WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient pollutant particles

  1. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  2. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  3. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  4. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  5. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  6. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  7. Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS;

  8. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...

  9. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  10. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  11. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  12. New Directions: Questions surrounding suspended particle mass used as a surrogate for air quality and for regulatory control of ambient urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, John L.

    2014-07-01

    The original choice of particulate matter mass (PM) as a realistic surrogate for gross air pollution has gradually evolved into routine use nowadays of epidemiologically-based estimates of the monetary and other benefits expected from regulating urban air quality. Unfortunately, the statistical associations facilitating such calculations usually are based on single indices of air pollution whereas the health effects themselves are more broadly based causally. For this and other reasons the economic benefits of control tend to be exaggerated. Primarily because of their assumed inherently inferior respirability, particles ≥10 μm are generally excluded from such considerations. Where the particles themselves are chemically heterogeneous, as in an urban context, this may be inappropriate. Clearly all air-borne particles, whether coarse or fine, are susceptible to inhalation. Hence, the possibility exists for any adhering potentially harmful semi-volatile substances to be subsequently de-sorbed in vivo thereby facilitating their transport deeper into the lungs. Consequently, this alone may be a sufficient reason for including rather than rejecting during air quality monitoring the relatively coarse 10-100 μm particle fraction, ideally in conjunction with routine estimation of the gaseous co-pollutants thereby facilitating a multi-pollutant approach apropos regulation.

  13. Regulation of cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells in response to ambient air pollution particles: Further mechanistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endpoints of inflammation, and oxidant stress. Separation of Chapel Hill PM 10 into fine and coarse size particles revealed that the main proinflammatory response (TNF, IL-6, COX-2) in AM was driven by material present in the coarse PM, containing 90-95% of the stimulatory material in PM10. The particles did not affect expression of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensitive marker of oxidant stress. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) also responded to the coarse fraction with higher levels of IL-8 and COX-2, than induced by fine or ultrafine PM. All size PM induced oxidant stress in NHBE, while fine PM induced the highest levels of HO-1 expression. The production of cytokines in AM by both coarse and fine particles was blocked by the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist E5531 involved in the recognition of LPS and Gram negative bacteria. The NHBE were found to recognize coarse and fine PM through TLR2, a receptor with preference for recognition of Gram positive bacteria. Compared to ambient PM, diesel PM induced only a minimal cytokine response in both AM and NHBE. Instead, diesel suppressed LPS-induced TNF and IL-8 release in AM. Both coarse and fine ambient air PM were also found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF release while silica, volcanic ash or carbon black had no inhibitory effect. Diesel particles did not affect cytokine mRNA induction nor protein accumulation but interfered with the release of cytokine from the cells. Ambient coarse and fine PM, on the other hand, inhibited both mRNA induction and protein production. Exposure to coarse and fine PM decreased the expression of TLR4 in the macrophages. Particle-induced decrease in TLR4 and hyporesponsiveness to LPS

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  15. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Risks Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that the ...

  16. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  17. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  18. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    .5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on...... ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the...

  19. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Guo, H.; King, L. E.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM) to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants) as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (coefficient of variation of 15% for positive control, 4% for ambient samples) and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min-1). Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9). The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, roadside, and rural) in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per-air-volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88), suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in the southeastern US. The correlation may also suggest a mechanistic explanation (oxidative stress) for observed PM2.5 mass-health associations. The heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per-PM-mass basis) across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the

  20. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with the large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (Coefficient of Variation of 12% for standards, 4% for ambient samples, and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min−1. Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9. The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, road-side, and rural in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per air volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88, suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in southeast US. However, the greater heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per PM mass basis across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the instrument can also be used to determine oxidative potential with other acellular assays.

  1. Regulating ambient pollution when social costs are unknown

    OpenAIRE

    FIGUIERES, Charles; Willinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a new mechanism in order to Nash-implement a Pareto optimal level of ambient pollution. As usual in the literature on non point source pollution, the proposed scheme is not conditional on individual emissions, since they are not observable; rather it is conditional on aggregate emission. But the novelty here is that we do not assume the 10 regulator knows the agents' preferences, with which he could identify the target level of aggregate emission. Our mechanism dispenses wit...

  2. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  3. Cardiovascular Effects in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Exposed to Concentrated Ultrafine Air Pollution Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies report associations between ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) and various indices of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. A leading hypothesis contends that smaller ultrafine (UF) particles induce a greater physiologic response bec...

  4. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  5. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  6. Numerical prediction on the dispersion of pollutant particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kahar; Ali, Zairi; Ubaidullah, S.; Zahid, M. N.

    2012-06-01

    The increasing concern on air pollution has led people around the world to find more efficient ways to control the problem. Air dispersion modeling is proven to be one of the alternatives that provide economical ways to control the growing threat of air pollution. The objective of this research is to develop a practical numerical algorithm to predict the dispersion of pollutant particles around a specific source of emission. The source selected was a rubber wood manufacturing plant. Gaussian-plume model were used as air dispersion model due to its simplicity and generic application. Results of this study show the concentrations of the pollutant particles on ground level reached approximately 90μg/m3, compared with other software. This value surpasses the limit of 50μg/m3 stipulated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and Recommended Malaysian Guidelines (RMG) set by Environment Department of Malaysia. The results also show high concentration of pollutant particles reading during dru seasons as compared to that of rainy seasons. In general, the developed algorithm is proven to be able to predict particles distribution around emitted source with acceptable accuracy.

  7. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among persons with congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a mortality time series study to investigate the association between daily mortality for congestive heart failure (CHF), and dail concentrations of particles and gaseous pollutants in the ambient air o Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984-1993. In addition, using data fro the universal Quebec Health Insurance Plan, we identified individuals ≥6 years of age who, one year before death, had a diagnosis of CHF. Fixed-sit air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of pollutants We regressed the logarithm of daily counts of mortality on the daily mean levels of each pollutant, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and other gaseous and particle pollutants. Using cause of deat information, we did not find any associations between daily mortality for CH and any air pollutants. The analyses of CHF defined from the medical record showed positive associations with coefficient of haze, the extinction coefficient, SO2, and NO2. For example, the mean percent increase in dail mortality for an increase in the coefficient of haze across the interquartile range was 4.32% (95% CI: 0.95-7.80%) and for NO2 it was 4.08% (95% CI 0.59-7.68%). These effects were generally higher in the warm season

  8. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  9. Particle formation in ambient MALDI plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musapelo, Thabiso; Murray, Kermit K

    2011-09-01

    The ablated particle count and size distribution of four solid matrix materials commonly used for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) combined with a light scattering aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). The two particle sizing instruments allowed size measurements in the range from 10 nm to 20 μm. The four solid matrixes investigated were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 4-nitroaniline (NA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), and sinapic acid (SA). A thin film of the matrix was deposited on a stainless steel target using the dried droplet method and was irradiated with a 337 nm nitrogen laser at atmospheric pressure. The target was rotated during the measurement. A large number of nanoparticles were produced, and average particle diameters ranged from 40 to 170 nm depending on the matrix and the laser fluence. These particles are attributed to agglomeration of smaller particles and clusters and/or hydrodynamic sputtering of melted matrix. A coarse particle component of the distribution was observed with diameters between 500 nm and 2 μm. The coarse particles were significantly lower in number but had a total mass that was comparable to that of the nanoparticles. The coarse particles are attributed to matrix melting and spallation. Two of the compounds, CHCA and SA, had a third particle size distribution component in the range of 10 to 30 nm, which is attributed to the direct ejection of clusters. PMID:21797202

  10. Detecting the ambient neutralino dark matter particles at accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Tai-Fu; Li, Xue-Qian; Ma, Wen-Gan; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present a new strategy to investigate the possibility of direct detection of the ambient neutralino matter at accelerator. We calculate the cross sections for both elastic and inelastic scattering processes of the dark matter particles with the beam particles at $e^+e^-$ and hadron colliders.

  11. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  12. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic...

  13. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  14. Dynamic nonpoint-source pollution control policy: ambient transfers and uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassoglou, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    When a regulator cannot observe or infer individual emissions, corrective policy must rely on ambient pollution data. Assuming this kind of environment, we study a class of differential games of pollution control with profit functions that are polynomial in the global pollution stock. Given an open-loop emissions strategy satisfying mild regularity conditions, an ambient transfer scheme is exhibited that induces it in Markov-perfect equilibrium (MPE). Proposed transfers are a polynomial fu...

  15. Exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution does not influence vascular function or inflammatory pathways in young healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E. V.; Møller, P.; Barregård, L.;

    2008-01-01

    semialdehyde in plasma. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed on microvascular function or the biomarkers after exposure to particle rich or particle filtered air. Conclusion: This study indicates that exposure to air pollution particles at outdoor concentrations is not associated......Background: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on......: 11600 +/- 5600 per cm(3), mass concentrations: 13.8 +/- 7.4 mu g/m(3) and 10.5 +/- 4.8 mu g/m(3) for PM10-2.5 and PM2.5, respectively) or particle filtered (NC: 555 +/- 1053 per cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. Microvascular function was assessed non-invasively by measuring digital peripheral...

  16. Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Burnett, R.T.; Bailar, J C; Tamblyn, R.; Ernst, P.; Flegel, K.; J. Brook; Bonvalot, Y; Singh, R.; Valois, M F; Vincent, R

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine pa...

  17. Characterisation of particle emissions from the driving car fleet and the contribution to ambient and indoor particle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Finn; Wåhlin, Peter; Kildesø, Jan; Afshari, Alireza; Fogh, Christian L.

    The population is mainly exposed to high air pollution concentrations in the urban environment, where motor vehicle emissions constitute the main source of fine and ultrafine particles. These particles can penetrate deep into the respiratory system, and studies indicate that the smaller the particle, the larger the health impacts. The chemical composition, surface reactivity and physical properties are also important. However, the knowledge about chemical and physical properties of particles and the temporal and spatial variability of the smallest particles is still very limited. The present study summarises the first results of a larger project with the aims to improve the knowledge. The concentration and the emissions of ultrafine particles from petrol and diesel vehicles, respectively, have been quantified using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer of ultrafine particles in the size range 6-700 nm and routine monitoring data from urban streets and urban background in Denmark. The quantification was carried out using receptor modelling. The number size distributions of petrol and diesel emissions showed a maximum at 20-30 nm and non-traffic at ≈100 nm. The contribution of ultrafine particles from diesel vehicles is dominating in streets. The same technique has been applied on PM 10, and ≈50% contribution from non-traffic. The technique has also been introduced in relation to elemental and organic carbon, and the first data showed strong correlation between traffic pollution and elemental carbon. The outdoor air quality has a significant effect on indoor pollution levels, and we spend most of the time indoors. Knowledge about the influence of ambient air pollution on the concentrations in the indoor environment is therefore crucial for assessment of human health effects of traffic pollution. The results of our studies will be included in air quality models for calculation of human exposure. Preliminary results from our first campaign showed, that the deposition

  18. Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Yue; Richard T. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examined association between preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growt...

  19. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of ambient nanoparticles collected near an industrial science park: Particle size distributions and relationships with environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhjeen Huang; Lingyen Hsu; Yunghsun Chang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ambient particles and their relationships with various environmental factors,including gaseous pollutants (CH4,non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC),total hydrocarbons (THC),NOx,CO,SO2),meteorological parameters (humidity,temperature),and time (day/night,workday/weekend).We used an electrical low-pressure cascade impactor to measure the number and size distributions of ambient particles (0.007-10 μm) that were collected approximately 1 km northwest of Hsinchu Science Park in Talwan between February and May 2007.The number concentrations of particles were enhanced through photochemical reactions during the day.In addition,high traffic flow during workdays increased the formation of particulates.Except for SO2,all of the gaseous pollutants we studied (CH4,NMHC,THC,NOx,CO) correlated positively with the total number concentrations of ambient particles during daytime,indicating that they might contribute to the particulate burden.The poorer relationship between the SO2 level and the total number concentration of particles suggests that SO2 might participate indirectly in the nucleation process during particle formation,The high enrichment factors for Zn,Pb,Cu,and Mn,which mostly comprised the ultrafine particles (diameter:< 0.1 μm) and fine particles (diameter:0.1-1 μm),presumably arose from emissions from traffic and high technology factories.Heterogeneous reactions on solid particles might play a role in the removal of SOx and NOx from the atmosphere.Sulfides and nitrides can further react with these local pollutants,forming specific Cu-containing compounds:CuO (39%),CuSO4 (34%),and Cu(NO3)2 (27%),within the ambient particles in this industrial area.

  1. 上海市两社区大气细颗粒物的污染状况%Status of Ambient Air Pollution of Fine Particle Matters at Two Communities in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉君; 东春阳; 许慧慧; 施烨闻; 金奇昂; 刘立平; 沈先标

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解上海市社区大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)的污染状况.[方法]于2008年1月至2009年12月在上海市大气污染程度不同的2个社区(A社区为中心城区、B社区位于郊区)设置监测点,每月10~16日连续监测PM2.5浓度,数据采集后采用Wilcoxon秩和检验进行统计分析.[结果]B社区的PM2.5浓度在4、6月份均高于A社区,差异有统计学意义(P第一阶段目标相比,除A社区2009年未超标外,两社区其余年份均超标.[结论]两社区PM2.5污染呈冬季严重,夏秋季减轻的特点,B社区PM2.5的污染问题较A社区严重,两社区的PM2.5的污染水平与美国EPA标准和WHO第一阶段目标相比均存在超标问题.%[Objective]To understand the situation of fine air particle matters (PM2.5) pollution at two communities in Shanghai.[Methods]From 2008 to 2009, air samples were collected at fixed sites in two communities (A district was a resident area and B district adjacent the industry area) for monitoring the PM2.5 concentration with membrane gravimetric method every month.Air samples were continuously collected for 7 d each time in order to calculating daily average concentration.Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon rank sum test in SPSS 11.5 software, and adopted median (M) and central quadruplets (P25 to P75) in presence.[Results]The monthly PM2.5 level in site B was higher than that in site A, the differences were significant in April and June (P < 0.05).The pollution was most serious in winter but least in summer and autumn.The quaternary level of PM2.5 in site B was higher significantly than that in site A in summer (P<0.01).In 2009, the PM2.5 level in site B was higher significantly than that in site A (P<0.001).The concentration values of PM2.5 in two sites were all beyo nd the Air Quality Planning and Standard of U.S Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) from 2008 to 2009.The exceeded proportions of PM2.5 concentration in site A were 54.76% and 35.71%, and the

  2. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  3. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  4. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  5. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  6. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  7. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  8. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of urban plants in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Lian-you; Gao, Shang-yu; Hasi, Eerdun; Wang, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Particulate pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. Urban plants play an important role in reducing particulate pollution. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of eleven roadside plants at four sites of Beijing were studies. Results showed that density of particles on the leaf surfaces greatly varied with plant species and traffic condition. Fraxinus chinensis, Sophora japonica, A ilanthus altissima, Syringa oblata and Prunus persica had larger densities of particles among the tall species. Due to resuspension of road dust, the densities of particles of Euonymus japonicus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia with low sampling height were 2-35 times to other taller tree species. For test plant species, micro-roughness of leaf surfaces and density of particles showed a close correlation. In general, the larger micro-roughness of leaf surfaces is, the larger density of particles is. Particles settling upon leaf surfaces were dominantly PM, (particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter; 98.4%) and PM25 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter; 64.2%) which were closely relative to human health. Constant elements of particles were C, O, K, Ca, Si, Al, Mg, Na, Fe, S, Cl and minerals with higher content were SiO2, CaCO3, CaMg(CO3)2, NaCI and 2CaSO4 x H20, SiO2. CaCO3 and CaMg(CO3)2 mainly came from resuspension of road dust. 2CaSO4 x H20 was produced by the reaction between CaCO3 derived from earth dust or industrial emission and SO2, H2SO4 or sulfate. NaCl was derived from sea salt. PMID:17278748

  10. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  11. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  12. Pollutants in particulate and gaseous fractions of ambient air interfere with multiple signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jirí; Jálová, Veronika; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, contamination of air has been evaluated primarily by chemical analyses of indicator contaminants and these studies have focused mainly on compounds associated with particulates. Some reports have shown that air contaminants can produce specific biological effects such as toxicity mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or modulation of the endocrine system. This study assessed the dioxin-like toxicity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity and anti-/retinoic activity of both the particulate and gas phase fractions of air in two regions with different types of pollution sources and a background locality situated in an agricultural area of Central Europe. The first region (A) is known to be significantly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and chemical industry. The other region (B) has been polluted by historical releases of PCBs, but the major current sources of contamination are probably combustion sources from local traffic and heating. Samples of both particle and gas fractions produced dioxin-like (AhR-mediated) activity, anti-estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, but none had any effect on retinoid signaling. AhR-mediated activities were observed in all samples and the TEQ values were comparable in both fractions in region A, but significantly greater in the particulate fraction in region B. The greater AhR-mediated activity corresponded to a greater coincident antiestrogenicity of both phases in region B. Our study is the first report of antiestrogenicity and antiandrogenicity in ambient air. Anti-androgenicity was observed in the gas phase of all regions, while in the particulate phase only in one region due to the specific type of pollution in that area. Even though based on concentrations of individual compounds, except for the OCPs, the level of contamination of the two regions was similar, there were strong differences in responses in the bioassays between the two regions. Moreover, AhR-mediated activity and

  13. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  14. Bronchiolitis caused by occupational and ambient atmospheric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L

    2003-10-01

    Occupationally encountered mineral dusts such as asbestos, silica, silicates (talc, mica), and metals can produce a distinctive pattern of fibrosis and distortion of the small airways, particularly the distal membranous bronchioles (MB) and the respiratory bronchioles (RB). Recent reports show that the same types of changes, accompanied by considerable muscle hyperplasia, are found in individuals living in regions with high levels of particulate air pollutants (PM). Models and actual measurements suggest that these changes occur because the small airways are sites of high particle deposition, and inhaled and deposited particulates, including PM, enter the airway walls. Studies from our laboratory using a tracheal explant model have shown that, for many types of particles, entry into the airway wall causes expression of mediators that lead to airway wall fibrosis and airway wall smooth muscle hyperplasia, probably through oxidant mechanisms. These reactions are intrinsic properties of the particles and do not require exogenous inflammatory cells. There is considerable evidence that individuals with occupational exposure to a wide variety of mineral dusts, as well as individuals with chronic exposure to high levels of PM, develop chronic airflow obstruction. The type of small airway remodeling seen in particle-induced bronchiolitis appears to be one cause of chronic airflow obstruction in this setting. PMID:16088574

  15. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudež, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R; de Maat, Moniek P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with plate...

  16. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  17. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  18. Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmia in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are cardiac rhythm disorders that comprise an important public health problem. Few prior studies have examined the association between ambient air pollution and arrhythmias in general populations in mainland China. Methods We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the short-term association between air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and outpatient visit...

  19. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  20. Associations Between Ultrafine Particles and Co-Pollutant Concentrations in the Tampa Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ushang; Watson, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are ubiquitous in urban air and have been recognized as a risk to human health. The aim of this study was to measure the relationships among ultrafine particles and other ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors in the Tampa Bay Area. This study measured continuous UFPs, black carbon, oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), relative humidity, wind speed, and ambient temperature during January to March 2014. Moreover, the study compared the relationship between UFPs and various co-pollutants daily, including during morning rush hour periods. This study found a moderate correlation among UFPs and black carbon, NO(x), NO2, and NO during hourly continuous measurements and rush hour periods, and a low level of correlation among UFPs and CO, O3, SO2, PM10, relative humidity, wind speed, and ambient temperature. This study indicates that co-pollutants should not be used as a surrogate to assess the human health risk from ultrafine particles exposure. PMID:27263179

  1. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  2. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: Oxidant mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) primed with LPS and treated with concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) showed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and provide an in vitro model for the amplified effects of air pollution particles seen in people with preexisting lung disease. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which CAPs mediate TNF release in primed rat AMs, we first tested the effect of a panel of antioxidants. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM), dimethyl thiourea (20 mM) and catalase (5 μM) significantly inhibited TNF release by primed AMs incubated with CAPs. Conversely, when LPS-primed AMs were treated with CAPs in the presence of exogenous oxidants (H2O2 generated by glucose oxidase, 10 μM/h), TNF release and cell toxicity was significantly increased. The soluble fraction of CAPs suspensions caused most of the increased bioactivity in the presence of exogenous H2O2. The metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) strongly inhibited the interaction of the soluble fraction with H2O2 but had no effect on the bioactivity of the insoluble CAPs fraction. We conclude that CAPs can mediate their effects in primed AMs by acting on oxidant-sensitive cytokine release in at least two distinct ways. In the primed cell, insoluble components of PM mediate enhanced TNF production that is H2O2-dependent (catalase-sensitive) yet independent of iron (DFO-insensitive). In the presence of exogenous H2O2 released by AMs, PMNs, or other lung cells within an inflamed alveolar milieu, soluble iron released from air particles can also mediate cytokine release and cell toxicity

  3. Status and characteristics of ambient PM2.5 pollution in global megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Luo, Lina; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Yungang; Sharma, Sumit; Shimadera, Hikari; Wang, Xiaoliang; Bressi, Michael; de Miranda, Regina Maura; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhou, Wei; Fajardo, Oscar; Yan, Naiqiang; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Ambient PM2.5 pollution is a substantial threat to public health in global megacities. This paper reviews the PM2.5 pollution of 45 global megacities in 2013, based on mass concentration from official monitoring networks and composition data reported in the literature. The results showed that the five most polluted megacities were Delhi, Cairo, Xi'an, Tianjin and Chengdu, all of which had an annual average concentration of PM2.5 greater than 89μg/m(3). The five cleanest megacities were Miami, Toronto, New York, Madrid and Philadelphia, the annual averages of which were less than 10μg/m(3). Spatial distribution indicated that the highly polluted megacities are concentrated in east-central China and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Organic matter and SNA (sum of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) contributed 30% and 36%, respectively, of the average PM2.5 mass for all megacities. Notable seasonal variation of PM2.5 polluted days was observed, especially for the polluted megacities of China and India, resulting in frequent heavy pollution episodes occurring during more polluted seasons such as winter. Marked differences in PM2.5 pollution between developing and developed megacities require more effort on local emissions reduction as well as global cooperation to address the PM2.5 pollution of those megacities mainly in Asia. PMID:26891184

  4. Particle-bound Dechlorane Plus and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in ambient air around Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study, atmospheric particles from Shanghai, the biggest city and the most important industrial base in China, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP). Concentrations of Σ20PBDEs and DP both exhibited the changing trend of industrial area > urban areas. Jiading District had the highest levels of particulate PBDEs and DP with values of 744 ± 152 pg/m3 and 5.48 ± 1.28 pg/m3, respectively. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PBDEs in Shanghai were at medium pollution level, while DP was at lower level, which reflected their different production and use in Shanghai. The results from multiple linear regression analysis suggested that deca-BDE mixture was the most important contributor of particulate PBDEs in Shanghai. The fractions of anti-DP showed no significant differences to those of the technical mixtures (p > 0.05), which suggested that no obviously stereoselective process occurred in ambient air around Shanghai. - Highlights: → Atmospheric PBDEs of Shanghai were at moderate levels and dominated by BDE-209. → Particulate DP was low even Shanghai is not far from the DP manufacturing factory. → DP showed no obviously stereoselective process in air particles from Shanghai. → Significant positive correlation was found between particulate PBDEs and PBDD/Fs. - The moderate PBDEs levels with deca-BDE being the most important contributor and low DP levels in ambient air around Shanghai reflected their different usage in this area.

