipuaçu, Maricá – Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Zely da Silva Eger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado no aquífero costeiro de Itaipuaçu, distrito de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro. Este aquífero é de muita importância para a região, pois ainda é o único meio de abastecimento de água para uma população crescente. A utilização deste recurso hídrico sem controle é um dos seus maiores problemas, porque sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada por contaminações oriundas da superfície e, por se tratar de um aquífero costeiro, essa superexplotação pode gerar migração da interface entre a água salgada/água doce em direção ao continente podendo salinizá-lo. O trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar as características hidrodinâmicas do aquífero freático da área de estudo, por meio de avaliação do fluxo local, dos parâmetros de fluxo do aquífero, aquisição e processamento de dados meteorológicos e balanço hídrico do sistema aquífero, com a aplicação no programa Visual BALAN V.2.0. Outras metodologias de cálculo foram empregas como o balanço hidrometeorológico simplificado (programa Easybal v.4 e balanço hídrico com emprego da Lei de Darcy. Perfuraram-se poços no aquífero raso da área de estudo, com os quais foi realizado o levantamento da estratigrafia local, além de um teste de interferência para o obtenção de parâmetros físicos do aquífero (permeabilidade e coeficiente de armazenamento. Foram realizadas medidas in situ dos níveis d´água em poços na região para obter a potenciometria do aquífero raso. Os dados indicam um baixo gradiente hidráulico e equipotenciais subparalelas a linha de costa. Com base nos parâmetros hidráulicos foram realizadas simulações de fluxo com o software Visual Modflow 4.2. Os resultados obtidos até à data indicam uma recarga de cerca de 36% da precipitação e um gradiente hidráulico inferior a 1%. A obtenção de parâmetros do aquífero in situ foi fundamental para o ajuste adequado do modelo e avaliação das propriedades do aqu

  13. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  14. Architectural models of ambient-PRISMA in channel ambient calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nour; Tuosto, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ambient-PRISMA is an architectural approach for specifying aspect-oriented software architecture and generating code of distributed and mobile systems. Ambient-PRISMA lacks a precise semantics due to the fact that it is based only on a metamodel. In this paper, Ambient-PRISMA is mapped into a formal language called Channel Ambient Calculus, a process algebra for specifying mobile applications that provides channels and ambients as first-class citizens. We...

  15. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  16. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifie...

  17. Vulnerabilidade Sócio Ambiental de Pescadores e Marisqueiras em S. Francisco do Conde/Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da identificação dos determinantes socioambientais em saúde, este estudo tem como objetivo mapear aspectos relativos aos riscos e vulnerabilidade social e ambiental de um grupo de pescadores e marisqueiras no município de São Francisco do Conde, região metropolitana de Salvador, Ba. Com o propósito de colaborar na formulação de políticas públicas voltadas a promoção da qualidade de vida das marisqueiras e pescadores artesanais, tomou-se como base 2 diagnósticos complementares: o ambiental e sócio demográfico. Foi verificado a qualidade microbiológica das águas, presença de metais pesados nos sedimentos, mariscos e peixes; contaminantes microbiológicos do esgoto doméstico e 6 metais pesados mais comuns nos efluentes industriais. O diagnóstico sócio demográfico levantou as condições de trabalho e habitação além de aspectos relativos à saúde. Aliados à observação de campo e estudos similares, constatou-se que o oficio da pesca e coleta de mariscos, vem sofrendo declínio enquanto atividade ligada a tradição, despertando pouco interesse das gerações mais jovens, além das características artesanais que restringem sua inserção no modo de produção capitalista. Resultados indicam comprometimento do ecossistema costeiro, o manguezal, pela contaminação por metais pesados e coliformes fecais que potencializam os agravos de ordem ocupacional, decorrentes da ergonomia e exposição à contaminação. Refere-se ainda as condições de habitabilidade destes sujeitos e sua condição de invisibilidade que recorrentemente fortalece e amplia o grau de vulnerabilidade social e ambiental. Assim, as raízes negras do município, manifestadas na composição da população, encontra-se ameaçada face a vulnerabilidade social das comunidades, grupos remanescentes e seus descendentes.

  18. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  19. La radioactividad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  20. La radioactividad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  1. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  2. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  3. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  4. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  5. Ambient temperature recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  6. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  7. AOX y medio ambiente.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Los productos organohalogenados son muy utilizados por la industria y su presencia en el medio ambiente está siendo controlada. En los últimos años se han desarrollado varias técnicas de detección, siendo desde finales de los 80 los AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) uno de los parámetros sobre los que se han realizado más estudios. En muchos paises de la Unión Europea y en E.E.U.U. de América, la presencia de compuestos organohalogenados en aguas continentales y suelos está legislada indicand...

  8. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  9. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  10. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  11. Variação do potencial total da água em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro, durante dois anos Total water potential variation in a soil table land topsequence, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quinzenalmente, em 1996 e 1997, a variação do potencial total da água ao longo do tempo, em solos de uma toposseqüência de tabuleiro localizada em Sapeaçu, BA. Esta toposseqüência tinha as seguintes características: a comprimento de 190 m; b declividade média de 0,097 m m-1; c cultivo com laranja; d Latossolo Amarelo argissólico coeso, no terço superior; e Argissolo Amarelo coeso, no terço médio; f Argissolo Acinzentado não coeso, no terço inferior. A umidade do solo foi medida com sonda de nêutrons, nas profundidades de 0,30, 0,70, 1,10 e 1,50 m. Com base nas respectivas curvas de retenção, obteve-se o potencial matricial e, em seguida, o potencial total da água, para cada solo, profundidade e tempo. A camada coesa dificulta o fluxo de água no solo, tanto no processo de molhamento como no de secamento. Em conseqüência, o potencial total da água em solos com camada coesa varia bruscamente na camada mais superficial, ao longo do tempo, e mais lentamente nas camadas mais profundas. Em solo não coeso, a variação brusca do potencial ocorre apenas na camada mais superficial. O limite de tensão de água no solo de -1.500 kPa como sendo o ponto de murchamento permanente não se aplica à cultura dos citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate, fortnightly, during 1996/1997, the total soil water potential variation in a tableland topsequence in Sapeaçu county, BA, Brazil. This topsequence had the following characteristics: a length of 190 m; b slope of 0.097 m m-1; c orange as growing crop; d the upper third with a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol; e the middle third with a cohesive Yellow Argisol; and f the lower third with a non-cohesive Gray Argisol. Soil water was estimated by neutron probe at depths of0.30, 0.70, 1.10, and 1.50 m. Based on water retention curves, matric potential and, in sequence, total soil water potential were determined, for each soil and depth in

  12. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  13. CCN activation of ambient and "synthetic ambient" urban aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Bauer, Heidi; Leder, Klaus; Kistler, Magda; Puxbaum, Hans; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activation properties of the urban aerosol in Vienna, Austria, were investigated in a long term (11 month) field study. Filter samples of the aerosol below 100 nm were taken in parallel to these measurements, and later used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosols. Activation parameters of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol were also obtained. Hygroscopicity parameters κ [1] were calculated both for the urban and the "synthetic ambient" aerosol and also from the chemical composition. Average κ for the "synthetic ambient" aerosol ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 with an average value of 0.24, while the κ from the chemical composition of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol was significantly higher (average 0.43). The full results of the study are given elsewhere [2,3].

  14. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  15. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  16. Ciencia, cultura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Maya, Augusto

    1991-01-01

    La crisis ambiental no es un fenómeno exclusivamente de orden tecnológico. Interroga por igual las organizaciones socio-políticas y los instrumentos científicos para el estudio de la realidad: posiblemente uno de los obstáculos mayores para el encuentro de soluciones adecuadas a la crisis ambiental, radica no en deficiencias de orden técnico, sino en la incapacidad de los instrumentos teóricos para entenderla. La crisis del medio ambiente ha puesto en claro la ambivalencia no sólo de la organ...

  17. La crisis del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Clemencia Camacho Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a...

  18. Caracterização de Espodossolos dos Estados da Paraíba e do Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Soares de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com Espodossolos de ambientes tropicais de tabuleiros costeiros ainda são escassos. Este trabalho visou caracterizar perfis desses solos, tanto nos tabuleiros como em uma restinga nos Estados da Paraíba e do Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado com 14 perfis, inseridos em relevo predominantemente plano e sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar, em que foram realizadas análises físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. Com relação às condições de drenagem, a maioria dos perfis foi definida como moderada a imperfeitamente drenada, com o lençol freático presente a uma profundidade de 182, 85 e 74 cm, em três deles. A textura evidenciou-se predominantemente arenosa, com variações entre areia, areia-franca e franco-arenosa, sempre com valores da fração argila inferiores a 130 g kg-1. Com relação às propriedades químicas, observaram-se acidez elevada, baixa saturação por bases, baixa CTC e alta saturação por Al3+. Alguns horizontes com cores nos matizes 10YR e 7,5YR, com valores entre 5 e 7 e cromas de 2 a 8 classificados como Bs, apresentaram teores de matéria orgânica mais altos que alguns horizontes classificados como Bhs, demonstrando a insuficiência do critério da cor para identificação desses horizontes cimentados. A mineralogia dos solos apresentou predominância de caulinita e quartzo na fração argila, com pequena representação de ilita, gibbsita, feldspato e anatásio. Nos tabuleiros, além desses minerais, também ocorreu a goethita. Na fração silte, verificou-se a predominância de quartzo e caulinita em todos os solos e, em menor expressão, anatásio, feldspato, goethita e gibbsita. Na fração areia, houve predominância do quartzo em todos os perfis, com traços de feldspato.

  19. Ambiente juvenil: discurso ambiental entre jóvenes universitarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn-Anderson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende hacer una aportación al conocimiento del medio ambiente del occidente de México, específicamente de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, a partir del estudio de la cultura ambiental manifestada en el discurso de los jóvenes universitarios del ITESO. La apuesta es que puede ser provechoso considerar dentro del concepto de “medio ambiente” no solamente componentes bióticos y abióticos, sino también elementos socioculturales como cultura y significado. Es evidente que hay in...

  20. Jogo de Tabuleiro: uso de analogia como recurso cognitivo para o aprendizado de estratégia empresarial na graduação. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/2237-0587/fd.v3n1p31-43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bomfim Bomfim Machado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Estratégia Empresarial para os alunos de graduação do Centro Universitário Newton Paiva em Belo Horizonte MG, tem-se mostrado tão útil quanto desafiador. Em se acrescentando os aspetos de múltiplos interesses e formações dos alunos participantes que se sobrepõem a uma base conceitual necessária para o aprendizado de estratégia empresarial. O presente estudo descritivo apresentado em forma de caso pretende apresentar intervenção pedagógica de ensino de estratégia empresarial para alunos de graduação através de jogo de tabuleiro e utilização de analogias como alternativas de exercício e prática complexas de serem conduzidas dentro de sala de aula. Os resultados encontrados inicialmente apontam para uma aceitação da atividade por parte dos alunos, bem como uma consciência ampliada por sobre os conteúdos associados.

  1. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  2. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...... firewalls that are not guaranteed to be protective. This is based on a control flow analysis for recording what processes may turn up inside what other processes; in particular, we develop a syntax-directed system for specifying the acceptability of an analysis, we prove that all acceptable analyses...

  3. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  4. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  5. Medio ambiente y responsabilidad social

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las organizaciones, dentro de los procesos de responsabilidad social y con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de las comunidades que impactan, han optado por proteger y preservar el medio ambiente de acuerdo a ciertos protocolos y normas internacionales que generan una cultura al respecto. Este cuaderno de investigación aborda la norma ISO 26000, la cual asume el tema de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) en materia de medio ambiente y es una guía para ser implementada en las orga...

  6. Los estudios sobre el ambiente y la ciencia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Nancy Giannuzzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la ciencia ambiental es reconocida en libros, revistas de publicación científica y carreras de grado y posgrado. Sin embargo, se desconoce su existencia en forma literal o indirecta, al no ser considerado su aporte, por ejemplo, en los planteos referidos sobre la ciencia y la tecnología de la sustentabilidad. En este trabajo se presentan estos antecedentes, relacionándolos con el objetivo del mismo, que es el de aportar a la dilucidación de la existencia y conformación de la ciencia ambiental. Para esto, se analiza la relación de las disciplinas con la dimensión compleja del ambiente como objeto de estudio y aspectos metodológicos derivados. A los fines de aportar al esclarecimiento conceptual, se identifican las distintas acepciones de ambiente comúnmente referidas en la bibliografía. Además, se discuten aspectos relacionados de multidisciplinariedad, interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y sobre el status epistémico de la ciencia ambiental. Se concluye que una mayor precisión conceptual embasada en un marco compartido por las disciplinas que estudian el ambiente, incluida la ciencia ambiental, y los distintos actores involucrados en las problemáticas ambientales, favorecerá el refinamiento de las metodologías tendientes a disminuir la fragmentación de las investigaciones concernientes y las aplicaciones para su resolución.The existence of an environmental science is recognized in books, journals of science as well as in undergraduate and graduate studies. Its existence, however, is unknown either literally or indirectly when, for instance, its contribution to topics connected to the science and technology of sustainability is not considered. This background is presented in this paper and connected to its objective, which is to elucidate the existence and structure of the environmental science. To this goal, I analyse the relationship of the disciplines with the complex dimension of the environment

  7. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  8. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), with strong support for an important role for ultrafine (nano-sized) particles. At present, relatively little human health or epidemiology data exists...

  9. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  10. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  11. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  12. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  13. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  14. GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL METROPOLITANA

    OpenAIRE

    Déctor García, Mtro. Romeo; Correctora de estilo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo aborda la gestión ambiental y metropolitana, a partir de los elementos que han expuesto autores como Raúl Brañes, María del Carmen Carmona Lara, o Martha Schteingart y Clara Eugenia Salazar y otros más que abordan el tema urbano. Se profundiza y detalla con base en la legislación de equilibrio ecológico y protección al ambiente, en la legislación sobre biodiversidad mexiquense como en la atinente a la administración pública local o municipal.Puntos de relieve son las menciones de ...

  15. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  16. Ambient Art: Creative Information Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Beale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient art is the aesthetic presentation of information, using artistic techniques to achieve a pleasing image that also contains hidden depths, where exposure to it over time allows a viewer to understand something about the information sources that it represents. This paper reviews the artistic and computational background of ambient systems, and presents two case studies of systems developed by our research team, from their initial design to the experiences of the people encountering them. The first case presents a photo mosaic of images based on the news headlines coupled with a structured picture based on the weather; the second presents stylistic perspectives on activity in a public space. Both are evaluated and demonstrate that different forms of aesthetically pleasing displays can convey information to viewers.

  17. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  18. Fiscalidad ambiental (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Maciá, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tema fiscalidad ambiental. 1. Necesidad económica y jurídica de la protección del medio ambiente. 2. Características, naturaleza y clasificación de los tributos ambientales. 3. Competencias tributarias en el ámbito estatal, autonómico y local. 4. La fiscalidad ambiental en la legislación fiscal española. 5. Perspectivas de futuro en materia de imposición ambiental.

  19. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  20. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  1. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  2. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  3. The causal order on the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the causal structure of the ambient boundary, the conformal infinity of the ambient (Poincar\\'e) metric. Using topological tools we show that the only causal relation compatible with the global topology of the boundary spacetime is the horismos order. This has important consequences for the notion of time in the conformal geometry of the ambient boundary.

  4. Ambiente Familiar e Desempenho Escolar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O desempenho escolar é um fenómeno multifacetado, que pode ser influenciado por questões individuais, familiares e sociais, fazendo-se necessária a realização de pesquisas que procurem compreender esses aspectos e como eles se inter-relacionam. Nesse sentido, a presente dissertação abordará, especificamente, a relação entre as dimensões do ambiente familiar (coesão familiar, conflito, expressividade, independência, assertividade, interesses culturais/intelectuais e de lazer, religião e nível ...

  5. Estados financieros y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bischhoffshausen W., Werner von

    2001-01-01

    La contabilización de aspectos ambientales adquiere creciente relevancia para las empresas, en la medida que el deterioro ambiental se convierte en un problema social y político a través de todo el mundo. A todo tipo de organizaciones se les requiere entregar información acerca de sus políticas y objetivos ambientales, de los programas y acciones destinados a lograr estos objetivos, de su generación de riesgos e impactos ambientales y de las medidas para reducirlos o mitigarlos. Si bien es ci...

  6. Educaçao ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A idéia desse trabalho surgiu no momento em que me inseri na comunidade de Pontal do Sul, envolvida em distintas atividades educativas com o mesmo público. Uma delas refere-se ao ensino público fundamental e outra à atividades de pesquisa e Educação Ambiental (EA) dentro de um projeto de extensão universitária. A EA vem sendo realizada de forma diversificada, baseada em diferentes concepções, fundamentadas em princípios e diretrizes construídos num momento de difusão da Ecologia e de ...

  7. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  8. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  9. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  10. Predicateμ-Calculus for Mobile Ambients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min Lin

    2005-01-01

    Ambient logics have been proposed to describe properties for mobile agents which may evolve over time as well as space. This paper takes a predicate-based approach to extending an ambient logic with recursion, yielding a predicate t-calculus in which fixpoint formulas are formed using predicate variables. An algorithm is developed for model checking finite-control mobile ambients against formulas of the logic, providing the first decidability result for model checking a spatial logic with recursion.

  11. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shallow water near the sea-route.

  12. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI ZhengLin; PENG ZhaoHui

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shal-low water near the sea-route.

  13. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field.

  14. Delineamento de formulações cosméticas com óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schum (Alecrim-de- Tabuleiro de origem amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelya Carvalho Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cosméticos têm sido produzidos para atender a crescente demanda de mercado. Para que estes produtos possuam boa aceitação são necessárias que os mesmos apresentem adequadas características físicoquímicas e sensoriais, bem como eficácia, segurança e qualidade. Esse trabalho visou o desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade de formulações biocosméticas a partir da incorporação dos óleos essenciais da espécie Lippia gracilis Schum em formulações cosméticas para cabelo, por meio de estudos de pré-formulação e testes de estabilidade preliminar e acelerada. Foram realizados testes físico-químicos para avaliação dos parâmetros: pH, viscosidade aparente, características sensoriais, espuma e densidade. Durante os estudos de estabilidade preliminar e acelerada, foi observado que as temperaturas: Refrigerador (TG (5,0 ± 0,5ºC e Estufa (TE (45,0 ± 0,5ºC sofreram alterações de pH, viscosidade e das características sensoriais. Ao final do estudo, mantiveram as características iniciais, apenas as formulações mantidas em temperatura ambiente. Concluiu-se que a formulação de xampu não possui estabilidade quando exposta a temperaturas abaixo de 5ºC e acima de 45ºC. A formulação de condicionador, além de ser instável em temperaturas extremas, apresentou também alterações após 30 dias (T2 em temperatura ambiente (TA (24,0 ± 2,0ºC.Palavras-chave: Lippia gracilis, Cosméticos, Estabilidade, Formulação. ABSTRACT Several cosmetics have been produced to meet the growing market demand. For these products have good acceptance is necessary that they show suitable physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics, as well as efficacy, safety and quality. This research aimed at the development and evaluation of the stability of formulations biocosmetics from the incorporation of the essential oils of the species Lippia gracilis Schum in shampoo and conditioner through preliminary stability testing and

  15. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  16. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  17. Ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati

    OpenAIRE

    Cori, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Il 14 dicembre scorso si ? svolto a Roma il seminario "Studi su ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati: prospettive di sviluppo metodologico e applicativo" organizzato dall'istituto di fisiologia clinica del CNR e dal Dipartimento ambiente e connessa prevenzione primaria dell'Istituto Superiore di sanit?

  18. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  19. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  20. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  1. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  2. Fluxos de energia e desenvolvimento da cultura do abacaxizeiro Energy fluxes and development of pineapple crop

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber B. de Souza; Bernardo B. da Silva; Pedro V. de Azevedo; Vicente de P. R. da Silva

    2008-01-01

    O dossel vegetativo do abacaxizeiro varia consideravelmente desde o plantio das mudas até a cobertura completa, no final do ciclo produtivo. Um experimento agrometeorológico foi desenvolvido nos tabuleiros costeiros do estado da Paraíba, com o cultivo do abacaxi, cv. Pérola, de março de 2001 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos dos componentes do balanço de energia sobre os diversos estágios de desenvolvimento do abacaxizeiro cultivado em condições de irrigação suplementar. ...

  3. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  4. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  5. MUVA: a MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivac, Robert; Klem, Sune Øllgaard; Olsen, Sophus Béneé

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents MUVA (MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device), a prototype for a storytelling light- and sound-based ambient device. The aim of this device is to encourage social interaction and expand the emotional closeness in families with children where at least one parent has irregular...... work schedule. MUVA differs from the other ambient devices, because it is targeted to children, and it adopts a visceral design approach in order to be appealing to its users. It is a raindrop-shaped lamp, which features audio playing, while its light color is affected by the audio playing. MUVA can...

  6. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  7. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  8. ambientes mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Escribano-Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel global, dos tendencias opuestas gobiernan el uso de la tierra: la intensificación y el abandono. Esta última supone una oportunidad para larecuperación de los ecosistemas, una necesidad urgente dada la actual crisis ambiental. La comunidad de dispersores frugívoros es determinantepara recuperar la estructura y complejidad de la vegetación en campos abandonados, ya que éstos suelen estar desprovistos de propágulos.Recientes estudios han resaltado la especial relevancia de los mamíferos frugívoros en el proceso de dispersión de semillas en ambientesdegradados como los campos abandonados. Esto es debido a una serie de rasgos morfológicos y de comportamiento que caracterizan a losfrugívoros mamíferos y que les hace ser dispersores especialmente efectivos. Generalmente los mamíferos frugívoros tienen un mayor tamañocorporal, mayores áreas de campeo y distancias de dispersión, frecuente uso de hábitats abiertos, movilizando así más semillas hasta los camposabandonados que otros grupos de frugívoros (e.g. aves. Una vez que una semilla ha sido depositada tiene que superar las sucesivas etapas hastael establecimiento (depredación post-dispersiva, germinación, supervivencia y crecimiento. Los mamíferos frugívoros favorecen todo este procesoen mayor medida que otros dispersores. A nivel interespecífico pueden dispersar mayor diversidad de especies al estar generalmente menoslimitados por el tamaño de fruto, y a nivel intra-especifico no seleccionan semillas de pequeño tamaño. Además, suelen depositar las semillas enmicrohábitats que resultan especialmente adecuados para el reclutamiento. En consecuencia, los mamíferos son un elemento clave en los ensamblesde frugívoros que propician la regeneración de los campos abandonados y su función ecológica debe ser considerada en la restauración y manejode hábitats degradados.Palabras clave: áreas degradadas; bosque remanente; cambio de los usos del suelo; dispersi

  9. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Blasco; Álvaro Marco; Roberto Casas; Diego Cirujano; Richard Picking

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  10. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  11. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  12. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  13. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  14. Empresas e meio ambiente: contribuições da legislação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Ferreira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p334A relação empresa-meio ambiente tem sido, ao longo da história, bastante conflitante. Entretanto, o fortalecimento do debate ambiental, pressões políticas, sociais e econômicas estão, cada vez mais, desencadeando uma mudança na conduta ambiental das empresas. Nesse contexto, o direito ambiental surge como um forte aliado para o alcance de uma nova conduta ambiental empresarial, através de seu papel inicial como regulador, até sua atuação como instrumento no processo de gestão ambiental da empresa. Desse modo, o presente artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão a respeito da importância da legislação ambiental para a evolução da inserção da variável ambiental, nas estratégias das organizações, ressaltando a conformidade legal como um pressuposto básico a ser atendido pelas empresas, independentemente do tipo de estratégias que estas utilizem no caminho pela busca de uma gestão ambiental efetiva.

  15. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  16. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  17. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  18. Educação ambiental: acções de educação ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, Sandra; Carapeto, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Académico - Licenciaturas Este vídeo mostra os conceitos de educação ambiental e sensibilização ambiental e ilustra as fases de um projeto de educação ambiental e de uma ação de educação ambiental.

  19. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  20. Evaluación ambiental del PRMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una revisión constructiva de las actuales disposiciones sobre la evaluación ambiental de los planes reguladores, intentada con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar los procedimientos en práctica. En este sentido, aboga porque al plan regulador no se le exijan contribuciones ambientales que excedan a sus verdaderas competencias, para lo cual introduce el concepto de "efectos territoriales"; justifica que su evaluación ambiental deba ser realizda mediante una "declaración", y ahonda en la forma de elaborar y presentar esta declaración, acogiendo lo que a este respecto estipula el Art. 15° del Reglamento de la ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente.

  1. Learning from an Ambient Assisted Living Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self-registration, diar......This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self...

  2. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting the logi......We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  3. Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2004-01-01

    High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

  4. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  5. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  6. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  7. A responsabilidade civil no direito ambiental brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes,Silviana L.

    2009-01-01

    O Direito assumiu papel preponderante na gestão dos riscos na sociedade contemporânea definida, por muitos autores, como de Risco; com isso, novos direitos foram instituídos e novos instrumentos e meios de tutela foram criados. A responsabilidade civil ambiental tornou-se um dos principais instrumentos criado para a gestão do risco ambiental e tem-se harmonizado com a nova realidade marcada por incertezas científicas, riscos e danos globais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a responsabi...

  8. The brave new world of ambient intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    This chapter provides an overview of ambient intelligence in order to set the stage for the subsequent identification and discussion of threats, vulnerabilities and safeguards In this chapter, we provide a somewhat high-level description of the key technologies that are crucial to the development and deployment of ambient intelligence. The development and deployment of AmI are being propelled by certain visions of the future, which we reference in this chapter. For the most part, the development and deployment are taking place in a rather structured context composed of visions, scenarios, roadmaps, strategic research agendas, platforms and projects. We highlight the most important of these.

  9. CUIDADO AMBIENTAL E RESPONSABILIDADE: POSSÍVEL DIÁLOGO ENTRE PSICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL E LOGOTERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Arnaldo Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado ambiental vem sendo marcado pela tônica da conservação e da promoção da sustentabilidade. A premente necessidade de um dado compromisso e educação ambiental e de condutas pró-ambientais vem sendo defendida em vários contextos: na mídia, nas políticas públicas, por meio de campanhas sazonais. Todavia, pouco se descreve acerca do sentido presente nos modos de cuidado configurados a partir da inter-relação pessoa-ambiente. Nesta perspectiva, este estudo objetivou promover um possível diálogo a partir das contribuições da Psicologia Ambiental e da Logoterapia visando aproximar a noção de cuidado ambiental, delineada pela Psicologia Ambiental, à ideia de responsabilidade, como defendida pela Logoterapia, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. As articulações propositadas corroboraram, portanto, para acenar que a relação pessoa-ambiente pode ser arraigada em qualidade se a responsabilidade é reconhecida em sua propriedade de potencial humano, o que pode favorecer na emergência do sentido das atitudes e condutas pró-ambientais e explicitar o caráter de tarefa única e irrepetível inerente à vida.

  10. O mundo costeiro: temporalidades, territorialidades, saberes e alternatividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to configure, in general terms, the temporal and territorial dimensions of the coastal world by focusing on its main subject - the artisanal fisherman. Based on the knowledge and patrimonial practices of the coastal fishermen within their time rhythms we discuss the role of the dialog between tradition and modernity, in new historical syntheses, as alternatives – germinally formulated – to the exogenous threats that these social subjects are suffering in a time and a space that tend to disfigure their traditional way of life. In addition, we propose the dialogism between the sciences of the tradition and the modern sciences based on the paradigm of complexity for the construction of new contributions asa means to shared management of the coastal environment and their resources, anchored to the sustainability ethics, and placing the coastal societies on a new historical level.

  11. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente. La psicología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Baldi López; Eleonora García Quiroga

    2005-01-01

    El medio ambiente constituye, actualmente, uno de los campos de estudio interdisciplinarios que ha venido recibiendo una atención priorizada por parte de la comunidad científica mundial. La Psicología constituye una de las disciplinas que se interesa por el medio ambiente, tanto por la dinámica de la interacción individuomedio, como por la educación ambiental, siendo necesario, entonces, brindar información para hacer conciencia sobre nuestros comportamientos y su decisiva i...

  12. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  13. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, He

  14. Ambient temperature‐directed flowering time regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, Dina Sara Leonie

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are constantly facing a fluctuating environment. In order to both profit maximally and protect themselves from these environmental cues, plants evolved ways to sense and respond to signals. Ambient temperature is one of the cues for which plants have a

  15. Ambient Intelligence: The MyCampus Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    aspects of privacy in Ambient Intelligence environments (e.g. [Ack04,Hon04, HS04 ,KFJ03, Lan02, LHJ+03, KFJ03]), to the best of our knowledge, the...CA, 2004. [ HS04 ] U. Hengartner, and P, Steenkiste. Implementing access control to people location information. In 9th ACM Symposium on Access

  16. Games and entertainment in ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors, came

  17. Nonsymbolic Gestural Interaction for Ambient Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...

  18. EXPERIENCIA INTEGRADORA PARA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Coronel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se relacionó la práctica experimental de laboratorio co n el análisis de problemas ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una propuesta que vinculó el trabajo experimental con la situación del ambiente local para promover el cuidado de la naturaleza y su uso con sostenibilidad . Esta estrategia brindó un enfoque integrador aportando a los alumnos de profesorado una alternativa de aprendizaje con exper iencias sencillas para el estudio cualitativo de l ambiente local y motivar a l análisis de problemas asociad o s. Las experiencias permitieron caracterizar las muestras de suelo, agua y aire del lugar de residencia de los alumnos. La información experimental obtenida potenció la discusión de la situación ambiental actual. E l enfoque de enseñanza basado en problemas socio - científicos posibilit ó la visión interdisciplinar del tema , redimensionando valores y acciones para el cuidado ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable.

  19. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pa

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  2. Energías vs medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Victoria Landa Fitzgerald; Juana María Robles Caycho

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una actividad ABP de química en la que los alumnos investigan sobre diferentes tipos de energía: combustibles fósiles, energías alternativas y energía nuclear, y la influencia de ellas en el medio ambiente: efecto invernadero, smog fotoquímico, capa de ozono, lluvia ácida.

  3. Psicologia Ambiental e estudos pessoas-ambiente: que tipo de colaboração multidisciplinar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura definir quais as colaborações existentes entre a Psicologia Ambiental e os diversos estudos pessoas-ambiente a partir dos trabalhos inscritos no Congresso IAPS-16 (Paris, 2000. Na relação entre transdiciplinaridade, pluridisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, entende que o funcionamento científico é necessariamente mono-disciplinar, enquanto a intervenção nas relações pessoas-ambiente envolve uma dinâmica complexa. Quanto à intervenção (manejo sócio-ambiental, distingue dois tipos de funcionamento: interdisciplinar e transdisciplinar. Conclui por um conhecimento que integre as diversas abordagens disciplinares em abordagens transdiciplinares.

  4. Cuidado ambiental: ponte entre psicologia e educação ambiental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, José Q. (Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuidado ambiental é termo comum no cotidiano e em atividades como educação ambiental, embora pesquisas psicológicas façam pouco uso do conceito, o que justificou investigar a compreensão popular do termo e analisar suas possíveis relações com indicadores científicos de predisposição pró-ambiental. O questionário aplicado a 355 estudantes universitários da cidade de Natal, RN, de ambos os sexos, continha questões abertas sobre prática pelo respondente de cuidado ambiental e sobre sua disposição pessoal para participar de eventuais campanhas ecológicas futuras, e incluía ainda: Escala de Ecocentrismo e Antropocentrismo, Questionário de Individualismo-Coletivismo, e Inventário Zimbardo de Perspectiva Temporal. As duas formas utilizadas para o relato de cuidado ambiental se mostraram positivamente correlacionados com medidas de ambientalismo econcêntrico, e negativamente com apatia ambiental e individualismo, evidenciando-se como um importante controle metodológico-conceitual quando se busca a "tradução" de resultados de pesquisas psicológicas para o cotidiano das ações de intervenção e educação ambientais

  5. Gestão ambiental e interesses corporativos: imagem ambiental ou novas relações com o ambiente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ribeiro de Almeida Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência de um novo sistema de comunicação ambiental a serviço das grandes corporações. Este sistema agrega novos agentes entre os quais podemos destacar: ONGs supostamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificação ambiental, instituições que promovem premiações ambientais. Argumenta-se que esta situação transformou as condições em que ocorre o embate sobre as questões ambientais e sobre as potenciais soluções para estas questões. A pesquisa funda-se em uma revisão da literatura sobre o assunto e em uma análise qualitativa de um conjunto de publicidades brasileiras que se utiliza de temas ambientais. Neste conjunto de publicidades, aparecem elementos para construirmos hipóteses sobre as articulações realizadas pelo setor corporativo para responder ao desafio ambientalista.Este articulo trata sobre la emergencia de un nuevo sistema de comunicación ambiental al servicio de grandes corporaciones. Este sistema agrega nuevos agentes entre los cuales podemos destacar ONG´s supuestamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificación ambiental, instituciones que promueven premios ambientales. Se argumenta que esta situación transformó las condiciones en que ocurre el debate sobre las cuestiones ambientales y sobre las potenciales soluciones para estas cuestiones. La investigación se basa en una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema y un análisis cualitativo de un conjunto de la publicidad brasileña que utiliza los temas ambientales.En esta serie de anuncios, los elementos aparecen para construir hipótesis sobre las articulaciones hechas por el sector empresarial para responder al desafío del medio ambiente.This article discusses the emergence of a new environmental communication system at the service of large corporations. This system includes new agents among which we highlight: environmental NGO's, environmental certification companies and institutions that promote environmental awards. It is

  6. Effects of Ambient Pressure on Bubble Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 刘明海; 江中和; 潘垣

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the ambient pressure Pambient on the bubble characteristics of pulsed discharge in water are investigated. The simulation results show that, when Pambient increases from 1 atm to 100 atm, the bubble radius R decreases from 4cma to 7mm, and its pulsation period decreases frown 8ms to 0.2ms. The results also show that the peak pressure of the first shock wave is independent of Pambient, but the peak pressure of the second shock wave caused by the bubble re-expansion decreases when Pambient increases. On the other hand, the larger the ambient pressure, the larger the peak pressure of the plasma in the bubble, while the plasma temperature is independent of Pambient.

  7. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  8. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  9. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  10. ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Minaki

    2012-01-01

    mostrando que, a pesar de ser una pequeña ciudad, sus características de la ocupación son suficientes para generar una disminución en la calidad ambiental. En este trabajo, también fue posible proponer ideas para mejorar la calidad de estos espacios, desde el punto de vista de la Planificación del Paisaje.

  11. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  12. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    to this award. The Code 321 project is titled Random Matrix Theory ( RMT ) for Adaptive Beamforming (N00014-12-1-0048). The RMT project is using some...of the Philippine Sea data for testing adaptive beamformers. The RMT analysis focuses on sonar signal processing issues, rather than propagation...ambient noise, or tomography. The project described in this report may benefit from the results of the RMT project, but there is no direct overlap in

  13. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  14. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  15. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  16. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test § 325.55 Ambient conditions; stationary test. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone...

  17. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610... Non-standard ambient conditions. (a) Extreme temperatures. For vehicles required to be tested at... dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in § 610.64 as determined by...

  18. Uma escuta ética de psicologia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Freire,José Célio; Vieira,Emanuel Meireles

    2006-01-01

    O artigo propõe uma nova abordagem da dimensão ética da Psicologia Ambiental e da educação ambiental, a partir da ética da alteridade radical de Emmanuel Lévinas. Inicia com uma síntese das várias perspectivas da Psicologia Ambiental e da Ética Ambiental para, em seguida, tratar de conceitos centrais da Psicologia Ambiental - apropriação do espaço, identidade de lugar e pertencimento - à luz de uma ética radicalizada.

  19. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  20. Environmental health indicators Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia

  1. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  2. La Educación Ambiental una herramienta clave de la Gestión Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María josé Esteves Ivanissevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que el objeto de la educación ambiental no es el ambiente como tal, sino nuestra relación con él; la multiplicidad y diversidad de objetivos y la necesidad de anclar la intervención en cada contexto específico, hace de ésta una tarea inmensa y compleja. La provincia del Chubut registra desde el año 1999 un historial importante. Éste trabajo, toma lo realizado en la temática de eliminación de bolsas de polietileno en los espacios públicos, de forma interinstitucional y en ámbitos educativo formal y no formal. Con la hipótesis de que la educación ambiental constituye un instrumento de política ambiental preventivo atendiendo los problemas que afecten o pudieran afectar al ambiente; nos planteamos como objetivos: construir una ciudadanía ambientalmente responsable; Impulsar la formación y capacitación de docentes y actores sociales con una mirada ambiental; Contribuir a la conservación ambiental disponiendo de las nuevas tecnologías. La metodología se sustenta en una concepción que hace eje en el aumento de la participación de la sociedad. Desde el ámbito formal se trabajó durante el 2007-2011 con capacitaciones presenciales y a distancia, para docentes de nivel inicial y primario (434 capacitados, en forma conjunta con el Ministerio de Educación. El equipo de trabajo consta de cuatro profesionales del Ministerio de Ambiente y la colaboración de especialistas según el lugar y la temática. En el ámbito no formal se realizaron charlas y talleres con la comunidad (5826 capacitados; comunicación extrainstitucional por medios masivos de comunicación; campañas ambientales, trabajando en forma conjunta con organismos municipales, provinciales, no gubernamentales y privados. Se cubrieron 28 localidades en todo el territorio provincial. Se abarcó un gran número de docentes, quedando el trabajo con directores y supervisores, para pensar en la inclusión de las temáticas como los residuos sólidos urbanos, en el

  3. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Cao, R.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-02-01

    In this paper a dynamic system is presented which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO[sub 2] in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO[sub 2]. For forecasting a mixed model is used which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. Confidence intervals are also constructed for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 7th Ambient Assisted Living Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Klausing, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this book, leading authors in the field discuss developments of Ambient Assisted Living. The contributions have been chosen and invited at the 7th AAL congress, Berlin. It presents new technological developments which support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs. As the technological innovation raises also social issues, the book addresses micro and macro economical aspects of assistive systems and puts an additional emphasis on the ethical and legal discussion. The presentation is supported by real world examples and applications.

  5. LAS MEDIDAS CAUTELARES EN EL PROCESO AMBIENTAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Arcila Salazar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La acción popular ha sido establecida como la herramienta procesal idónea para la salvaguarda del derecho al medio ambiente, y dentro de su estructura, las medidas cautelares juegan un papel fundamental para garantizar la efectividad de este derecho colectivo toda vez que el legislador las ha dotada de características especiales que se encuentran en armonía con la finalidad preventiva de la acción popular y con el principio de precaución.

  6. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Sônia de Fátima; Vieira Júnior, Hélio

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Ann...

  7. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  8. Las cuentas nacionales y el medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Torres Pérez; M. de J. Santiago Cruz; J. Matus Gardea; J. L. Romo Lozano

    2001-01-01

    El Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales (SCN) vigente, medido a través del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) soslaya todos los activos ambientales, así como su deterioro y depreciación de los recursos naturales por lo que refleja tasas que sobreestiman el crecimiento económico En el presente documento se discute sobre el SCN, sus limitaciones para cuantificar el deterioro del capital natural e impacto ambiental. Se presentan las experiencias desarrolladas en otros países y se promueve la posibilidad de d...

  9. Direito e Risco: do Consumo ao Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Carlos Alexandre Michaello

    2014-01-01

    A presente Dissertação tem como tema de investigação “Direito e Risco: do Consumo ao Ambiente”. Para tanto, essa temática foi delimitada através da investigação sobre a capacidade do Direito a partir de uma leitura Sociológica e Antropológica de compreender e promover aprendizagem nas questões que envolvem o Risco como elemento decorrente do Consumo e que externa suas consequências ao Ambiente. Neste sentido, se direcionou a responder ao problema de saber: em que medida é possível e necessári...

  10. Una propuesta canadiense en contabilidad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    García Casella, Carlos Luis

    2009-01-01

    Con el deseo de aprovechar experiencias extranjeras, se estudia la "Guide d’introduction a la comptabilite environmentale" (1997), elaborada por un grupo -Consejo KPMG para el gremio de los contadores públicos de Quebec, en Canadá. El objeto de la guía es permitir a los gerentes de empresa y profesionales independientes que actúen en el dominio del medio ambiente pensando que el sistema de contabilidad medioambiental sirve: para toma de decisiones; la evaluación de la performance de lo que se...

  11. Políticas y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente edición de Letras Verdes está dedicada al amplio tema de las interacciones entre las políticas y el ambiente. Las preguntas que planteamos tenían como fin convocar a reflexiones tanto sobre los cambios discursivos en las políticas ambientales en América Latina, como sobre los impactos materiales que éstas han tenido, al suscitar (o no procesos de transformación en la relación que mantenemos con nuestro entorno.

  12. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc. and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled. Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi, which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63 and carers (31 in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  13. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  14. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  15. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente. La psicología ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Baldi López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El medio ambiente constituye, actualmente, uno de los campos de estudio interdisciplinarios que ha venido recibiendo una atención priorizada por parte de la comunidad científica mundial. La Psicología constituye una de las disciplinas que se interesa por el medio ambiente, tanto por la dinámica de la interacción individuomedio, como por la educación ambiental, siendo necesario, entonces, brindar información para hacer conciencia sobre nuestros comportamientos y su decisiva influencia en el contexto físico y social. Por otro lado, la calidad de vida es un concepto multidimensional y multidisciplinario que debe ser valorado desde la presencia de las condiciones materiales y espirituales que permitan el desarrollo psicobiológico y social-histórico del ser humano y la satisfacción personal con las condiciones de vida que cada persona ha logrado alcanzar. El concepto de calidad de vida se considera claramente relacionado con el concepto de salud humana y con la necesidad de promover una educación ambiental con proyección social y comunitaria.

  16. Psicologia Ambiental: a busca de um ambiente melhor Environmental Psychology, the search for a better environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Q. Pinheiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A Psicologia precisa se engajar na análise e no encaminhamento de soluções para os problemas ambientais, pois estes são, de fato, problemas humano-ambientais. Para contribuir com esse propósito, um breve histórico da Psicologia Ambiental é apresentado, com destaque para as implicações teóricas e práticas de suas origens, internas e externas à Psicologia, tendo como pano de fundo a crise ambiental global. Descrevem-se alguns desdobramentos dessas fontes no contexto brasileiro, com o intuito de estimular uma crescente integração de esforços na área de estudo das inter-relações pessoa-ambiente. Aspectos teóricos e metodológicos são analisados, principalmente em vista da recente tendência internacional verificada na Psicologia Ambiental de enfatizar a determinação humana e social da chamada crise ambiental.Psychology should engage in the analysis of environmental problems, which are, in fact, human-environmental problems, aiming at their solution. To help accomplishing this goal, a brief historical account of Environmental Psychology is presented, emphasizing the theoretical and practical implications of its origins, internal and external to Psychology, with the environmental global crisis as background. Some developments of those sources within the Brazilian context are introduced to favor the integration of studies in the area of person-environment relationships. Some theoretical and methodological aspects are analyzed, especially in terms of the recent international tendency in Environmental Psychology to consider the human and social determination of the so called environmental crisis.

  17. Modal Parameter Identification of Offshore Platforms under Ambient Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hezhen(杨和振); Li Huajun

    2004-01-01

    This paper intends to identify the modal parameters of an offshore platform under ambient excitation, and to compare the identified results with theoretical solutions. Using ambient sources of excitation to determine the modal characteristics of large civil engineering structures is desirable for several reasons. The forced vibration testing of such structures generally requires a large amount of specialized equipment and makes the tests quite expensive. Also, an automated health monitoring system for a large civil structure will most likely use ambient excitation. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) is applied in conjunctied acceleration information. Finally, offshore platform numerical model gets output response data under ambient excitation. Simulated data from numerical model of an offshore platform under ambient excitation is used for the identification of the system. According to the comparison results, the proposed method is shown to be effective for modal parameter identification under ambient excitation.