  5. Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHAO-WEI FU; SHUN-ZHANG YU; LI-NA MU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing. Methods The approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing. Results An increase of each 10 μμg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days. Conclusion The daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing.

  6. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  7. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  8. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects. (letter)

  9. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  10. The impact of information on behavior under an ambient-based policy for regulating nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haoran; Fooks, Jacob R.; Guilfoos, Todd; Messer, Kent D.; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Suter, Jordan F.; Trandafir, Simona; Uchida, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Stemming from Segerson [1988], literature on nonpoint source pollution shows that ambient-based regulatory policies can induce polluters in a common watershed to comply with an exogenously determined pollution standard. This study uses laboratory economic experiments in a spatially heterogeneous setting to test the effectiveness of an ambient tax/subsidy policy in a setting with realistic in-stream nutrient transport dynamics when varying levels of sensor information on ambient pollution are available to the agents and the regulator. We find that increasing the frequency of ambient monitoring improves the spatial allocation of emissions reductions. In particular, with more frequent monitoring, the ambient-based policy induces firms further from the monitoring point to reduce emissions significantly more than downstream firms. Overall, the results suggest that enhanced temporal resolution of monitoring leads to efficiency gains.

  11. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  12. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  13. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W.; Coull, Brent A.; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide ...

  14. A Case–Crossover Study of Wintertime Ambient Air Pollution and Infant Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, Catherine; Lumley, Thomas; Shepherd, Kristen; Davis, Robert; Larson, Timothy; Ritz, Beate; Kaufman, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association of infant bronchiolitis with acute exposure to ambient air pollutants. Design We employed a time-stratified case–crossover method and based the exposure windows on a priori, biologically based hypotheses. Participants We evaluated effects in 19,901 infants in the South Coast Air Basin of California in 1995–2000 with a hospital discharge record for bronchiolitis in the first year of life (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1). Evaluations/...

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformat...

  16. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U....

  17. Relationship between ambient air pollution and DNA damage in Polish mothers and newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized regions in Poland are characterized by high ambient pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal burning for industry and home heating. In experimental bioassays, certain PAHs are transplacental carcinogens and developmental toxicants. The amount of PAHs bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in maternal and umbilical white blood cells were measured in 70 mothers and newborns from Krakow, Poland. Modulation of adduct levels by genotypes previously linked to risk of lung cancer, specifically glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). There was a dose-related increase in maternal and newborn adduct levels with ambient pollution at the women's place of residence among subjects who were not employed away from home (p less than or equal to 0.05). Maternal smoking (active and passive) significantly increased maternal (p less than or equal to 0.01) but not newborn adduct levels. Results indicate that PAH-induced DNA damage in mothers and newborns is increased by ambient air pollution

  18. Exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution does not influence vascular function or inflammatory pathways in young healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzents Peter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on microvascular function and biomarkers related to inflammation, haemostasis and lipid and protein oxidation. Methods Twenty-nine subjects participated in a randomized, two-factor crossover study with or without biking exercise for 180 minutes and with 24 hour exposure to particle rich (number concentrations, NC: 11600 ± 5600 per cm3, mass concentrations: 13.8 ± 7.4 μg/m3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 μg/m3 for PM10-2.5 and PM2.5, respectively or particle filtered (NC: 555 ± 1053 per cm3 air collected above a busy street. Microvascular function was assessed non-invasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone following arm ischemia. Biomarkers included haemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation factors, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α, lag time to copper-induced oxidation of plasma lipids and protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma. Results No statistically significant differences were observed on microvascular function or the biomarkers after exposure to particle rich or particle filtered air. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to air pollution particles at outdoor concentrations is not associated with detectable systemic inflammation, lipid or protein oxidation, altered haemostasis or microvascular function in young healthy participants.

  19. The association of ambient air pollution and physical inactivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10 and ozone (O3 exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging. Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. RESULTS: With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16-35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001. Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these

  20. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  2. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  3. Particle pollution changes the atmospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial emissions and combustion of fossil fuels create large amounts of sulfate- and carbon containing soot particles. These mix with natural particles to change the natural aerosols. Such anthropogenic changes in the aerosols may have a great impact on the climate of the earth. Altered properties of the aerosols may change the atmosphere's absorption and reflection of solar radiation and contribute to heating or cooling. This is the direct effect. Changes in the properties of aerosols may also affect the number and size of recently formed cloud droplets. This may change the ability of the clouds to reflect solar radiation and to produce precipitation. This is the indirect effect. Recent research at the University of Oslo shows that anthropogenic particles significantly change the atmospheric circulation, in particular in the tropics, but also at European latitudes

  4. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure: a Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Russell S; Suh Helen H; Coull Brent A; Yeh Gloria Y; Wellenius Gregory A; Mittleman Murray A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollut...

  5. Applications of particle induced X-ray emission analysis to ambient aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis in conjunction with different ambient aerosol samplers have been studied. Correction factors have been calculated for homogeneous and inhomogeneous rural and urban aerosol samples. The Nuclepore two stage filter sampler provided the most useful combination of the resolution and particle size fractionation in urban, rural and remote environments. The PIXE-analysis technique in combination with different samplers was employed in aerosol composition studies in rural and remote environments. Particular emphasis was laid on studies of aerosol long range transport. Based on air mass trajectory analysis and aerosol composition measurements the foreign contribution in southern Sweden was estimated to be 70 - 80% for S and Pb but only 30 - 50% for V and Ni. The spatial and temporal extension of a long range transport episode was studied using high time resolution continuous filter samplers in a network in southern Sweden. The variation in the concentration levels of sulphur agreed well with changes in the air mass history. Arctic summer elemental concentration levels as measured during the Swedish YMER-80 icebreaker expedition were typically one order of magnitude lower than Arctic winter levels. The combination of chemical information, optical properties and size distribution data supports the hypothesis of long range transport of air pollution into the Arctic especially during the winter. This takes place during the winter season because the Polar front is further south making conditions for long range transport up to the Arctic more favourable. (Auth.)

  6. In vitro effects on macrophages induced by noncytotoxic doses of silica particles possibly relevant to ambient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RAW 246.7 macrophage cell line was exposed in vitro to aged crystalline silica particles of respirable size for 24 h at a range of doses starting from 15 μg/2x106 cells, which is a realistic exposure level of macrophages in the airways of ambiently exposed individuals. The particle sample used for the experiments was prepared to mimic some aspects of ambient crystalline silica particles: size distribution, morphology, and surface reactivity. Our purpose was to determine whether a nontoxic quartz load comparable to that of ambient exposure would be able to induce macrophage activation and impairment of the phagocytic ability, factors altering the lung's capacity to deal with increased particle loads (as occurs during high-pollution episodes) or infections and affecting the local and systemic responses through the release of biologically active compounds (cytokines, reactive oxygen species, NO, isoprostanes). Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to aged silica particles induced macrophage activation (evidenced by the morphological features observed with scanning electron microscopy and by the release of TNF-α and IL-6) and impairment of phagocytosis of test particles, even at noncytotoxic doses. The reduction of the phagocytic function of the cells after silica treatment was dose-dependent, as evidenced by an increase of the population of unphagocytic cells, paralleled by a decrease of the actively phagocytizing cell population. We evaluated the oxidative stress induced by aged silica particles, quantifying the peroxidation products (8-isoprostanes) in the culture media of treated cells, and found a strong release at low doses. Isoprostanes are a complex family of compounds which have been used as in vivo markers of lipid peroxidation in human disorders, but that, as far as we know, have never been evaluated in relation to airborne particulate matter exposure. Lipid peroxides are involved in various cellular events in the inflammatory response, and isoprostanes are also

  7. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  8. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  9. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  10. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collecte...... found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.......BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected...

  12. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  13. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  14. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, R.T.; Cakmak, S; Brook, J. R.; Krewski, D

    1997-01-01

    In order to address the role that the ambient air pollution mix, comprised of gaseous pollutants and various physical and chemical measures of particulate matter, plays in exacerbating cardiorespiratory disease, daily measures of fine and coarse particulate mass, aerosol chemistry (sulfates and acidity), and gaseous pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) were collected in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These time series were...

  15. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Mônica V. MARQUEZINI; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Ubiratan P Santos; Alfésio L F Braga; Alves, Milton R.; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, ...

  16. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yang; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009∼201...

  17. Measurement of major ambient air pollution components at sub-urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base line study for the measurement of major ambient air pollution components such as O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub x/,PM10, methane, non-methane along with the meteorological parameters was carried out by air pollution Monitoring Mobile Laboratory at an urban back ground site of Karachi. The average concentration of O/sub 3/ was found to be between 4.62 and 20.36 ppb, SO/sub 2/ 0.73 and 4.69 ppb, CO 0.14 and 0.77 ppm. NO 0.92 and 2.73 ppb, NO/sub x/ 3.1 and 7.5 ppb, PM10 142 and 251 mu g m/sup -3/, methane 1.09 and 2.7 ppm, non-methane hydrocarbon 0.41 and 0.96 ppm. (author)

  18. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  19. 40 CFR Table F-3 to Subpart F of... - Critical Parameters of Idealized Ambient Particle Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Particle Size Distributions F Table F-3 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Ambient Particle Size Distributions Idealized Distribution Fine Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) Coarse Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) PM2.5/PM10 Ratio FRM...

  20. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  1. Air pollution dry deposition: radioisotopes as particles and volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on determining volcanic ash and ambient airborne solids concentrations at various sampling sites subsequent to the Mt. St. Helens' eruption in order to develop an experimental basis for models predicting removal of airborne particles and gases by dry deposition onto outdoor surfaces. In addition, deposition rates were determined using dual tracer techniques in the field and in a wind tunnel in the laboratory

  2. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find evidence of a positive association between ambient air pollution and asthma prevalence as measured at the community level.

  3. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  4. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  5. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  6. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure for 7 days, using a passive sampler. Impression cytology samples were obtained from inferior tarsal conjunctiva. Comparisons between the two groups in terms of NO2 exposure and goblet-cell counts were performed using the Student t-test. Correlations between goblet-cells counts and corresponding individual NO2 exposure levels were determined using Spearman’s correlation. Results Individuals living in São Paulo received a significantly (p = 0.005) higher dose of NO2 (mean 32.47; SD 9.83) than those living in Divinolândia (mean 19.33; SD 5.24). There was a steady increase in goblet-cell counts, proportional to NO2 exposure (Spearman’s correlation = 0.566, p = 0.001), with a dose–response pattern. Conclusions A positive and significant association between exposure to air pollution and goblet-cell hyperplasia in human conjunctiva was detected. The combination of simple measurements of exposure and impression cytology was an effective and noninvasive approach for characterizing human response to ambient levels of air pollution. PMID:18087595

  7. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  8. Urban sediment particle size and pollutants in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (BR). Hydraulic Research Inst. (IPH); Bortoluzzi, Edson C. [Univ. of Passo Fundo - UPF, RS (Brazil); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Studies of particulate-associated pollutants, or PAPs, in urban areas have become necessary due to their potentially deleterious effects on the environment. However, it is not just the sediments themselves which are problematic but also their particle size composition, which has a great influence on their capacity to adsorb and transport pollutants. This paper presents the particle size distributions and concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of urban sediments collected from paved streets and gully pots from 20 cities in southern Brazil. The cities have different characteristics and hence sources of PAPs associated with differing geologies, soil types and type of urbanisation. Studies of this nature enable elucidation of the relationship between diffuse sources such as streets and gully pots and the likelihood of PAPs to subsequently pollute the urban aquatic environment. Materials and methods: Sediment samples were taken at random from paved streets and gully pots in 20 cities in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil by means of a portable vacuum cleaner to avoid loss of finer particles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured using a Cilas {sup registered} 1180 laser particle analyzer, and the concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by wet acid digestion (HCl-HF-HClO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on the <63-{mu}m fraction. Results: It was found that in comparison to sediments collected from the streets, gully pot sediments were more heterogeneous in terms of particle size and also that sediment samples from the gully pots were predominantly coarser than those originating on the streets. From the gully pot results, analysis of the modal particle diameter enabled the cities to be divided into three categories. The concentrations of metals in the street sediments were similar across all 20 cities, with all concentrations above

  9. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  10. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of adults: findings from a cross-sectional study in Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Uddhao Gawande; Abhijit Khanvilkar; Suhas Kadam; Gurudatt Potdar, Hrushikesh Salvitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor air pollution and continuous exposure to ambient air pollutants like particulate matter are among the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes all over the world. This association between air pollution and the impairment of respiratory functions is evident from number of epidemiological studies specific study has been conducted with an objective to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases of adults, in Chandrapur...

  11. Brachial Artery Responses to Ambient Pollution, Temperature, and Humidity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S.; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A.; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H.; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. Objectives: In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Methods: Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diamete...

  12. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  13. Triggering of Transmural Infarctions, but Not Nontransmural Infarctions, by Ambient Fine Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, David Q.; Kipen, Howard M.; Zhang, Junfeng; Kamat, Leena; Wilson, Alan C.; Kostis, John B; ,

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution concentrations in the hours and days before MI onset. Objectives We hypothesized that acute increases in fine PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) may be associated with increased risk of MI and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes may increase susceptibility to PM2.5. We also explored whether both transmural...

  14. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmaack, K.

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contained in ambient aerosol matter was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To ease identification of the particles of interest and to avoid or at least reduce interaction with simultaneously sampled inorganic oxides and salts, the approach used in this work differed in two ways from commonly applied procedures. First, rather than using a mixture of particles o...

  15. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10. The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  16. A concept of an automated function control for ambient aerosol measurements using mobility particle size spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, S.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-04-01

    An automated function control unit was developed to regularly check the ambient particle number concentration derived from a mobility particle size spectrometer as well as its zero-point behaviour. The function control allows unattended quality assurance experiments at remote air quality monitoring or research stations under field conditions. The automated function control also has the advantage of being able to get a faster system stability response than the recommended on-site comparisons with reference instruments. The method is based on a comparison of the total particle number concentration measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer and a condensation particle counter while removing diffusive particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter. In practice, the small particles are removed by a set of diffusion screens, as traditionally used in a diffusion battery. Another feature of the automated function control is to check the zero-point behaviour of the ambient aerosol passing through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The performance of the function control is illustrated with the aid of a 1-year data set recorded at Annaberg-Buchholz, a station in the Saxon air quality monitoring network. During the period of concern, the total particle number concentration derived from the mobility particle size spectrometer slightly overestimated the particle number concentration recorded by the condensation particle counter by 2 % (grand average). Based on our first year of experience with the function control, we developed tolerance criteria that allow a performance evaluation of a tested mobility particle size spectrometer with respect to the total particle number concentration. We conclude that the automated function control enhances the quality and reliability of unattended long-term particle number size distribution measurements. This will have beneficial effects for intercomparison studies involving different measurement sites, and help provide a higher

  17. Source appointment of fine particle number and volume concentration during severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Hu, Bo; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-04-01

    Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012-2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, particle number size distribution (PNSD) and particle chemical composition (PCC) data collected in an intensive winter campaign in an urban site of Beijing were used to investigate the sources of ambient fine particles. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resolved a total of eight factors: two traffic factors, combustion factors, secondary aerosol, two accumulation mode aerosol factors, road dust, and long-range transported (LRT) dust. Traffic emissions (54 %) and combustion aerosol (27 %) were found to be the most important sources for particle number concentration, whereas combustion aerosol (33 %) and accumulation mode aerosol (37 %) dominated particle volume concentrations. Chemical compositions and sources of fine particles changed dynamically in the haze episodes. An enhanced role of secondary inorganic species was observed in the formation of haze pollution. Regional transport played an important role for high particles, contribution of which was on average up to 24-49 % during the haze episodes. Secondary aerosols from urban background presented the largest contributions (45 %) for the rapid increase of fine particles in the severest haze episode. In addition, the invasion of LRT dust aerosols further elevated the fine particles during the extreme haze episode. Our results showed a clear impact of regional transport on the local air pollution, suggesting the importance of regional-scale emission control measures in the local air quality management of Beijing. PMID:26667647

  18. Variations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air of Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Moon, K.; Han, J.; Yoon, S.

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured at Gosan, Jeju, two times, in November 2001 and in March and April 2002, each time for two weeks. Gosan is a representative background site in Korea and was a super site during ACE-Asia. Purposes of this work were to monitor the background concentrations of POPs in Korea and to assess the effect of long-range transport of these substances. Primary target pollutants were twelve chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs listed in the Stockholm Convention adopted in May 2001. However, PAHs were also measured in order to understand the overall characteristics of the POPs distribution since PAHs are most abundant POPs in our environment. Fine particles are usually an ideal carrier for long-range transport of POPs; size distribution and chemical composition of fine particles were analyzed in order to estimate the transport of POPs. Much higher concentrations of pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, SO2 and fine particles, which were believed to be emitted from combustion sources, than other measurement data until that time, were observed in the latter part of the November 2001measurement period. Change of nitrate distribution from coarse to fine particles at that time indicates that higher concentrations could be resulted from emissions in the nearby area. Variations of organochlorine pesticides did not correlate with those of other pollutants; their concentrations were not consistently low even compared with those from contaminated areas in the world. March and April are the period of Yellow Sand in Northeast Asia. In the latter part of the spring 2002 measurement period, PM10 concentration went up to 320 ug/m3 because of heavy Yellow Sand. Characteristics of the variations of POPs in the two distinct measurement periods were compared and discussed. *This work was supported in part by the Korea Ministry of Environment as an Eco-technopia 21 project under grant 2001

  19. Method for Fusing Observational Data and Chemical Transport Model Simulations To Estimate Spatiotemporally Resolved Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Mariel D; Zhai, Xinxin; Holmes, Heather A; Chang, Howard H; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Tolbert, Paige E; Russell, Armistead G; Mulholland, James A

    2016-04-01

    Investigations of ambient air pollution health effects rely on complete and accurate spatiotemporal air pollutant estimates. Three methods are developed for fusing ambient monitor measurements and 12 km resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ) simulations to estimate daily air pollutant concentrations across Georgia. Temporal variance is determined by observations in one method, with the annual mean CMAQ field providing spatial structure. A second method involves scaling daily CMAQ simulated fields using mean observations to reduce bias. Finally, a weighted average of these results based on prediction of temporal variance provides optimized daily estimates for each 12 × 12 km grid. These methods were applied to daily metrics of 12 pollutants (CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and five PM2.5 components) over the state of Georgia for a seven-year period (2002-2008). Cross-validation demonstrates a wide range in optimized model performance across pollutants, with SO2 predicted most poorly due to limitations in coal combustion plume monitoring and modeling. For the other pollutants studied, 54-88% of the spatiotemporal variance (Pearson R(2) from cross-validation) was captured, with ozone and PM2.5 predicted best. The optimized fusion approach developed provides daily spatial field estimates of air pollutant concentrations and uncertainties that are consistent with observations, emissions, and meteorology. PMID:26923334

  20. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC ambient air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  1. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. - We emphasize the urgent need to implement erosion and sediment control politics in Santiago, to decrease PM10 concentrations in the city's air, based on the US experience

  2. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  3. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  4. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  5. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  6. Ambient pollutants, polymorphisms associated with microRNA processing and adhesion molecules: the Normative Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vokonas Pantel S

    2011-05-01

    adjustment. Conclusions PM2.5 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels. SO4-2 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and a suggestive association was observed with sVCAM-1 in aging men. SNPs in miRNA-processing genes may modify associations between ambient pollution and sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, which are correlates of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Markedly enhanced direct radiative forcing of black carbon particles under polluted urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zamora, Misti; Zeng, Liming; Shao, Min; Wu, Yusheng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles, produced from incomplete fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have profound impacts on air quality, human health, weather, and climate. For example, in areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many urban centers and megacities worldwide, solar heating by BC particles has been shown to be comparable to warming due to the greenhouse gases2. Although BC represents a key short-lived climate forcer, its direct radiative forcing remains highly uncertain. In particular, the available results of absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging are conflicting from the previous studies, leading to a large uncertainty in global radiative transfer calculation. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China and Houston, US, using a novel chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages - initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and the subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a maximum absorption enhancement factor of 2.4. The variation in BC direct radiative forcing is highly dependent of the rate and timescale of aging, with an estimated increase of 0.45 (0.21 - 0.80) W m-2 from fresh to fully aged particles. Our results reveal a high climatic impact in polluted environments due to rapid aging and a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries for BC particles, highlighting a larger than recognized co-benefit in air quality improvement and climate protection by BC mediation.