  18. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  19. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  20. Análise hidrogeológica, com ênfase na aplicação de métodos geofísicos, do aqüífero costeiro na bacia hidrográfica de Playa Panamá, província de Guanacaste, Costa Rica /

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Daniel Murillo

    2007-01-01

    Inclui apêndices Orientador : Ernani Francisco da Rosa Filho Co-orientadores : Augustinho Rigoti e Jorge Montaño Xavier Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Setor de Ciencias da Terra, Programa de Pós-Graduaçao em Geologia. Defesa: Curitiba, 2007. Inclui bibliografia e anexos Área de concentração: Geologia ambiental

  1. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  2. Vibration of a Cantilever Beam in Ambient Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, C; Zypman, F

    2016-01-01

    Here we obtain analytical expressions for the frequency response of a cantilever beam in the presence of ambient fluid. The advantage of our approach, besides its simplicity of use, is that it explicitly contains the viscosity and the density of the ambient fluid. Thus, if measuring the frequency spectrum, the expression can be used in the design of viscometers. Conversely, if the ambient fluid is known, the expression can be used in the design of force gauges such as in Atomic Force Microscopy.

  3. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    R. Weaver, and X.N. Yang, Surface wave attenuation in Tibetan Plateau from ambient noise, Monitoring Research Review, Albuquerque, NM, 2012...AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 SURFACE WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE TIBETAN PLATEAU FROM AMBIENT NOISE University of Illinois at...DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 May 2012 to 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise 5a

  4. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  5. ISO 14000 Y LA GESTIÓN MEDIO AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ISO 14000 es un conjunto de Normas Internacionales de carácter voluntario, orientadas hacia la gestión efectiva del medio ambiente en las organizaciones. Implica el desarrollo de requisitos concretos de los Sistemas de Gestión Ambiental, la Auditoría Ambiental, el Eco­ Etiquetado y el ciclo de vida de Productos, Servicios y Procesos dentro de las aspiraciones de las Organizaciones.

  6. Horizontal Correlation of Ambient Noise near a Sea Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI Zheng-Lin; ZHANG Ren-He; PENG Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted near the sea route are analysed.It is found that at low frequency,the measured horizontal correlation coeffients at different separations oscillate much larger than that predicted by the classical ambient noise model.The theoretical analyses show that the observed phenomenon is mainly caused by windy noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby.An ambient noise model is proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources and can be used to forecast the ambient noise field neara sea route.

  7. Simulation of microbubble response to ambient pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The theory on microbubbles clearly indicates a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behaviour of two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20 cycles driving pulse, a reduction...... is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  8. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    D. Uclés

    2006-01-01

    La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio.

  9. Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations,...

  10. PRINCIPIOS GENERALES DE DERECHO INTERNACIONAL DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    López Zamarripa, Dra. Norka; Correctora de estilo

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la importancia de los principios y normas generales del derecho internacional ambiental que surgen de los tratados, acuerdos y costumbres internacionales para la protección del medio ambiente. El derecho internacional ambiental, se desarrolla bajo dos principios, el primero señala que los estados tienen derechos soberanos sobre sus recursos naturales, mientras que el segundo se basa en que los estados no deben causar daño al medio ambiente. Asimismo, se desarrollan una se...

  11. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  12. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  13. Ranking risks in ambient intelligence projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, numerous ambient intelligent (AmI applications are emerging which support current electronic and digitalenvironments. Professionals develop each of them by means of projects. AmI application projects have certain features that make them different from other engineering projects. Moreover, a wide rage of risks are present in the whole project. Therefore, to increase these projects’ chances to be successful, it is necessary to manage their specific risks adequately. In order to support the work of those practitioners managing these threats, this research proposes a multicriteria decision-making methodology called Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique will enable theprioritization of risks in AmI projects according to their level of threat.

  14. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  15. Contaminación ambiental y salud

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES ALANÍS, OSCAR; Garza Ocañas, Lourdes; Abrego Moya, Valdemar; Bernal Hernández, Marco A.; Piñeyro López, Alfredo.

    2001-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en 207 niños del área metropolitana de Monterrey, Nuevo León, con el objeto de determinar la concentración de plomo en sangre, como reflejo de la exposición ambiental a este contaminante. 108 niños fueron del sexo femenino y 99 del sexo masculino, el rango de edad fue de 6 a 14 años. El rango de las concentraciones sanguíneas de Pb fue de 3.5 a 20 ?g/dl (promedio 11.5 ?g/dl ± 5). Con los resultados obtenidos se establecieron tres grupos con dif...

  16. Medio ambiente y calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Burgui Burgui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo un acercamiento al concepto de calidad de vida en relación con el medio ambiente, analizando los distintos entornos en los que el ser humano realiza sus actividades y de cómo infl uyen los factores ecológicos, culturales y socioeconómicos en la calidad de vida de las personas. Además, se realizan algunas propuestas para mejorar la calidad de vida, bien a través de la participación pública individual o colectiva, bien mediante la toma de conciencia sobre los propios hábitos de vida.

  17. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aquino-Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study.

  18. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  19. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  20. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  1. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  2. COMPLEJIDAD AMBIENTAL: PROPUESTAS ÉTICAS EMERGENTES DEL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera de Echeverri Ana Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se recogen las propuestas ético ambientales más importantes de la Escuela de Pensamiento Ambiental Latinoamericano, que ha ido construyéndose desde hace 30 años. Se destacan autores de primera línea en el campo de la construcción de Pensamiento Ambiental filosófico, como el Filósofo y Pensador Colombiano, de trascendencia latinoamericana, Augusto Ángel Maya, quien plantea la posibilidad de construir una Filosofía Ambiental Ético estética, dado que la Filosofía Moderna ha sido Metafísica, aún en sus corrientes empiristas, positivistas y neopositivistas. Se destaca la obra de Enrique Leff, mexicano, que propone los conceptos de Complejidad y Saber Ambiental, como puntos de partida de una ética en la educación, la ciencia y la tecnología, dentro de unas relaciones sistémicas y holísticas. Igualmente la propuesta ético estética compleja de Julio Carrizoza, colombiano, se hace presente en este ensayo, como una propuesta política fundamental ante problemas colombianos como son la violencia y la exclusión. Las propuestas de Filósofos colombianos de gran importancia en el campo de la Filosofía Política y Moral, que han desembocado en la propuesta de una Ética Ambiental, Pública y Comunicativa, como es el caso de Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez y de otros pensadores tanto de Colombia como de otros países latinoamericanos, se presentan en este espacio, con el fin de recoger de manera crítica nuestras ideas acerca de la posibilidad de una ética ambiental, es decir una ética descentrada, sin sujeto y sin objeto, una ética sistémica, donde los valores se construyen en las relaciones y donde la intricada trama de la vida, que ha venido construyéndose desde hace más de 2.500 millones de años, y de la cual somos meros hilos, pasa de ser objeto a ser valor primero en su más genuino sentido.

  3. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  4. New Codes for Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, F.; Mooney, W. D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine a velocity model of the crust, scientists generally use earthquakes recorded by seismic stations. However earthquakes do not occur continuously and most are too weak to be useful. When no event is recorded, a waveform is generally considered to be noise. This noise, however, is not useless and carries a wealth of information. Thus, ambient seismic noise analysis is an inverse method of investigating the Earth's interior. Until recently, this technique was quite difficult to apply, as it requires significant computing capacities. In early 2007, however, a team led by Gregory Benson and Mike Ritzwoller from UC Boulder published a paper describing a new method for extracting group and phase velocities from those waveforms. The analysis consisting of recovering Green functions between a pair of stations, is composed of four steps: 1) single station data preparation, 2) cross-correlation and stacking, 3) quality control and data selection and 4) dispersion measurements. At the USGS, we developed a set of ready-to-use computing codes for analyzing waveforms to run the ambient noise analysis of Benson et al. (2007). Our main contribution to the analysis technique was to fully automate the process. The computation codes were written in Fortran 90 and the automation scripts were written in Perl. Furthermore, some operations were run with SAC. Our choices of programming language offer an opportunity to adapt our codes to the major platforms. The codes were developed under Linux but are meant to be adapted to Mac OS X and Windows platforms. The codes have been tested on Southern California data and our results compare nicely with those from the UC Boulder team. Next, we plan to apply our codes to Indonesian data, so that we might take advantage of newly upgraded seismic stations in that region.

  5. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  6. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  7. REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES DE AMBIENTE Y EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN DOCENTES DE BÁSICA SECUNDARIA Y MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Ramirez Bermudez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Posicionar la educación ambiental en el sector educativo, se ha convertido en uno de los grandes retos de la educación en el país. Al indagar las representaciones sociales de ambiente y educación ambiental en docentes se establece un campo de reflexión y discusión sobre la forma como se están educando y como fueron educados los profesionales que orientan la educación ambiental en el sector escolar. Aunque se han generados políticas nacionales e internacionales sobre formación de ciudadanos comprometidos con el ambiente, aún no es evidente una metodología clara sobre la investigación en educación ambiental en la escuela.   Esta investigación tiene como objeto hacer  un diagnóstico educativo-ambiental a partir de la búsqueda y análisis de las representaciones sociales de ambiente y educación ambiental que tienen los docentes de básica secundaria y media en la provincia de Vélez Santander, específicamente en el municipio de Chipatá.   Bajo esta premisa, este trabajo presenta la diversidad de representaciones sociales y las visiones compartidas relacionadas con el ambiente y la educación ambiental, así como sus actitudes, prácticas ambientales y propuestas, en los que se aprecian sus posturas epistemológicas, pedagógicas, éticas, políticas y ambientales, revelando la importancia del cuidado del ambiente en una comunidad educativa. De igual forma, se comprenderá el rol social del profesorado y su incidencia en la construcción de significados acerca de las realidades ambientales en los contextos locales y regionales.

  8. Derecho ambiental municipal: las intendencias frente a la problemática del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo presentado en las III Jornadas de Derecho Municipal celebradas del 9 al 11 de setiembre de 1998.en el Palacio Munieipal, con el auspicio de la IMM y la Éditorial Nueva Juridica.Contenido: Panorama de las competencias municipales a través de la ley 2.820 de 1903. Ley Orgánica Municipal 9515 de 1935 y capítulos de la Constitución de 1966 (arts.7,72 y 332. La Reforma Constitucional de 8 de diciembre de 1996 aprobada por la Asamblea General el 14 de enero de 1997, constitucionaliza el Derecho Ambiental y el Congreso Nacional de Intendentes. Naturaleza Jurídica, del Plenario Municipal Nacional. Antecedentes, vía de hecho, distintas materias, unidad y organicidad. El advenimiento del Derecho Ambiental en la legislación contemporánea y su incorporación en el ámbito municipal. El siglo XXI, el Derecho Ambiental, el rol de los Municipios y su trascendencia para el ciudadano

  9. Liquid Water Structure from Anomalous Density under Ambient Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei

    2006-01-01

    @@ From discussion of the structure of liquid water, we deduce that water under ambient condition is mainly composed of ice Ih-like molecular clusters and clathrate-like molecular clusters. The water molecular clusters remain in a state of chemical equilibrium (reversible clustering reactions). This structural model can be demonstrated by quantitative study on anomalous density with increasing temperature at ambient pressure.

  10. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  11. Data degradation to enhance privacy for the Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerde, van H.J.W; Anciaux, N.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing research in ubiquitous computing techniques towards the development of an Ambient Intelligence raises issues regarding privacy. To gain the required data needed to enable application in this Ambient Intelligence to offer smart services to users, sensors will monitor users' behavior to fil

  12. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  13. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  14. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  15. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  16. Ambient Vibration Test on Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Nurul Shazwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine dynamic characteristic of reinforced concrete (RC bridges by using ambient vibration test (AVT. The ambient vibration sources on bridges may come from traffic, wind, wave motion and seismic events. AVT describes the dynamic characteristics of the bridge and ground by measuring the natural frequencies using highly sensitive seismometer sensor. This test is beneficial due to light weight equipment and smaller number of operator required, cheap and easy to be handled. It is able to give a true picture of the bridge dynamic behavior without any artificial force excitation when vibration data is recorded. A three-span reinforced concrete bridge located in Sri Medan, Batu Pahat, Johor was measured by using microtremor equipment consist of three units of 1 Hz eigenfrequency passive sensors used in this test was performed in normal operating condition without excitation required from any active sources or short period noise perturbations. Ten measurements were conducted on the bridge deck and ten measurements on the ground surface in order to identify the natural frequencies of the bridge. Several peak frequencies were identified from three components of Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS in transverse (North-South, longitudinal (East-West and vertical (Up-Down direction as well as squared average Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR of ground response, computed by using Geopsy software. From the result, it was expected the bridge have five vibration modes frequencies in the range of 1.0 Hz and 7.0 Hz with the first two modes in the transverse and longitudinal direction having a frequency 1.0 Hz, the third mode is 2.2 Hz in transverse direction, fourth and fifth mode is 5.8 Hz and 7.0 Hz. For ground natural frequencies are in range 1.0 Hz to 1.3 Hz for North-South direction and 1.0 Hz to 1.6 Hz for East-West direction. Finally the results are compared with several empirical formulas for simple

  17. Língua e meio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildo Honório do Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Embora as primeiras reflexões sobre as inter-relações entre língua emeio ambiente recuem a pelo menos Heráclito e ao Crátilo de Platão,elas não rêm recebido a atenção que merecem na linguística moderna.Uma das poucas exceções é a escola dialetológica alemã conhecidacomo “Wörter und Sachen”. No século XX, Edward Sapir e EinarHaugen também tocaram no assunto, mas foi só na última décadado século passado que surgiu uma disciplina dedicada especificamentea esse tipo de inter-relações, ou seja, a ecolinguística. O principalobjetivo deste artigo é mostrar que há pelo menos quatro meiosambientes da língua, quais sejam, o ecossistema fundamental dalíngua, subdividido em três outros, que são os ecossistemas social,mental e natural da língua. Alguns dos principais assuntos que podemser abordados dessa perspectiva são sugeridos. Entre outras coisas,vê-se que há duas maneiras de atacá-lo. A primeira localiza a línguaentre nós e o mundo, o que significa que só temos acesso a ele pormeio dela. A segunda nos vê entre o mundo e a língua, o que implicaque ela é criada por nós para interagirmos não somente uns com osoutros, mas também com o próprio meio ambiente. Em sintoniacom a ciência moderna, a nova abordagem vê a língua como fazendoparte de uma teia de inter-relações, não isolada como nos modelosde Descartes e de Newton. Uma fonte adequada de onde se podemtirar conceitos para erigir as suas bases epistemológicas é a ecologia,parte da biologia, a ciência da vida. Na nova visão de mundo, cadaespecialista pode se dedicar ao seu domínio específico, mas não seesquecendo de que ele faz parte de um todo maior (ecossistema,com sua diversidade interna e as inter-relações que aí se dão.

  18. Ambient noise spectral properties in the north area of Xisha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DA Lianglong; WANG Chao; HAN Mei; ZHANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ambient noise is very important in the prediction system of a sonar performance, because it determines the detection ranges always in a passive sonar and usually in an active sonar. In the uncertainty issue for the so-nar performance, it is necessary to know this factor’s statistical characteristics that are only obtained by data processing from the underwater ambient noise measurements. Broad-band ambient noise signals from 16 hydrophones were amplified and recorded for 2 min every 1 h. The results show that the ambient noise is essentially depth independent. The cross correlation of the ambient noise levels (1, 6 and 12 h average) with a wind speed is presented. It was found that the correlation is excellent on the upper frequency band and the noise levels correlate better with high wind speed than with low wind speed.

  19. Turbulent Boyant Jets and Plumes in Flowing Ambient Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hai-Bo

    Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in flowing ambient environments have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in flowing ambients have been discussed. Dimensional analysis was employed to investigate the mean behaviour of the turbulent....... Comprehensive laboratory experiments were conducted to study the mean behaviour of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in a flowing ambient by using both fresh and salt receiving waters. The experimental data on the jet trajectories and dilutions, for a horizontal jet in a coflowing ambient and for a vertical jet......, the available field observated data on the initial dilutions for a horizontal jet issuing into a perpendicular crossflowing ambient have been presented and discussed. Mathematical modelling of the turbulent buoyant jets and plumes has been carried out by using both an integral model and a turbulence model...

  20. Effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziuti, Toru; Hatanaka, Shin-ichi; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Mitome, Hideto

    2002-04-01

    The effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence (MBSCL) is studied experimentally with a luminol solution through measurements of MBSCL intensity as a function of ultrasound irradiation time, applied voltage to a transducer and ultrasonic frequencies to accomplish high efficiency in chemical reactions. From the measurement of ambient-pressure dependence, it is shown that there is an ambient pressure that produces the maximum intensity of the MBSCL and the maximum intensity appears at higher ambient pressure as the applied voltage to the transducer increases. The highest intensity of MBSCL is obtained by appropriate reduction of ambient pressure both for various applied voltages and frequencies. This is caused by both the number of bubbles induced with supersaturation of the gas in a luminol solution and the variation in bubble dynamics.

  1. Conflito ambiental na costa de São Paulo: o Plano Diretor de São Sebastião Environmental conflict on the coast of São Paulo: São Sebastiao's Directive Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro A. da Cunha

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A visão dos problemas ambientais como conflitos entre diferentes atores sociais rejeita uma simplificadora oposição entre o "natural" e as ações "antrópicas", que generaliza para o conjunto da sociedade padrões predatórios de transformação do meio ambiente. Ao falar-se de conflitos ambientais, reconhece-se diferentes projetos de relação sociedade - natureza e interesses imediatos diversos, associados aos vários usos possíveis dos recursos ambientais. Abre-se o caminho para que a própria dinâmica destes conflitos seja entendida como fator de construção da sustentabilidade. Este texto procura documentar e discutir um episódio de conflito ambiental, tomando a experiência de discussão pública, negociação e votação do Plano Diretor Municipal de São Sebastião, município da costa norte de São Paulo. Pretende-se discutir o avanço possivel em termos de mediação de conflitos, com utilização de técnicas de negociação, e a relação deste processo com a dinâmica da política local, em especial marcando os papéis do Executivo e do Legislativo no processo participativo. O principal tema que emerge em relação à pauta da sustentabilidade é a competição entre o turismo e o veranismo na ocupação do território costeiro.Environmental problems may be understood as conflicts between different actors. This represents an alternative approach related to the conceptualy poorer opposition between nature and anthropic actions,which generalize to whole society predatory patterns of relationship with environment. Dealing with the concept of environmental conflicts, we may recognize different forms of society-nature relation, and diverse concrete interests, associated to the various uses of environmental resources. This opens, besides, the possibility to understand the conflicts dynamics as something that may contribute building sustainability. This text intends to describe and discuss an environmental conflict episode, the

  2. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2x2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent

  3. Avaliação ambiental do município de Salinas da Margarida, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar Ramos, María Loreto

    2013-01-01

    [Resumo] linas da Margarida é um município localizado na parte sul da Bahia de Todos os Santos, caracteriza-se por ser um município netamente costeiro que abarca uma área continental de 65 Km2, e é constituído por seis comunidades, sendo elas Encarnação, Dendê, Salinas Sede, Conceição, Cairu, e Barra do Paraguaçu. Poucos são os estudos que integram dados químicos, biológicos e sociais visando melhorar as políticas de desenvolvimento pesqueiro. A pesca no município é basicamente de subsistênci...

  4. Emociones y comportamiento pro-ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Durán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Basándonos en los trabajos de Fishbein y Ajzen (1975, 1980, Ajzen y Madden, (1986, Ajzen, (2002, este trabajo propone una extensión del modelo de la Teoría de la Conducta Planificada (TCP para poder explicar mejor el comportamiento pro-ambiental. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es explorar la importancia de los aspectos emocionales a la hora de comprender y explicar la conducta de reducir la utilización del coche más allá de la explicación dada por la TCP. Así, se construyó un cuestionario que se aplicó a una muestra de 797 representativa de la población gallega. Los resultados muestran a la ira como una de las variables que contribuyen a la explicación de esa conducta siendo su peso incluso superior a uno de los elementos centrales del modelo de la TCP, como es el control conductual.

  5. 3rd International symposium on ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Dante I; Novais, Paulo; ISAmI 2012; Ambient Intelligence : Software and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  6. ESPACIOS RENATURALIZADOS COMO AMBIENTES DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rosas

    2015-12-01

    Los espacios renaturalizados, se consolidan como ambientes de aprendizaje para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía y la convivencia, a partir del desarrollo de metodologías participativas y haciendo uso de tecnologías apropiadas. Para ello se diseñaron e implementaron una serie de sesiones, con el fin de contribuir a la transformación del entorno y de permitir la conectividad ecológica presente en el ecosistema estratégico ubicado allí mismo, además de consolidar experiencias en el desarrollo de capacidades ciudadanas esenciales. Para la institución educativa se construyó, un jardín agroecológico y se sembraron árboles con fines productivos y ornamentales, permitiendo de esa manera la generación de identidad con respecto a los espacios renaturalizados, la estructura ecológica, además de reconocer las relaciones socio-ecológicas que alrededor de estos espacios se desarrollan. Entorno a la intervención, se construyeron conocimientos propios del currículo, además se identificaron las problemáticas ambientales propias de la zona, permitiendo de esa manera la armonización de la relación naturaleza-cultura y la adaptación ecosistémica al cambio climático, que requiere la ciudad de Bogotá.

  7. 4th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenborg, Kasper; Rodríguez, Juan; Tapia, Dante; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  8. 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Nihan, Céline; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  9. Cinema Interativo: novas possibilidades de ambientes imersivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Aly Menezes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto “Cinema Interativo: novas possibilidades de ambientes imersivos”, sintetiza a pesquisa  de-senvolvida pela autora, como projeto de Pós-Graduação no curso Tecnologia da Inteligência e Design Digital – PUC-SP. A pesquisa busca reunir uma análise atenciosa diante da entrada da tecnologia di-gital, tecnologia esta que interfere inevitavelmente na linguagem cinematográfica, e não apenas em sua estética. Com a abertura do mundo dos números binários (código das informações computacionais, e a possibilidade de digitalização da imagem, o que era matéria se desmaterializa e infinitas possibilidades criacionais surgem, inclusive, abrindo portas para experimentar o cinema de maneira expandida. No-vas formas de construção narrativa, nova relação espectador-cinema, um novo tempo e espaço, novas formas de significações; tudo pode sofrer alterações. O texto parte de estudos feitos com base em teóri-cos como Peter Weibel, Jeffrey Shaw, Lev Manovich, entre outros.

  10. Ciudades y contaminación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mayr Maldonado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente Dossier aborda una de las problemáticas más complejas de nuestros tiempos. En 2007, por primera vez en la historia de la humanidad, la concentración de población mundial asentada en centro urbanos superó la cifra del 50%; porcentaje que muestra una acelerada dinámica de este fenómeno si se compara con los datos de 1970 y 1990, cuando la población rural a nivel mundial era de un 57.4% y un 62.9% respectivamente. Esta dinámica de movilidad poblacional de lo rural hacia lo urbano se ha dado en un periodo de tiempo relativamente corto y su gran velocidad plantea nuevos desafíos en diferentes materias; una de ellas, los procesos de contaminación producida por la actividad humana y los sistemas productivos en los centros urbanos, situación que tiene especialafectación en la calidad de vida de los ciudadanos y del medio ambiente en general. Éste es el tema del cual trata el presente Dossier.

  11. EVALUACION DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL EN OBRAS VIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez D.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es escrito, con el propósito de proporcionar elementos técnicos que contribuyan para orientar a los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinario, en valorar objetivamente los impactos ambientales provocados por la construcción de obras civiles y que suscitan el interés del dominio público y profesionales en la materia. Para ello hemos contado con la experiencia acumulada en instituciones gubernamentales y de índole privado y con nuestra experiencia profesional, en la construcción de obras civiles. El contenido del mismo, toma en cuenta varios criterios de especialistas en la materia y recursos disponibles; con ética y rigurosidad técnica. El objetivo de la evaluación de impactos ambientales, es predecir sobre la marcha y a futuro, estados alternativos de recursos y ambiente; convencidos que el cuido de la naturaleza puede convocar la voluntad de todas las partes y lograr trabajar armoniosamente, por la construcción de un futuro con desarrollo sostenible para nuestra nación y generaciones posteriores; satisfaciendo las necesidades del presente, sin poner en riesgo los recursos del futuro.

  12. 7th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan; Novais, Paulo; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Yoe, Hyun; Ramírez, Andres; Villarrubia, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inherent...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  14. Does spacecraft potential depend on the ambient electron density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. T.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cahoy, K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Shprits, Y.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Wong, F.

    2014-12-01

    In a Maxwellian space plasma model, the onset of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous altitudes is due to the ambient electron, ambient ions, and secondary electrons. By using current balance, one can show that the onset of spacecraft charging depends not on the ambient electron density but instead on the critical temperature of the ambient electrons. If the ambient plasma deviates significantly from equilibrium, a non-Maxwellian electron distribution results. For a kappa distribution, the onset of spacecraft charging remains independent of ambient electron density. However, for double Maxwellian distributions, the densities do have a role in the onset of spacecraft charging. For a dielectric spacecraft in sunlight, the trapping of photoelectrons on the sunlit side enhances the local electron density. Using the coordinated environmental satellite data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellites, we have obtained results that confirm that the observed spacecraft potential is independent of the ambient electron density during eclipse and that in sunlight charging the low-energy population around the sunlit side of the spacecraft is enhanced by photoelectrons trapped inside the potential barrier.

  15. Effect of ambient temperature on female endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Julie; Sandsund, Mariann; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature can affect physical performance, and an ambient temperature range of -4 °C to 11 °C is optimal for endurance performance in male athletes. The few similar studies of female athletes appear to have found differences in response to cold between the genders. This study investigated whether ambient temperature affects female endurance performance. Nine athletes performed six tests while running on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at different ambient temperatures: 20, 10, 1, -4, -9 and -14 °C and a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up, followed by four 5-min intervals at increasing intensities at 76%, 81%, 85%, and 89% of maximal oxygen consumption. This was followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Although peak heart rate, body mass loss, and blood lactate concentration after the incremental test to exhaustion increased as the ambient temperature rose, no changes in time to exhaustion, running economy, running speed at lactate threshold or maximal oxygen consumption were found between the different ambient temperature conditions. Endurance performance during one hour of incremental exercise was not affected by ambient temperature in female endurance athletes.

  16. Agents and ambient intelligence achievements and challenges in the intersection of agent technology and ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, T

    2012-01-01

    The concept of an intelligent agent - a computational system capable of performing certain tasks autonomously - derived from the growing potential of digital computers in the mid 20th century and had been widely adopted by the early 1990s. Partly in parallel with this concept, the perspective of ambient intelligence (AmI) emerged in the late 1990s.Agent technology and AmI have many similarities, and the main purpose of this book is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the scientific area that integrates these two. The book addresses a wide variety of topics related to agents and A

  17. Contabilidade ambiental: sistema contábil de gestão ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Lagoeiro de Oliveira, Fernando Augusto; Dos Santos Antunes, María de Lourdes; Lepsch, Miriam; Instituto de Investigaciones en Administración, Contabilidad y Métodos Cuantitativos para la Gestión

    2012-01-01

    Los sistemas desarrollados por la Contabilidad y Gestión Ambiental se refieren al concepto de desarrollo sostenible adoptada por el Banco Mundial, la UNESCO y otras organizaciones internacionales, para marcar una nueva filosofía de desarrollo que involucra la eficiencia económica con la justicia social y la prudencia ecológica, defendido por Sachs. La actividad económica mundial sostenible no debe ser pensado o practica por separado, ya que esta actividad está interrelacionado en el diálogo e...

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  19. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  20. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  1. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Sandra T; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  2. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Anne Barrére, Antonio Chizotti e Maria Minayo. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e entrevistas com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas a professores e pais e observação em sala dos alunos. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir com a escola na sensibilização de futuros consumidores, e como trabalhar com conceitos de valores do ‘ser’ e não do ‘ter’. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a realidade na qual foi pesquisado, o reflexo do consumismo e contundentes e que o consumismo não é o único fator a influenciar nas relações e formação subjetiva dos alunos.Palavras-chave: educação; ensino fundamental; anos iniciais; consumismo; sociointeracionismo.

  3. Sociología Ambiental: 5 lecciones virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    5 LECCIONES EN SOCIOLOGÍA AMBIENTAL: TEMA 1. La crisis socioambiental y su interpretación sociológica; TEMA 2. Ecoutopías: movimentos y pensamientos ecologistas; TEMA 3.- Desastres socioambientales; TEMA 4.- Megaproyectos: análisis impactos socioambientales; TEMA 5.- Globalización y Medio Ambiente. Cada lección desarrolla un tema principal del corpus teórico de la sociologia ambiental contemporánea. Contienen los materiales y links necesários para su seguimiento por parte del lector. Los tema...

  4. Conociendo el ambiente de aprendizaje y sus contenidos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El video nos muestra el ambiente de aprendizaje que se constituye en el entorno básico donde el estudiante podrá descargar y consultar todo el material de aprendizaje y comenzar su proceso de formación autónoma. En el menú principal del ambiente interactivo puede ver los principales menús como Nuestro ambiente, Información general, Metodologías, Guías de trabajo, Glosario, los cuales ayudaran a complementar el proceso. También están los objetos de aprendizaje que facilitan la comprensión del...

  5. Perspectiva jurídico-financiera del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo plantea el estudio del concepto del medio ambiente y de los principios que lo informan desde el gasto público. El marco teórico es el Derecho financiero constitucional y el Derecho de los gastos públicos. Se analiza ampliamente la concepción de la protección del medio ambiente como necesidad pública y los instrumentos jurídicos para satisfacer esta necesidad.La posibilidad de configurar el medio ambiente como necesidad pública obliga al análisis de la compleja función otorgada al...

  6. A RESPONSABILIZAÇÃO CIVIL DO DANO AMBIENTAL FUTURO

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tiago Vieira de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a análise do microssistema jurídico da responsabilidade civil do dano futuro no plano ambiental. Traz, como solução aos atuais atos humanos, a teoria do conhecimento-emancipação, esta responsável por mostrar à humanidade um repensar nas ações do homem frente ao meio ambiente, tratando-o como sujeito de direito e não de deveres. Vê-se que o meio ambiente possui uma visão antropocêntrica moderada; visto isso, a Constituição definiu o meio ...

  7. Política, derecho y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    González Ballar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Una introducción breve al tema. Una primera parte referente a la situación de la política, del derecho y del medio ambiente en Costa Rica, analizando esencialmente lo que consideramos son errores cometidos en los aspectos relacionados con la política, su relación con el derecho y el medio ambiente. Una segunda parte donde hacemos una propuesta sobre lo que realmente sería el punto prioritario por el cual debe comenzar cualquier intento por mejorar y realizar la protección del medio ambiente e...

  8. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  9. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent... methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental... in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human Exposure...

  10. [Research on Raman spectra of isooctane at ambient temperature and ambient pressure to 1. 2 GPa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei-fei; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2012-03-01

    The experimental study of the Raman spectral character for liquid isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, ATM) was con ducted by moissanite anvil cell at the pressure of 0-1.2 GPa and the ambient temperature. The results show that the Raman peaks of the C-H stretching vibration shift to higher frenquencies with increasing pressures. The relations between the system pressure and peaks positions is given as following: v2 873 = 0.002 8P+2 873.3; v2 905 = 0.004 8P+2 905.4; v2 935 = 0.002 7P+ 2 935.0; v2 960 = 0.012P+2 960.9. The Raman spectra of isooctane abruptly changed at the pressure about 1.0 GPa and the liquid-solid phase transition was observed by microscope. With the freezing pressure at ambient temperature and the melting temperature available at 1 atm, the authors got the liquid-solid phase diagram of isooctane. According to Clapeyron equation, the authors obtained the differences of volume and entropy for the liquid-solid phase transition of isooctane: deltaV(m) = 4.46 x 10(-6) m3 x mol-1 and deltaS = -30.32 J x K(-1) x mol(-1).

  11. Psicologia Ambiental e futuro: reflexões geopolíticas sobre Política Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara

    2005-01-01

    A partir de uma conceituação de ambiente oferecida pelos geógrafos Milton Santos e Aziz Ab'Saber, o artigo propõe, para que se possa chegar à construção intencional do futuro um novo paradigma científico transdisciplinar: a Ciência Ambiental prospectiva. Tal paradigma deveria possibilitar relacionar, em seus projetos de conhecimento e intervenção, ciência, filosofia, história e política, configurando para a Psicologia Ambiental como objeto de estudo as relações entre a subjetividade humana e ...

  12. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  13. Percepção ambiental sobre "meio ambiente" e "educação ambiental" de seringueiros no sudoeste da Amazônia, Mato Grosso, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    zillmer-oliveira, tatiane; Manfrinato, Márcia Helena Vargas

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p119A conversão das áreas naturais em áreas agricultadas é considerada o principal impacto ambiental resultante das atividades humanas e constitui uma ameaça à biodiversidade. Isso pode estar relacionado ao nível de compreensão e percepção da sociedade entre a problemática ambiental e as atividades agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a percepção ambiental dos moradores da comunidade Seringal, inserida na Bacia do Rio Xingu, Querênci...

  14. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  15. The effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce-Torres A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid bridge is a liquid column held captive between two coaxial and parallel solid disks. It is an excellent test bench where measuring the surface tension. In this paper, we used this fluid configuration to examine experimentally the effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension over time. For this purpose, the liquid bridge equilibrium shape was analyzed when the liquid bridge was surrounded by three environments: the uncontrolled ambient, and both air and argon encapsulated in a small glass cover. Ambient contamination produced a sharp decrease of the surface tension of ultra-pure water. The presence of an anionic surfactant in the free surface of an aqueous solution did not inhibit the action of impurities coming from the ambient. Impurities can influence the dynamical behavior of the free surface in flows dominated by the surface tension. Therefore, a careful control of that influence can be crucial in many applications of fluid mechanics.

  16. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  17. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  18. MEDIO AMBIENTE, TUTELAS DE URGENCIA Y PROCESO COLECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Marin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A problemática ambiental vem assumindo grande importância na sociedade atual. A utilização demasiada dos recursos serve como base para grandes discussões. Ao mesmo tempo em que se reconhece ao cidadão o direito de usufruir do ambiente que o cerca, impõe deveres, no sentido de garantir-se a utilização racional dos recursos ambientais. Apesar da existência de uma vasta legislação ambiental, o tema exige maiores mecanismos de controle, visando a proteção e garantia dos recursos naturais. Assim, faz-se necessária uma nova interpretação dos princípios processuais que vigoram no ordenamento, no sentido de melhorar a tutela do bem ambiental.

  19. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  20. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  1. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Uclés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio.

  2. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Uclés Aguilera, David

    2006-01-01

    La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio. Environmental economy and its Neme...

  3. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  4. Biorregionalismo, ética e justiça ambiental

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    Silvio Luiz Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, retomo a argumentação de Gary Snyder, um libertário biorregionalista, e do socialista John Clark, verificando os limites e possibilidades de suas propostas na formulação de uma ética ambiental, à luz dos critérios estabelecidos por Kenneth Goodpaster (vida e por Tom Regan (valor inerente, para fundamentar uma ética genuinamente ambiental.

  5. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  6. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission by Ambient Extracellular Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, David E.; Scott A. Shippy

    2007-01-01

    Many neuroscientists assume that ambient extracellular glutamate concentrations in the nervous system are biologically negligible under nonpathological conditions. This assumption is false. Hundreds of studies over several decades suggest that ambient extracellular glutamate levels in the intact mammalian brain are ~0.5 to ~5 μM. This has important implications. Glutamate receptors are desensitized by glutamate concentrations significantly lower than needed for receptor activation; 0.5 to 5 μ...

  7. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-12-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111), versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 hours in ambient, followed by a ~10^3 decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 hours. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~10^3 and mobilities of ~100 cm2/(V*s) for over two weeks in ambient. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  8. O MEIO AMBIENTE COMO DIREITO HUMANO FUNDAMENTAL NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

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    FRANCIELI PUNTEL RAMINELLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO meio ambiente como objeto de proteção iniciou-se com o Direito Ambiental. Este, por sua vez, emana da conscientização acerca das agressões em face do ambiente natural, originário de toda a vida na Terra, o qual, desta forma, resta ameaçado. Desta feita, surgem os princípios diretores do Direito Ambiental, os quais, indiretamente, têm em vista a proteção da saúde e da dignidade humana, ambos assegurados pela Constituição Federal bem como pelos mais diversos tratados e convenções internacionais.Palavras-chave: meio-ambiente; direito ambiental; direito humano fundamental; Constituição Federal; ABSTRACTThe environment as an object of protection began with the Environmental Law. This, in turn, stems from the awareness of aggression in the face of the natural environment, origin of all life on Earth, which thus remains threatened. This time, there are guiding principles of environmental law, which indirectly aim at protecting the health and human dignity, both secured by the Constitution and by various international treaties and conventions.Keywords: environment, environmental law, fundamental human right; Constitution, biodiversity, human dignity; Identificador de Objeto Digital (DOI10.5902/198136947173 

  9. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  10. Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-12-10

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111) versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 h in ambient, followed by a ∼ 10(3) decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ∼ 10(3) and mobilities of ∼ 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for over 2 weeks in ambient conditions. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  11. ANÁLISIS DE CONFLICTO SOCIO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Eguiguren Riofrío

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO El presente artículo hace referencia a las problemáticas socioambientales que han venido surgiendo en la Región Sur del Ecuador, las cuales modifican permanentemente el escenario social, político, económico y ambiental, factores que además se encuentran supeditados a fuerzas externas a nivel regional y mundial. Desde la perspectiva socio ambiental podemos observar algunos cambios jurídico – institucional, que se han dado desde el proceso de reforma de la Constitución 2008, cuyo mayor logro ha sido la incorporación de los derechos de la Naturaleza como sujeto de de derecho, situación que pone al país a la vanguardia de reconocer aquellos derechos fundamentales para la vida, pero que irónicamente a nivel de todo el planeta los gobiernos no le dan la debida importancia. Así mismo el texto explica la conflictividad existente en la región sur del Ecuador específicamente en la Provincia de Morona Santiago, sus actores, el proceso y dinámica del conflicto, la identificación de los Actores involucrados, un detenido análisis de posiciones, intereses y necesidades de actores centrales, las estrategias y métodos aplicados por los actores, los resultados de las acciones de cada actor, el papel del Estado y/o autoridades competentes y las acciones emprendidas y balance de la Intervención. De la misma forma se realiza un análisis de nuevos cuerpos legales orientados a recuperar el rol planificador del estado y así mejorar la gestión sobre el manejo del territorio, los recursos naturales y la inversión social, impulsando además un proceso de desconcentración y descentralización. Sin embargo pese a tener un nuevo marco legal bajo un ideal que se orienta a lograr un equilibrio entre el ser humano y la naturaleza (régimen del Buen Vivir o Sumak Kausay, aún estamos lejos de lograrlo, pues en la práctica muchas políticas y acciones se contradicen con los enunciados de la nueva Constitución, por lo tanto ahí reside el gran

  12. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espacio-temporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  13. Psicologia Ambiental e futuro: reflexões geopolíticas sobre Política Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma conceituação de ambiente oferecida pelos geógrafos Milton Santos e Aziz Ab'Saber, o artigo propõe, para que se possa chegar à construção intencional do futuro um novo paradigma científico transdisciplinar: a Ciência Ambiental prospectiva. Tal paradigma deveria possibilitar relacionar, em seus projetos de conhecimento e intervenção, ciência, filosofia, história e política, configurando para a Psicologia Ambiental como objeto de estudo as relações entre a subjetividade humana e a consciência ambiental, na história e na geografia.

  14. Brote del virus ISA: crisis ambiental y capacidad de la institucionalidad ambiental para manejar el conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bustos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria salmonera chilena vivió recientemente una crisis de magnitud a partir de la aparición del virus ISA. El artículo examina esta situación, concentrándose en el papel que desempeña la ciencia en las soluciones políticas propuestas, como caso para discutir la capacidad de los mecanismos de gobernanza ambiental neoliberal para solucionar crisis ambientales y económicas. La pregunta que guía el trabajo es: ¿cuál fue el rol de la ciencia en la política ambiental para la industria? El argumento promovido es que la crisis representa un momento de reestructuración de la relación sociedad-naturaleza, en el cual se redefinieron mecanismos de propiedad, control y acceso a recursos naturales, pero en el que, pese al discurso neoliberal de confianza en los expertos y la ciencia como elementos de toma de decisiones, la información científica tuvo escasa relevancia.The Chilean salmon industry recently experienced a crisis due to an outbreak of the ISA virus. The article examines the crisis focusing on the role of science in the policy solutions proposed, to discuss the real capacity of neoliberal environmental governance mechanisms to solve environmental and economic crisis. The question guiding this research is, which was the role of science in environmental policy createdfor the salmon industry? The argument is that the crisis represents a reestructuring of the relationship between society and nature through the redefinition of property rights, control and access to natural resources, but in which, in spite of a neoliberal discourse of trust in experts and science as elements of decision making, scientific information had little relevance.

  15. CONCEPCIONES SOBRE EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL DE DOCENTES DE PROGRAMAS DE LICENCIATURA EN EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL O AFINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cuéllar Caicedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación abordó las concepciones que sobre educación ambiental tienen los docentes universitarios que forman educadores en el área de educación ambiental en las diferentes universidades de Colombia. Ello mediante un enfoque cuali-cuantitativo, estructurando unas herramientas confiables cuyos resultados nos permitieron conocer que los docentes identifican comúnmente la educación ambiental con la ecología, con el medio ambiente, y más allá, la confunden con los PRAES; además no aplican la estructura transversal en los currículos, sino que la toman como una asignatura o un tema más de la asignatura de ciencias naturales o biología. Esto nos indicó que los docentes poseen diversas concepciones, en muchos casos erradas, sobre la educación ambiental. Como resultado de esta investigación se destaca la necesidad de que los docentes reflexionen y si es posible transformen las concepciones y la aplicación de la educación ambiental.

  16. La renta ambiental de los bosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovando Pol, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show the measurement of the environmental income from two private Spanish forests, the Cork Oak Woodlands of the Alcornocales Natural Park (Cádiz and Málaga and the Scotch Pine Forest of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid and Segovia. We also contribute to the technical and political debate on governmental regulations of forest environmental accounting in European Union. We have measured the environmental goods and services consumed by private landowners and public visitors through the contingent valuation technique. We have estimated the value of mushrooms gathering by public visitors in the Scotch Pine Forests of the Sierra de Guadarrama taking the price and harvest from the mushroom market in Pinar Grande (Soria. The value for carbon estimated accounts for the avoided damage of the greenhouse effect mitigation due to the sequestration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The environmental valuations show that the private environmental profitability rates in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama are 2.13 % and 3.43 %, in relation to their corresponding land market prices. We have estimated that the total net values added are 1.63 and 3.28 times higher than its corresponding conventional net values added in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama.El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una medición de la renta ambiental en dos tipos de bosques privados representativos españoles, como son los alcornocales del Parque Natural Los Alcornocales (Cádiz y Málaga y los pinares de silvestre de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid y Segovia. Con este objetivo también se pretende contribuir a los debates técnico y político sobre la necesidad de que los gobiernos regulen la aplicación de las cuentas ambientales integradas de los bosques europeos. La medición de los bienes y servicios ambientales del bosque consumidos por los propietarios privados y los visitantes p

  17. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  18. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air monitoring for inorganic....184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to which... arsenic concentrations in the ambient air. (b) The ambient air monitors shall be located at sites...