  8. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  9. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions. - There is a large potential of phytotoxic risk on vegetation in Selangor State, Malaysia

  10. Chemical characterization of individual particles (PM10) from ambient air in Guiyang City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM10 samples were collected during 5 days in Guiyang, China in July 2003. A total of about 2300 particles was analyzed by an automated Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to identify different particle types that occurred in the aerosol. Seventeen particle types were identified and presented in the order of decreasing number abundance as: silicomanganese slag, soil and fly ash, coal burning, silicomanganese, quartz, syngenite, S-bearing iron, calcium rich, gypsum, sphalerite, dolomite, iron, alloy, lead sulfate, zinc rich, sulfur-rich particles and aluminum manufacturing dust. The majority of the particles in the studied size range are of anthropogenic origin, especially from metallurgical industry. The study illustrates the complexity of particle pollution in air of an industrial Chinese city and the results should be useful in planning mitigation measures

  11. Spatial coherences of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin; LUO Xianzhi; HOU Chaohuan

    2007-01-01

    The spatial coherences were investigated between the sound pressure and the three orthogonal components of the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise. Based on the ray theory, integral expression was derived for the spatial coherence matrix of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in a stratified ocean with dipole noise sources homogenously distributed on the surface. The integrand includes a multiplying factor of the vertical directivity of the noise intensity, and the layered ocean environment affects the spatial coherences via this directivity factor. For a shallow water environment and a semi-infinite homogenous medium, the coherence calculation results were given. It was showed that the sound speed profile and the sea bottom could not be neglected in determining the spatial coherences of the ambient noise vector field.

  12. Air pollution particles diminish bacterial clearance in the primed lungs of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies reveal increased incidence of lung infection when air pollution particle levels are increased. We postulate that one risk factor for bacterial pneumonia, prior viral infection, can prime the lung for greater deleterious effects of particles via the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) characteristic of successful host anti-viral responses. To test this postulate, we developed a mouse model in which mice were treated with γ-interferon aerosol, followed by exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) collected from urban air. The mice were then infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and the effect of these treatments on the lung's innate immune response was evaluated. The combination of IFN-γ priming and CAPs exposure enhanced lung inflammation, manifest as increased polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) recruitment to the lung, and elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Combined priming and CAPs exposure resulted in impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, as well as increased oxidant production and diminished bacterial uptake by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and PMNs. The data suggest that priming and CAPs exposure lead to an inflamed alveolar milieu where oxidant stress causes loss of antibacterial functions in AMs and recruited PMNs. The model reported here will allow further analysis of priming and CAPs exposure on lung sensitivity to infection

  13. The Relationship between Odour Annoyance Scores and Modelled Ambient Air Pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Odwa Atari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in “Chemical Valley”, Sarnia, Ontario (Canada. Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774; and respondents’ exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were estimated using land use regression (LUR models. The associations were examined by univariate analysis while multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of odour annoyance. The results showed that odour annoyance was significantly correlated to modelled pollutants at the individual (NO2, r = 0.15; SO2, r = 0.13 and census tract (NO2, r = 0.56; SO2, r = 0.67 levels. The exposure-response relationships show that residents of Sarnia react to very low pollution concentrations levels even if they are within the Ontario ambient air quality criteria. The study found that exposure to high NO2 and SO2 concentrations, gender, and perception of health effects were significant determinants of individual odour annoyance reporting. The observed association between odour annoyance and modelled ambient pollution suggest that individual and census tract level annoyance scores may serve as proxies for air quality in exposed communities because they capture the within area spatial variability of pollution. However, questionnaire-based odour annoyance scores need to be validated longitudinally and across different scales if they are to be adopted for use at the national level.

  14. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 ...

  15. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  16. Measurement of ambient aerosols in northern Mexico City by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous ambient measurements with aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS were carried out in an industrial/residential section in the northern part of Mexico City as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area – 2006 campaign (MCMA-2006 between 7–27 March, 2006. Biomass and organic carbon (OC particle types were found to dominate the accumulation mode both day and night. The concentrations of both organic carbon and biomass particles were roughly equal early in the morning, but biomass became the largest contributor to the accumulation mode mass from the late morning until early evening. The diurnal pattern can be attributed to aging and/or a change in meteorology. Fresh elemental carbon (EC particles were observed during rush hour. The majority of the EC particles were mixed with nitrate, sulfate, organic carbon and potassium. Submicron particles from industrial sources in the northeast were composed of an internal mixture of Pb, Zn, EC and Cl and peaked early in the morning. A unique nitrogen-containing organic (NOC particle type was observed, and is hypothesized to be from industrial emissions based on the temporal profile and back trajectory analysis. This study provides unique insights into the real-time changes in single particle mixing state as a function of size and time for aerosols in Mexico City. These new findings indicate that biomass burning and industrial operations make significant contributions to particles in Mexico City. These sources have received relatively little attention in previous intensive field campaigns.

  17. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  18. Effect of typhoon on atmospheric aerosol particle pollutants accumulation over Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Zhang, Miming

    2016-09-01

    Great influence of typhoon on air quality has been confirmed, however, rare data especially high time resolved aerosol particle data could be used to establish the behavior of typhoon on air pollution. A single particle aerosol spectrometer (SPAMS) was employed to characterize the particles with particle number count in high time resolution for two typhoons of Soulik (2013) and Soudelor (2015) with similar tracks. Three periods with five events were classified during the whole observation time, including pre - typhoon (event 1 and event 2), typhoon (event 3 and event 4) and post - typhoon (event 5) based on the meteorological parameters and particle pollutant properties. First pollutant group appeared during pre-typhoon (event 2) with high relative contributions of V - Ni rich particles. Pollution from the ship emissions and accumulated by local processes with stagnant meteorological atmosphere dominated the formation of the pollutant group before typhoon. The second pollutant group was present during typhoon (event 3), while typhoon began to change the local wind direction and increase wind speed. Particle number count reached up to the maximum value. High relative contributions of V - Ni rich and dust particles with low value of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) was observed during this period, indicating that the pollutant group was governed by the combined effect of local pollutant emissions and long-term transports. The analysis of this study sheds a deep insight into understand the relationship between the air pollution and typhoon. PMID:27295441

  19. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  20. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  1. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wittmaack

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC contained in ambient aerosol matter was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. To ease identification of the particles of interest and to avoid or at least reduce interaction with simultaneously sampled inorganic oxides and salts, the approach used in this work differed in two ways from commonly applied procedures. First, rather than using a mixture of particles of vastly different sizes, as in PM10 or PM2.5, aerosol matter was collected in a 5-stage impactor. Second, the water soluble fraction of the collected matter was removed prior to analysis. Diesel soot particles, which appeared in the well-known form of chain-type aggregates, constituted the major fraction of EC. In contrast, OC containing particles were observed in a variety of shapes, including a sizable amount of bioaerosol matter appearing mostly in the size range above about 1 µm. During heating in ambient air for 1 h, diesel soot particles were found to be stable up to 480°C, but complete combustion occurred in a narrow temperature interval between about 490 and 510°C. After diesel soot combustion, minute quantities of ''ash'' were observed in the form of aggregated tiny particles with sizes less than 10 nm. These particles could be due to elemental or oxidic contaminants of diesel soot. Combustion of OC was observed over a wide range of temperatures, from well below 200°C to at least 500°C. Incompletely burnt bioaerosol matter was still found after heating to 600°C. The results imply that the EC fraction in aerosol matter can be overestimated significantly if the contribution of OC to a thermogram is not well separated.

  2. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wittmaack

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC contained in ambient aerosol matter was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. To ease identification of the particles of interest and to avoid or at least reduce interaction with simultaneously sampled inorganic oxides and salts, the approach used in this work differed in two ways from commonly applied procedures. First, rather than using a mixture of particles of vastly different sizes, as in PM10 or PM2.5, aerosol matter was collected in a 5-stage impactor. Second, the water soluble fraction of the collected matter was removed prior to analysis. Diesel soot particles, which appeared in the well-known form of chain-type aggregates, constituted the major fraction of EC. In contrast, OC containing particles were observed in a variety of shapes, including a sizable amount of bioaerosol matter appearing mostly in the size range above about 1 µm. During heating in ambient air for 1h, diesel soot particles were found to be stable up to 470°C, but complete combustion occurred in a narrow temperature interval between about 480 and 510°C. After diesel soot combustion, minute quantities of 'ash' were observed in the form of aggregated tiny particles with sizes less than 10 nm. These particles could be due to elemental or oxidic contaminants of diesel soot. Combustion of OC was observed over a wide range of temperatures, from well below 200°C to at least 500°C. Incompletely burnt bioaerosol matter was still found after heating to 600°C. The results imply that the EC fraction in aerosol matter can be overestimated significantly if the contribution of OC to a thermogram is not well separated.

  3. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.

  4. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  5. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis

  6. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  7. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  8. Diesel emissions significantly influence composition and mutagenicity of ambient particles: a case study in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, a bus strike paralyzed the fleet of buses in Sao Paulo, Brazil during 3 days, from 6 to 8 of April, the complete interruption of services being achieved on the 7th. We evaluated the effect of the absence of this source of pollution on the composition, mutagenicity, and toxicity of the fine particulate material collected during this period. Particles were sampled in glass fiber filters on days 7 and 15 of April of 2003 (strike and nonstrike days, respectively), using a high-volume sampler. Trace element determinations (As, Br, Co, Cl, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, and Th) of particulate material samples were carried out by neutron activation analysis. Sulfur determination was done by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The ratio between nonstrike/strike concentrations of hydrocarbons associated with automotive emissions (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes; BTEX) was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mutagenesis of testing solutions was determined by means of the Tradescantia micronucleus assay in early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida. The inhibition of mitosis of the cells of the primary meristema of the root tips of Allium cepa was used as an index of the toxicity. Fine particle trace element contents were lower during the strike. The concentrations of sulfur and BTEX were 50% and 39.3% lower, respectively, on the strike day. A significant (P=0.038) reduction of micronuclei induced by fine particles sampled during the strike was observed. No effect of the strike on toxicity was detected. These results indicate that a program aiming to reduce emissions of the bus fleet in our town may impact positively the air quality by reducing the mutagenic potential of ambient particles

  9. The association between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Beijing after the 2008 olympics: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter in Beijing during the two years (2009,2010 after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We used generalized additive model to analyze relationship between daily mortality and air pollution. In single air pollutant model with two-day moving average concentrations of the air pollutants, increase in their interquartile range (IQR associated with percent increase in nonaccidental mortality, 2.55 percent [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.99, 3.11] for CO, 2.54 percent (95% CI: 2.00, 3.08 for NO2 and 1.80 percent (95% CI: 1.21, 2.40 for PM10, respectively; increases in the IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with percent increase in cardiovascular mortality, 2.88 percent (95% CI: 2.10,3.65 for CO, 2.63 percent (95% CI: 1.87, 3.39 for NO2 and 1.72 percent (95% CI: 0.88, 2.55 for PM10, respectively; and increase in IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with respiratory mortality, 2.39 percent (95% CI: 0.68, 4.09 for CO, 1.79 percent (95% CI: 0.11, 3.47 for NO2 and 2.07 percent (95% CI: 0.21, 3.92 for PM10, respectively. We used the principal component analysis to avoid collinearity of varied air pollutants. In addition, the association stratified by sex and age was also examined. Ambient air pollution remained a significant contributor to nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortalities in Beijing during 2009,2010.

  10. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo;

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  11. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  12. Dark ambient degradation of Bisphenol A and Acid Orange 8 as organic pollutants by perovskite SrFeO₃-δ metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiw, Ming Yian; Guai, Guan Hong; Wang, Xiaoping; Tse, Man Siu; Ng, Chee Mang; Tan, Ooi Kiang

    2013-09-15

    Current advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are chemically and energetically intensive processes, which are undesirable for cost-effective and large-scale system water treatment and wastewater recycling. This study explored the Strontium Ferrite (SFO) metal oxide on the degradation of highly concentrated organic pollutants under dark ambient condition without any external stimulants. The SFO particles with single perovskite structure were successfully synthesized with a combined high temperature and high-energy ball milling process. An endocrine disruptor, Bisphenol A (BPA) and an azo dye, Acid Orange 8 (AO8) were used as probe organic pollutants. BPA was completely degraded with 83% of mineralization in 24 h while rapid decoloration of AO8 was achieved in 60 min and complete breakdown into primary intermediates and aliphatic acids occurred in 24 h under the treatment of dispersed SFO metal oxide in water. Such efficient degradation could be attributed to the enhanced adsorption of these anionic pollutants on positively charged ball-milled SFO metal oxide surface, resulted in higher degradation activity. Preliminary degradation mechanisms of BPA and AO8 under the action of SFO metal oxide were proposed. These results showed that the SFO metal oxide could be an efficient alternative material as novel advanced oxidation technology for low cost water treatment. PMID:23742952

  13. Organic Components and Elemental Carbon in Soils and Ambient Particles near Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, M. P.; Jia, Y.; Clements, A.

    2008-12-01

    In the desert southwest, fugitive dust emissions contribute significantly to ambient aerosol concentrations. Wind erosion from the arid land is a primary contributor to ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations but, in regions including Central Arizona, desert lands have been converted for agriculture use and thus agriculture processes constitute another contributor. As the metropolitan Phoenix region expands into these agricultural lands, urban sources and construction also contributes to the ambient PM load. In an effort to identify and access relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the region, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected near Higley, AZ, a suburb of Phoenix which has seen rapid urbanization onto agricultural lands between January and May 2008. The soil samples collected were resuspended and samples of resuspended dust were collected to represent particles smaller than 2.5 microns and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively). The size segregated soil and ambient PM samples were analyzed for bulk mass, elemental and organic carbon content, and a number of specific compounds including ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saccharides. The saccharide contribution to soil organic carbon has been studied to elucidate key factors in the soil carbon balance and markers have been developed for tracing fungal metabolites, plant growth and budding and organic matter decay. Using organic markers, the contribution of various sources to PM10 and PM2.5 levels have been determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the ambient aerosol marker concentrations quantified from PM samples. Subsequently, samples of local soil from native and agricultural fields and local roadways wers size- segregated and analyzed in an effort to create a source profile for the dust in the area. A chemical mass balance model has been used to compare with the PMF results

  14. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  15. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described

  16. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  17. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009-2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0-3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  18. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM10. Methods: To examine the association between PM10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m−3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m−3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Average PM10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m−3 increase), and PM10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  19. Measurement of ambient aerosols in northern Mexico City by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous ambient measurements with aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS were made in an industrial/residential section in the northern part of Mexico City as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area-2006 campaign (MCMA-2006. Results are presented for the period of 15–27 March 2006. The submicron size mode contained both fresh and aged biomass burning, aged organic carbon (OC mixed with nitrate and sulfate, elemental carbon (EC, nitrogen-organic carbon, industrial metal, and inorganic NaK inorganic particles. Overall, biomass burning and aged OC particle types comprised 40% and 31%, respectively, of the submicron mode. In contrast, the supermicron mode was dominated by inorganic NaK particle types (42% which represented a mixture of dry lake bed dust and industrial NaK emissions mixed with soot. Additionally, aluminosilicate dust, transition metals, OC, and biomass burning contributed to the supermicron particles. Early morning periods (2–6 a.m. showed high fractions of inorganic particles from industrial sources in the northeast, composed of internal mixtures of Pb, Zn, EC and Cl, representing up to 73% of the particles in the 0.2–3μm size range. A unique nitrogen-containing organic carbon (NOC particle type, peaking in the early morning hours, was hypothesized to be amines from local industrial emissions based on the time series profile and back trajectory analysis. A strong dependence on wind speed and direction was observed in the single particle types that were present during different times of the day. The early morning (3:30–10 a.m. showed the greatest contributions from industrial emissions. During mid to late mornings (7–11 a.m., weak northerly winds were observed along with the most highly aged particles. Stronger winds from the south picked up in the late morning (after 11 a.m., resulting in a decrease in the concentrations of the major aged particle types and an increase in the number fraction of fresh

  20. Air pollution, asthma and allergy - the importance of different types of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate air pollution has been much discussed in Norway during the last few years. Coarse particles from asphalt are likely to have quite different properties than the far smaller particles from diesel exhaust. On the basis of data from the literature and our own research, we discuss the health problem of different types of particles with a focus on allergy and respiratory symptoms. Diesel exhaust particles have well-documented adverse effects in relation to allergic airway disease. They increase symptoms load in already allergic individuals and also seem to contribute to the increased prevalence of allergy. PM10 is today measured on the basis of weight, not on number. Diesel exhaust particles are much smaller than road surface particles; hence PM10 measurements reflect road surface dust pollution more than exhaust particles. Focus should now be given to diesel exhaust particles in order to reduce the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution in Norwegian cities. (author)

  1. Understanding urban vehicular pollution problem vis-a-vis ambient air quality--case study of a megacity (Delhi, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Ghatge, S V; Nema, P; M Tamhane, S

    2006-08-01

    Air pollution has become a growing problem in megacities and large urban areas through out the globe, and transportation is recognized as the major source of air pollution in many cities, especially in developing countries. Contribution of automobiles is reported in the range of 40 to 80% of the total air pollution. The challenge facing megacities is how to reduce the adverse environmental impacts and other negative effects of transportation without giving up the benefits of mobility. The dilemma becomes most pressing under conditions of rapid urban growth, which is likely to increase travel demand significantly. The paper is aimed at understanding the problem of vehicular pollution vis-a-vis ambient air quality for a highly traffic affected megacity, Delhi, wherein, the contribution of transport sector was estimated to be as high as 72%. An effort has been made to review and evaluate the benefits (in terms of improved air quality) of the technological interventions/policies adopted for vehicular pollution control in Delhi. It also highlights the outcome of the efforts and suggests further improvements thereon. The importance of public participation and awareness are also discussed. The paper focuses on deriving the benefits of the implementation of management strategies, supported by scientific and technical data/interpretation, so that the people can realize and participate in the government's endeavor for clean city drive in a more effective manner. PMID:16741810

  2. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  3. Increases in ambient particulate matter air pollution, acute changes in platelet function, and effect modification by aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids: A panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Adan Z; Georas, Steve; Brenna, J Thomas; Hopke, Philip K; Kane, Cathleen; Chalupa, David; Frampton, Mark W; Block, Robert; Rich, David Q

    2016-01-01

    Increased particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations have been associated with platelet activation. It was postulated that elevated air pollutant concentrations would be associated with increases in measures of platelet function and that responses would be blunted when taking aspirin and/or fish oil. Data from a sequential therapy trial (30 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus), with 4 clinic visits (first: no supplements, second: aspirin, third: omega-3 fatty acid supplements, fourth: aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids) per subject, were utilized. Using linear mixed models, adjusted for relative humidity, temperature, visit number, and season, changes in three platelet function measures including (1) aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), (2) aggregation induced by collagen, and (3) thromboxane B2 production were associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean concentrations of ambient PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles (UFP; 10-100 nm), and accumulation mode particles (AMP; 100-500 nm) in the previous 1-96 h. IQR increases in mean UFP and AMP concentrations were associated with significant decreases in platelet response, with the largest being a -0.43 log(pg/ml) decrease in log(thromboxane B2) (95% CI = -0.8, -0.1) associated with each 582-particles/cm(3) increase in AMP, and a -1.7 ohm reduction in collagen-induced aggregation (95% CI = -3.1, -0.3) associated with each 2097-particles/cm(3) increase in UFP in the previous 72 h. This UFP effect on thromboxane B2 was significantly muted in diabetic subjects taking aspirin (-0.01 log[pg/ml]; 95% CI = -0.4, 0.3). The reason for this finding remains unknown, and needs to be investigated in future studies. PMID:27029326

  4. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Matsuda

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature.Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area.Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1 and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1 were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student's t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23-37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001. The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%, the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11% and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%. A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively.High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated with decrease of IL-5 and IL-10 levels

  5. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual le...

  6. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  7. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptoms of asthma in Seattle-area children enrolled in the CAMP study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, O.; Sheppard, L; Lumley, T.; Koenig, J Q; Shapiro, G G

    2000-01-01

    We observed a panel of 133 children (5-13 years of age) with asthma residing in the greater Seattle, Washington, area for an average of 58 days (range 28-112 days) during screening for enrollment in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study. Daily self-reports of asthma symptoms were obtained from study diaries and compared with ambient air pollution levels in marginal repeated measures logistic regression models. We defined days with asthma symptoms as any day a child reported at ...