  19. Effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Adrian C. H.; Er, J. W.; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2015-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume. Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent ambient water was generated by a random jet array in a glass tank. Glass beads of different particle diameters were released continuously into this turbulent ambient using a submerged hourglass, forming particle plumes with a constant efflux velocity; different initial velocities were tested for each particle size. We focused on the region in which the integral length scale of the ambient eddies is larger than that of the particle plume size. Following the arguments of Hunt (1994) and the observation of Hubner (2004) on a single-phase plume, it is expected that in this region, the internal structure or Lagrangian spreading of the particle plume, will not be significantly affected, but the plume centerline would meander due to the ambient turbulence leading to an increase in the Eulerian width. In the presentation, first, we will present our preliminary experimental data which showed that this is also true for two-phase particle plumes. Second, based on this observation, we developed a theoretical framework using a stochastic approach to predict the spreading of the plume. Predictions of the model will be compared with our experimental data. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  20. PERCEPCIÓN AMBIENTAL EN ESTUDIANTES DE SECUNDARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Zamorano González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó un grupo de 254 estudiantes de una secundaria pública de Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México, adaptando el cuestionario utilizado por el Grup de Recerca Educació i Ciutadani (GREIC de la Universitat de les Illes Balears. El estudio se basa en un conjunto de 39 preguntas distribuidas en cuatro secciones: Afirmaciones relacionadas con el medio ambiente, para indagar su postura; Preocupación por el medio ambiente, para identificar el lugar que genera mayor interés; Problemas ambientales, sirvió para identificar el conocimiento de la problemática que afecta a su región y la cuarta sección Acciones para hacer un mundo mejor, para identificar la disposición de los estudiantes para mejorar el ambiente. La validación del cuestionario adaptado refiere un coeficiente del Alfa de Cronbach de 0.862 y los datos en estudio representan de forma generalizada la percepción ambiental que tienen los estudiantes y manifiestan la importancia de la educación ambiental.

  1. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  2. El ambiente en la agenda periodística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Fog Corradine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente en la agenda periodística da cuenta de las dinámicas y de las relaciones entre los hechos que son noticia en el campo ambiental, los medios de comunicación y la ciudadania. Inicia con una mirada a las páginas de medio ambiente en los diarios colombianos durante tres meses del 2006, hace un recuento de los diferentes enfoques de los medios masivos de comunicación frente al tema ambiental, para concentrarse luego en las historias periodísticas sobre ambiente, desde la generación de la idea hasta el impacto que tiene sobre el público receptor. Este proceso realiza tambien una mirada general a la investigación científica en Colombia, en especial, la que se realiza en temas ambientales y en particular en el departamento de Córdoba.

  3. Axisymmetric field generation within an ambient axial field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, A. A.; Sarson, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of magnetic field in a homogeneous, electrically conducting fluid - as required for the dynamo generation of the fields of many astrophysical bodies - is normally a threshold process; the dynamo mechanism, applicable to such bodies in unmagnetised environments, requires motions of sufficient strength to overcome the innate magnetic diffusion. In the presence of an ambient field, however, the critical nature of the field generation process is relaxed. Motions can distort and amplify the ambient field for all amplitudes of flow. For motions with appropriate geometries, an internal `dynamo-like' field of appreciable strength can be generated, even for relatively weak flows. At least a minority of planets, moons and other bodies exist within significant external astrophysical fields. For these bodies, the ambient field problem is more relevant than the classical dynamo problem, yet it remains relatively little studied. In this paper we consider the effect of an axial ambient field on a spherical mean-field α2 ω dynamo model, through nonlinear calculations with α-quenching feedback. Ambient fields of varying strengths, and both stationary and oscillatory in time, are imposed. Particular focus is placed on the effects of these fields on the equatorial symmetry and the time dependence of the preferred solutions.

  4. Crisis ambiental, desastre natural y la "sociedad desierto"

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    Reynol Díaz Coutiño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis ambiental y los "desastres naturales" se muestran como un conjunto que está definido por la sensibilidad de los factores de correlación. La crisis ambiental se entiende como los cambios "inesperados" delos procesos de aquellos factores que forman el ambiente local. La transición silenciosa de tales cambios altera, cuando va más allá de ciertos límites, el frágil balance del medio ambiente, hasta que emerge el desastre. En este sentido, el desastre nos es natural, pero sí los fenómenos meteorológicos, geológicos o biológicos que lo provoca, los cuales afectan el medio ambiente físico de las criaturas vivientes. Considerando el estado de Sinaloa como un territorio local, este no está exento de las contradicciones medioambientales (riesgos y crisis o los desastres tales como ondas de calor, sequía, inundaciones, ciclones, heladas, granizadas y otros tipos de tormentas. La falta de interés de la sociedad local de tomar parte en la apropiación del riesgo y de sus implicaciones contribuye con estas contradicciones. Esta es la sociedad desierto, la cual se debate en una condición de desacuerdo moral.

  5. Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography across SE Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, DingChang; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Ge, Zengxi; Min, Zhaoxu; Cipta, Athanasius; Yang, Runhai

    2017-02-01

    We analyze seismic ambient noise data recorded at a set of permanent and temporary stations across southeastern Tibet to image crustal structure. High-resolution phase velocity maps are presented based on Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography. Seismic images exhibit more apparent horizontal heterogeneities and show more detailed information compared to previous studies based on traditional ambient noise tomography. As noted from the phase velocity image at 25 s, the rigid high velocity anomalies beneath the Sichuan Basin and the South China Fold System act as a blockage to crustal material expansion, and the distribution of velocity anomalies contributes to the interpretation of a surface clockwise rotation pattern. Our results imply a more complex distributed low-velocity zone rather than two isolated channels beneath SE Tibet.

  6. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  7. Monoclinic deformation of calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation powder diffraction shows that the average crystal structure of calcite at ambient conditions is described with the trigonal space group R 3 bar c but there is a systematic hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening. A modelling of this anisotropic peak broadening with the microstrain model from Stephens (1999) [15] is presented. The observed lattice parameters' correlations can be described by assuming a monoclinic-type deformation of calcite crystallites. A quantitative model of this monoclinic deformation observed at ambient conditions is described with the space group C 2 / c . The monoclinic unit cell suggested at ambient conditions is related with the monoclinic unit cell reported in calcite at high pressure (Merrill and Bassett (1975) [10]).

  8. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  9. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  10. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DO TREINAMENTO AMBIENTAL NA CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL DE PROFISSIONAIS DA ÁREA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Accioly Baccaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, muchas organizaciones trabajan para minimizar y contribuir para resolver los problemasambientales. En esa dirección, el área de recursos humanos emerge como facilitadora de la implantación deprácticas y políticas ambientales en las empresas, principalmente por la utilización de los programas deentrenamiento. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia del entrenamiento ambiental enla conciencia ambiental de los profesionales de recursos humanos. Con un abordaje cuantitativodescriptivo, se aplicó un cuestionario, ya validado, a 73 profesionales de recursos humanos de la región deLondrina-PR. El análisis de datos involucró la estadística descriptiva y el teste sin parámetros χ 2 dePearson. Los resultados señalaron la relación entre el entrenamiento ambiental y la conciencia ambientalde los profesionales de recursos humanos investigados: de hecho, los que recibieron algún tipo deentrenamiento ambiental presentaron un nivel de conciencia ambiental mayor que los que no recibieronningún entrenamiento en esa área.

  12. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants' visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user's attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE).

  13. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL: A crise ambiental como uma crise da razão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Silva De Gregori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a crise do meio ambiente sob uma abordagem epistemológica, ou seja, a partir do conhecimento produzido em relação à natureza. Verifica-se que o pensamento ocidental, manifestado pelos paradigmas da Ciência Moderna, está ligado à organização dos sistemas econômicos que reconheceram historicamente a natureza apenas como recurso e potencial de produção de capital, vindo a encontrar, por esta via, o limite entrópico da biosfera e, por conseguinte, do crescimento. Abordou-se o processo de construção do conhecimento, questionando-se a possibilidade de concepção de outras perspectivas, fundadas na inseparabilidade entre sujeito-objeto, ação-pensamento e homem-natureza. É percebida a necessidade do ser humano de se re-significar no mundo, conhecendo a complexidade da natureza e pensando além da crise ecológica.

  14. Ambient Response Analysis Modal Analysis for Large Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an outline is given of the basic ideas in ambient respons analysis, i.e. when modal analyses is performed on systems based on output only. Some of the most known techniques are briefly introduced, and the basic problems discussed. The introduced techniques are the frequency domain...... based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. The techniques are illustrated on an example of ambient response measurments...

  15. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... the relationships between ambient air pollution and biological markers of dose and early response. The evidence for each marker was evaluated using assessment criteria which rate a group of studies from A (strong) to C (weak) on amount of evidence, replication of findings, and protection from bias. Biomarkers...

  16. Design participativo de um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de histologia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A progressiva diminuição de carga horária destinada às disciplinas baseadas em microscopia, os altos custos dos laboratórios e a necessidade de materiais multimídia que integrem a teoria com a prática e incentivem os alunos a estudar têm propiciado o desenvolvimento de atlas interativos e ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem, que são, em geral, pouco adotados por professores e alunos. O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de Histolo...

  17. Algunos nuevos retos del derecho ambiental en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hemos sido testigos del nacimiento, y del desarrollo que en su infancia ha tenido el Derecho Ambiental (D.A.). La década de los años setentas permitió ver con gran expectación, como la criatura empezaba a tomar forma. Intuimos que esta nueva criatura del derecho tenía un papel importante que jugar, pues para unos, en su concepción original su objeto esencial u objetivos estaba destinado a equilibrar, por medio de la protección del ambiente, la naturaleza, los recursos naturales, la biosfera. ...

  18. IMPACTOS DEL TURISMO EN EL MEDIO AMBIENTE DE HUANCHACO

    OpenAIRE

    ZAVALETA ALFARO, MARÍA SIXTINA

    2007-01-01

    Se analiza los impactos negativos del turismo sobre el medio ambiente de la Bahía de Huanchaco, previamente se evalúa el flujo de visitantes, la oferta turística en cuanto a recursos naturales, culturales y planta o infraestructura (hoteles, restaurantes, otros). Se incide en al generación de residuos sólidos domésticos, calidad del agua, transporte, deterioro de ecosistema de humedales (calidad ambiental) y se analiza la opinión o percepción del turista a través de una encuesta. Los resulta...

  19. Competitivitat i medi ambient a Catalunya. Part 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Freire González, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Hi ha una creixent preocupació social per la protecció del medi ambient i les pressions que l’activitat econòmica exerceix sobre aquest. Els poders públics, empesos per aquesta demanda social, han d’impulsar polítiques que, sense deixar de considerar el desenvolupament econòmic i la competitivitat de les empreses i l’economia en el seu conjunt, incorporin prioritàriament criteris de protecció mediambiental. Hay una creciente preocupación social por la protección del medio ambiente y las pr...

  20. Direct Protocol for Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging on Agar Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angolini, Célio Fernando F; Vendramini, Pedro Henrique; Araújo, Francisca D S; Araújo, Welington L; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Oliveira, Luciana Gonzaga

    2015-07-07

    Herein we describe a new protocol that allows direct mass spectrometry imaging (IMS) of agar cultures. A simple sample dehydration leads to a thin solid agar, which enables the direct use of spray-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques. To demonstrate its applicability, metal scavengers siderophores were imaged directly from agar culture of S. wadayamensis, and well resolved and intense images were obtained using both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) with well-defined selective spatial distributions for the free and the metal-bound molecules, providing clues for their roles in cellular metabolism.

  1. O Palmito Pupunha, A Gastronomia e o Meio Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O artigo apresentado a seguir trata de uma questão gastronômica associada a um contexto ambiental: a devastação da Mata Atlântica é um fenômeno histórico e atual cada vez mais preocupante, e combatido pela consciência ambiental crescente e pela legislação. Entre os agentes desta devastação, estão os extratores do apreciado palmito juçara, ameaçado de extinção: objetiva-se ...

  2. HISTORIA Y AMBIENTE: UN REPLANTEAMIENTO METODOLÓGICO

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un replanteamiento metodológico de la historia oficial y tradicional, la cual ignora o subestima la relación recíproca entre el ser humano y la naturaleza, particularmente en el tiempo actual en que el capitalismo voraz ha llegado a extremos inimaginables en la destrucción del ambiente, y al mismo tiempo propone una historia ambiental que parte de una concepción dialéctica, holística, sistémica, entrópica y interdisciplinaria de la relación entre el ser humano y s...

  3. Ambient pressure sensitivity of microbubbles investigated through a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on microbubbles clearly indicate a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... 1999, who found a linear reduction of 9.6 dB. Further simulations of Levovist show that also the shape and the acoustic pressure of the driving pulse are very important factors. The best pressure sensitivity of Levovist was found to be 0.88 dB/kPa. For Sonazoid, a sensitivity of 1.14 dB/kPa has been...

  4. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  5. Damping Estimation Using Free Decays and Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Brincker, Rune; Cunha, Álvaro

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of modal damping ratios of Civil Engineering structures is a subject of major importance, as the amplitude of structural vibrations in resonance is inversely proportional to these coefficients. Their experimental identification can be performed either from ambient...... vibration or from free vibration tests. In the last case, the structural response after application of an impulse or after the application of harmonic loads can be used. Ambient vibration tests have the strong advantage of being more practical and economical. However, recent applications of both approaches...

  6. La larga marcha ambiental en la provincia de Santa Fe.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Recibido: Jun. 2008 – Aceptado Sep. 2008 Alejandro Kaminsky La ley 10.000 (T.O. 12.015) de la Provincia de Santa Fe, se construyó como instrumento pionero –09/01/87– del universo jurídico ambiental. Esta verdadera “acción popular de protección” de los intereses colectivos – formalmente denominada “recurso contencioso administrativo sumario” – ostenta las ventajas de la acción de amparo ambiental (ley 25.675), sin exigir las condiciones y requisitos de aquella, y al mismo tiempo prohibe ...

  7. Responsabilidade civil pelo risco da atividade e o meio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Magda

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho se dedica ao estudo da responsabilidade civil e sua aplicação como instrumento de tutela do meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado, assegurado pelo art. 225 da Constituição Federal. Para tanto, analisa a evolução do instituto, evidenciando os valores que nortearam a sua construção e aplicação ao longo do desenvolvimento da sociedade. Discorre, igualmente, sobre o crescimento da conscientização ambiental e da natureza múltipla do sistema jurídico de proteção do m...

  8. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  9. Historia, ambiente, política: el camino de la historia ambiental en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Después de unos años de gestación, la historia ambiental en muchos países de América Latina es actualmente un campo con legitimidad académica y al cual se le reconoce relevancia como espacio de investigación y formación. El artículo hace unalectura sobre la marcha de este campo en la región e individualiza tres aristas que han caracterizado la literatura publicada en América Latina: las teorías y los métodos de la historia ambiental latinoamericana; la lectura cultural de la historia ambiental; y el estudio de las interrelaciones entre expansión territorial, bienes de exportación y nuevos conocimientos entre 1870 y 1930.

  10. VIOLÊNCIA E MEIO AMBIENTE: PODE A EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL CONTRIBUIR PARA A PAZ E A SUSTENTABILIDADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira da Costa Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente a relação social e humana com o meio ambiente sempre implicou em algum tipo de destruição e degradação. Com a constituição da sociedade industrial capitalista e seu desdobramento em sociedade de consumo de massa, esse avanço sobre os recursos naturais tem se dado de forma tão radical que ameaça a continuidade da vida e da biosfera como a conhecemos nos últimos milênios. O texto reflete sobre a relação entre a violência social e o meio ambiente a partir de um feixe de teorias e conceitos provenientes do cruzamento da questão ambiental, da teoria crítica, da teoria da complexidade, da teoria da sociedade de risco e de contribuições de filosofias tradicionais como o Budismo. Os conceitos considerados são os de sustentabilidade, de interdependência, de cidadania ambiental e de justiça socioambiental. Nesse sentido, procura investigar as raízes sociais e psicossociais da violência que condicionam as relações e instituições sócio-culturais, entre as quais figuram a própria ciência, como saber social hegemônico, e a educação; observar suas implicações sobre a vida social e ambiental; e verificar a possível contribuição da educação, em geral, e da educação ambiental como foco curricular, em particular, para transformar ou reorientar essas forças e práticas associadas à violência para fins mais pacíficos e construtivos.

  11. Rol del Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo: protección y prevención en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Heilin; Graciela García, Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A través de este artículo, se pretende difundir la existencia de un órgano llamado "Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo" que tutela la legislación ambiental y los recursos naturales donde todo ciudadano, persona física o jurídica puede plantear denuncias cuando existan violaciones en esa materia. Además, se intenta resaltar los aportes que brinda, no solo para Costa Rica, sino a nivel mundial, debido a que la protección y la prevención es responsabilidad de todos. Los gobiernos, el Estado y sus...

  12. Ambiente y salud: Reflexiones sobre la interacción entre el Derecho Ambiental y el Derecho de la Salud

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista sanitario se entiende por Ambiente “el conjunto de condiciones físicas, químicas biológicas, psicológicas, sociales, culturales y económicas en las que vive una población y sus interacciones”.Asu vez, la Salud Pública ha identificado al ambiente como un determinante de la salud, concibiéndolo como el de mayor significación del proceso salud/enfermedad.Por ende, puede llegar a constituirse en un entorno peligroso o saludable.La salud admite entonces cuatro influencias d...

  13. Psicologia Ambiental e Política Ambiental: questões teóricas e práticas

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Garcia Mira; David Stea; Silvia Elguea

    2005-01-01

    O artigo indaga como contribuir para construir uma ponte entre os psicólogos ambientais e os políticos dado que os psicólogos ambientais estiveram mais preocupados com o desenvolvimento teórico e acadêmico da disciplina do que com conectar áreas aplicadas da Psicologia Ambiental ao mundo complexo da Política Ambiental Aponta que, embora as pontes variem quanto à escala, há outras suposições igualmente importantes a serem consideradas como o contexto democrático e participativo. Apresenta a co...

  14. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  15. Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Albrektsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its...

  16. On Modal Parameter Estimates from Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agneni, A.; Brincker, Rune; Coppotelli, B.

    2004-01-01

    Modal parameter estimates from ambient vibration testing are turning into the preferred technique when one is interested in systems under actual loadings and operational conditions. Moreover, with this approach, expensive devices to excite the structure are not needed, since it can be adequately...

  17. Laser ablation plume expansion into an ambient gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an ambient gas is a well-established method employed in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with nanosecond pulses and has been extensively studied in this context. Most of the existing treatments of the plume expansion are tackled by using complex numerical modeling involving specific target...

  18. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  19. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...

  20. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long-ra...

  1. Geoacoustic inversion of ambient noise: A simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, C.H.; Simons, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The vertical directionality of ambient noise is strongly influenced by seabed reflections. Therefore, potentially, geoacoustic parameters can be inferred by inversion of the noise. In this approach, using vertical array measurements, the reflection loss is found directly by comparing the upward- wit

  2. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  3. El gasto público ambiental en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Barrantes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   En la actualidad, la sociedad se ha visto amenazada por los altos niveles de degradación ambiental experimentados en los últimos tiempos, y por el creciente agotamiento de los recursos naturales que han limitado la seguridad alimentaria en algunas regiones del país -y en algunos países del mundo- (FMI, 1996. La contaminación ambiental ha sobrepasado niveles críticos y se está revirtiendo en contra del mismo ser humano en términos de salud, disponibilidad de recursos y del disfrute que podía experimentar de la naturaleza (Brown, 1991.   El replanteamiento del estilo de desarrollo requiere la implementación de acciones alternativas que conduzcan a un mejoramiento de la calidad ambiental, a una recuperación de la base de recursos naturales y, en general, a niveles de calidad de la sociedad manifiesto en mejoras de la salud, educación, seguridad, etc. Para tal efecto, se pueden desarrollar un conjunto de indicadores que permitan evaluar el comportamiento y la evolución de los recursos naturales y la calidad ambiental; por ejemplo, indicadores para monitorear la calidad del aire y del agua.

  4. Content-Based Design and Implementation of Ambient Intelligence Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Grootjen, M.; Ubink, E.M.; Zomeren, M. van; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal support of professionals in complex ambient task environments requires a system that delivers the Right Message at the Right Moment in the Right Modality: (RM)3. This paper describes a content-based design methodology and an agent-based architecture to enable real time decisions of informati

  5. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference

  6. Realidad de los sistemas de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Constanza Escobar Cárdenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre la posibilidad de integrar los diferentes sistemas de gestión y la importancia que tiene los sistemas de gestión ambiental para el mejoramiento de las organizaciones. Luego de analizar comparativamente los modelos existentes, la autora presenta algunas recomendaciones de implementación.

  7. Seasonal association between ambient ozone and mortality in Zhengzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijie; Gu, Jianqin; Liang, Shijie; Fang, Fang; Bai, Weimin; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Tao; Walline, Joseph; Zhang, Shenglong; Cui, Yingjie; Xu, Yaxin; Lin, Hualiang

    2016-12-01

    Different seasonal health effects of ambient ozone (O3) have been reported in previous studies. This might be due to inappropriate adjustment of temperature in different seasons. We used daily data on non-accidental mortality and ambient air pollution in Zhengzhou from January 19, 2013 to June 30, 2015. Season-stratified analyses using generalized additive models were conducted to evaluate the seasonal associations with adjustment of temperature with different lagged days (lag0-1 for warm season, lag0-14 for cold season). We recorded a total of 70,443 non-accidental deaths in Zhengzhou during the study period. Significant associations were observed between ambient O3 and mortality in cold season. Every 10-μg/m3 increment of 24-h O3 of 1-day lagged time was associated with a 1.38% (95% CI 0.60, 2.16%) increase in all cause mortality, 1.35% (95% CI 0.41, 2.30%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.78% (95% CI 0.43, 3.14%) increase in respiratory mortality. Similar associations were observed when using daily 1- and 8-h maximum concentrations of O3. No significant association was found during warm season. This study suggests a more pronounced ozone-mortality association in cold season in Zhengzhou, and we suggest that different lagged temperatures should be considered when examining the seasonal health effects of ambient ozone.

  8. O papel da geografia em face da crise ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL DEZIDÉRIO SOUTO

    Full Text Available resumo Diante da crise ambiental atual, diversas disciplinas científicas têm se voltado para sua análise, a fim de apontar soluções para dirimir ou minimizar os danos ambientais e sociais causados pelas atividades econômicas e por outros tipos de fatores de pressão ambiental. Este artigo propõe-se inicialmente a mostrar sucintamente como mudou a visão geográfica predominante no mundo ocidental a respeito da relação entre as populações humanas e o ambiente. Uma mudança de visão que foi reflexo das mudanças que estavam em curso na geografia como um todo, resguardadas as diferenças entre os países. Discute-se ainda que a crise ambiental é uma crise do conhecimento, como afirmam cada vez mais autores. Este texto culmina com as virtudes e limitações da geografia na busca desse entendimento, no intuito de colaborar para seu avançar.

  9. Low ambient temperature and neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Kvetnanský, R; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1995-12-01

    Nutritional factors, such as an excess or a deficiency of glucose, play an important role in neuroendocrine regulations. Hormonal and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were examined in healthy non-obese volunteers under conditions of low ambient temperature. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous injection of insulin in two randomized trials performed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. At room temperature, the typical neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia was established. The increases of ACTH, beta-endorphin, growth hormone and cortisol in response to insulin hypoglycemia failed to be modified by low ambient temperature. Acute cold exposure significantly reduced epinephrine and totally inhibited prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In spite of significant changes in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at low ambient temperature, no striking differences in plasma glucose levels compared to those measured at room temperature were observed. However, under conditions of low temperature the reestablishment of normoglycemia was delayed. No changes in free fatty acids were found under our experimental conditions. The presented data show that low ambient temperature exerts selective effects on some neuroendocrine and metabolic parameters.

  10. Flow by Mean Curvature inside a Moving Ambient Space

    CERN Document Server

    Magni, Annibale; Tsatis, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    We show some computations related in particular to the motion by mean curvature flow of a submanifold inside an ambient Riemannian manifold evolving by Ricci or backward Ricci flow. Special emphasis is given to the analogous of Huisken's monotonicity formula and its connection with the validity of some Li-Yau-Hamilton Harnack-type inequalities in a moving manifold.

  11. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  12. MODERN APPROACES IN THE CONTEXT OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldeanu Dana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI, as a new vision and concept of the tomorrow, gathers a few features regarding both the integration of technology in the environment and the capacity technology has to recognize the user and its context, the system capacity to i

  13. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  14. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  15. Multi-radio resource management for ambient networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, F.; Bria, A.; Badia, L.; Karla, I.; Litjens, R.; Magnusson, P.; Meago, F.; Tang, H.; Veronesi, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Ambient Networks concept targets forthcoming dynamic communication environments, characterized by the presence of a multitude of different wireless devices, radio access technologies, network operators and business actors, which can form instant inter-network agreements with each other. MultiRad

  16. Entrainment of circadian rhythm by ambient temperature cycles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Much is known about how environmental light-dark cycles synchronize circadian rhythms in animals. The ability of environmental cycles of ambient temperature to synchronize circadian rhythms has also been investigated extensively but mostly in ectotherms. In the present study, the synchronization of the circadian rhythm of running-wheel activity by environmental cycles of ambient temperature was studied in laboratory mice. Although all mice were successfully entrained by a light-dark cycle, only 60% to 80% of the mice were entrained by temperature cycles (24-32 degrees C or 24-12 degrees C), and attainment of stable entrainment seemed to take longer under temperature cycles than under a light-dark cycle. This suggests that ambient temperature cycles are weaker zeitgebers than light-dark cycles, which is consistent with the results of the few previous studies using mammalian species. Whereas 80% of the mice were entrained by 24-h temperature cycles, only 60% were entrained by 23-h cycles, and none was entrained by 25-h cycles. The results did not clarify whether entrainment by temperature cycles is caused directly by temperature or indirectly through a temperature effect on locomotor activity, but it is clear that the rhythm of running-wheel activity in mice can be entrained by ambient temperature cycles in the nonnoxious range.

  17. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  18. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  19. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  20. An Ambient Awareness Tool for Supporting Supervised Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, H. S.; Dillenbourg, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ambient awareness tool, named "Lantern", designed for supporting the learning process in recitation sections, (i.e., when students work in small teams on the exercise sets with the help of tutors). Each team is provided with an interactive lamp that displays their work status: the exercise they are working on, if they have…

  1. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  2. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  3. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  4. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  5. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to change below-ground nutrient cycling and thereby alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases. We measured fluxes of CH4 and N2O in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands grown in open-top chambers under ambient and twice...

  6. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  7. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  8. Medio ambiente, empresa y periodismo ambiental. El caso de Canal Natura y las noticias sobre medio ambiente en Andalucía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La revolución industrial del siglo XIX provocó un salto en la evolución de la humanidad sin precedentes, a la que siguieron otras revoluciones como la nuclear y en este final de milenio la de la comunicación. Hoy el progreso se mide no sólo por el beneficio económico que produce una determinada actividad, sino que en el balance intervienen de forma decisiva el respeto que la gestión de un recurso tiene por el medio ambiente.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  10. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  12. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2008 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  13. Evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE; un instrumento preventivo de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Gómez Orea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE es un instrumento para integrar primero el medio ambiente en el proceso de formulación de políticas, planes y programas (PPP y verificar después la realidad de ello. La integración consiste en incorporar sensibilidad, criterio, conocimiento y compromiso ambiental al proceso de elaboración del PPP, desde el principio, con el fin de que la decisión pública al respecto sea la más acertada posible. La verificación comporta dos facetas: la comprobación de que efectivamente se ha hecho un esfuerzo de integración ambiental en la elaboración del PPP y la evaluación del resultado conseguido, evaluación que se realiza a través de la identificación, valoración, prevención y seguimiento de los impactos que se producirían en caso de que llegue a ejecutarse.La integración ambiental comienza en el momento mismo en que surge la idea de elaborar el PPP, y su evaluación también; luego se concreta en un documento técnico (Informe de Sostenibilidad Ambiental: ISA que es parte integrante de la documentación del PPP y que se va desarrollando al mismo tiempo que el borrador del PPP; después sigue el proceso de integración incorporando las determinaciones establecidas en la Memoria Ambiental, que incluirá los resultados de la participación pública, a la elaboración del PPP definitivo.La EAE está regulada a nivel de la UE por la Directiva 2001/42/CE sobre evaluación de los efectos de determinados planes y programas en el medio ambiente; en el ámbito español por la Ley 9/2006 y en las comunidades autónomas por la legislación propia.En el procedimiento administrativo a través del que se aplica existe una fase técnicamente crucial: la elaboración al mismo tiempo del borrador del PPP y del ISA, de tal manera que este se podría interpretar como la incorporación de la dimensión ambiental al proceso de elaboración del borrador del PPP, la verificación de ello y la identificación, valoraci

  14. The awareness of Privacy issues in Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar LÓPEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI involves extensive and invisible integration of computer technologies in people´s daily lives: Smart Sensors, Smart Phones, Tablets, Wireless Sensor Network (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, RFID, etc., Internet (Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, You Tube, Blogs, Cloud Computing, etc.. The Intelligent Environments (IE collect and process a massive amount of person-related and sensitive information.The aim of this work is to show the awareness of privacy issues in AmI and to identify the relevant design issues that should be addressed in order to provide privacy in the design of Ambient Intelligence’s applications focused in the user´s domain and involved technologies. We propose a conceptual framework in order to enforce privacy that takes care of interaction between technologies and devices, users and application´s domain with different modules that contain different steps relating to the privacy policies.

  15. EXTRACTING MODAL PARAMETERS FROM STRUCTURES UNDERGOING AMBIENT EXCITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宏星; 陈之炎; 傅志方; 李中付; 宋汉文

    2001-01-01

    On Line Parameter Identification Technique (OLPIT) was presented according to ambient excitation characteristics and the response cross-correlation function that is a sum of decaying sinusoids of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. OLPIT is a new method of identification modal parameters from response of structures under ambient excitation. OLPIT is different from NExT (natural excitation technique) based on ITD method in four aspects: ① The algorithm is improved by the singular-value decomposition (SVD). ② Multi-value of br in the Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is avoided. ③ OLPIT is used in both SIMO (single input, multi-output) and MIMO (multi input, multi-output). ④ The precision of modal parameter identificatioin is improved. The simulation studies demonstrate that the method is effective in identifying complex modes even with close frequencies and is robust to measurement noise.

  16. The large-scale structure of the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a review of a recent construction, the ambient cosmological metric, and its implications for the global geometry of the universe. According to this proposal, the universe is a bounding hypersurface carrying a conformal structure and lying at the (conformal) infinity of a new, 5-geometry which satisfies the Einstein equations with fluid sources. We discuss our main results about the implied topological nature of the conformal infinity of the ambient metric, the non-existence of spacetime singularities on the boundary, as well as the validity of cosmic censorship as a direct consequence of a new principle on the boundary. Various further issues associated with this proposal are also briefly discussed.

  17. Ambient Intelligence 2.0: Towards Synergetic Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emile; Grotenhuis, Frits

    Ten years of research in Ambient Intelligence have revealed that the original ideas and assertions about the way the concept should develop no longer hold and should be substantially revised. Early scenario's in Ambient Intelligence envisioned a world in which individuals could maximally exploit personalized, context aware, wireless devices thus enabling them to become maximally productive, while living at an unprecedented pace. Environments would become smart and proactive, enriching and enhancing the experience of participants thus supporting maximum leisure possibly even at the risk of alienation. New insights have revealed that these brave new world scenarios are no longer desirable and that people are more in for a balanced approach in which technology should serve people instead of driving them to the max. We call this novel approach Synergetic Prosperity, referring to meaningful digital solutions that balance mind and body, and society and earth thus contributing to a prosperous and sustainable development of mankind.

  18. Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications COST Action 2100

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications reports the findings of COST 2100, a project of the European intergovernmental COST framework addressing various topics currently emerging in mobile and wireless communications. Drawing on experience developed in this and earlier COST projects, the text represents the final outcome of collaborative work involving more than 500 researchers in 140 institutions and 30 countries (including outside Europe). The book’s subject matter includes: • transmission techniques; • signal processing; • radio channel modelling and measurement; • radio network issues; and • recent paradigms including ultra-wideband, cooperative, vehicle-to-vehicle and body communications. The research reported comes from a variety of backgrounds: academic, equipment-manufacturing and operational. The information contained in this book will bring the study reported to a wider audience from all those spheres of work. Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications will be of i...

  19. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  20. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Peeters, B.; Hermans, L.

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....

  1. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....

  2. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: Practical considerations and experimental frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotochaud, Lena; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Kyhl, Line; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    Over the past several decades, ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) has emerged as a powerful technique for in situ and operando investigations of chemical reactions under relevant ambient atmospheres far from ultra-high vacuum conditions. This review focuses on exemplary cases of APXPS experiments, giving special consideration to experimental techniques, challenges, and limitations specific to distinct condensed matter interfaces. We discuss APXPS experiments on solid/vapor interfaces, including the special case of 2D films of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on metal substrates with intercalated gas molecules, liquid/vapor interfaces, and liquid/solid interfaces, which are a relatively new class of interfaces being probed by APXPS. We also provide a critical evaluation of the persistent limitations and challenges of APXPS, as well as the current experimental frontiers.

  3. Presentación al Dossier de Historia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrando en el tema de este número, el Dossier de Historia Ambiental fue una propuesta que se presentó al Comité Editorial de la revista teniendo en cuenta la vigencia de un tema como este en las condiciones actuales de la sociedad que se debate entre el temor, la negación y la acción ambientalista. Pero más allá del activismo, la historia ambiental se ha constituido en una rama de la historia que entra en comunicación con las ciencias naturales y ambientales para insertar lo humano en la discusión actual, centrada en el cambio climático, pero que no es ajena a los “desastres naturales” ni a las transformaciones del paisaje para dar paso al desarrollo.

  4. 5th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the Fifth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, which was held in Catania, Italy, in September 2014 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciting advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  5. Desarrollo y medio ambiente. Algunas miradas desde las ciencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presentan algunas de las teorías que atañen a la relación entre medio ambiente y desarrollo y se plantean interrogantes sobre la forma en que la temática ha sido desarrollada por parte de los científicos sociales. Su objetivo es doble: a de mostrar la polisemia del concepto desarrollo en las teorías económicas y la necesidad de que éstas incorporen indicadores más allá del de la renta (tales como el género, la postmodernidad, el postcolonialismo y los sujetos sociales; b destacar el importante trabajo, principalmente político, de varias de las teorías en cuestiones de medio ambiente y desarrollo.

  6. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  7. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  8. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  9. Individualismo na ética ambiental biocêntrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendonça

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n3p59Este artigo analisa os argumentos, conceitos, propostas e concepções da Ética Ambiental Biocêntrica desenvolvida no livro “Respect for Nature” de Paul W. Taylor. Em seis breves movimentos, são analisados nesse artigo: [i] a concepção de ética ambiental genuína; [ii] seu sistema de crenças; [iii] a atitude de respeito pela natureza; [iv] o sistema ético; [v] a questão dos dilemas morais e princípios de prioridade; e, finalmente, [vi] o limite de aplicação da Ética estabelecida por Taylor.

  10. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases...

  11. Damage localization under ambient vibration using changes in flexibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as a new research area in civil engineering. Mostexisting health monitoring methodologies require direct measurement of input excitation for implementation. However, in manycases, there is no easy way to measure these inputs - or alternatively to externally excite the structure. Therefore, SHM methodsbased on ambient vibration have become important in civil engineering. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the DamageLocation Vector (DLV) method to handle the ambient vibration case. Here, this flexibility-matrix-based damage localization methodis combined with a modal expansion technique to eliminate the need to measure the input excitation. As a by-product of thisapproach, in addition to determining the location of the damage, an estimate of the damage extent also can be determined. Finally, anumerical example analyzing a truss structure with limited sensors and noisy measurement is provided to verify the efficacy of theproposed approach.

  12. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  13. Apparatus for storage of compressed gas at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowther, F.E.

    1986-10-28

    This patent describes an engine system including a combustion engine and an oxidizer subsystem for high density gaseous oxidizer. The oxidizer subsystem comprises: a storage vessel; adsorbent material in the storage vessel capable of adsorbing relatively large volumes of the gaseous oxidizer at ambient temperature and of preventing the instantaneous release thereof in the event of a rupture of the vessel, the storage vessel being operatively connected for delivery of oxidizer to the engine for combination with fuel therein to power the engine.

  14. Common Ambient Assisted Living Home Platform for Seamless Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Stenner, Rene; Memon, Mukhtiar

    The CareStore project is investigating the feasibility of creating an open and flexible infrastructure for facilitating seamless deployment of assisted living devices and applications on heterogeneous platforms. The Common Ambient Assisted Living Home Platform (CAALHP) is intended to be the main ...... user interface for patients and healthcare staff in the CareStore eco system. The aim of this abstract is to demonstrate the currently implemented features and outline relevant perspectives and future work in the CareStore project....

  15. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  16. Bluetooth-based authentication system for ambient intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian HE; Hui LI; Yong ZHANG; Zhang-qin HUANG

    2008-01-01

    According to the requirement of natural human-computer interaction for Ambient Intelligence (AmI), a Bluetooth-based authentication technique is provided. An authentication network combining advantages of Bluetooth ad hoc network with the Ethernet is introduced first in detail. Then we propose a Bluetooth badge for storing the user's identification information. Finally, the authentication system based on Bluetooth badge and authentication network is introduced. It is demonstrated experimentally that the Bluetooth-based authentication technique can authenticate the user automatically.

  17. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  18. Analysis of anions in ambient aerosols by microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V; Collett, Jeffrey L; Henry, Charles S

    2006-11-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass, with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 microM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate, with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 microM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  19. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation ...

  20. La acuicultura y su impacto al medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Espinosa Plascencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de México la producción de camarón cultivado es considerada como una de las más importantes de América Latina. Sin embargo, se presentan grandes pérdidas económicas asociadas a enfermedades durante su cultivo, aunado a la intervención intensiva que generan las prácticas acuícolas que van degradando el medio ambiente. Esto es, primero, por la utilización del agua que recibe grandes cantidades de desechos, así como el alimento no consumido por los organismos que se sedimenta en el fondo marino, dañando al ambiente que es habitado no solo por los organismos cultivados sino también por otras especies. Segundo, porque se introducen antibióticos y sustancias químicas al ecosistema durante el desarrollo de la actividad. Por ello, fue necesario evaluar el efecto de un antibiótico y un biocida sobre las bacterias que habitan un sistema de cultivo, en relación al desarrollo de resistencia y la presencia de lesiones en los distintos órganos de camarón Litopenaeus vannamei. El empleo de los compuestos puede generar una huella ecológica, ya que se considera que un sistema de cultivo tiene una influencia en el medio ambiente diez mil veces superior a su superficie. El impacto tiene un costo ambiental, económico y social y la pregunta que surge es si esto es sustentable en el tiempo.

  1. Discurso, complexidade e sustentabilidade ambiental em organizações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Ricardo Montenegro de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo busca-se realizar uma investigação sobre a dinâmica da internalização da sustentabilidade ambiental em uma organização produtiva do setor sucroenergético. A discussão teórica se desenvolve a partir da crítica de Jurgen Habermas ao funcionalismo sistêmico de Niklas Luhmann. Também, discute-se o tema esfera pública ambiental e administração da sustentabilidade ambiental, como forma de adequar as organizações aos novos padrões de qualidade exigidos e demandados pelo Estado, Mercado e Sociedade. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados foram: entrevista, análise de documentos e aplicação questionário fechado. O questionário usado com 12 representantes da usina possui trinta (30 assertivas, acompanhadas cada uma delas de dois cenários extremos. Os resultados apresentam que a organização passou a internalizar a sustentabilidade ambiental em seu sistema organizacional a partir de um Termo de Ajustamento de Conduta, elaborado pelo Ministério Pública Estadual. Assim como ao internalizar as práticas sustentáveis houve adaptação em diferentes áreas, como: gestão organizacional, aquisições, gestão da produção, gestão de pessoas e gestão de marketing.

  2. heterokonta de ambientes estuariales y salinos de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina M. Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan y describen cinco cepas de Thraustochytriales aisladas de dos ambientes: uno salino continental y otro estuarial. Debido a que las observaciones no coincidieron exactamente con las descripciones originales, tanto en lo morfológico como en lo ecológico, las cepas se determinaron como Thraustochytrium aff. antarcticum, Ulkenia aff. radiata y U. aff. visurgensis. Estos registros constituyen las primeras citas de Labyrinthulomycetes para Argetnina.

  3. Contabilidade ambiental e Geografia econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Robert Moraes

    2009-01-01

    teoría geográfica, la cual ofrece una posibilidad de evaluación contable sintética del potencial y del uso de un determinado territorio, inventariando los materiales y fuentes existentes, así como los impactos de su utilización sobre las reservas y condiciones naturales. Esta perspectiva puede contribuir a las políticas de ordenamiento territorial y de planificación ambiental en particular.

  4. Historia de ríos: ¿Historia ambiental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Arruda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este artículo es discutir las posibilidades y dificultades de la historia ambiental para estudiar la relación histórica entre el hombre y los ríos. Desarrollo un análisis histórico acerca del río Tibagi en el estado de Paraná en el siglo XIX.

  5. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  6. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  7. Neuroestetica e Ambiente percettivo: pensare strutture interattive a 3 Dimensioni

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Invitto

    2013-01-01

    ItNegli ultimi anni molte ricerche hanno posto l’attenzione su come le tecnologie legate alle neuroscienze cognitive possono essere di supporto nell’ambito delle strutture didattiche e museali. Scopo di questo lavoro è presentare, in maniera sintetica e integrata, come in differenti situazioni legate all’ambiente percettivo museale o ai beni culturali la realtà virtuale e la neuroestetica possano essere elementi di supporto. Si prenderanno in considerazioni recenti ricerche legate alle neuro...

  8. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  9. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  10. Development of an Ecosystem for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, João; Camarinha-Matos, Luis,; Carvalho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Ana; Ferrada, Filipa

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Key Applications; International audience; Society is facing big demographic changes. In 2050, it is expected that the number of elders will reach 1500 million (about 16% of the world population). As people age, they become more dependent on assistance services. Care and assistance organizations start failing, as the number of people who need help increases beyond their ability to comply. The creation of an ecosystem for Ambient Assisted Living, facilitating partnerships creation betwe...

  11. Especialización en Toxicología Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de la Peña de Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una exposición de las actividades y cursos de formación en el área de toxicología ambiental tomando como partida la creación en la AETOX de la Sección de Toxicología Ambiental (STA; previamente se inició la actividad de dicha Sección en mayo de 2001, con la celebración de la primera Reunión de Toxicología Ambiental, en el Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales del CSIC; y en ese mismo año se inicia una estrecha colaboración en el Máster de Toxicología. Se remarca el interés de los cursos de especialización ya organizados y que se proyectan para un futuro, que han contado y cuentan con destacados profesionales, facultativos, científicos e investigadores, lo que complementan la labor docente de la Universidad, que no es muy extensa en esta sub-área de la Toxicología la Toxicología Ambiental. Se señala la utilidad que las redes de información tienen en la actualidad para la promoción y visibilidad, lo que contribuye en el desarrollo y difusión de la toxicología, en la que la AETOX promociona y colabora activamente donde se muestran las propuestas de actividades tanto en España como en Iberoamérica, que se difunden realizadas en la página web de la Red Iberoamericana de Toxicología y Seguridad Química (RITSQ (http://ritsq.org.

  12. Governança ambiental e economia verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roberto Jacobi

    Full Text Available A Conferência Rio+20 mobiliza a comunidade global em 2012 para participar de um desafiador debate sobre a realidade ambiental global e modus operandi existente quanto à temática ampla e genérica do desenvolvimento e do ambiente. Um dos temas estruturantes desta reunião é a transição para uma economia verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável e da erradicação da pobreza. O tema da Governança Ambiental Global um dos carros chefe do debate na Rio+20, no intuito de promover e acelerar a transição rumo a sociedades sustentáveis, configura a construção muitas vezes, de forma controversa, das condições para a definição de novos espaços institucionais e processos decisórios compartilhados. Este artigo propõe aos leitores uma reflexão para discutir que tipo de sustentabilidade está por trás da economia verde, a sua aplicabilidade e o que deva ser priorizada na discussão de governança ambiental. Isto se explica na medida em que existe a necessidade de mudar os mecanismos de utilização dos recursos, profundamente injustos, e que impedem avanços nos processos decisórios, pois as decisões de poucos tem configurado uma lógica perversa de expropriação de recursos naturais e não resolução da exclusão social.