  8. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tianfeng He; Zuyao Yang; Tao Liu; Yueping Shen; Xiaohong Fu; Xujun Qian; Yuelun Zhang; Yong Wang; Zhiwei Xu; Shankuan Zhu; Chen Mao; Guozhang Xu; Jinling Tang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  9. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  10. TLR-2 is involved in airway epithelial cell response to air pollution particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary cultures of normal human airway epithelial cells (NHBE) respond to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) by increased production of the cytokine IL-8, and the induction of several oxidant stress response genes. Components of ambient air PM responsible for stimulating epithelial cells have not been conclusively identified, although metal contaminants, benzo[a]pyrene and biological matter have been implicated. Stimulation of IL-8 release from NHBE with coarse (PM2.5-10), fine (PM2.5), and UF particle fractions has shown that the coarse particle fraction has the greatest effect on the epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages (AM). Since this fraction concentrates fugitive dusts and particle-associated microbial matter, it was hypothesized that NHBE may recognize PM through microbial pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and TLR4, as has been previously shown with AM. NHBE were shown to release IL-8 when exposed to a Gram-positive environmental isolate of Staphylococcus lentus, and lower levels when exposed to Gram-negative Pseudomonas spp. Comparison of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in NHBE and AM showed that NHBE express similar levels of TLR2 mRNA as the AM, but expressed very low levels of TLR4. When NHBE were stimulated with PM2.5-10, PM2.5, and UF PM, in the presence or absence of inhibitors of TLR2 and TLR4 activation, a blocking antibody to TLR2 inhibited production of IL-8, while TLR4 antagonist E5531 or the LPS inhibitor Polymixin B had no effect. Furthermore, effects on expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA, as well as the stress protein HSP70 was assessed in NHBE exposed to PM. TLR4 expression was increased in these cells while TLR2 mRNA levels were unchanged. Hsp70 was increased by PM2.5-10 > PM2.5 > UF PM suggesting the possibility of indirect activation of TLR pathway by this endogenous TLR2/4 agonist

  11. Evaluation of ambient air pollution effects on three cultivars of sesame (sesamum indicum L.) by using ethylene diurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study was conducted in the suburbs of Lahore city of Pakistan to ascertain the protective effects of ethylene diurea (EDU) on three cultivars of sesame plants against ambient air pollutants. Seasonal mean 10 hr pollution levels at the site remained very high (O/sub 3/ : 91 ppb; NO 2: 38 ppb; SO/sub 2/: 10 ppb). It was found that plants treated with highest EDU concentration (500 ppm) showed increases in stomatal conductance (52%), transpiration rate (53%) and net photosynthesis rate (61%) compared with non-EDU treated plants. EDU treated plants depicted luxurious vegetative growth with reduced rate of leaf senescence compared to control plants. EDU protection was remarkable on different biochemical attributes with increases recorded in total chlorophyll by 31%, carotenoids by 15%, protein by 62%, and ascorbic acid by 65%. Total dry biomass was increased from 147-197% and root/shoot ratio from 29-37% in EDU-treated plants compared to plant in non-EDU. Seed yield was greater by 33-43% in different sesame cultivars treated with highest EDU concentration than non-EDU plants demonstrating the efficacy of EDU in preventing air pollutants induced yield losses. The results have wider implications in understanding the injurious effects of air pollutants on agroeconomic husbandry in Pakistan. (author)

  12. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  13. Characterization of urban pollutant emission fluxes and ambient concentration distributions using a mobile laboratory with rapid response instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Zahniser, Mark S; Worsnop, Douglas R; Knighton, Berk; Alwine, Eugene; Lamb, Brian K; Zavala, Miguel; Nelson, David D; McManus, J Barry; Shorter, Joanne H; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Onasch, Timothy B; Kolb, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    A large and increasing fraction of the planet's population lives in megacities, especially in the developing world. These large metropolitan areas generally have very high levels of both gaseous and particulate air pollutants that have severe impacts on human health, ecosystem viability, and climate on local, regional, and even continental scales. Emissions fluxes and ambient pollutant concentration distributions are generally poorly characterized for large urban areas even in developed nations. Much less is known about pollutant sources and concentration patterns in the faster growing megacities of the developing world. New methods of locating and measuring pollutant emission sources and tracking subsequent atmospheric chemical transformations and distributions are required. Measurement modes utilizing an innovative van based mobile laboratory equipped with a suite of fast response instruments to characterize the complex and "nastier" chemistry of the urban boundary layer are described. Instrumentation and measurement strategies are illustrated with examples from the Mexico City and Boston metropolitan areas. It is shown that fleet average exhaust emission ratios of formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and benzene (C6H6) are substantial in Mexico City, with gasoline powered vehicles emitting higher levels normalized by fuel consumption. NH3 exhaust emissions from newer light duty vehicles in Mexico City exceed levels from similar traffic in Boston. A mobile conditional sampling air sample collection mode designed to collect samples from intercepted emission plumes for later analysis is also described. PMID:16161792

  14. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007–2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12–3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30–5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42–4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0–15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02–9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03–19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67–22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou.

  15. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  16. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007-2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30-5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42-4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0-15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02-9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03-19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67-22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou. PMID:27195597

  17. A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of air pollution on low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants, preterm delivery (PTD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was conducted. Twelve epidemiologic investigations that addressed the impact of air pollution on four pregnancy outcomes were identified. Results were analyzed separately for each perinatal outcome because of differences in pathogenic mechanisms. Effects of air pollution were apparent on PTD and IUGR, but not on LBW. Most of the associations reported were rather small. The estimation of summary effects was not meaningful because of the heterogeneity of the effect estimates arising from differences in the measurements of outcome, exposure, and confounders and the small number of studies per outcome (four studies for PTD and six for IUGR). Current scientific knowledge on the impact of air pollution on fetal growth is still limited; thus, several issues should be examined further

  18. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Evelyn O Talbott; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ≤ 10, 2.5 μm) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMB...

  19. A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; LYLES, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 1993–1999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved ...

  20. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Gong; Zhu, T.; M. Hu; L. W. Zhang; Cheng, H.; L. Zhang; Tong, J; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's...

  1. Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A.; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). Objectives: We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. Methods: We used an energy supply–driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. Results: In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. Conclusions: PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed. Citation: Chafe ZA, Brauer M, Klimont Z, Van Dingenen R, Mehta S, Rao S, Riahi K, Dentener F, Smith KR. 2014. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to

  2. The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, Steven T.; Sudo, Kengo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Bergmann, Daniel; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Cionni, Irene; Doherty, Ruth M.; Eyring, Veronika; Josse, Beatrice; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Plummer, David; Righi, Mattia; Stevenson, David S.; Strode, Sarah; Szopa, Sophie; Zengast, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air-pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths year-1), likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from 382 000 (121 000 to 728 000) deaths year-1 in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths year-1 in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. PM2.5 concentrations decrease relative to 2000 in all scenarios, due to projected reductions in emissions, and

  3. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shaowei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5 and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, von Willebrand factor (vWF, soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin, and total homocysteine (tHcy. Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and

  4. RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION ESTIMATE FOR FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BY A PARTICLE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeas...

  5. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  6. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  7. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007–2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12–3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30–5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42–4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0–15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02–9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03–19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67–22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou. PMID:27195597

  8. Association of stillbirth with ambient air pollution in a California cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rochelle; Sarovar, Varada; Malig, Brian; Basu, Rupa

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between air pollution and stillbirth. In this California study, we examined the records of 13,999 stillbirths and 3,012,270 livebirths occurring between 1999 and 2009. Using a retrospective cohort design and logistic regression models, we calculated the odds of stillbirth associated with each pollutant exposure by trimester and throughout the entire pregnancy. Covariates considered in the model included infant sex, maternal demographic characteristics, season of last menstrual period, apparent temperature, air basin of mother's residence, and year of conception. In single-pollutant models, we found that a 10-µg/m(3) increase in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.13) and a 10-ppb increase in nitrogen dioxide (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.13) during the entire pregnancy were associated with stillbirth. A 10-ppb increase in ozone exposure during the third trimester was also associated with a slightly elevated risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). These ozone and nitrogen dioxide findings were fairly stable after adjustment in 2-pollutant models. However, adjustment for nitrogen dioxide attenuated the full-pregnancy-particulate matter relationship. No significant associations were found for sulfur dioxide or carbon monoxide. These findings support growing evidence of an association between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25861815

  9. Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    Demolition of buildings produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that could be inhaled by on-site workers and people living in the neighbourhood, but studies assessing ambient exposure at the real-world demolition sites are limited. We measured concentrations of PM10 (≤10 μm), PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) and PM1 (≤1 μm) along with local meteorology for 54 working hours over the demolition period. The measurements were carried out at (i) a fixed-site in the downwind of demolished building, (ii) around the site during demolition operation through mobile monitoring, (iii) different distances away from the demolition site through sequential monitoring, and (iv) inside an excavator vehicle cabin and on-site temporary office for engineers. Position of the PM instrument was continuously recorded using a Global Positioning System on a second basis during mobile measurements. Fraction of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) contributed 89 (with mean particle mass concentration, PMC ≈ 133 ± 17 μg m-3), 83 (100 ± 29 μg m-3), and 70% (59 ± 12 μg m-3) of total PMC during the fixed-site, mobile monitoring and sequential measurements, respectively, compared with only 50% (mean 12 ± 6 μg m-3) during the background measurements. The corresponding values for fine particles (PM2.5) were 11, 17 and 30% compared with 50% during background, showing a much greater release of coarse particles during demolition. The openair package in R and map source software (ArcGIS) were used to assess spatial variation of PMCs in downwind and upwind of the demolition site. A modified box model was developed to determine the emission factors, which were 210, 73 and 24 μg m-2 s-1 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The average respiratory deposited doses to coarse (and fine) particles inside the excavator cabin and on-site temporary office increased by 57- (and 5-) and 13- (and 2-) times compared with the local background level, respectively. The monitoring stations in downwind direction

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Kyun; Wang, Weiye

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested air pollution as a new risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies on the association of air pollution with T2DM and related outcomes published by December 2013. We identified 22 studies: 6 prospective studies on incident T2DM; 2 prospective study on diabetes mortality; 4 cross-sectional studies on prevalent T2DM; 7 ecological studies on mortality or morbidity from d...

  11. Dark ambient degradation of Bisphenol A and Acid Orange 8 as organic pollutants by perovskite SrFeO3−δ metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Perovskite SFO prepared by high temperature and high-energy ball milling process. • SFO metal oxide shows good efficiency in degrading and mineralizing BPA. • Rapid decoloration of AO8 was achieved in the presence of SFO metal oxide. • O2·− is the predominant ROS for dark oxidative degradation of BPA and AO8. -- Abstract: Current advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are chemically and energetically intensive processes, which are undesirable for cost-effective and large-scale system water treatment and wastewater recycling. This study explored the Strontium Ferrite (SFO) metal oxide on the degradation of highly concentrated organic pollutants under dark ambient condition without any external stimulants. The SFO particles with single perovskite structure were successfully synthesized with a combined high temperature and high-energy ball milling process. An endocrine disruptor, Bisphenol A (BPA) and an azo dye, Acid Orange 8 (AO8) were used as probe organic pollutants. BPA was completely degraded with 83% of mineralization in 24 h while rapid decoloration of AO8 was achieved in 60 min and complete breakdown into primary intermediates and aliphatic acids occurred in 24 h under the treatment of dispersed SFO metal oxide in water. Such efficient degradation could be attributed to the enhanced adsorption of these anionic pollutants on positively charged ball-milled SFO metal oxide surface, resulted in higher degradation activity. Preliminary degradation mechanisms of BPA and AO8 under the action of SFO metal oxide were proposed. These results showed that the SFO metal oxide could be an efficient alternative material as novel advanced oxidation technology for low cost water treatment

  12. Dark ambient degradation of Bisphenol A and Acid Orange 8 as organic pollutants by perovskite SrFeO{sub 3−δ} metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiw, Ming Yian, E-mail: LEIW0003@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Guai, Guan Hong [GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and Center for Advanced Bionanosystems, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Wang, Xiaoping [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tse, Man Siu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, Chee Mang [GlobalFoundries Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Tan, Ooi Kiang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Perovskite SFO prepared by high temperature and high-energy ball milling process. • SFO metal oxide shows good efficiency in degrading and mineralizing BPA. • Rapid decoloration of AO8 was achieved in the presence of SFO metal oxide. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} is the predominant ROS for dark oxidative degradation of BPA and AO8. -- Abstract: Current advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are chemically and energetically intensive processes, which are undesirable for cost-effective and large-scale system water treatment and wastewater recycling. This study explored the Strontium Ferrite (SFO) metal oxide on the degradation of highly concentrated organic pollutants under dark ambient condition without any external stimulants. The SFO particles with single perovskite structure were successfully synthesized with a combined high temperature and high-energy ball milling process. An endocrine disruptor, Bisphenol A (BPA) and an azo dye, Acid Orange 8 (AO8) were used as probe organic pollutants. BPA was completely degraded with 83% of mineralization in 24 h while rapid decoloration of AO8 was achieved in 60 min and complete breakdown into primary intermediates and aliphatic acids occurred in 24 h under the treatment of dispersed SFO metal oxide in water. Such efficient degradation could be attributed to the enhanced adsorption of these anionic pollutants on positively charged ball-milled SFO metal oxide surface, resulted in higher degradation activity. Preliminary degradation mechanisms of BPA and AO8 under the action of SFO metal oxide were proposed. These results showed that the SFO metal oxide could be an efficient alternative material as novel advanced oxidation technology for low cost water treatment.

  13. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the Northeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonet, M; Bush, T J; Correa, A; Jaakkola, J J

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between term low birth weight (LBW) and ambient air levels of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter up to 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The study population consisted of singleton, term live births (37-44 weeks of gestation) born between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1996 in six northeastern cities of the United States: Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Springfield, Ma...

  14. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a natural experiment study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Nichols, Catherine; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunping; Liu, Xiaohong; Gao, Suhong; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM10), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM10 and NO2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods We estimated th...

  15. Environmental pollution: influence on the operation of a sensor of radioactive aerosols; Contaminacion ambiental: influencia en el funcionamiento de un captador de aerosoles radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Martin Delgado, J.; Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Perez Lopez, M.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. c.

    2013-07-01

    The content of radioactive aerosols in the air is an important component to estimate the ambient radiation dose. In the laboratories of environmental radioactivity, measurements of radionuclides in air they are performed using sensors. The flow picked up by the equipment can be changed if the degree of air pollution changes for some reason. It handles this study and the population doses are estimated due to inhalation of ambient air. (Author)

  16. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: A review of the literature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobák, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2005), s. 375-382. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution * pregnancy outcome * low birth weight Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.342, year: 2005

  17. CONTAMINACIÓN RADIACTIVA AMBIENTAL EN EL NEOTRÓPICO ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN NEOTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osores, J, M.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental radioactive pollution is produced mainly by the use of natural or artificial radioactive substances, the use of the nuclear power and nuclear weapons, constituting a great danger of contamination for the nature and the humanity; since many residues of these polluting materials have been scattered by all the earth. The risks of the radioactive contamination for the people and the environment depend on the nature of the radioactive contaminant, the pollution level and the extension of the contamination; since all the radiations are genotoxics, the probability of genetic alterations and production of mutations is going to depend on the exposure degree of the cells of an organism. In the last years, the environmental radioactive pollution hazards due to artificial radionuclides were reduced considerably, the scientific community has paid special interest in the contamination with natural radioactive elements like for example the radon released within the underground mines that the probability of occurrence of cancer of lung between the workers and the accumulation of different materials NORMS in mining activities increases, especially in the uranium zones of Pozo de Caldas (Brazil and Macusani (Peru, zones of phosphoric operation of rocks (Bayovar or polimetalic mining; the inadequate treatment of these materials is going to produce an important radiological impact and to alter to the habitat of different communities from plants and animals in the region.

  18. Association between ambient air pollution, meteorological conditions and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult citizens of the town of Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    association with the average ambient temperature was proven for the obese female patients and obese non-smoking patients with moderate asthma exacerbations. The number of COPD exacerbation was in positive correlation with the average air pressure for the subgroup of female smokers, but the connection with air pollution was not proven. Conclusion. Exposure to airborne particles in the town of Smederevo, mainly to PM2.5, and to low temperature may trigger asthma exacerbation requiring emergency care. The most vulnerable may be women and obese patients.

  19. Ambient fine particles modify heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Ruiz, Silvia; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2006-03-01

    Particulate air pollution has been related with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that an increase in particulate matter (PM)(2.5) ambient concentrations was associated with a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV) in the elderly with cardiovascular conditions, which could increase the risk of death. In order to assess if this association could also be observed in young adults, we studied 40 young healthy residents of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) who underwent 13 h Holter electrocardiographic and PM(2.5) personal monitoring. HRV was evaluated in time domain: the standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals larger than 50 ms (pNN50). In multivariate analysis with mixed effects models, a significant negative association of pNN50 with PM(2.5) accumulative exposure was found. An increase in 30 microg/m(3) of the average PM(2.5) personal exposure in the previous 2 h decreased the pNN50 in 0.08% (P=0.01). This observation revealed an acute effect related to environmental exposure to PM(2.5) with regard to HRV in normal youngsters. The long-term health consequences of this association in young healthy adults remain to be clarified. PMID:16151470

  20. STIMULATION OF OXIDANT PRODUCTION IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES BY POLLUTANT AND LATEX PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant dusts as well as chemically defined particles were examined for their activating effect on oxidant production (O2- and H2O2) in guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM). Oxidant production was measured as chemiluminescence of albumin-bound luminol. All particles examine...

  1. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  2. Sources and Perceptions of Indoor and Ambient Air Pollution in Rural Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Desirae; LEWIS, JOHNNYE; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were di...

  3. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S.; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000)....

  4. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  5. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  6. Association of Ambient Air Pollution with Respiratory Hospitalization in a Government-Designated “Area of Concern”: The Case of Windsor, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Luginaah, Isaac N.; Fung, Karen Y.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Webster, Greg; Wills, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study is part of a larger research program to examine the relationship between ambient air quality and health in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. We assessed the association between air pollution and daily respiratory hospitalization for different age and sex groups from 1995 to 2000. The pollutants included were nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10), coefficient of haze (COH), and total reduced sulfur (TRS). We calculated relativ...

  7. Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We enrolled a cohort of primary school children with a history of wheeze (n=148) in an 11-month longitudinal study to examine the relationship between ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidity. We obtained daily air pollution (ozone, particulate matter less than 10 μm, and nitrogen dioxide), meteorological, and pollen data. One hundred twenty-five children remained in the final analysis. We used logistic regression models to determine associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There were no associations between ambient ozone concentrations and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There was, however, an association between PM10 concentrations and doctor visits for asthma (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04-1.19) and between NO2 concentration and wet cough (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.003-1.10) in single-pollutant models. The associations remained significant in multipollutant models. There was no consistent evidence that children with wheeze, positive histamine challenge, and doctor diagnosis of asthma reacted differently to air pollution from children with wheeze and doctor diagnosis of asthma and children with wheeze only. There were significant associations between PM10 levels and doctor visits for asthma and an association between NO2 levels and the prevalence of wet cough. We were, however, unable to demonstrate that current levels of ambient air pollution in western Sydney have a coherent range of adverse health effects on children with a history of wheezing

  8. The chemical composition of fine ambient aerosol particles in the Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekat, Bettina; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Gnauk, Thomas; Müller, Konrad; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    The strong economical growth in China during the last few decades led to heavy air pollution caused by significantly increased particle emissions. The aerosol particles affect not only the regional air quality and visibility, but can also influence cloud formation processes and the radiative balance of the atmosphere by their optical and microphysical properties. The ability to act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) is related to microphysical properties like the hygroscopic growth or the cloud droplet activation. The chemical composition of CCN plays an important role on these properties and varies strongly with the particle size and the time of day. Hygroscopic or surface active substances can increase the hygroscopicity and lower the surface tension of the particle liquid phase, respectively. The presence of such compounds may result in faster cloud droplet activation by faster water uptake. The DFG project HaChi (Haze in China) aimed at studying physical and chemical parameters of urban aerosol particles in the Beijing area in order to associate the chemical composition of aerosol particles with their ability to act as CCN. To this end, two measurement campaigns were performed at the Wuqing National Ordinary Meteorological Observing Station, which is a background site near Beijing. The winter campaign was realized in March 2009 and the summer campaign took place from mid July 2009 to mid August 2009. Fine particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal 1 μm were continuously sampled for 24h over the two campaigns using a DIGITEL high volume sampler (DHA-80). The present contribution presents and discusses the results of the chemical characterization of the DIGITEL filters samples. The filters were analyzed for the mass concentration, inorganic ions and carbon sum parameters like elemental (EC), organic (OC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The WSOC fraction was further characterized for hygroscopic substances like low molecular

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  11. Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Yang, Wei; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. Methods We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to estimate the odds of 27 congenital heart defects with respect to quartiles of 7 ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in California during the first two months of pregnancy, 1997–2006 (N=813 cases and N=828 controls). Results Particulate matter defects (aOR3rd Quartile=2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) after adjusting for maternal race-ethnicity, education and multivitamin use. PM2.5 was associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR3rd Quartile=2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5) and inversely associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Secundum atrial septal defects were inversely associated with carbon monoxide (aOR4th Quartile=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) and PM2.5 (aOR4th Quartile=0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). Traffic density was associated with muscular ventricular septal defects (aOR4th Quartile=3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.8) and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (aOR3rd Quartile =2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.6), and inversely associated with transposition of the great arteries (aOR4th Quartile=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). Conclusions PM10 and traffic density may contribute to the occurrence of pulmonary valve stenosis and ventricular septal defects, respectively. The results were mixed for other pollutants and had little consistency with previous studies. PMID:23772934

  12. In-vehicle particle air pollution and its mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Czerwinski, J.; Gutman, M.; Kasper, M.; Popescu, D.; Veinblat, M.; Zvirin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of particle mass, number and size measurements inside passenger cars (PCs), vans and urban buses. Effects of the in-cabin air purifier on particle concentrations and average size inside a vehicle are studied. Use of the air purifier leads to a dramatic reduction, by 95-99%, in the measured ultrafine particles number concentration inside a vehicle compared with outside readings. Extremely low particle concentrations may be reached without a danger of vehicle occupants' exposure to elevated CO2 levels. The lowest values of particle concentrations inside a PC without air purifier are registered under the recirculation ventilation mode, but the issue of CO2 accumulation limits the use of this mode to very short driving events. Lower PM concentrations are found inside newer cars, if this ventilation mode is used. Great differences by a factor of 2.5-3 in PM10 concentrations are found between the PCs and the buses. Smoking inside a car leads to a dramatic increase, by approximately 90 times, in PM2.5 concentrations.

  13. Sources and perceptions of indoor and ambient air pollution in rural Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-08-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were disseminated within seven communities in rural Alaska. The surveys focused on understanding the demographics, home heating practices, indoor activities, community/outdoor activities, and air quality perceptions within each community. Results from these surveys showed that there is elevated potential for PM10/PM2.5 exposures in rural Alaska communities. Top indoor air quality concerns included mold, lack of ventilation or fresh air, and dust. Top outdoor air pollution concerns identified were open burning/smoke, road dust, and vehicle exhaust (e.g., snow machines, ATVs, etc.). These data can now be used to seek additional funding for interventions, implementing long-term, sustainable solutions to the identified problems. Further research is needed to assess exposures to PM10/PM2.5 and the associated impacts on respiratory health, particularly among susceptible populations such as young children. PMID:23526077

  14. Ambient pressure effects on the sputter particle distribution of insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ion bombardment on several grades of alumina was investigated. Changes in the electrical resistance of the substrate as a function of incoming ion energy were of particular interest. Attention was also paid to the sputter particle distribution as a function of ambient pressure. This distribution was found to be dependent on the ion to substrate mass ratio. In general, the distribution follows a curve of growth; approximating a cosine distribution at the lower pressures and mass ratio, becoming isotropic at higher pressures. Pressures in the range of 10-2 to 10-4 Pascals have been used along with mass ratios in the range of 0.40 to 1.3. Samples of up to 80 cm2 were subjected to a 10 cm diameter ion beam at energies of up to 6.25 keV. Average ion current densities of 1ma/cm2 were used. Substrate temperatures while subjected to the ion beam were also monitored

  15. Assessing Children's Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants in School Buses and at Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qunfang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk due to their immature respiratory systems and greater breathing rates per body weight. This study aims to assess children's exposure to UFPs and other air pollutants in school buses and at schools. 24 school buses were employed to represent commonly used school buses in the United States. UFPs and other air pollutants in and around school buses were measured w...

  16. [Particle Size Distribution and Pollutant Speciation Analyses of Stormwater Runoff in the Ancient Town of Suzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai; Wu, Wei; Tian, Yong-jing; Huang, Tian-yin

    2016-02-15

    The particle size distribution (PSD) and its transformation processes in the stormwater runoffs in the ancient town of Suzhou were studied based on the particles size analyses, the water-quality monitoring data and the parameters of the rainfall-runoff models. The commercial districts, the modern residential area, the old residential area, the traffic area and the landscape tourist area were selected as the five functional example areas in the ancient town of Suzhou. The effects of antecedent dry period, the rainfall intensity and the amount of runoffs on the particle size distributions were studied, and the existing forms of the main pollutants in different functional areas and their possible relations were analyzed as well. The results showed that the particle size distribution, the migration processes and the output characteristics in the stormwater runoffs were greatly different in these five functional areas, which indicated different control measures for the pollution of the runoffs should be taken in the design process. The antecedent dry period, the rainfall intensity and the amount of runoffs showed significant correlations with the particle size distribution, showing these were the important factors. The output of the particles was greatly influenced by the flow scouring in the early period of the rainfall, and the correlations between the amount of runoffs and the particle migration ability presented significant difference in 30% (early period) and 70% (later period) of the runoff volume. The major existence form of the output pollutants was particle, and the correlation analyses of different diameter particles showed that the particles smaller than 150 microm were the dominant carrier of the pollutants via adsorption and accumulation processes. PMID:27363145

  17. No difference in activity of Sod-1 genotypes of Poa annua to short-term treatment of ambient gaseous organic pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yue-wei; CHEN Xiao-yong

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that genotypes at locus Sod-1 of Poa annua changed clinally along a gradient of gaseous organic pollution. In the present study, we aimed to know whether there were differential responses of activities of different superoxide dismutase (SOD) genotypes to short-term treatment of ambient gaseous organic pollution. Significant bias from Hardy-Weinberg equibrium was observed on locus Sod-1, and no genotype Sod-1-BB was found. Significantly increased activities were observed in most treatments for genotype Sod- 1-AA and in one treatment for genotype Sob-1-AB. However, no significant difference in SOD activities was found between the two genotypes. It was interpreted that fitness difference between the two genotypes was small and treatment duration was too short or extent of ambient organic pollution was too low to lead to differential responses. Other environmental factor effects on activities of superoxide dismutases can also explain the results.

  18. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenna C Eze

    Full Text Available Air pollutants (AP play a role in subclinical inflammation, and are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is inflammatory and precedes cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, a positive association between AP and MetS may be hypothesized. We explored this association, (taking into account, pathway-specific MetS definitions, and its potential modifiers in Swiss adults. We studied 3769 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults, reporting at least four-hour fasting time before venepuncture. AP exposures were 10-year mean residential PM10 (particulate matter <10μm in diameter and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide. Outcomes included MetS defined by World Health Organization (MetS-W, International Diabetes Federation (MetS-I and Adult Treatment Panel-III (MetS-A using four- and eight-hour fasting time limits. We also explored associations with individual components of MetS. We applied mixed logistic regression models to explore these associations. The prevalence of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A were 10%, 22% and 18% respectively. Odds of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A increased by 72% (51-102%, 31% (11-54% and 18% (4-34% per 10μg/m3 increase in 10-year mean PM10. We observed weaker associations with NO2. Associations were stronger among physically-active, ever-smokers and non-diabetic participants especially with PM10 (p<0.05. Associations remained robust across various sensitivity analyses including ten imputations of missing observations and exclusion of diabetes cases. The observed associations between AP exposure and MetS were sensitive to MetS definitions. Regarding the MetS components, we observed strongest associations with impaired fasting glycemia, and positive but weaker associations with hypertension and waist-circumference-based obesity. Cardio-metabolic effects of AP may be majorly driven by impairment of glucose homeostasis, and to a less

  19. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Nicholas [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Goldberg, Mark S., E-mail: mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave. W., R4.29, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1 (Canada); Hystad, Perry [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Villeneuve, Paul J. [Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Kenneth C. [Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO{sub 2} and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO{sub 2} and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM{sub 2.5} we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO{sub 2} of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of PM{sub 2.5} of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO{sub 2}. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential

  20. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO2 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO2 and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM2.5 we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m3 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO2 of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO2. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential histories to estimate average annual concentrations

  1. Particle number size distribution and new particle formation:New characteristics during the special pollution control period in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gao; Fahe Chai; Tao Wang; Shulan Wang; Wenxing Wang

    2012-01-01

    New particle formation is a key process in shaping the size distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere.We present here the measurement results of number and size distribution of aerosol particles (10-10000 nm in diameter) obtained in the summer of 2008,at a suburban site in Beijing,China.We firstly reported the pollution level,particle number size distribution,diurnal variation of the particle number size distribution and then introduced the characteristics of the particle formation processes.The results showed that the number concentration of ultrafine particles was much lower than the values measured in other urban or suburban areas in previous studies.Sharp increases of ultrafine particle count were frequently observed at noon.An examination of the diurnal pattern suggested that the burst of ultrafine particles was mainly due to new particle formation promoted by photochemical processes.In addition,high relative humidity was a key factor driving the growth of the particles in the afternoon.During the 2-month observations,new particle formation from homogeneous nucleation was observed for 42.7% of the study period.The average growth rate of newly formed particles was 3.2 nm/hr,and varied from 1.2 to 8.0 nm/hr.The required concentration of condensable vapor was 4.4 × 107 cm-3,and its source rate was 1.2 × 106 cm-3sec-1.Further calculation on the source rate of sulphuric acid vapor indicated that the average participation of sulphuric acid to particle growth rates was 28.7%.

  2. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  3. Particle size distribution and pollutants in road-deposited sediments in different areas of Zhenjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Zhu, Wei

    2009-08-01

    An understanding of road-deposited sediment (RDS) characteristics on an impervious surface is essential to estimate pollutant washoff characteristics and to minimise the impacts of pollutants on the water environment. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected from four different land-use types (commercial, residential, intense traffic and riverside park) in Zhenjiang City, China. The samples were fractionated into seven grain-size classes and analysed for particle size distribution and concentrations of pollutants. The samples are found to consist predominantly of fine particles (60-80%, traffic area. The maximum mean contents of organic matter (12.55%), nitrogen (6.31 mg/g) and phosphorus (5.15 mg/g) were found in samples from the commercial area. The concentrations of heavy metals were highest in the smallest particle size fraction analysed (63 microm). The organic matter and nitrogen content generally increased with decreasing particle sizes in the <500-microm particle size range. The results also revealed that most of the total nitrogen (TN) is attached to the finer sediments and that to effectively reduce TN loads in particulates, treatment facilities must be able to remove the finer particles (down to 125 microm for TN). PMID:18791663

  4. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Verissimo, Thiago G.; Kerr, Americo S.; Coull, Brent; Arku, Raphael E.; Koutrakis, Petros; Spengler, John D.; Hughes, Allison F.; Vallarino, Jose; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-12-01

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m-3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m-3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m-3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  5. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m−3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m−3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m−3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda. (letter)

  6. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osan, Janos E-mail: osan@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-21

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 {mu}g/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  7. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osán, János; Török, Szabina; Alföldy, Bálint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-01

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 μg/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  8. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 μg/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible

  9. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  10. Ambient x-ray pollution assessment at inspection gates of airports- a case study of Mehrabad and Imam Khomeini Airports in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Pourtaghi, Gholamhossein; Valipour, Firouz; Nourian, Sepideh; Mofidi, Amirabbas

    2014-01-01

    Background As a well-known, physical carcinogen, ambient X-ray pollution assessment would be of great importance in today’s modern world. Accordingly, the present study was done to measure the exposure level of ambient X-ray at inspection gates of two airports in Iran. According to which, the X-ray was measured at different points of the inspection gates including closed and opened Curtain, as well as seating place of operators beside the X-ray inspection systems. The recorded data were then ...

  11. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  12. Ultrafine particle and fine trace metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) pollution episodes induced by industrial emissions in Huelva, SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; González-Castanedo, Y.; Garcia-Orellana, I.; Nava, S.

    2012-12-01

    Urban air quality impairment by ultrafine particles has become a matter of concern due to the adverse effects on human health. Most of the studies of ultrafine particles in urban air quality have focused on vehicle exhaust emissions. We studied how industrial emissions contribute to ultrafine particle concentrations in downwind urban ambient air. This research is based on experimental data collected in the ambient air of the industrial city of Huelva (SW Spain) over April 2008-December 2009 period (particle number, gaseous pollutants and black carbon concentrations and levels and chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 with daily and hourly resolution). This city is affected by emissions from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe, phosphoric acid and fertilizer production plants and an oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Industrial emissions are the main cause of ultrafine particle episodes. When vehicle exhaust emissions are the main source, ultrafine particles typically show (24-h mean) concentrations within the range 14,700-5000 cm-3 (50th-1st), with 60% of these linked to this source and 30% to industrial emissions. In contrast, when daily mean levels of N are within the range 50,000-25,500 cm-3 (100th-70th), industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions accounted for 49 and 30%, respectively. High concentrations of toxic trace metals (As, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) were recorded when the study city suffered fumigations of the Cu-smelter plumes (e.g. 10-25 ng m-3 As, 1-2 ng m-3 Cd and >105 cm-3 of ultrafine particles). Because of these industrial emissions, ultrafine particle concentrations during daylight are about two times higher than those observed in other European cities. Recently, ultrafine particle emissions in vehicle exhausts have been subject to limit values in a recent stage of the EURO standards. Industrial emissions should also be considered.

  13. Oxidative stress and inflammation generated DNA damage by exposure to air pollution particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela;

    2014-01-01

    sampled at different locations (spatial variability), times (temporal variability) or particle size fraction across different experimental systems of acellular conditions, cultured cells, animals and humans. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in the genotoxic, inflammation and oxidative stress...... potential of PM sampled at different locations or times. Small air pollution particles did not appear more hazardous than larger particles, which is consistent with the notion that constituents such as metals and organic compounds also are important determinants for PM-generated oxidative stress and...... oxidative stress and inflammation....

  14. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NOx, SO2, O3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (Da) were performed. Ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O3, Fe3O4, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO3,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  15. Study on an Air Quality Evaluation Model for Beijing City Under Haze-Fog Pollution Based on New Ambient Air Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Dong-Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive eval...

  16. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate...

  17. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH.

  18. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  19. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  20. Ambient air pollution associated with suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Blount, R. J.; Djawe, K.; Daly, K. R.; Jarlsberg, L.G.; Fong, S.; Balmes, J; Miller, R F; Walzer, P. D.; Huang, L; International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias Study

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution (AAP) may be associated with increased risk for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The mechanisms underlying this association remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine if real-life exposures to AAP are associated with suppressed IgM antibody responses to P. jirovecii in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients with active PCP, and to determine if AAP, mediated by suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conduct...

  1. Source apportionment of ambient particle number concentrations in central Los Angeles using positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model (version 5.0) was used to identify and quantify major sources contributing to particulate matter (PM) number concentrations, using PM number size distributions in the range of 13 nm to 10 µm combined with several auxiliary variables, including black carbon (BC), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants, meteorological, and traffic counts data, collected for about 9 months between August 2014 and 2015 in central Los Angeles, CA. Several parameters, including particle number and volume size distribution profiles, profiles of auxiliary variables, contributions of different factors in different seasons to the total number concentrations, diurnal variations of each of the resolved factors in the cold and warm phases, weekday/weekend analysis for each of the resolved factors, and correlation between auxiliary variables and the relative contribution of each of the resolved factors, were used to identify PM sources. A six-factor solution was identified as the optimum for the aforementioned input data. The resolved factors comprised nucleation, traffic 1, traffic 2 (with a larger mode diameter than traffic 1 factor), urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust. Traffic sources (1 and 2) were the major contributor to PM number concentrations, collectively making up to above 60 % (60.8-68.4 %) of the total number concentrations during the study period. Their contribution was also significantly higher in the cold phase compared to the warm phase. Nucleation was another major factor significantly contributing to the total number concentrations (an overall contribution of 17 %, ranging from 11.7 to 24 %), with a larger contribution during the warm phase than in the cold phase. The other identified factors were urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and soil/road dust, with relative contributions of approximately 12 % (7.4-17.1), 2.1 % (1

  2. Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The

  3. Air Pollution and ST-Segment Depression in Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum, Gail; Canner, Marina J.; Gold, Diane R.; Litonjua, Augusto Ampil; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent Andrew; Schwartz, Joel David; Verrier, Richard Leonard; Nearing, Bruce David; Suh MacIntosh, Helen H.; Stone, Peter Howard

    2005-01-01

    Increased levels of daily ambient particle pollution have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Black carbon (BC) is a measure of the traffic-related component of particles. We investigated associations between ambient pollution and ST-segment levels in a repeated-measures study including 269 observations on 24 active Boston residents 61–88 years of age, each observed up to 12 times from June through September 1999. The protocol involved continuous Holter electrocar...

  4. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winquist Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. Methods Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5, and the PM2.5 components elemental carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate were obtained from networks of ambient air quality monitors. For each pollutant we created three different daily metrics. For one metric we used the measurements from a centrally-located monitor; for the second we averaged measurements across the network of monitors; and for the third we estimated the population-weighted average concentration using an isotropic spatial model. Rate ratios for each of the metrics were estimated from time-series models. Results For pollutants with relatively homogeneous spatial distributions we observed only small differences in the rate ratio across the three metrics. Conversely, for spatially heterogeneous pollutants we observed larger differences in the rate ratios. For a given pollutant, the strength of evidence for an association (i.e., chi-square statistics tended to be similar across metrics. Conclusions Given that the chi-square statistics were similar across the metrics, the differences in the rate ratios for the spatially heterogeneous pollutants may seem like a relatively small issue. However, these differences are important for health benefits analyses, where results from epidemiological studies on the health effects of pollutants (per unit change in concentration are used to predict the health impacts of a reduction in pollutant concentrations. We discuss the relative merits of the different metrics as they pertain to time-series studies and health benefits

  5. Diurnal and seasonal trends in the apparent density of ambient fine and coarse particles in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diurnal and seasonal variations in the apparent density of ambient fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and CPM [PM2.5–10], respectively) were investigated in a location near downtown Los Angeles. The apparent densities, determined by particle mass-to-volume ratios, showed strong diurnal and seasonal variations, with higher values during the warm phase (June to August 2013) compared to cold phase (November 2012 to February 2013). PM2.5 apparent density showed minima during the morning and afternoon rush hours of the cold phase (1.20 g cm−3), mainly due to the increased contribution of traffic-emitted soot particles, and highest values were found during the midday in the warm phase (2.38 g cm−3). The lowest CPM apparent density was observed during the morning rush hours of the cold phase (1.41 g cm−3), while highest in early afternoon during the warm phase (2.91 g cm−3), most likely due to the increased wind-induced resuspension of road dust. - Highlights: • Hourly apparent density of ambient fine and coarse PM was measured in Los Angeles. • Apparent densities were higher during the warm season. • PM2.5 apparent density showed minima during the traffic rush hours. • Coarse PM apparent density showed a similar diurnal trend with wind speed in summer. - The apparent density of ambient particles, a direct tracer of chemical composition and morphology, shows strong seasonal and diurnal variability

  6. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2014-09-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (∼50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (∼700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 μm, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn).

  7. Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang, China

    OpenAIRE

    H. Akimoto; Z. Wang; K. Okuzawa; K. Kawamura; Li, J.; Liu, Y; P. Pochanart; Taketani, F.; Y. Kanaya

    2012-01-01

    HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol particles at the Mt. ...

  8. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Healy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments, may thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei, and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurements of PBAP in natural environments taken at high time- and size- resolution are, however, sparse and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in south western Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of the waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4 with the ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behaviour, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each were correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.. The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multi-modal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  9. Ambient measurements of biological aerosol particles near Killarney, Ireland: a comparison between real-time fluorescence and microscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) can contribute significantly to the coarse particle burden in many environments. PBAPs can thus influence climate and precipitation systems as cloud nuclei and can spread disease to humans, animals, and plants. Measurement data and techniques for PBAPs in natural environments at high time- and size resolution are, however, sparse, and so large uncertainties remain in the role that biological particles play in the Earth system. In this study two commercial real-time fluorescence particle sensors and a Sporewatch single-stage particle impactor were operated continuously from 2 August to 2 September 2010 at a rural sampling location in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland. A cascade impactor was operated periodically to collect size-resolved particles during exemplary periods. Here we report the first ambient comparison of a waveband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4) with a ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) and also compare these real-time fluorescence techniques with results of fluorescence and optical microscopy of impacted samples. Both real-time instruments showed qualitatively similar behavior, with increased fluorescent bioparticle concentrations at night, when relative humidity was highest and temperature was lowest. The fluorescent particle number from the FL3 channel of the WIBS-4 and from the UV-APS were strongly correlated and dominated by a 3 μm mode in the particle size distribution. The WIBS FL2 channel exhibited particle modes at approx. 1 and 3 μm, and each was correlated with the concentration of fungal spores commonly observed in air samples collected at the site (ascospores, basidiospores, Ganoderma spp.). The WIBS FL1 channel exhibited variable multimodal distributions turning into a broad featureless single mode after averaging, and exhibited poor correlation with fungal spore concentrations, which may be due to the detection of bacterial and non-biological fluorescent

  10. Removal of Particles from the Supply Air of Ventilation Systems Avoiding the Formation of Sensory Pollution Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters can act as sources of strong sensory pollution. The pollutants emitted from loaded particle filters may include irritating products of chemical reactions occurring on the filter surfaces. Most likely oxidation reactions, especially those driven by ozone, seem to play an...... important role. Sensory pollutants emitted from used filters can have significant adverse impact on occupant performance. Therefore, removal of particles from the supply air of ventilation systems without the subsequent emission of pollutants into the airstream seems to be essential. Correct maintenance of...... filtration. Finally, an experiment was designed to test the effect of different particle filters, activated carbon filters and their combinations on the perceived air quality after several months of continuous use. A commercially available HVAC filter that has low emissions of pollutants, even after...

  11. Measurement of Soluble and Total Hexavalent Chromium in the Ambient Airborne Particles in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Shin, Jin Young; Fan, Zhihua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and may have both soluble and insoluble forms. The sum of the two forms is defined as total Cr(VI). Currently, there were no methods suitable for large-scale monitoring of total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This study developed a method to measure total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This method includes PM collection using a Teflon filter, microwave extraction with 3% Na2CO3-2% NaOH at 95°C for 60 minutes, and Cr(VI) analysis by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetry at 540 nm. The recoveries of total Cr(VI) were 119.5 ± 10.4% and 106.3 ± 16.7% for the Cr(VI)-certified reference materials, SQC 012 and SRM 2700, respectively. Total Cr(VI) in the reference urban PM (NIST 1648a) was 26.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg (%CV = 11.9%) determined by this method. The method detection limit was 0.33 ng/m3. This method and the one previously developed to measure ambient Cr(VI), which is soluble in pH ~9.0 aqueous solution, were applied to measure Cr(VI) in ambient PM10 collected from three urban areas and one suburban area in New Jersey. The total Cr(VI) concentrations were 1.05–1.41 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.99–1.56 ng/m3 in the summer. The soluble Cr(VI) concentrations were 0.03–0.19 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.12–0.37 ng/m3 in the summer. The summer mean ratios of soluble to total Cr(VI) were 14.3–43.7%, significantly higher than 4.2–14.4% in the winter. The winter concentrations of soluble and total Cr(VI) in the suburban area were significantly lower than in the three urban areas. The results suggested that formation of Cr(VI) via atmospheric chemistry may contribute to the higher soluble Cr(VI) concentrations in the summer. PMID:26120324

  12. Ambient particle source apportionment and daily hospital admissions among children and elderly in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wahlin, P.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    An association between particulate air pollution and morbidity and mortality is well established. However, little is known about which sources of particulate matter contribute most to the adverse health effects. Identification of responsible sources would merit more efficient control. For a 6-yea...