  13. Energía, tecnología y ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosillo-Villalobos, Juan J.

    1987-01-01

    La sociedad es dependiente del consumo de un solo recurso energético, los hidrocarburos, fuente que está próxima a agotarse y que además ha tenido consecuencias negativas sobre el medio ambiente. Se explora la energía solar como una de las mejores alternativas al problema energético, se habla de su viabilidad, sus ventajas, desventajas y aplicaciones.

  14. El Biomanizales: Política ambiental local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractLa documentación de la experiencia en Gestión Ambiental Urbana de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia ha sido realizada entre los años 1999 y 2000, dentro del marco de implementación del proyecto de Apoyo para la Implementación de Planes Nacionales de Acción –HABITAT II (SINPA), sigla que c

  15. A motivação no ambiente organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Alcindo Arcenio Pinheiro Gomes; Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves Quelhas

    2003-01-01

    O presente artigo faz uma abordagem panorâmica de um elemento abstrato do ambiente organizacional e que, talvez em função desta característica, é freqüentemente negligenciado no contexto da gestão: a motivação dos recursos humanos. Apresenta uma breve visão da teoria motivacional, em que trata do conceito de motivação sob a ótica das teorias behav...

  16. Responsabilidad ambiental empresarial: el caso de "Hotelera Posadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Esther Vargas Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frente a los altos niveles de deterioro de la naturaleza, las organizaciones públicas y privadas han configurado una serie de acciones tendientes a la conservación del entorno, las cuales, en su conjunto, son denominadas gestión ambiental, cuyo propósito de implementación ha llegado a diferentes ámbitos incluyendo el turismo. El artículo expone a través de un estudio de caso cómo la Hotelera Posadas ha asumido su responsabilidad ambiental obedeciendo a dos intenciones: el compromiso empresarial que se tiene como la hotelera con más presencia en la República Mexicana y el hacer uso de la oportunidad invaluable para mejorar su posición competitiva ante la percepción pública, al reportar resultados ambientales; todo ello, en un marco de cooperación entre empresa y gobierno en donde la participación de la operadora hotelera en el Programa Nacional de Auditoría Ambiental se reconoce como una contribución al logro de la sustentabilidad.

  17. Ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh Shakya, Viplendra P; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2009-06-01

    Temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. Using papaya as a host and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. The phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees C) of papaya cultivation. However, there was a drastic difference, 10 degrees C above and below the ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism of these well-known observations are not yet understood completely; however, these observations might help find answers in RNA silencing mechanism of plants. Since viral-derived silencing suppressor proteins play a significant role in RNA silencing mechanism, here we show that PRSV-derived Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) protein has an affinity for small RNAs in a temperature-dependent manner. This suggested the probable role of HC-Pro in the temperature-regulated host-virus relationship.

  18. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos Advertising and environment: some aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ribeiro de Almeida Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no tratamento de temas ambientais.This article deals with the increasing role advertising has played on the social construction of the environmental debate. Though studies on media and environment are generally focused on newspaper and television content, in the past decades advertising has become a main issue for many researchers. The article outlines the importance of consumption as a key concept in modern world and its effects on the field of environmental studies. The discussion that follows analyses some aspects of the growing specialization of environmental issues advertising.

  19. Concepciones de los estudiantes rurales acerca del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rocío Bustamante-Saavedra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Describe los resultados de una investigación en educación ambiental que tuvo como propósito caracterizar las concepciones y creencias de los estudiantes de básica secundaria del sector rural sobre el medioambiente. Los participantes fueron 61 alumnos y alumnas de la Institución Educativa Técnica Salamanca, del Municipio de Samacá, Boyacá-Colombia, y los ejes de indagación fueron aspectos proambientales a partir de cuatro categorías principales: a Preocupación individual, b Preocupación social, c Confianza y d Criterio. Se adaptó un test especifico de 29 ítems y una escala de respuesta tipo Liker (4 opciones, basados en Moreno, Corraliza y Ruíz (1. De los resultados preliminares se puede concluir que existe gran preocupación individual en varios aspectos relacionados con la problemática ambiental. Para fomentar la educación ambiental es necesario un proceso de reconocimiento de valores y conceptos, y potencializar las actitudes a través de la implementación de estrategias pedagógicas que generen cambio social y cultural favorable.

  20. Medio ambiente urbano en Huixquilucan, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Marín Origel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone la hegemonía del desarrollo inmobiliario asociado al deterioro medio ambiental en el municipio de Huixquilucan. La perspectiva se construyó a partir de la revisión documental, trabajo de campo y la información obtenida de un foro en línea. Los resultados confirman que el desarrollo inmobiliario en zonas de reserva natural es el resultado de la inoperancia de la política de regulación del uso del suelo urbano, las inversiones pública y privada, la oferta de un grupo especializado de inmobiliarias y la demanda potencial de población con poder adquisitivo, y las condiciones biofísicas, la inestabilidad del terreno y la degradación medio ambiental se colocan como externalidades del modelo urbano privado de alta rentabilidad. Esta situación requiere de medidas de contención fundadas en principios de ordenamiento territorial y la participación de los distintos sectores sociales, que garanticen la transparencia y la aplicación de sanciones en materia de protección ecológica y ambiental, con el objeto de mantener en el largo plazo las condiciones de habitabilidad.

  1. MEDIO AMBIENTE URBANO EN HUIXQUILUCAN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Marín Origel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone la hegemonía del desarrollo inmobiliario asociado :tI deterioro medio ambiental en el municipio de Huixquüucan. La pers pectiva se cOimruyó a partir de la revisión documental, trabajo de campo v la información obtenida de un foro en línea. Los resultados confirman que el desarrollo inmobiliario en zonas de reserva natural es el result;¡do ambiental se colocan como externaJidades del modelo urbano priva do de alea rentabilidad. Esra situación requiere de medidas de contención fundadas en principios de ordenamienro territorial y la participación de los discinros sectores sociales, que garanticen la transparencia y la aplicación de SlDciones en materia de prQ[ección ecológica y ambiental, con el objeto de .:DóUltener en el largo plaw las condiciones de habitabilidad.

  2. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Jacob; Le, Duc; Havinga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and suffer from uncertain input latencies. This uncertainty makes accurate localization challenging. Therefore, we present a collaborative localization algorithm (Cooperative Localization on Android with ambient Sound Sources (CLASS)) that simultaneously localizes the position of indeterministic devices and ambient sound sources without local infrastructure. The CLASS algorithm deals with the uncertainty by splitting the devices into subsets so that outliers can be removed from the time difference of arrival values and localization results. Since Android is indeterministic, we select Android devices to evaluate our approach. The algorithm is evaluated with an outdoor experiment and achieves a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.18 m with a standard deviation of 0.22 m. Estimated directions towards the sound sources have a mean RMSE of 17.5° and a standard deviation of 2.3°. These results show that it is feasible to simultaneously achieve a relative positioning of both devices and sound sources with sufficient accuracy, even when using non-deterministic devices and platforms, such as Android. PMID:27649176

  3. Geomorfologia, Análise ambiental e Geoprocessamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Xavier da Silva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva realçar algumas possíveis conexões entre o conhecimento geomorfológico e sua prática, e a perspectiva sistêmica e o geoprocessamento. A Geomorfologia é reconhecida como um campo fundamental de investigação científica, em particular em relação à pesquisa ambiental.Muitas definições são submetidas à crítica, na tentativa de chamar a atenção de pesquisadores do ambiente para as contribuições conceituais, metodológicas e tecnológicas oriundas da Teoria Geral dos Sistemas e do Geoprocessamento e uso de Sistemas Geográficos de Informação.Dois tipos de modelos ambientais são apresentados: a um modelo geomorfológico pictórico-sistêmico; e b um modelo ambiental conceitual-holístico. Uma breve discussão acerca de termos como avaliações, cenários e diagnoses ambientais compõem a parte final do trabalho.

  4. O Palmito Pupunha, A Gastronomia e o Meio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Frota de Albuquerque Maranhão

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresentado a seguir trata de uma questão gastronômica associada a um contexto ambiental: a devastação da Mata Atlântica é um fenômeno histórico e atual cada vez mais preocupante, e combatido pela consciência ambiental crescente e pela legislação. Entre os agentes desta devastação, estão os extratores do apreciado palmito juçara, ameaçado de extinção: objetiva-se aqui estudar a possibilidade de preservação dessa planta, pela sua substituição por um outro palmito, cultivado e de manejo sustentável, o da pupunha. Mediante o estudo de caso de uma fazenda paulista produtora da pupunheira, verifica-se que a sustentabilidade da atividade com o seu palmito é real: em seguida, o artigo relata as pesquisas feitas no Centro de Pesquisas em Gastronomia Brasileira da Universidade Anhembi Morumbi, para verificar as possibilidades gastronômicas do referido palmito, para efeito dele ser oferecido como alternativa no mercado de alimentos, garantindo a preservação ambiental tanto da palmeira juçara quanto da pupunha, num contexto de alta qualidade alimentar e gastronômica.   

  5. Acoustic user interfaces for ambient-assisted living technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Stefan; Moritz, Niko; Appell, Jens-E; Meis, Markus; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses technologies for acoustic user interaction in ambient-assisted living (AAL) scenarios. Acoustic user interfaces allow for a natural and convenient way to interact with technical systems e.g. via sound or speech presentation or via speech input by means of automatic speech recognition (ASR) as well as by detection and classification of acoustic events. Older persons targeted by AAL technologies especially need more easy-to-use methods to interact with inherently complex supporting technology. As an example we designed and evaluated an application for acoustic user interaction with a multi-media reminder and calendar system. For this purpose, mainly older participants were involved in user studies to continuously evaluate and support the development strictly following a user-centred design process. The results suggest a wide acceptance of acoustic user interfaces by older users either for controlling inherently complex AAL systems by using robust ASR technologies or as a natural and ambient way of presenting information to the user. However, further research is needed to increase the robustness of ASR systems when using hands-free equipment, i.e. to provide a real ambient way of interaction, and to introduce personalised speech and sound presentation schemes accounting for the individual hearing capabilities and sound preferences.

  6. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards...

  7. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  8. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia adding ambient air quality standards and associated reference conditions for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) that are consistent with the 2013 National Ambient...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  10. 78 FR 57631 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... AGENCY Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Ambient...), Ambient Air Quality Surveillance (Renewal) (EPA ICR No. 0940.27, OMB Control No. 2060-0084) to the Office... approved under the Nitrogen Oxides Ambient Monitoring ICR (OMB 2060-0638, EPA ICR Number 2358.03) and...

  11. 78 FR 12052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... were approved under separate rulemaking actions: ICR 2358 (OMB 2060-0638) Nitrogen Oxides Ambient Monitoring ] ICR 2370 (OMB 2060-0642) Sulfur Dioxides Ambient Monitoring ICR 0940 (OMB 2060-0084) PM...

  12. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... promulgating initial area designations for the ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) that...

  13. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards and... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 2.5 . EPA is approving these revisions in...

  14. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air... pollution control agencies, and tribal entities which collect and report ambient air quality data for the criteria pollutants to the EPA as well as other supporting measurements. Title: Ambient Air...

  15. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... concentrations of PM 2.5 in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human...

  16. 75 FR 81477 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Amendments to Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... to Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia. This revision consists of amendments to the Commonwealth of Virginia's ambient air... amendments to the Commonwealth's existing ambient air quality standards for particulate matter in...

  17. Psicologia Ambiental e Política Ambiental: questões teóricas e práticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Garcia Mira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo indaga como contribuir para construir uma ponte entre os psicólogos ambientais e os políticos dado que os psicólogos ambientais estiveram mais preocupados com o desenvolvimento teórico e acadêmico da disciplina do que com conectar áreas aplicadas da Psicologia Ambiental ao mundo complexo da Política Ambiental Aponta que, embora as pontes variem quanto à escala, há outras suposições igualmente importantes a serem consideradas como o contexto democrático e participativo. Apresenta a comunicação uni-direcional versus a bi-direcional e discute o modo como a PA tem visto esta ponte. Finaliza propondo a PA como processo dentro de uma visão alternativa de participação.

  18. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL COMO METODOLOGIA PARTICIPATIVA E DIAGNÓSTICA À GESTÃO E PLANEJAMENTO AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    do NASCIMENTO, Flávio Rodrigues; Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo trabalha a educação ambiental como um processo comunitário de base local-regional, destacando procedimentos metodológicos participativos para a construção de um diagnóstico ambiental focado nos principais problemas sociais, econômicos e físico-naturais. Tal diagnóstico serviu de base para elaboração de um plano de gestão para bacia hidrográfica, concebida como unidade de estudo. Como perspectivas metodológicas básica foram explicitadas e realizadas análises  stratégicas através de...

  19. Consideraciones jurídicas sobre el ordenamiento territorial ambiental Consideraciones jurídicas sobre el ordenamiento territorial ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available What is land management? How important it is as instrument for environmental monitoring? In this paper the author tries to answer to this and other issues related to the importance of this concept as a tool for sustainable development. Moreover, it presents an exegetic analysis of how this concept has been attended by governmental administrations linked to the environment.¿Qué es ordenamiento territorial? ¿Cuál es su importancia como instrumento de gestión ambiental? En el presente artículo el autor da respuesta a estos y otros temas en relación con la importancia que presenta este concepto como herramienta para el desarrollo sostenible. Asimismo, realiza un análisis exegético de cómo ha sido abordado este concepto en cada nivel de gobierno, siempre vinculado al medio ambiente.

  20. Gerencia de proyectos en el contexto del periodismo ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Patiño Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los retos que tiene el periodismo ambiental como dinamizador de los procesos de transformación social, de cambio en las representaciones sociales de la población y en el análisis de los efectos e impactos de la actividad humana sobre el ambiente y el bienestar de la comunidad desde la perspectiva de la ciencia y la tecnologia. A su vez, plantea elementos de reflexión sobre el desarrollo de la competencia investigativa en los periodistas, que les permita desarrollar su papel en función de generar capacidades en las personas para la autogestión, la participación y las deciciones sobre la sostenibilidad del planeta. Introduce conceptos relacionados la con gerencia de proyectos y pondera el talento humano, la clave del éxito. Describe cada una de las fases del ciclo de vida del proyecto y en las conclusiones presentala experiencia del convenio firmado entre la Corporación Autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y del San Jorge - CVS y la Red Colombiana de Formación Ambiental - RCFA, con el propósito de fortalecer la cultura ambiental ciudadana en las comunidadesdel Departamento de Córdoba, a través del convenio. Cualifìcación del Recurso Humano para el Fortalecimiento de los Procesos de Educación no Formal, mediante la puesta en marcha de dos componentes: 1. Obtención de alianzas o acuerdos orientados al mejoramiento y a la sostenibilidad de los espacios públicos en tres áreas estratégicas de Montería; 2. Realización de un diplomado en periodismo ambiental dirigido a comunicadores sociales del departamento de Córdoba.

  1. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  2. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  3. Ambiente y salud: Reflexiones sobre la interacción entre el Derecho Ambiental y el Derecho de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista sanitario se entiende por Ambiente “el conjunto de condiciones físicas, químicas biológicas, psicológicas, sociales, culturales y económicas en las que vive una población y sus interacciones”.Asu vez, la Salud Pública ha identificado al ambiente como un determinante de la salud, concibiéndolo como el de mayor significación del proceso salud/enfermedad.Por ende, puede llegar a constituirse en un entorno peligroso o saludable.La salud admite entonces cuatro influencias decisivas: el estilo de vida, la biología humana, el sistema de atención a la salud y el ambiente.Contenido: Caracteres. Organismos competentes. Código de Aguas. Competencias Municipales. Régimen legal de la Salud. Normas nacionales. Normas Internacionales. Normas MERCOSUR. Normas de Bioética

  4. CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO Y MEDIO AMBIENTE EN MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S. Gómez-López; Karla S. Barrón Arreola; Luis Moreno Moreno

    2011-01-01

    El artículo hace un análisis de la relación entre crecimiento económico y medio ambiente para las 32 entidades federativas de la República Mexicana. La curva ambiental de Kuznets (CAK) sugiere la existencia de una relación entre crecimiento económico y medio ambiente. A medida que las economías disfrutan un mayor crecimiento económico, se presenta una degradación ambiental y una vez que se alcanza cierto crecimiento, aumenta la disponibilidad a pagar por la conservación del medio ambiente. En...

  5. O QUE PENSAM OS ENFERMEIROS SOBRE A PROBLEMÁTICA AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Gonçalves Aguiar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue conocer lo que piensan los enfermeros acerca de la problemática ambiental. Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva exploratoria, con enfermeros de Hospital Universitario. Los datos fueron recolectados entre noviembre de 2010 y marzo de 2011, por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y analizados con base en el referencial de análisis de contenido. Los enfermeros tienen visiones diferenciadas sobre el medio ambiente y noción de que enfrentarse una grave crisis ambiental. Afirman que hay interfaz entre salud y medio ambiente, pero no fueron instrumentalizados acerca d el tema. Entienden que precisan actuar de forma responsable con el medio ambiente. El debate sobre la interfaz salud y medio ambiente necesita ser ampliado, en el cotidiano del profesional enfermero, en el sentido de buscar la responsabilidad de los profesionales con la sustentabilidad ambiental .

  6. Governança ambiental no Brasil: ecos do passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Drummond Câmara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de uma análise da ação governamental para o controle do uso dos recursos natno Brasil, desde o descobrimento, em 1500. Teve como objetivo compreender o processo de formulação e execução de políticas ambientais, considerando a evolução de conceitos, regras e instituições do período colonial até os dias atuais, caracterizando as bases históricas, institucionais e legais que moldaram a atual governança ambiental brasileira. A pesquisa foi realizada consultando referências bibliográficas e documentos governamentais com dados e informações diversos. Pode-se observar que ao longo da história do País, a ação governamental concentrou-se nas ações de comando e controle, com regras e instituições específicas para determinados recursos naturais, com pouca ou nenhuma integração com outras políticas ou processos gerenciais de uso de recursos naturais, situação que mudou significativamente após a instituição da Lei nº 6.938/81, da Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente, quando houve correspondência da evolução da gestão ambiental no Brasil com os conceitos, princípios, diretrizes e critérios de governança ambiental e seus resultados. Apesar dos avanços em direção aos critérios de reforma e modernização do Estado como descentralização, participação, democratização, capacitação gerencial, eficiência e eficácia, a relação da sociedade, do Governo e do setor privado com a natureza ainda reflete uma visão colonial utilitarista, imediatista e de uso insustentável dos recursos naturais, aliada a problemas de execução das normas e regras, causando degradação ambiental e comprometendo o desenvolvimento sustentável. Indicam a necessidade de se avaliar mais criticamente os alcances da Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente em função da contínua perda dos recursos e serviços ambientais e o elevado padrão de consumo da sociedade em bases não sustentáveis, requerendo mudanças de

  7. Crustal structure of Australia from ambient seismic noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Surface wave tomography for Australian crustal structure has been carried out using group velocity measurements in the period range 1-32 s extracted from stacked correlations of ambient noise between station pairs. Both Rayleigh wave and Love wave group velocity maps are constructed for each period using the vertical and transverse component of the Green's function estimates from the ambient noise. The full suite of portable broadband deployments and permanent stations on the continent have been used with over 250 stations in all and up to 7500 paths. The permanent stations provide a useful link between the various shorter-term portable deployments. At each period the group velocity maps are constructed with a fully nonlinear tomographic inversion exploiting a subspace technique and the Fast Marching Method for wavefront tracking. For Rayleigh waves the continental coverage is good enough to allow the construction of a 3D shear wavespeed model in a two stage approach. Local group dispersion information is collated for a distribution of points across the continent and inverted for a 1D SV wavespeed profile using a Neighbourhood Algorithm method. The resulting set of 1D models are then interpolated to produce the final 3D wavespeed model. The group velocity maps show the strong influence of thick sediments at shorter periods, and distinct fast zones associated with cratonic regions. Below the sediments the 3D shear wavespeed model displays significant heterogeneity with only moderate correlation with surface tectonic features. For example, there is no evident expression of the Tasman Line marking the eastern edge of Precambrian outcrop. The large number of available inter-station paths extracted from the ambient noise analysis provide detailed shear wavespeed information for crustal structure across the Australian continent for the first time, including regions where there was no prior sampling because of difficult logistics.

  8. Bayesian characterization of buildings using seismic interferometry on ambient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Mordret, Aurélien; Prieto, Germán A.; Toksöz, M. Nafi; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of engineering structures provides a crucial alternative to assess its health condition as well as evaluate its safety throughout the whole service life. To link the field measurements to the characteristics of a building, one option is to characterize and update a model, against the measured data, so that it can best describe the behavior and performance of the structure. In this paper, we present a novel computational strategy for Bayesian probabilistic updating of building models with response functions extracted from ambient noise measurements using seismic interferometry. The intrinsic building impulse response functions (IRFs) can be extracted from ambient excitation by deconvolving the motion recorded at different floors with respect to the measured ambient ground motion. The IRF represents the representative building response to an input delta function at the ground floor. The measurements are firstly divided into multiple windows for deconvolution and the IRFs for each window are then averaged to represent the overall building IRFs. A hierarchical Bayesian framework with Laplace priors is proposed for updating the finite element model. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-walk steps is employed to sample the model parameters for uncertainty quantification. An illustrative example is studied to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for temporal monitoring and probabilistic model updating of buildings. The structure considered in this paper is a 21-storey concrete building instrumented with 36 accelerometers at the MIT campus. The methodology described here allows for continuous temporal health monitoring, robust model updating as well as post-earthquake damage detection of buildings.

  9. La arquitectura el Bienestar: el ambiente físico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal, José M.

    1978-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently several meetings were held in the COAM, sponsored by the Culture Commission to discuss THE ARCHITECTURE OF WELL-BEING: THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT, an aspect frequently marginated by the architect while the user's demands increase, as well as the complexity of harmonizing creativity and technology. As a result of these meetings, the Culture Commission, with the collaboration of ADAE, plan to carry out several programs in an attempt to contribute to improving the physical environment in the architectonic interior and so that the architect be in charge of the environmental design. This article includes the author's general impressions, as well as some comments by those who attended the meetings and by well-known foreign architects.

    Recientemente se han celebrado en el COAM unas reuniones convocadas por la Comisión de Cultura para hablar de la ARQUITECTURA DEL BIENESTAR: EL AMBIENTE FÍSICO, aspecto con frecuencia marginado por el arquitecto, mientras se incrementan las exigencias del usuario, así como la complejidad de armonizar creatividad y tecnología. Como resultado de estas reuniones, la Comisión de Cultura, con la colaboración de ADAE, prevé realizar diversas actuaciones en un intento de contribuir a la mejora del ambiente físico en el interior arquitectónico y a que el arquitecto lleve la dirección real del diseño ambiental. En este artículo se recogen unas impresiones generales del autor, así como algunos comentarios de los que asistieron a las reuniones y de conocidos arquitectos extranjeros.

  10. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  11. Las Ciencias Sociales en la Educación Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ARAMBURU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Parece evidente que la cosmovisión concebida e impuesta por la civilización occidental, se tambalea hoy por una serie de circunstancias que la propia naturaleza está dejando de manifiesto y que la comunidad científica denuncia con mayor insistencia: la finitud de los recursos naturales, las consecuencias laterales que conlleva un tipo de desarrollo ilimitado y sin evaluaciones previas de su impacto, la universalidad de los fenómenos de deterioro ambiental... Frente al hombre dominador y señor de todos los recursos, que infravalora y que deja fuera de sus códigos éticos al resto de los componentes bióticos de la naturaleza (destruir plantas y animales no ha estado contemplado penalmente se va imponiendo como vital una nueva visión: la de la biosfera —realidad global que alberga a todos los seres vivos, incluido el humano— amenazada en su esencia por incorrectas aplicaciones tecnológicas. Según este cambio radical de actitudes la naturaleza no es sólo una fuente ilimitada de recursos para satisfacer las necesidades humanas, sino, al mismo tiempo y ante todo, un inmenso ecosistema que se autorregula por sus propias leyes y el medio ambiente que envuelve y posibilita la existencia diaria de los seres vivos de su entorno y que condiciona la supervivencia del resto del planeta. Esta nueva mentalidad supone una revisión radical del talante humano ante la naturaleza no por pura complacencia estética, ni por un sentimentalismo vacío de contenido, sino por la convicción de que la humanidad forma un todo integrado en la biosfera y que el deterioro ambiental es, al mismo tiempo, una degradación del medio humano.

  12. A motivação no ambiente organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcindo Arcenio Pinheiro Gomes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma abordagem panorâmica de um elemento abstrato do ambiente organizacional e que, talvez em função desta característica, é freqüentemente negligenciado no contexto da gestão: a motivação dos recursos humanos. Apresenta uma breve visão da teoria motivacional, em que trata do conceito de motivação sob a ótica das teorias behaviorista, da motivação consciente (enfoques da teoria da expectância, da atribuição causal, da eqüidade, do cálculo motivacional e do contrato psicológico, da motivação intrínseca, da motivação-higiene e da hierarquia das necessidades humanas. Discorre sobre a motivação no ambiente organizacional e sobre o seu entendimento como uma conseqüência de fatores tais como a coerção e o controle, as recompensas e incentivos financeiros, o relacionamento interpessoal e a influência do grupo, o nível de satisfação das necessidades pessoais, as condições do ambiente de trabalho, os aspectos inerentes à natureza própria das atividades, entre outros. Em sua conclusão, o artigo destaca a necessidade e a importância prática do conhecimento, por parte dos gerentes das organizações, quanto à temática da motivação, seja para evitar custos desnecessários e contraproducentes, seja para assegurar a competitividade da empresa e a lucratividade do negócio. Palavras-chave: Motivação, recursos humanos, gestão organizacional.

  13. La acuicultura y su impacto al medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Espinosa Plascencia; María del Carmen Bermúdez Almada

    2012-01-01

    En el noroeste de México la producción de camarón cultivado es considerada como una de las más importantes de América Latina. Sin embargo, se presentan grandes pérdidas económicas asociadas a enfermedades durante su cultivo, aunado a la intervención intensiva que generan las prácticas acuícolas que van degradando el medio ambiente. Esto es, primero, por la utilización del agua que recibe grandes cantidades de desechos, así como el alimento no consumido por los organismos que se sedimenta en e...

  14. El problema ambiental y el estilo de desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Augusto

    1988-01-01

    La toma de conciencia de la problemática ambiental en el decenio de los sesenta, planteó sorpresivamente la duda sobre la posibilidad de sostener el ritmo de desarrollo alcanzado por los países industrializados. El gigantesco crecimiento de la plataforma tecnológica obtenido durante el presente siglo, pero especialmente desde la última guerra mundial, estaba empezando a encontrar los límites, impuestos por la estructura misma de la vida. Ya Kenneth Boulding, siguiendo las tesis clásicas del m...

  15. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organized by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analyses using two different techniques: a non-parametric based...... on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm. Both techniques identified 11 modes under 10 HZ. One case of three close modes and one case of two close modes were identified. For all...

  16. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organised by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analysed using two different techniques: a non-parametric based...... on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm. Both techniques identified 11 modes under 10 Hz. One case of three close modes and one case of two close modes were identified. For all...

  17. LIDERAZGO Y MOTIVACIÓN EN EL AMBIENTE EDUCATIVO UNIVERSITARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Yajaira Alvarado; Ana Teresa Prieto Sánchez; Daryeling Betancourt

    2009-01-01

    Las tareas del líder con respecto a la motivación son muchas y variadas. Entre otras cosas, un líder debe reconocer la necesidad de sus seguidores, ayudarlos a ver como pueden concretar esas necesidades y darles la confianza para que puedan alcanzar a remover constricciones o inhibiciones que han impedido la motivación. Esta inquietud ha sido la impulsora del presente artículo, que tiene como objetivo analizar el liderazgo y la motivación en el ambiente educativo universitario, concibiendo co...

  18. Brasil: desafios para uma história ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Martinez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca identificar sentidos para el estudio del medio ambiente en una perspectiva temporal por parte de los historiadores; de qué manera los cambios sociales en el pasaje del siglo XX hacia el XXI tocaran a los objetos, métodos de investigación y a la enseñanza de Historia en distintas partes de mundo y en Brasil; los retos teóricos, las necesidades y las posibilidades de diálogo intelectual abiertos en las últimas décadas.

  19. Ambientes de Geometria Dinâmica: Potencialidades e Imprevistos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esse artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo analisar as contribuições pedagógicas de um ambiente de geometria dinâmica através do trabalho em um grupo de estudos formado por futuros professores de matemática. O grupo se reuniu para ler e discutir artigos científicos, explorar um software de geometria dinâmica e elaborar uma oficina para alunos do ensino médio de uma escola pública. O artigo destaca episódios oriundos das atividades elaboradas pelo grupo as quais in...

  20. Por uma Psicologia Ambiental das diferenças

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Pedreira Rabinovich

    2005-01-01

    Esta apresentação define a posição da autora dentro de um enfoque relativista e culturalista - epistemologica e metodologicamente considerado - apontando para o viés etnocêntrico e para a alienação do real campo de pesquisas como conseqüências de posicionamentos que não levam em consideração a posição do pesquisador no mundo. Aproxima-se, assim, de uma postura equivalente a uma "Psicologia Ambiental Indígena".

  1. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...... state-of-the-art of AAL. The objective is to point towards methodological actions to be taken into account in AAL research on this basis. Searches were conducted in five research databases. The search identified 86 papers. 10 of these papers were review papers chosen for analysis. The analysis presents...

  2. Effects of ambient conditions on multi-capillary ventilation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major physical parameter for the tobacco industry, the ventilation rate of cigarette should be measured reliably. Theoretical and numerical investigation on ef-fects of ambient conditions (e. g., cumulative flux of ozone and additional pressure drop on the ventilation rate was carried out. It was found that the standards exhibited a non-linear airflow component, which explains why additional pressure drop has an effect on the calibrated value, and had low sensitivity to cumulative flux of ozone.

  3. Criminología ambiental orientada a la delincuencia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Bernaola Ponce, Nagore

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo ofrece una revisión bibliográfica buscando transmitir una mayor comprensión de la delincuencia juvenil desde el punto de vista de la criminología ambiental. Y con el objeto de profundizar en el conocimiento de las características espaciales de la delincuencia juvenil, se analizan de forma descriptiva los dtos obtenidos de 84 atestados de la Guardia Municipal de Donostia, correspondientes a detenciones de menores de entre 14 y 18 años en los años 2013 y 2014.

  4. Anclaje social de la comunicación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    ¿Qué pretendemos los periodistas –de carrera o de oficio- cuando iniciamos una capacitación que vincula “comunicación y medio ambiente”? Quizás aspiramos a convertirnos en, o reconocernos como, “periodistas ambientales”; es indudable que nos interesa adquirir más herramientas para comunicar cuestiones relacionadas con el medio ambiente. Estos dos ejes son interesantes en sí mismos: ¿qué decimos cuando utilizamos estas palabras? (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen...

  5. Introducción : el consumo y la responsabilidad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-01-01

    La recurrente pregunta sobre quién ha podido, puede, o podría dar alternativas para atenuar y quizás detener la crisis ambiental tiene varias respuestas. Asuntos de magnitud considerable, como el cambio climático o el uso desmedido de energía proveniente de fuentes no renovables, como los hidrocarburos, pueden obtener respuestas a nivel gubernamental e intergubernamental, local y global. Pero estos mismos asuntos, y otros de menor magnitud (pero no de menor importancia), también son respondid...

  6. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovic, John Timothy [ORNL; Hollenbeck, Scott M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  7. Ambient commons: attention in the age of embodied information

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The world is filling with ever more kinds of media, in ever more contexts and formats. Glowing rectangles have become part of the scene; screens, large and small, appear everywhere. Physical locations are increasingly tagged and digitally augmented. Sensors, processors, and memory are not found only in chic smart phones but also built into everyday objects. Amid this flood, your attention practices matter more than ever. You might not be able to tune this world out. So it is worth remembering that underneath all these augmentations and data flows, fixed forms persist, and that to notice them can improve other sensibilities. In Ambient Commons, Malcolm McCullough explores the workings of attention though a rediscovery of surroundings. Not all that informs has been written and sent; not all attention involves deliberate thought. The intrinsic structure of space -- the layout of a studio, for example, or a plaza -- becomes part of any mental engagement with it. McCullough describes what he calls the Ambient: an...

  8. EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL Y CIUDADANÍA PLANETARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Novo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La emergente utopía de lograr una ciudadanía planetaria, cuyas repercusiones educativas resultan de primer orden, ofrece a la Educación Ambiental un reto y una oportunidad renovadora. La aspiración nos remite al concepto de planetariedad, acuñado a raíz de la alerta de científicos y pensadores sobre los estrechos lazos entre el ser humano y el planeta en su realidad total, no solo física o biosférica sino también histórica y social. Por ello, con frecuencia se ha denominado Era planetaria a la actual etapa histórica, en la cual la interdependencia se revela como un rasgo especialmente significativo que reclama la asociación planetaria de los humanos para afrontar el destino común. En el artículo se proponen algunas pautas para que la Educación Ambiental pueda dar respuesta al desafío y contribuir a la construcción de una sociedad cada vez más compleja y globalizada pero, también, crecientemente sostenible; que camine por senderos de comprensión recíproca y tolerancia, y, a la vez, consciente de la propia e ineludible ecodependencia, se comprometa con el valor intrínseco de lo vivo y la preservación de la vida en todas sus manifestaciones.

  9. Damping estimation using free decays and ambient vibration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Cunha, Álvaro; Caetano, Elsa; Brincker, Rune

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies the quality of modal damping ratios estimates based on ambient and free vibration tests using both numerical simulations and data collected on large Civil Engineering structures where both tests were performed. The simulated data allowed to study the influence of factors like non-proportional damping or proximity of natural frequencies on the quality of the estimates and also to illustrate the influence of the identification algorithms parameters on the accuracy of the results. The analysis of data collected on a cable-stayed bridge, on the suspended roof of a stadium and on a footbridge permitted to compare the results of both testing approaches in real applications where some factors that cannot be realistically included in the numerical simulations can play an important role. The processing of ambient vibration responses is performed with two output-only identification approaches: frequency domain decomposition and stochastic subspace identification methods. The numerically simulated and the measured free decays were analyzed with a simple method based on filters and fitting of exponential decays and also with the use of subspace models.

  10. Damage Localization of Offshore Platforms Under Ambient Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨和振; 李华军; 王树青

    2003-01-01

    In this paper Nondestructive Damage Detection (NDD) for offshore platforms is investigated under operational conditions. As is known, there is no easy way to measure ambient excitation, so damage detection methods based on ambient excitation have become very vital for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of offshore platforms. The modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) are identified from structural response data with the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) in conjunction with the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). A new method of damage detection is presented, which utilizes the invariance property of element modal strain energy. This method is to assign element modal strain energy to two parts, and defines two damage detection indicators. One is compression modal strain energy change ratio (CMSECR); the other is flexural modal strain energy change ratio (FMSECR). The present modal strain energy is obtained by incomplete modal shape and structural stiffness matrix. Structural health monitoring is thus accomplished via monitoring the elemental CMSECR and FMSECR. Several damage cases are simulated by an offshore platform numerical model, and presented to illustrate the utility of the proposed method. According to the damage localization results, the proposed method is shown to be effective and precise for complex structural damage detection.

  11. Educación ambiental, inteligencia espiritual y naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi PUIG BAGUER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La conciencia ambiental es característica en nuestra cultura, y plantea múltiples retos educativos. Las elecciones ambientales no dejan de construirnos… o destruirnos, tanto personal como colectivamente, en dimensiones corporales o culturales, en el individuo humano y en su paisaje. Entre ser humano y naturaleza existe un vínculo, común a ambos, de humanidad y naturalidad que no puede olvidarse en la educación sin erosionar el valor y el respeto del ser humano y la naturaleza a la vez.Este artículo busca impulsar la educación en medio ambiente mediante el desarrollo de la inteligencia espiritual y viceversa, con el fin de alimentar nuestro conocimiento con una profundidad y universalidad que necesitamos. En particular, destaca el papel cultural de la ciencia ecológica y resalta que la diferencia esencial entre los seres humanos y su medio natural permite –y debe– alimentar el respeto de ambos a través de la importancia y valor del recíproco. 

  12. AMBIENTES LABORATORIAIS PARA PESQUISAS COM JOGOS DE EMPRESAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maniçoba da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A vantagem da utilização de ambientes laboratoriais para a realização de pesquisas tem sido evidenciada em programas de pesquisa recentes, tais como as finanças comportamentais, a economia comportamental e a economia experimental, à medida que permitem explorar aspectos subjetivos individuais e coletivos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se os jogos de empresas são ambientes laboratoriais adequados para a realização de pesquisas econômicas. Foram discutidos os fundamentos teóricos da economia experimental e de jogos de empresas de modo a identificar em que condições os jogos de empresas seriam adequados para a condução de pesquisas. Pela análise de três estudos teórico-empíricos que investigaram problemas econômicos com jogos de empresas, identificou-se que os jogos de empresas são adequados para pesquisas quando se estudar hipóteses delineadas a partir de estudos anteriores, para a realização de estudos experimentais e não experimentais, quando da utilização da instituição do leilão pós-oferta e quando o contexto da pesquisa for o organizacional. O estudo permitiu reforçar as vantagens dos jogos de empresas para utilização em pesquisas.

  13. Method for measurement of volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibrock, E.; Slemr, J.

    An automated gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of oxygenated (C 2C 5 carbonyls and C 1C 2 alcohols) and some non-oxygenated (C 5C 8) hydrocarbons in ambient air has been developed. The analytical system consists of a gas chromatograph with a cryogenic sampling trap, a precolumn for the separation of water and other interfering compounds, a cryogenic focusing trap and two analytical columns connected in series. Substances are detected either by flame ionization or by a mass spectrometer. Ozone is removed by a potassium iodide scrubber placed upstream the sampling trap. External gas standards generated by a permeation device are used for calibration. The detection limits range between 0.03 and 0.08 ng (depending on the compound), equivalent to 5 to 56 ppt in 1 l of sampled air. The method was tested by an intercomparison with a different gas chromatographic technique for the determination of NMHC. The system has been applied since 1994 for measurements in ambient air. Data obtained during an intensive campaign in summer 1995 at the field station Wank (1778 m a.s.l.) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, are reported and compared with NMHC mixing ratios measured simultaneously in the same air masses.

  14. A Psicologia Ambiental e suas possibilidades de interdisciplinaridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Sánchez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Como discutir questões de método em Psicologia Ambiental, considerando-se a sua necessária interdisciplinaridade? Haveria uma especificidade metodológica para que esta não venha a se concretizar devido às diferenças intrínsecas entre disciplinas, e no interior da própria Psicologia? Qual? Para o autor, essas questões consistem em apenas uma: a Psicologia Ambiental é uma disciplina interdisciplinar que não se concretiza devido às diferenças intrínsecas entre as disciplinas, incluindo-se aí a questão do método e da própria metodologia. O autor fundamenta a interdisciplinaridade na concepção de objeto integrado, caracterizando a dificuldade que está em cada disciplina operar com um diferente paradigma e a interdisciplinaridade estar contida no interior de um único paradigma. Dado que o método deriva da metodologia que o inspira, a investigação e a intervenção ambientais poderiam possibilitar a conjunção de saberes em um mesmo paradigma. Sugere que se opere a relação interdisciplinar em cada caso concreto. Propõe, como conclusão, uma agenda para o desenvolvimento da interdisciplinaridade.

  15. Voluntariado ambiental: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moniz, André Luís Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O voluntariado ambiental é um exemplo de confluência dos comportamentos pró-sociais e pró-ambientais. A presente pesquisa objetivou identificar categorias temáticas do discurso e funções do voluntariado em uma organização voluntária. Foi aplicado o Inventário das Funções do Voluntariado (IFV junto a quatro voluntários e conduzidas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com três deles. Foram identificados quatro eixos temáticos: características e perfil do voluntário, organização voluntária, crise ambiental e percepção da sociedade. O IFV permitiu identificar semelhanças e diferenças quanto ao gênero e idade. Discute-se a importância das gratificações para a inserção e manutenção do voluntariado e apontam-se sugestões para gestores e para futuras pesquisas

  16. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  17. Long term wireless ambient monitoring of heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayong; Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Zanon, Paolo; Ceriotti, Matteo; Mottola, Luca; Picco, Gian Pietro; Murphy, Amy L.; Guna, Stefan; Corrà, Michele

    2010-04-01

    Motivated by the preservation of an artistic treasure, the fresco of the "Cycle of the Months" on the second floor in an historic tower, Torre Aquila, a wireless sensor network (WSN) has been developed and installed for permanent health monitoring. The monitoring scheme covers both static and dynamic evaluation of the tower structural integrity from local to global scale and consists of 17 nodes, including 2 long length fiber optic sensors (FOS), 3 accelerometers and 12 environmental nodes. The system has been working for 1.5 years and has been debugged and updated both as to hardware and software. This paper focuses mainly on the ambient vibration analysis used to investigate the performance of the sensor nodes and structural properties of the tower. Initial ambient vibration monitoring shows that cyclic environmental factors, such as traffic flow, are not the dominant cause of tower vibration; and the vibration levels of the tower in different axes are not large enough to be a critical issue calling for attention under current conditions. It proves that the WSN is an effective tool, capable of providing information relevant to safety assessment of the tower.

  18. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal.

  19. Electricity and environmental conservation; Electricidad y conservacion del medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents a study on the environmental contamination of seven of the main fossil fuel power stations of the country. Experiment with water emulsions in fuel oil and with fluidized beds was carried out, which allow to burn fuels with efficiency, retaining the polluting compounds emitted to the atmosphere, which considers factors such as the wind turbulences, the atmospheric chemistry and the gas recirculation above the chimney, and the use of biogas to generate electricity which offers an ample potential of mitigation of the environmental contamination, characteristic of the garbage dumps. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un estudio de contaminacion ambiental de siete de las principales centrales termoeletricas del pais. Se experimento con emulsiones de agua en combustoleo y los lechos fluidizados, los cuales permiten quemar combustibles con eficiencia reteniendo los compuestos contaminantes emitidos a la atmosfera, los cuales consideran factores como la turbulencia del viento, la quimica atmosferica y la recirculacion de gases sobre la chimenea, la utilizacion de biogas para generar electricidad el cual ofrece un amplio potencial de mitigacion de la contaminacion ambiental propia de los basureros.

  20. Neuroestetica e Ambiente percettivo: pensare strutture interattive a 3 Dimensioni

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    Sara Invitto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ItNegli ultimi anni molte ricerche hanno posto l’attenzione su come le tecnologie legate alle neuroscienze cognitive possono essere di supporto nell’ambito delle strutture didattiche e museali. Scopo di questo lavoro è presentare, in maniera sintetica e integrata, come in differenti situazioni legate all’ambiente percettivo museale o ai beni culturali la realtà virtuale e la neuroestetica possano essere elementi di supporto. Si prenderanno in considerazioni recenti ricerche legate alle neuroscienze cognitive e alla realtà virtuale e si analizzerà come, in una condizione legata al contesto, esse possano essere applicate per un ambiente ergonomico e interattivo, che favorisca la motivazione del soggetto durante la fase di acquisizione dell’informazione artistica/storica o ambientale/scientifica.EnIn recent years, many researches have focused how the technologies related to cognitive neuroscience can be of support the educational and museal structures. The purpose of this paper is to present in a concise and integrated way, as in different situations related to the perceptive-museal environment or to cultural heritage , virtual reality and neuroaesthetic may be elements of support. We will consider recent research related to cognitive neuroscience and virtual reality and we will see how, in a condition linked to the context, they can be applied to an ergonomic and interactive environment , which could favor the motivation of the subject during the acquisition of artistic/historical information or environmental/scientific information.