  13. Characterization of PM2.5 in the ambient air of Shanghai city by analyzing individual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at three representative areas (central city, industrial area and clean air suburban) of Shanghai city. Their morphologies and elemental compositions were determined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy analysis (SEM-EDX). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Soot aggregates and spherical fly ash particles were the two dominant types and they were identified as originating from automobile exhaust, metallurgical industry and coal combustion. The size distribution of the particles showed that most had diameters in the range of 0.2-1.4 μm. Individual particles were measured by synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (micro-SXRF) and the micro-SXRF spectra were obtained. Pattern recognition techniques, which took the micro-SXRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle as its fingerprint, were used to identify the origins of the particles. Seven source types were identified. They were: metallurgical industry, vehicle exhaust, soil dust, coal combustion, diesel exhaust, oil combustion and motorcycle exhaust. Metallurgical industry, automobile exhaust, and coal combustion were recognized to be the main pollution sources of PM2.5 in the air of Shanghai city

  14. APPLICATION OF LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION AND PROTEIN MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF AIRWAY INJURY FOLLOWING POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which various types of air pollution particles (PM) mediate adverse health effects would provide biological plausibility to epidemiological associations of increased rates of morbidity and mortality. The majority of information regarding the means ...

  15. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  16. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  17. Particle pollution - An environmental magnetism study using biocollectors located in northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria João; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-12-01

    In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Nerium oleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/χ ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 μm and 8 μm in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with χ and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy

  18. Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 103 part. cm−3; the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 104 part. cm−3 and 1.7 × 104 part. cm−3 for crew chief and hangar operator. - Highlights: ► Air quality measures were performed at different spatial scales in an aviation base. ► Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons was estimated. ► Particles at downwind receptor site show a marine origin typical of a coastal site. ► Main exposure peaks are related to pre-flight operations of jet engine aircrafts. ► Crew chief are exposed to highest concentrations even if these were not worrisome. - A negligible impact of a high performance jet engine airport, in terms of airborne particles and other pollutants, was measured through an experimental campaign at three spatial scales.

  19. Photophoresis on particles hotter or colder than the ambient gas in the free molecular flow

    CERN Document Server

    Loesche, C; Jankowski, T; Kuepper, M

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol particles experience significant photophoretic forces at low pressure. Previous work assumed the average particle temperature to be very close to the gas temperature. This might not always be the case. If the particle temperature or the thermal radiation field differs significantly from the gas temperature (optically thin gases), given approximations overestimate the photophoretic force by an order of magnitude on average with maximum errors up to more than three magnitudes. We therefore developed a new general approximation which on average only differs by 1 % from the true value.

  20. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer La contaminación del aire como factor de riesgo de cáncer pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AARON J COHEN

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.En los estudios epidemiológicos llevados a cabo durante los últimos 40 años se ha observado que la contaminación del aire en general, debida sobre todo a los residuos de la combustión incompleta de combustibles fósiles, se ha asociado a pequeños incrementos relativos de cáncer pulmonar. La evidencia procede de estudios sobre tendencias de cáncer del pulmón, de aquellos sobre grupos ocupacionales, de comparaciones entre poblaciones

  1. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Krafft; Desheng Pei; Jinmei Lv; Wuyi Wang; Fengying Zhang; Liping Li

    2011-01-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years ...

  2. Characterization of ambient particles size in workplace of manufacturing physical fitness equipments

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Mei-Ru; CHANG, Sheng-Lang; LIAO, Wei-Heng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of fitness equipment involves several processes, including the cutting and punching of iron tubes followed by welding. Welding operations produce hazardous gases and particulate matter, which can enter the alveolar, resulting in adverse health effects. This study sought to verify the particle size distribution and exposure concentrations of atmospheric air samples in various work areas of a fitness equipment manufacturing industry. Observed particle concentrations are presen...

  3. Developing an in vitro technology to study the inflammation potential of ambient particle types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E.

    Elevated levels of suspended particles in the troposphere, termed particulate matter, elicit a myriad of adverse health effects in humans, ranging from shortness of breath and wheezing to myocardial infarction and death. It is currently believed that the adverse health effects associated with particulate matter are mediated by the inflammatory response initiated by the lung following particulate matter inhalation. What remains an area of much interest is elucidating the specific properties of particulate matter, physical or chemical, that cause the upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. The basic premise of this thesis was to identify the specific chemical components of particulate matter responsible for its adverse health effects. To address this issue, instrumentation and methodology were developed wherein one could design, create, levitate and deposit particles of both known chemical composition and size onto lung cells, in vitro, followed by the monitoring of the downstream biological response. An initial study focused on the role of the endotoxin component in particulate matter toxicity. Through a series of blocking studies we found that endotoxin acted synergistically with the particle core to elicit upregulation of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1; all of which are associated with the NF-kappaB pathway. Through characterizing this relatively simple system, one observation became apparent: the presence of the insoluble particle core had a profound effect on the cellular response; that is to say, the particle core was not simply a delivery vector, but a determinant factor in the final intracellular location of the toxic chemical. The latter observation held true as other particle types were studied and in addition, it was found that the nature of the actual chemical species itself plays a dual role in particle toxicity; first by retaining its toxic properties and second by altering the physical properties of the particle

  4. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site. PMID:18939780

  5. Characteristics of tyre dust in polluted air: Studies by single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Gietl, Johanna K.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi A.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative knowledge on the contributions of non-exhaust (abrasion and re-suspension) sources to traffic emissions. Abrasive emissions can be broadly categorised as tyre wear, brake wear and road dust/road surface wear. Current research often considers road dust and tyre dust as externally mixed particles, the former mainly composed of mineral matter and the latter solely composed of mainly organic matter and some trace elements. The aim of this work was to characterise tyre wear from both laboratory and field studies by using Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS). Real-time single particle chemical composition was obtained from a set of rubber tyres rotating on a metal surface. Bimodal particle number size distributions peaking at 35 nm and 85 nm were obtained from SMPS/APS measurements over the range 6-20,000 nm. ATOFMS mass spectra of tyre wear in the particle size range 200-3000 nm diameter show peaks due to exo-sulphur compounds, nitrate, Zn and ions of high molecular weight (m/z > 100) attributed to organic polymers. Two large ATOFMS datasets collected from a number of outdoor studies were examined. The former was constituted of 48 road dust samples collected on the roads of London. The latter consisted of ATOFMS ambient air field studies from Europe, overall composed of more than 2,000,000 single particle mass spectra. The majority (95%) of tyre wear particles present in the road dust samples and atmospheric samples are internally mixed with metals (Li, Na, Ca, Fe, Ti), as well as phosphate. It is concluded that the interaction of tyres with the road surface creates particles internally mixed from two sources: tyre rubber and road surface materials. Measurements of the tyre rubber component alone may underestimate the contribution of tyre wear to concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The results presented are especially relevant for urban aerosol source apportionment and PM2.5 exposure assessment.

  6. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly.A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates.A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09-1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81).Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  7. Measurement of overall uptake coefficients for HO2 radicals by aerosol particles sampled from ambient air at Mts. Tai and Mang (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Taketani, F.; Y. Kanaya; P. Pochanart; Liu, Y; Li, J.; K. Okuzawa; K. Kawamura; Z. Wang; H. Akimoto

    2012-01-01

    HO2 uptake coefficients for ambient aerosol particles, collected on quartz fiber filter using a high-volume air sampler in China, were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a chemical conversion/laser-induced fluorescence technique at 760 Torr and 298 K, with a relative humidity of 75%. Aerosol particles were regenerated with an atomizer using the water extracts from the aerosol particles. Over 10 samples, the measured HO2 uptake coefficients for the aerosol parti...

  8. Ambient black carbon particle hygroscopic properties controlled by mixing state and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The wet removal of black carbon aerosol (BC in the atmosphere is a crucial factor in determining its atmospheric lifetime and thereby the vertical and horizontal distributions, dispersion on local and regional scales, and the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The in-cloud scavenging and wet deposition rate of freshly emitted hydrophobic BC will be increased on acquisition of more-hydrophilic components by coagulation or coating processes. The lifetime of BC is still subject to considerable uncertainty for most of the model inputs, which is largely due to the insufficient constraints on the BC hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion process from observational field data. This study was conducted at a site along UK North Norfolk coastline, where the BC particles were transported from different regions within Western Europe. A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA was coupled with a single particle soot photometer (SP2 to measure the hygroscopic properties of BC particles and associated mixing state in real time. In addition, a Soot Particle AMS (SP-AMS measured the chemical compositions of additional material associated with BC particles. The ensemble of BC particles persistently contained a less-hygroscopic mode at a growth factor (gf of around 1.05 at 90% RH (dry diameter 163 nm. Importantly, a more-hygroscopic mode of BC particles was observed throughout the experiment, the gf of these BC particles extended up to ~1.4–1.6 with the minimum between this and the less hygroscopic mode at a gf ~1.25, or equivalent effective hygroscopicity parameter κ ~0.1. The gf of BC particles (gfBC was highly influenced by the composition of associated soluble material: increases of gfBC were associated with secondary inorganic components, and these increases were more pronounced when ammonium nitrate was in the BC particles; however the presence of secondary organic matter suppressed

  9. Air pollution particles activate NF-κB on contact with airway epithelial cell surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution particles (PM) are known to elicit an acute inflammatory response in vivo that is mediated in part through PM-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many of the details of this process and particularly where in the cell it occurs are unclear. To determine whether contact of PM particles with an epithelial cell surface activates NF-κB, rat tracheal explants were exposed to Ottawa Urban Air Particles or iron-loaded fine TiO2, a model PM particle, for up to 2 h. During this period, there was no evidence of particle entry into the tracheal epithelial cells by light or electron microscopy, but both types of particle activated NF-κB as assayed by gel shifts. NF-κB activation could be inhibited by the active oxygen species scavenger, tetramethylthiourea; the redox-inactive metal chelator, deferoxamine; the Src inhibitor, PP2; and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor inhibitor AG1478. An iron-containing citrate extract of both dusts also produced NF-κB activation. Both dusts and a citrate extract caused phosphorylation of the EGF receptor on tyrosine 845, an indicator of Src activity. We conclude that iron-containing PM particles can activate NF-κB via a pathway involving Src and the EGF receptor. This process does not require entry of particles into the airway epithelial cells but is dependent on the presence of iron and generation of active oxygen species by the dusts. These findings imply that even brief contact of PM with a pulmonary epithelial cell surface may produce deleterious effects in vivo

  10. Understanding the uncertainty associated with particle-bound pollutant build-up and wash-off: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-15

    Accurate prediction of stormwater quality is essential for developing effective pollution mitigation strategies. The use of models incorporating simplified mathematical replications of pollutant processes is the common practice for determining stormwater quality. However, an inherent process uncertainty arises due to the intrinsic variability associated with pollutant processes, which has neither been comprehensively understood, nor well accounted for in uncertainty assessment of stormwater quality modelling. This review provides the context for defining and quantifying the uncertainty associated with pollutant build-up and wash-off on urban impervious surfaces based on the hypothesis that particle size is predominant in influencing process variability. Critical analysis of published research literature brings scientific evidence together in order to establish the fact that particle size changes with time, and different sized particles exhibit distinct behaviour during build-up and wash-off, resulting in process variability. Analysis of the different adsorption behaviour of particles confirmed that the variations in pollutant load and composition are influenced by particle size. Particle behaviour and variations in pollutant load and composition are related due to the strong affinity of pollutants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons for specific particle size ranges. As such, the temporal variation in particle size is identified as the key to establishing a basis for assessing build-up and wash-off process uncertainty. Therefore, accounting for pollutant build-up and wash-off process variability, which is influenced by particle size, would facilitate the assessment of the uncertainty associated with modelling outcomes. Furthermore, the review identified fundamental knowledge gaps where further research is needed in relation to: (1) the aggregation of particles suspended in the atmosphere during build-up; (2) particle re-suspension during wash-off; (3) pollutant

  11. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds and criteria pollutants in the most industrialized area of central Iberian Peninsula: intercomparison with an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Notario, Alberto; Tapia, Araceli; Albaladejo, José; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    This work presents observations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including carbonyls, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) (included in the most recent ambient air quality standards because of its harmful effect on health), PM10 and other important pollutants, CO, SO2, NOx and ozone, over the most industrialized area in the central Iberian Peninsula. Nearly two years of data obtained through a mobile laboratory are used for this purpose. Different concentration ratios and correlations were calculated to assess the effect of the anthropogenic or biogenic processes on the observed VOC levels. The diurnal profile for SO2 is different in Puertollano and it does not coincide with the maxima of the other primary pollutants such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX), CO and NO. This behaviour could be attributed to the fact that SO2 mainly comes from industrial activities. However, an impact of the industry on air quality was detected not only by the results obtained for SO2, but also by the toluene/benzene, T/B, ratio (7.5). Finally, correlations between meteorological conditions and pollution distribution have been considered; also, the analysis of the back trajectories together with Spearman correlation coefficients have been carried out to understand the origin and pathway in some events with unusual high pollutant values. PMID:26508360

  12. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW industrial emissions on PAH concentrations. Monte Carlo source apportionment using diagnostic ratios showed that 80 ± 10% of the average LMW PAH concentrations were contributed by petroleum vapor emissions, while 53 ± 19% of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH were from solid fuel combustion emissions. The positive matrix factorization model estimated that oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.

  13. Ambient bioaerosol particle dynamics observed during haze and sunny days in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Zou, Zhuanglei; Zheng, Yunhao; Li, Jing; Shen, Fangxia; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-04-15

    The chemical characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been extensively studied; however, little information exists for its biological components (bioaerosol) especially during a haze event in mega cities. Herein, we studied the bioaerosol (fluorescent particle) dynamics on both haze and sunny days in Beijing from Dec. 2013 to March 2014 by employing a widely used real-time bioaerosol sensor-ultraviolet aerodynamic particle spectrometer (UV-APS). Firstly, we studied the fluorescent particle (BioPM) concentration and size distributions during three independent haze and three independent sunny days. Secondly, we investigated BioPM dynamics over a two-week long monitoring period which included consecutive haze days and alternated sunny days. In addition, we analyzed bacterial community structures and endotoxin levels in the air samples using pyrosequencing and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) method, respectively. More than 6-fold higher fluorescent particle concentrations up to 5×10(5)/m(3) with peaks at night or early dawn were detected at the time of haze occurrences than those observed on sunny days. When the haze episode progressed for 3-5days, the BioPM concentrations were observed to decrease to the levels that were typically observed on sunny days. In general, ozone levels were found to be elevated at noon, while BioPM, NOx and relative humidity were reduced. Gene sequence analysis revealed no significant difference in abundances and community structures for top 13 bacterial genera between haze and sunny days, yet about twice higher endotoxin levels (12.4EU/m(3)) were detected on haze days than on sunny days. The results here facilitate a better understanding of atmospheric fluorescent particle dynamics including those under haze events. PMID:26849339

  14. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  15. Associations of Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bo; Ke, Weixia; Feng, Baixiang; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a major disease of burden worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that air pollution might be a risk factor for hypertension, but the results were controversial. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to investigate the associations of short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with hypertension. We searched all of the studies published before September 1, 2015, on the associations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO2 and NOX), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) with hypertension in the English electronic databases. A pooled odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in association with each 10 μg/m(3) increase in air pollutant was calculated by a random-effects model (for studies with significant heterogeneity) or a fixed-effect model (for studies without significant heterogeneity). A total of 17 studies examining the effects of short-term (n=6) and long-term exposure (n=11) to air pollutants were identified. Short-term exposure to SO2 (OR=1.046, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.012-1.081), PM2.5 (OR=1.069, 95% CI: 1.003-1.141), and PM10 (OR=1.024, 95% CI: 1.016-1.032) were significantly associated with hypertension. Long-term exposure (a 10 μg/m(3) increase) to NO2 (OR=1.034, 95% CI: 1.005-1.063) and PM10 (OR=1.054, 95% CI: 1.036-1.072) had significant associations with hypertension. Exposure to other ambient air pollutants (short-term exposure to NO2, O3, and CO and long-term exposure to NOx, PM2.5, and SO2) also had positive relationships with hypertension, but lacked statistical significance. Our results suggest that short-term or long-term exposure to some air pollutants may increase the risk of hypertension. PMID:27245182

  16. Trends in health burden of ambient particulate matter pollution in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sharifi, Farshad; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khajavi, Alireza; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to report the assessment of trends in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution from 1990 to 2010 by sex and age in Iran. We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study, and then we extracted its data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010. The proportion of deaths and the DALYs caused by specific risk factors were assessed by using the comparative risk assessment and calculating the attributed burden of exposure level to each risk factor compared with the theoretical minimum level of risk exposure. Uncertainties in distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes calculation were disseminated into the estimates of the attributable deaths and DALYs. We found that the age-standardized death rate attributed to ambient PM pollution decreased to 27.90 cases per 100,000 populations from 1990 to 2010 [86, 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 76-97 to 62; 95% UI 54-71 per 100,000 populations, respectively]. This was mainly because of greater decrease in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than in the other diseases attributed to PM pollution. Despite a decrease in the total DALYs and mortality rate attributed to PM pollution, the death percent increased by 6.94%, 95% UI 6.06-7.90% from 1990 to 2010. The number of the DALYs and death in age groups of more than 70 years increased in 2010 compared to that in 1990. The median percent change of the DALYs and death for all age groups shows that the DALYs and death increased by 6% (95% UI 8-19%) and 45% (95% UI 30-60%), respectively, in 2010 in comparison to that in 1990. The increase in the DALYs and mortality attributable to PM pollution emphasizes the necessity of the effective interventions for improving air quality, as well as for increasing the public awareness to reduce the exposure of vulnerable age groups to PM pollution. PMID:26490896

  17. The Impact of Short Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance and Human Capital Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenstein, Avraham; Lavy, Victor; Roth, Sefi

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive performance is critical to productivity in many occupations and potentially linked to pollution exposure. We evaluate this potentially important relationship by estimating the effect of pollution exposure on standardized test scores among Israeli high school high-stakes tests (2000-2002). Since students take multiple exams on multiple days in the same location after each grade, we can adopt a fixed effects strategy estimating models with city, school, and student fixed effects. We f...

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  20. Seasonal and temporal variations of criteria air pollutants and the influence of meteorological parameters on the concentration of pollutants in ambient air in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria air pollutants have their significance for causing health threats and damage to the environment. The study was conducted to assess the seasonal and temporal variations of criteria air pollutants and evaluating the correlations of criteria air pollutants with meteorological parameters in the city of Lahore, Pakistan for a period of one year from April 2010 to March 2011. The concentrations of criteria air pollutants were determined at fixed monitoring stations equipped with HORIBA analyzers. The annual average concentrations (μ/m/super 3/) of PM /sub 2.5/, O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO and NO/sub x/ (NO+NO/sub 2/) for this study period were 118.94±57.46, 46.0±24.2, 39.9±8.9, 1940±1300 and 130.9±81.0 (61.8±46.2+57.3±22.19), respectively. PM/sub 2.5/, SO/sub 2/, CO and NO/sub x/ had maximum concentrations during winter whereas O/sub 3/ had maximum concentration during summer. Minimum concentrations of PM/sub 2.5/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ were found during monsoon as compared to other seasons due to rainfall which scavenged these pollutants. The O/sub 3/ showed positive correlation with temperature and solar radiation but negative correlation with wind speed. All other criteria air pollutants showed negative correlation with wind speed, temperature and solar radiation. A significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between NO/sub x/ and CO (r = 0.779) which showed that NO/sub x/ and CO arise from common source that could be the vehicular emission. PM/sub 2.5/ was significantly correlated (P<0.01) with NO/sub x/ (r = 0.524) and CO (r = 0.519), respectively. High traffic intensity and traffic jams were responsible for increased air pollutants level especially the PM/sub 2.5/, NO/sub x/ and CO. (author)

  1. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kr. Gorai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3. The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  2. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr; Tchounwou, Paul B; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O₃). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  3. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  4. Instrument for measuring total alpha particle energies of alpha emitters in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.; Cummings, B.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Horne, S

    2000-11-11

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of a self-reading, carbon fiber, electrometer-type instrument. It is used for measuring the total energy of alpha particles emitted in air by progenies of {sup 222}Rn ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi), and sometimes by other types of alpha emitters (e.g. {sup 212}Pb, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu). The purpose of these measurements is to assess the energy delivered by alpha emission from these sources to the lung tissue. A sample (charged progenies attached to aerosols) is collected on filter paper from a known volume of air and placed on the instrument. The discharge rate indicates the alpha energy in MeV l{sup -1} of air per min that is produced by the alpha emitters. The calibration procedure shows that the instrument has an energy sensitivity for alpha particles of 800.5 MeV/scale unit. The range of the readout scale is 30 units. Measurements of alpha contamination in air were made using this instrument in buildings, private homes and in a standard chamber. The value of the radon concentration in this chamber is traceable back to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  5. A new parametrization for ambient particle formation over coniferous forests and its potential implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.; Groth, A.; Trawny, K.; Borchert, S.; Jacobi, S.

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation is a general phenomenon observed over coniferous forests. So far nucleation is either parameterised as a function of gaseous sulphuric acid concentration only, which is unable to explain the observed seasonality of nucleation events at different measurement sites, or as a function of sulphuric acid and organic molecules. Here we introduce different nucleation parameters based on the interaction of sulphuric acid and terpene oxidation products and elucidate the individual importance. They include basic trace gas and meteorological measurements such as ozone and water vapour concentrations, temperature (for terpene emission) and UV B radiation as a proxy for OH radical formation. We apply these new parameters to field studies conducted at conducted at Finnish and German measurement sites and compare these to nucleation observations on a daily and annual scale. General agreement was found, although the specific compounds responsible for the nucleation process remain speculative. This can be interpreted as follows: During cooler seasons the emission of biogenic terpenes and the OH availability limits the new particle formation while towards warmer seasons the ratio of ozone and water vapour concentration seems to dominate the general behaviour. Therefore, organics seem to support ambient nucleation besides sulphuric acid or an OH-related compound. Using these nucleation parameters to extrapolate the current conditions to prognosed future concentrations of ozone, water vapour and organic concentrations leads to a significant potential increase in the nucleation event number.

  6. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment. PMID:26162353

  7. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Levels of Urban Particles Affects Mouse Lung Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, Thais; Rivero, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; de Faria Coimbra Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Guimarães, Eliane Tigre; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Kasahara, David Itiro; de Siqueira Bueno, Heloisa Maria; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on children's lung growth. Objectives: We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to urban levels of particulate matter (PM) on selected phases of mouse lung development. Methods: The exposure occurred in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered) placed 20 m from a street with heavy traffic in São Paulo, 24 hours/day for 8 months. There was a significant reduction of the levels of PM2.5 inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 2.9 ± 3.0 μg/m3, nonfiltered = 16.8 ± 8.3 μg/m3; P = 0.001). At this exposure site, vehicular sources are the major components of PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5μm). Exposure of the parental generation in the two chambers occurred from the 10th to the 120th days of life. After mating and birth of offspring, a crossover of mothers and pups occurred within the chambers, resulting in four groups of pups: nonexposed, prenatal, postnatal, and pre+postnatal. Offspring were killed at the age of 15 (n = 42) and 90 (n = 35) days; lungs were analyzed by morphometry for surface to volume ratio (as an estimator of alveolization). Pressure–volume curves were performed in the older groups, using a 20-ml plethysmograph. Measurements and Main Results: Mice exposed to PM2.5 pre+postnatally presented a smaller surface to volume ratio when compared with nonexposed animals (P = 0.036). The pre+postnatal group presented reduced inspiratory and expiratory volumes at higher levels of transpulmonary pressure (P = 0.001). There were no differences among prenatal and postnatal exposure and nonexposed animals. Conclusions: Our data provide anatomical and functional support to the concept that chronic exposure to urban PM affects lung growth. PMID:18596224

  8. Ambient new particle formation parameter indicates potential rise in future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is a general phenomenon observed over coniferous forests. So far nucleation is described as a function of gaseous sulfuric acid concentration only, which is unable to explain the observed seasonality of nucleation events at different measurement sites. Here we introduce a new nucleation parameter including ozone and water vapor concentrations as well as UV-B radiation as a proxy for OH radical formation. Applying this new parameter to field studies conducted at Finnish and German measurement sites it is found capable to predict the occurrence of nucleation events and their seasonal and annual variation indicating a significant role of organics. Extrapolation to possible future conditions of ozone, water vapor and organic concentrations leads to a significant potential increase in nucleation event number.

  9. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Reinier; Ramos, Jorge R.; Falcón, Viviana; Felipe, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

  10. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. (paper)

  11. Geographic variations of childhood asthma hospitalization and outpatient visits and proximity to ambient pollution sources at a U.S.-Canada border crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem in the United States and evidence is accumulating regarding the contribution from traffic and ambient air pollution. This study is a companion piece of a related Buffalo asthma study in adults recently published in the July 2004 issue of American Journal of Public Health. This study focuses on children under 18 years of age diagnosed with asthma during a three-year period (2000–2002. In order to determine the effects of particulate air pollution on public health, we conducted an ecologic study of childhood asthma and point-source respirable particulate air pollution in patients diagnosed with asthma (n = 6,425. Patients diagnosed with gastroenteritis (n = 5,132 were used as controls. Results Although the results of this study show spatial patterns similar to the ones observed in the adult study, a multiple-comparison test shows that EPA-designated focus sites located in Buffalo's east side are statistically (p Conclusion Findings of this study can be useful in geographic targeting and in the design of optimal and preventive measures.

  12. Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  13. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles applied to pollutant transfers characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on aerosol transfer carried out in the field of staff protection and nuclear plants safety become more and more important. So techniques of pollutants simulation by specific tracers with the same aeraulic behaviour are an interesting tool in order to characterize their transfers. Resorting to aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye allows to realize different studies in ventilation and filtration field. The feasibility of detection in real time for a particulate tracer is the main aim of this work. The need of such a technique is obvious because it can provide the specific aerosol behaviour. Furthermore, direct measurements in real time are required for model validation in calculation codes: they give the most realistic informations on interaction between contaminant and ventilation air flows. Up to now, the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measurement allows only an integral response in a delayed time, by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after a specific conditioning of these filters. In order to have the opportunity to detect in real time specific tracer, we have developed a new monitor able to count these particles on the following basis: fluorescent particles pass through a sampling nozzle up to a measurement chamber specially designed; sheath flow rate is defined to confine the test aerosol in the test aerosol in the sample flow rate at nozzle outlet; the interception of this stream by a highly focused laser beam allows aerosol detection and characterization particle by particle; the signature of a passing aerosol is the burst of photons that occurs when the fluoro-phore contained in the glycerol particle is excited by a light of adapted wavelength; these signals are transmitted to a photodetector by a patented optical arrangement. Then, an acquisition interfaced board connected to a computer, converts them into frequencies histograms. In the end, two kind of results could be provided simultaneously : the

  14. Pollution Whack-a-Mole: Ambient Acetaldehyde and the Introduction of E-10 Gasoline in the Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a complicated set of phase-ins and phase-outs of oxygenated motor fuel in the Northeast to determine whether E-10 ethanol-enhanced fuel contributes to acetaldehyde air pollution over the pre-ethanol methyl tertiary-buthyl ether (MTBE) fuel. Oil companies phased out MTBE because of groundwater pollution concerns, and now E-10 is the standard fuel in EPA reformulated gas areas. Using a difference-in-difference setup, I find a small level increase but a large percentage increase ...

  15. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Allahabadi, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Fathabadi, Zeynab Abaszadeh; Raisi, Zahra; Rezai, Mehrab; Aval, Mohsen Yazdani

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs-zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)-was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cdheavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them. PMID:27053049

  16. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  17. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  18. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  19. On dithiothreitol (DTT as a measure of oxidative potential for ambient particles: evidence for the importance of soluble transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Charrier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rate of consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT is increasingly used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM, which has been linked to the adverse health effects of PM. While several quinones are known to be very reactive in the DTT assay, it is unclear what other chemical species might contribute to the loss of DTT in PM extracts. To address this question, we quantify the rate of DTT loss from individual redox-active species that are common in ambient particulate matter. While most past research has indicated that the DTT assay is not sensitive to metals, our results show that seven out of the ten transition metals tested do oxidize DTT, as do three out of the five quinones tested. While metals are less efficient at oxidizing DTT compared to the most reactive quinones, concentrations of soluble transition metals in fine particulate matter are generally much higher than those of quinones. The net result is that metals appear to dominate the DTT response for typical ambient PM2.5 samples. Based on particulate concentrations of quinones and soluble metals from the literature, and our measured DTT responses for these species, we estimate that for typical fine particle samples approximately 80% of DTT loss is from transition metals (especially copper and manganese, while quinones account for approximately 20%. We find a similar result for DTT loss measured in a small set of PM2.5 samples from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Because of the important contribution from metals, we also tested how the DTT assay is affected by EDTA, a chelator that is sometimes used in the assay. EDTA significantly suppresses the response from both metals and quinones; we therefore recommend that EDTA should not be included in the DTT assay.

  20. Ambient gas/particle partitioning. 3. Estimating partition coefficients of apolar, polar, and ionizable organic compounds by their molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Gosses, Kai-Uwe

    2009-03-15

    Equilibrium gas/particle partitioning coefficients of terrestrial aerosols, Kip, are dependent on various intermolecular interactions that can be quantified by experimentally determined compound-specific descriptors. For many compounds of environmental interest, such as emerging contaminants and atmospheric phototransformation products, these compound-specific descriptors are unknown or immeasurable. Often, only the molecular structure is known. Here we present the ability of two computer programs to predict equilibrium partitioning to terrestrial aerosols solely on the basis of molecular structure: COSMOtherm and SPARC. The greatest hurdle with designing such an approach is to identify suitable molecular surrogates to represent the dominating sorbing phases, which for ambient terrestrial aerosols are the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) phase and the mixed-aqueous phase. For the WI0M phase, hypothetical urban secondary organic aerosol structural units from Kalberer et al. Science 2004, 303, 1659-1662 were investigated as input surrogates, and for the mixed-aqueous phase mildly acidic water was used as a surrogate. Using a validation data set of more than 1400 experimentally determined Kip values for polar, apolar, and ionic compounds ranging over 9 orders of magnitude (including semivolatile compounds such as PCDD/Fs, pesticides, and PBDEs), SPARC and COSMOtherm were generally able to predict Kip values well within an order of magnitude over an ambient range of temperature and relative humidity. This is remarkable as these two models were not fitted or calibrated to any experimental data. As these models can be used for potentially any organic molecule, they are particularly recommended for environmental screening purposes and for use when experimental compound descriptor data are not available. PMID:19368193

  1. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH generation. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.

  2. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES FROM DETROIT AIR ON HEALTHY RATS AND RATS WITH FEATURES OF ASTHMA OR MILD BRONCHITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators will conduct  a 2-year study with rats to evaluate the short-term effects of inhaling concentrated ambient particles derived from the air in an area of Detroit, Michigan that has a high incidence of childhood asthma. The investigators will use two animal ...

  3. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Incident Adult Asthma in a Nationwide Cohort of U.S. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael T.; Sandler, Dale P; Lisa A DeRoo; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stephanie J. London

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Limited prior data suggest an association between traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma in adults. No published studies assess the effect of long-term exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on adult incident asthma.

  4. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  5. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  6. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O2·- generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67phox siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91phox knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47phox, p67phox and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67phox siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91phox knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly via activation of NADPH oxidase. UFP-induced ROS lead to

  7. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polidori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a in Wilmington (CA near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA, where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4–8 times higher at 09:00–11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converted were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (μg/m3 and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average = 0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation = 0.46 ng/m3 were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a

  8. Ambient air particle transport into the effluent of a cold atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet investigated by molecular beam mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air species, which are transported into the active effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet result in highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Especially for the envisaged application field of plasma medicine, these RONS are responsible for strong biological responses. In this work, the effect of ambient air transport into the effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma argon jet on the on-axis densities of nitrogen, oxygen and argon was investigated by means of absolutely calibrated molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). According to biomedical experiments a (bottomless) Petri dish was installed in front of the MBMS. In the following, the near flow field is referring to the region close to the nozzle exit and the far flow field is referring to the region beyond that. The absolute on-axis densities were obtained by three different methods, for the near flow field with VUV-absorption technique, for the far flow field with the MBMS and the total flow field was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results of the ambient air particle densities of all independent methods were compared and showed an excellent agreement. Therefore the transport processes of ambient air species can be measured for the whole effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. Additionally, with the validation of the simulation it is possible in future to calculate the ambient species transport for various gas fluxes in the same turbulent flow regime. Comparing the on-axis densities obtained with an ignited and with a non-ignited plasma jet shows that for the investigated parameters, the main influence on the ambient air species transport is due to the increased temperature in the case when the jet is switched on. Moreover, the presence of positive ions (e.g. ArN2+) formed due to the interaction of plasma-produced particles and ambient air species, which are transported into the effluent, is shown. (paper)

  9. The Relationship between Odour Annoyance Scores and Modelled Ambient Air Pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Odwa Atari; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Karen Fung

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in “Chemical Valley”, Sarnia, Ontario (Canada). Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774); and respondents’ exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were estimated using land use regression (LUR) models. The associations were examined by univariate analysis while multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of odour annoy...

  10. Asthma Exacerbations and Symptom Variability in Children Due to Short-term Ambient Air Pollution Changes in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velická, H.; Puklová, V.; Keder, J.; Brabec, Marek; Malý, Marek; Bobák, M.; Kotlík, B.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.; Kazmarová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 292-298. ISSN 1210-7778 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NT14608 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : asthma * air pollution * short-term exposure * respiratory symptoms * children Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2014 http://apps.szu.cz/svi/cejph/show.php?kat=archiv/2015-4-03

  11. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas Sanahuja, Maribel; Vilahur Chiaraviglio, Nadia, 1982-; Bustamante Pineda, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Pedersen, Marie; Santa Marina, Loreto; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European coh...

  12. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  13. Acute pulmonary and systemic effects of inhaled coal fly ash in rats: Comparison to ambient environmental particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.R.; Veranth, J.M.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Aust, A.E.; Pinkerton, K.E. [University of California-Davis, Davis, CA (United States). Center of Health & Environmental

    2006-10-15

    The effect of coal fly ash (CFA) on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and injury was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to filtered air or CFA for 4 h/day for 3 days. The average concentration of CFA particulate matter less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5) was 1400 {mu} g/m{sup 3}, of which 600 {mu} g/m{sup 3} was PM1. Animals were examined 18 and 36 h postexposure. Chemical analysis of CFA detected silicon, calcium, aluminum, and iron as major components. Total number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) following exposure to CFA was significantly increased along with significantly elevated blood neutrophils. Exposure to CFA caused slight increases in macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and marked increases in transferrin in BALF. Interleukin-1 beta and total antioxidant potential in lung tissues were also increased in rats exposed to CFA. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated focal alveolar septal thickening and increased cellularity in select alveoli immediately beyond terminal bronchioles. These responses are consistent with the ability of CFA to induce mild neutrophilic inflammation in the lung and blood following short-term exposure at levels that could be occupationally relevant. However, when comparing the effects of CFA with those of concentrated ambient particles, CFA does not appear to have greater potency to cause pulmonary alterations.

  14. The density of humic acids and humic like substances (HULIS) from fresh and aged wood burning and pollution aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Y. Rudich

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play significant roles in climatic related phenomena. Size, density and shape of particles affect their fluid-dynamic parameters which in turn dictate their transport and lifecycle. Moreover, density and shape are also related to particles' optical properties, influencing their regional and global radiative effects. In the present study we have measured and compared the effective densities of humic like substances (HULIS) extracted from smoke and pollution aerosol pa...

  15. Air pollution control and decreasing new particle formation lead to strong climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Makkonen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000 and future (year 2100 conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increased from −1.0 W m−2 to −1.6 W m−2 when nucleation is introduced into the model. Nucleation doubles the change in aerosol forcing between years 2000 and 2100, from +0.6 W m−2 to +1.4 W m−2. Two climate feedbacks are studied, resulting in additional negative forcings of −0.1 W m−2 (+10% DMS emissions in year 2100 and −0.5 W m−2 (+50% BVOC emissions in year 2100. With the total aerosol forcing diminishing in response to air pollution control measures taking effect, warming from increased greenhouse gas concentrations can potentially increase at a very rapid rate.

  16. Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.; Cheng, Y. F.; Birmili, W.; Massling, A.; Wehner, B.; Müller, T.; Leinert, S.; Kalivitis, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-05-01

    This work examines the effect of direct radiative forcing of aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean troposphere as a function of air mass composition, particle size distribution and hygroscopicity, and relative humidity (RH). During intensive field measurements on the island of Crete, Greece, the hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles were determined using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) and a Hygroscopicity Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (H-DMA-APS). Similar to former studies, the H-TDMA identified three hygroscopic sub-fractions of particles in the sub-μm range: a more hygroscopic group, a less hygroscopic group and a nearly hydrophobic particle group. The average hygroscopic particle growth factors at 90 % RH were a significant function of particle mobility diameter (Dp): 1.42 (± 0.05) at 30 nm compared to 1.63 (± 0.07) at 250 nm. The H-DMA-APS identified up to three hygroscopic sub-fractions at mobility diameters of 1.0 and 1.2 μm. The data recorded between 12 August and 20 October 2005 were classified into four distinct synoptic-scale air mass types distinguishing between different regions of origin (western Mediterranean vs. the Aegean Sea) as well as the degree of continental pollution (marine vs. continentally influenced). The hygroscopic properties of particles with diameter Dp≥150 nm showed the most pronounced dependency on air mass origin, with growth factors in marine air masses exceeding those in continentally influenced air masses. Particle size distributions and hygroscopic growth factors were used to calculate aerosol light scattering coefficients at ambient RH using a Mie model. A main result was the pronounced enhancement of particle scattering over the eastern Mediterranean due to hygroscopic growth, both in the marine and continentally influenced air masses. When RH reached its summer daytime values around 70-80 %, up to 50-70 % of the calculated visibility reduction was

  17. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of...... identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  18. Monitoring of inorganic ions, carbonaceous matter and mass in ambient aerosol particles with online and offline methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-long high timeresolution measurements of major chemical components in atmospheric sub-micrometer particles were conducted at an urban background station in Finland 2006–2007. Ions were analyzed using a particle-into-liquid sampler combined with an ion chromatograph (PILS-IC, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC by using a semicontinuos OC/EC aerosol carbon analyzer (RT-OCEC, and PM2.5 mass with a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM. Long time series provides information on differences between the used measurement techniques as well as information about the diurnal and seasonal changes. Chemical mass closure was constructed by comparing the identified aerosol mass with the measured PM2.5. The sum of all components measured online (ions, particulate organic matter (POM, EC represented only 65% of the total PM2.5 mass. The difference can be explained by the difference in cutoff sizes (PM1 for online measurements, PM2.5 for total mass and by evaporation of the semivolatile/volatile components. In general, some differences in results were observed when the results of the continuous/semicontinuous instruments were compared with those of the conventional filter samplings. For non-volatile compounds, like sulfate and potassium, correlation between the filter samples and the PILS was good but greater differences were observed for the semivolatile compounds like nitrate and ammonium. For OC the results of the RT-OCEC were on average 10% larger than those of the filters. When compared to filter measurements, high resolution measurements provide important data on short pollution plumes as well as on diurnal changes. Clear seasonal and diurnal cycles were observed for nitrate and EC.

  19. Monitoring of inorganic ions, carbonaceous matter and mass in ambient aerosol particles with online and offline methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Saarnio, K.; Frey, A.; Saarikoski, S.; Teinilä, K.; Kulmala, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2011-10-01

    Year-long high timeresolution measurements of major chemical components in atmospheric sub-micrometer particles were conducted at an urban background station in Finland 2006-2007. Ions were analyzed using a particle-into-liquid sampler combined with an ion chromatograph (PILS-IC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) by using a semicontinuos OC/EC aerosol carbon analyzer (RT-OCEC), and PM2.5 mass with a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). Long time series provides information on differences between the used measurement techniques as well as information about the diurnal and seasonal changes. Chemical mass closure was constructed by comparing the identified aerosol mass with the measured PM2.5. The sum of all components measured online (ions, particulate organic matter (POM), EC) represented only 65% of the total PM2.5 mass. The difference can be explained by the difference in cutoff sizes (PM1 for online measurements, PM2.5 for total mass) and by evaporation of the semivolatile/volatile components. In general, some differences in results were observed when the results of the continuous/semicontinuous instruments were compared with those of the conventional filter samplings. For non-volatile compounds, like sulfate and potassium, correlation between the filter samples and the PILS was good but greater differences were observed for the semivolatile compounds like nitrate and ammonium. For OC the results of the RT-OCEC were on average 10% larger than those of the filters. When compared to filter measurements, high resolution measurements provide important data on short pollution plumes as well as on diurnal changes. Clear seasonal and diurnal cycles were observed for nitrate and EC.

  20. Exposure-response functions for health effects of ambient air pollution applicable for China. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the benefits of projects and policies to reduce air pollution requires quantitative knowledge about the relationship between exposure to air pollution and public health. This article proposes exposure-response functions for health effects of PM10 and SO2 pollution in China. The functions are based on Chinese epidemiological studies, and cover mortality, hospital admissions, and chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. We derive the following coefficients for acute effects: a 0.03% (S.E. 0.01) and a 0.04% (S.E. 0.01) increase in all-cause mortality per μg/m3 PM10 and SO2, respectively, a 0.04% (S.E. 0.01) increase in cardiovascular deaths per μg/m3 for both PM10 and SO2, and a 0.06% (S.E. 0.02) and a 0.10% (S.E. 0.02) increase in respiratory deaths per μg/m3 PM10 and SO2, respectively. For hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases the obtained coefficients are 0.07% (S.E. 0.02) and 0.19% (S.E. 0.03) for PM10 and SO2, respectively, whereas the coefficients for hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases are 0.12% (S.E. 0.02) and 0.15% (S.E. 0.03) for PM10 and SO2, respectively. Exposure-response functions for the impact of long-term PM10 levels on the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases are derived from the results of cross-sectional questionnaire surveys, and indicate a 0.31% (S.E. 0.01) increase per μg/m3 in adults and 0.44% (S.E. 0.02) per μg/m3 in children. With some exceptions, Chinese studies report somewhat lower exposure-response coefficients as compared to studies in Europe and USA

  1. Removal of Particles from the Supply Air of Ventilation Systems Avoiding the Formation of Sensory Pollution Source:Delivery of Clean Air to Building Occupants

    OpenAIRE

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters can act as sources of strong sensory pollution. The pollutants emitted from loaded particle filters may include irritating products of chemical reactions occurring on the filter surfaces. Most likely oxidation reactions, especially those driven by ozone, seem to play an important role. Sensory pollutants emitted from used filters can have significant adverse impact on occupant performance. Therefore, removal of particles from the supply air of ventilation systems with...

  2. A land use regression model for ambient ultrafine particles in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of linear regression and a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure. PMID:26720396

  3. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with NO3/N2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs) have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian assays and are classified as probable human carcinogens. Semi-volatile PAHs partition between the gas and particulate phases, depending on their liquid-phase vapor pressures and ambient temperatures. These PAHs have been extensively measured in ambient particulate matter and can ultimately undergo long-range transport from source regions (e.g., China to the western USA) (1). During transport these particle-bound PAHs may undergo reaction with NO3/N2O5 to form nitro-PAH derivatives. Previous studies of heterogeneous nitration of PAHs have used particles composed of graphite, diesel soot, and wood smoke (2-4). This study investigates the heterogeneous formation of nitro-PAHs from ambient particle-bound PAHs from Beijing, China and sites located within the Los Angeles air basin. These ambient particle samples, along with filters coated with isotopically labeled PAHs, were exposed to a mix of NO2/NO3/N2O5 in a 7000 L Teflon chamber, with analysis focused on the heterogeneous formation of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-PAHs. The heterogeneous formation of certain nitro-PAHs (including1-nitropyrene and 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene) was observed for some, but not all, ambient samples. Formation of nitro-PAHs typically formed through gas-phase reactions (2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene) was not observed. The effect of particle age and local photochemical conditions during sampling on the degree of nitration in environmental chamber reactions, as well as ambient implications, will be presented. 1. Primbs, T.; Simonich, S.; Schmedding, D.; Wilson, G.; Jaffe, D.; Takami, A.; Kato, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Kajii, Y. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3551-3558. 2. Esteve, W.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38, 6063-6072. 3. Nguyen, M.; Bedjanian, Y.; Guilloteau, A. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2009, 62

  4. Particle pollution in the French high-speed train (TGV) smoker cars: measurement and prediction of passengers exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, M.; Limam, K.; Bouilly, J.; Génin, D.

    The present study deals with particle pollution in a particular micro-environment: a French high-speed train smoker car. In the first part, measurements carried out in a real train are described. Both smoker and non-smoker cars' particle concentrations have been measured during a round trip. Additional experiments have been done in a stationary car with controlled particle pollution to evaluate parameters such as ventilation rates, deposition velocities and filter efficiencies involved in the particle mass balance of the studied zone. In the second part, a one-zone model has been developed to predict the particle concentration in the train car. Particle transport, deposition and filtration phenomena have been estimated from the stationary car experiments considering the well-mixed zone assumption. The model has then been applied to the round trip train to determine the particle concentration during the journey. Results show that the smoker car indoor air quality can be easily improved by changing the usual utilized filter by a high-efficiency H10-type filter, leading to a 34% reduction of the passengers inhaled dose.

  5. Seasonal variation of the size distribution of urban particulate matter and associated organic pollutants in the ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, Loukia P.; Samara, Constantini A.

    Size-segregated samples of urban particulate matter (7.5 μm) were collected in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, during winter and summer of 2007-2008, in order to study the size distribution of organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) including n-alkanes and the isoprenoids pristane and phytane, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All organic compounds were accumulated in the particle size fraction <0.95 μm particularly in the cold season. Particulate matter displayed a bimodal normalized distribution in both seasons with a stable coarse mode located at 3.0-7.5 μm and a fine mode shifting from 0.95-1.5 μm in winter to <0.95 μm in summer. Unimodal normalized distributions, predominant at 0.95-1.5 μm size range, were found for most organic compounds in both seasons, suggesting gas-to-particle transformation after emission. A second minor mode at larger particles (3.0-7.5 μm) was observed for C 19 and certain OCPs suggesting redistribution due to volatilization and condensation.

  6. Impacts of natural emission sources on particle pollution levels in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.; Stein, Olaf; Melas, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of the impact of windblown dust, sea-salt aerosol and biogenic emissions on particle pollution levels in Europe. The Natural Emissions MOdel (NEMO) and the modelling system consisted of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the Comprehensive Air Quality model with extensions (CAMx) were applied in a 30 km horizontal resolution grid, which covered Europe and the adjacent areas for the year 2009. Air quality simulations were performed for different emission scenarios in order to study the contribution of each natural emission source individually and together to air quality levels in Europe. The simulations reveal that the exclusion of windblown dust emissions decreases the mean seasonal PM10 levels by more than 3.3 μg/m3 (∼20%) in the Eastern Mediterranean during winter while an impact of 3 μg/m3 was also found during summer. The results suggest that sea-salt aerosol has a significant effect on PM levels and composition. Eliminating sea-salt emissions reduces PM10 seasonal concentrations by around 10 μg/m3 in Mediterranean Sea during summer while a decrease of up to 6 μg/m3 is found in Atlantic Ocean during autumn. Sea-salt particles also interact with the anthropogenic component and therefore their absence in the atmosphere decreases significantly the nitrates in aerosols where shipping activities are present. The exclusion of biogenic emissions in the model runs leads to a significant reduction of secondary organic aerosols of more than 90% while an increase in PM2.5 levels in central Europe and Eastern Mediterranean is found due to their interaction with anthropogenic component.

  7. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the formation of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after engine exit plane (<5 s in plume age may be critical to ice particle properties used in large scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the near-field formation of contrail ice particles. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentrations have a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation. When soot was introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, homogeneous ice particle formation was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher altitude standard day conditions were found to favor ice particle formation as expected. The microphysical model captures experimental trends well, but discrepancies between the model and the experiments exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to the lack of treatment of turbulent mixing in the model and particle loss and scatter during the experimental sampling process. Future measurement activities are planned to investigate other important

  8. Quality factors, ambient and personal dose equivalent for neutrons, based on the new ICRU stopping power data for protons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality factors and fluence-to-ambient and fluence-to personal-dose equivalent conversion factors for neutrons have been recalculated for neutrons with energies ranging from thermal to 20 MeV. The new calculations are based on the recommendations given in ICRU Publication 60 for the quality factor and on stopping power data for protons and alpha particles as recommended in the ICRU report 49. (author)

  9. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle

  10. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.-W.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Heath, C. M.; Ziemba, L. D.; Winstead, E. L.; Thornhill, K. L.; Tacina, K. M.; Ross, R. C.; Albo, S. E.; Bulzan, D. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age) may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle loss and scatter

  11. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m3, respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]Peq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10−6, with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  12. The Effect of Pollution on Newly-Formed Particle Composition in Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaattovaara, Petri

    2010-05-01

    the composition behaviour of the particles during multiple nucleation events. The overall results show a clear anthropogenic influence on the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions during the events. The SO2/MTOP and NOx/MTOP (MTOP, monoterpene oxidation products) ratios explain most strongly the variation in the nucleation mode composition during clean and pollution-affected events, suggesting also the importance of organic sulfur compounds, in addition to other sulfur, nitrogen and organic compounds, in particle formation, composition and properties. During the cleanest events, MTOP explain significantly the time behaviour of the 10 nm particle composition with an estimated organic fraction of over 95%. [1] P. Tunved et al., 2006, Science, 312, 261-263. [2] P. Vaattovaara et al., 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3277-3287. [3] K. Hämeri et al., 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105(D17), 22231-22242. [4] K. Sellegri et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 373-384. [5] M. Boy et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 863-878.

  13. X-Ray analysis of riverbank sediment of the Tisza (Hungary): identification of particles from a mine pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osán, J.; Kurunczi, S.; Török, S.; Van Grieken, R.

    2002-03-01

    A serious heavy metal pollution of the Tisza River occurred on March 10, 2000, arising from a mine-dumping site in Romania. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to distinguish the anthropogenic and crustal erosion particles in the river sediment. The samples were investigated using both bulk X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and thin-window electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). For EPMA, a reverse Monte Carlo method calculated the quantitative elemental composition of each single sediment particle. A high abundance of pyrite type particles was observed in some of the samples, indicating the influence of the mine dumps. Backscattered electron images proved that the size of particles with a high atomic number matrix was in the range of 2 μm. In other words the pyrites and the heavy elements form either small particles or are fragments of larger agglomerates. The latter are formed during the flotation process of the mines or get trapped to the natural crustal erosion particles. The XRF analysis of pyrite-rich samples always showed much higher Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations than the rest of the samples, supporting the conclusions of the single-particle EPMA results. In the polluted samples, the concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb reached 0.1, 0.3 and 0.2 wt.%, respectively. As a new approach, the abundance of particle classes obtained from single-particle EPMA and the elemental concentration obtained by XRF were merged into one data set. The dimension of the common data set was reduced by principal component analysis. The first component was determined by the abundance of pyrite and zinc sulfide particles and the concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb. The polluted samples formed a distinct group in the principal component space. The same result was supported by powder diffraction data. These analytical data combined with Earth Observation Techniques can be further used to estimate the quantity of

  14. Ice nucleation, shape, and composition of aerosol particles in one of the most polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.; Veghte, Daniel P.; Schill, Gregory P.; Lodoysamba, Sereeter; Freedman, Miriam Arak; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is attributable to 7 million deaths per year, or one out of every eight deaths globally. In particular, high concentrations of particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, have significant impacts on health and regional climate in urban centers. Many of the most polluted places, largely in developing countries, go severely understudied. Additionally, high particulate matter levels can have an impact on the microphysical properties of clouds, impacting precipitation and regional climate. Semi-arid regions can be especially affected by small changes in precipitation. Here we characterize the physical and chemical properties of PM in one of the most PM-polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, a semi-arid region in central Asia. Twice monthly aerosol samples were collected over 10 months from a central location and analyzed for composition and ice nucleation activity. Almost all particles collected were inhalable, consisting primarily of mineral dust, soot, and sulfate-organic. In winter, all classes of PM increase in concentration, with increased sulfur concentrations, and the particles are less active towards heterogeneous ice nucleation. In addition, concurrent monthly average PM10, SO2, NOx, and O3 levels and meteorological data at a nearby location are reported and made publicly available. These measurements provide an unprecedented seasonal characterization of the size, shape, chemical structure, and ice nucleating activity of PM data from Ulaanbaatar. This 10-month field study, exploring a variety of aerosol properties in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is one of very few such studies conducted in the region or in such a highly polluted environment. The results of this study may inform work done in other similarly situated and polluted cities in Asia and elsewhere.

  15. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yuwen; HE Lingyan; HU Min; ZHANG Jing; ZHAO Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  16. Monitoring of event based mobilization of hydrophobic pollutants in rivers: Calibration of turbidity as a proxy for particle facilitated transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to transport of suspended particles which is typically enhanced during events such as floods, snow melts etc. As the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants in rivers such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. On-line turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) then allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics. In this study, pronounced flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting catchments in Southwest Germany (Rivers Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar. Samples were analyzed for turbidity, the total amount of PAH and total suspended solids (TSS) in water. Additionally, the grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined. Discharge and turbidity were measured on-line at gauging stations in three of the catchments. Results showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the flood samples (i.e. independent on grain size). This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on the turbidity measurements and TSS versus PAH relationships - even for very high turbidity or TSS values (> 2000 NTU or mg l-1, respectively). From these linear regressions concentrations of PAHs on suspended particles were obtained which varied by catchment. The values comprise a robust measure of the average sediment quality in a river network and may be correlated to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. Based on long-term on-line turbidity measurements mass flow rates of particle bound pollutants over time could be calculated. Results showed that by far the largest amount

  17. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja; Anwar Daud; Alimuddin Hamzah Assegaf; Maming

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulfur oxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noo...

  18. Magnetic particles in atmospheric particulate matter collected at sites with different level of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Zbořil, R.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kotlík, B.; Novák, J.; Kapička, Aleš; Grison, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2013), s. 755-770. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0554 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : magnetite * atmospheric dust * pollution * rock magnetism Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2013

  19. Heavy metal pollution in sediment from Sisimiut, Greenland. Adsorption to organic matter and fine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2006-01-01

    . The pollution could be linked to human activities in Sisimiut, a link that have not been investigated previously in Greenland. Except from the most polluted samples there was good correlation between heavy metal concentration and organic matter. Also some relation between fine fraction and heavy metal...

  20. Selection of the external insulation distance for electric equipment as function of the environmental pollution level; Seleccion de la distancia de aislamiento externo de equipo electrico en funcion del nivel de contaminacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa Velazquez Santillanes, Francisco [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Geographic, environmental and meteorological conditions, are considered as decisive factors in the basic engineering and design of electric substations. These conditions are considered through the use of environmental and meteorological parameters, such as: pollution type, creepage distance, pollution level, maximum wind rate, maximum temperature, seismic coefficient and maximum pluvial precipitation. In some cases, the pollution level determines the external insulation distance. The pollution level factor is quantified as the equivalent salt accumulation in milligrams per square centimeter of the insulation surface (DESD), occurring during certain time, that produces an electric effect similar to that of the real pollutant. [Espanol] Los aspectos geograficos, ambientales y meteorologicos son factores que se deben considerar en la ingenieria basica de las subestaciones electricas. En el diseno de estas se utilizan parametros asociados con las condiciones ambientales y meteorologicas, como son: tipo de contaminacion, distancia de fuga, nivel de contaminacion, velocidad maxima del viento, temperatura ambiental maxima, temperatura ambiental minima, coeficiente sismico y maxima precipitacion pluvial. La contaminacion se produce por la depositacion de polvo y otras sustencias quimicas sobre los aisladores. Para cuantificar la contaminacion se recurre al concepto de Densidad Equivalente de Sal Depositada (DESD), que consiste en medir la contaminacion en funcion de la cantidad de sal (NaC1) depositada en cierto tiempo, por centimetro cuadrado del aislador, tal que su comportamiento electrico es equivalente al de los contaminantes reales.

  1. Fine particles (PM2.5) at a CAWNET background site in Central China: Chemical compositions, seasonal variations and regional pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Hai-rong; Wang, Zu-wu; Lv, Xiao-pu; Zhu, Zhong-min; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Xin-ming

    2014-04-01

    Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected at Jinsha (JSH), a regional background China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) site in Central China from March 2012 to March 2013. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 48.7 ± 26.9 μg m-3, exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (35 μg m-3), implying that PM2.5 is a pollutant of regional concern in Central China. The average concentrations of total WSIIs, OC and EC were 26.1 ± 18.8, 7.5 ± 3.5 and 0.7 ± 0.5 μg m-3, accounting for 53.5%, 15.1% and 1.5% of the PM2.5 concentrations at JSH, respectively. Clear seasonal variations in PM2.5 and the levels of its main chemical species were observed in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Backward air trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis implied that the areas north and northeast of JSH contributed significantly to the levels of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and OC, while sandstorms originating from Mongolia and traveling across Northwest China may have contributed significantly to the levels of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in PM2.5 at JSH. Two pollution events, related to regional biomass burning and haze, respectively, were recorded at JSH during the sampling campaign.

  2. Acute cardiopulmonary effects induced by the inhalation of concentrated ambient particles during seasonal variation in the city of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Jôse Mára de; Macchione, Mariângela; Yoshizaki, Kelly; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz Mangueira; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Mauad, Thaís; Rivero, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Ambient particles may undergo modifications to their chemical composition as a consequence of climatic variability. The determination of whether these changes modify the toxicity of the particles is important for the understanding of the health effects associated with particle exposure. The objectives were to determine whether low levels of particles promote cardiopulmonary effects, and to assess if the observed alterations are influenced by season. Mice were exposed to 200 μg/m(3) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and filtered air (FA) in cold/dry and warm/humid periods. Lung hyperresponsiveness, heart rate, heart rate variability, and blood pressure were evaluated 30 min after each exposure. After 24 h, blood and tissue samples were collected. During both periods (warm/humid and cold/dry), CAPs induced alterations in red blood cells and lung inflammation. During the cold/dry period, CAPs reduced the mean corpuscular volume levels and increased erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width coefficient variation levels compared with the FA group. Similarly, CAPs during the warm/humid period decreased mean corpuscular volume levels and increased erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell distribution width coefficient variation levels compared with the FA group. CAPs during the cold/dry period increased the influx of neutrophils in the alveolar parenchyma. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of CAPs elicited modest but significant pulmonary inflammation and, to a lesser extent, changes in blood parameters. In addition, our data support the concept that changes in climate conditions slightly modify particle toxicity because equivalent doses of CAPs in the cold/dry period produced a more exacerbated response. PMID:25012028

  3. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binková, Blanka; Černá, M.; Pastorková, A.; Jelínek, R.; Beneš, I.; Novák, J.; Šrám, Radim

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 525, - (2003), s. 43-59. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant ostatní: GA-(XE) IC QLRT-2000-00091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Air pollution * air particles (PM10) * polycyclic aromatic compounds Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.433, year: 2003

  4. Size distribution and mixing state of black carbon particles during a heavy air pollution episode in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Zhang, C.; Chen, H.; Nizkorodov, S. A.; Chen, J.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS), a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and various meteorological instruments were employed to investigate the chemical and physical properties of black carbon (BC) aerosols during a regional air pollution episode in urban Shanghai over a five-day period in December 2013. The average PM2.5 and BC mass concentrations were 221 and 3.2 μg m-3, respectively, with the PM2.5 peak value of 636 μg m-3 at noon of 6 December and the BC peak value of 12.1 μg m-3 at 04:26 LT on 7 December. The number size of BC cores was distributed over ~ 60-400 nm, with a peak around ~ 60 nm. The BC core mass size distribution was within ~ 70-500 nm, with a peak around ~ 200 nm. The number concentration of BC-containing particles captured by SPAMS in the size range 200-1200 nm agreed very well with that detected by SP2 (R2 = 0.87). A cluster analysis of the single particle mass spectra allowed for the separation of BC-containing particles into seven classes. Pure BC accounted for 0.53 % of BC-containing particles; BC attributed to biomass burning (BBBC) accounted for 22.60 %; K-rich BC-containing (KBC), NaK-rich BC-containing (NaKBC), BC internally-mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (BCOC-SOx), BC internally-mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (BCOC-NOx) were all attributed to traffic emissions and accounted for 73.24 %; unidentified particles accounted for 3.63 %. The size distribution of internally-mixed BC particles was bimodal. Detected by SP2, the condensation mode peaked around ~ 230 nm and droplet mode peaked around ~ 380 nm, with a clear valley in the size distribution around ~ 320 nm. The condensation mode mainly consisted of traffic emissions, with particles featuring a small BC core (~ 60-80 nm) and a relatively thin absolute coating thickness (ACT, ~ 50-130 nm). The droplet mode included highly aged traffic emission particles and biomass burning particles. The highly aged traffic emissions had a small core (~ 60-80 nm) and a

  5. Ambient air pollution associated with suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Blount

    Full Text Available Ambient air pollution (AAP may be associated with increased risk for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP. The mechanisms underlying this association remain uncertain.To determine if real-life exposures to AAP are associated with suppressed IgM antibody responses to P. jirovecii in HIV-infected (HIV+ patients with active PCP, and to determine if AAP, mediated by suppressed serologic responses to Pneumocystis, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.We conducted a prospective cohort study in HIV+ patients residing in San Francisco and admitted to San Francisco General Hospital with microscopically confirmed PCP. Our AAP predictors were ambient air concentrations of particulate matter of < 10 µm in diameter (PM10 and < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and sulfur dioxide (SO2 measured immediately prior to hospital admission and 2 weeks prior to admission. Our primary outcomes were the IgM serologic responses to four recombinant P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg constructs: MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8, and MsgC9.Elevated PM10 and NO2 exposures immediately prior to and two weeks prior to hospital admission were associated with decreased IgM antibody responses to P. jirovecii Msg. For exposures immediately prior to admission, every 10 µg/m(3 increase in PM10 was associated with a 25 to 35% decrease in IgM responses to Msg (statistically significant for all the Msg constructs, and every 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a 19-45% decrease in IgM responses to Msg (statistically significant for MsgC8 and MsgC9. Similar findings were seen with exposures two weeks prior to admission, but for fewer of the Msg constructs.Real life exposures to PM10 and NO2 were associated with suppressed IgM responses to P. jirovecii Msg in HIV+ patients admitted with PCP, suggesting a mechanism of immunotoxicity by which AAP increases host susceptibility to pulmonary infection.

  6. Real-Time ambient carbon monoxide and ultrafine particle concentration mapping in a near-road environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air quality has traditionally been monitored using a network of fixed point sampling sites that are strategically placed to represent regional (e.g., county or town) rather than local (e.g., neighborhood) air quality trends. This type of monitoring data has been used to m...

  7. Size distribution and mixing state of black carbon particles during a heavy air pollution episode in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xianda; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin

    2016-04-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS), a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) and various meteorological instruments were employed to investigate the chemical and physical properties of black carbon (BC) aerosols during a regional air pollution episode in urban Shanghai over a 5-day period in December 2013. The refractory black carbon (rBC) mass concentrations measured by SP2 averaged 3.2 µg m-3, with the peak value of 12.1 µg m-3 at 04:26 LT on 7 December. The number of BC-containing particles captured by SPAMS in the size range 200-1200 nm agreed very well with that detected by SP2 (R2 = 0.87). A cluster analysis of the single particle mass spectra allowed for the separation of BC-containing particles into five major classes: (1) Pure BC; (2) BC attributed to biomass burning (BBBC); (3) K-rich BC-containing (KBC); (4) BC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (BCOC-SOx); (5) BC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (BCOC-NOx). The size distribution of internally mixed BC particles was bimodal. Detected by SP2, the condensation mode peaked around ˜ 230 nm and droplet mode peaked around ˜ 380 nm, with a clear valley in the size distribution around ˜ 320 nm. The condensation mode mainly consisted of traffic emissions, with particles featuring a small rBC core (˜ 60-80 nm) and a relatively thin absolute coating thickness (ACT, ˜ 50-130 nm). The droplet mode included highly aged traffic emission particles and biomass burning particles. The biomass burning particles had a larger rBC core (˜ 80-130 nm) and a thick ACT (˜ 110-300 nm). The highly aged traffic emissions had a smaller core (˜ 60-80 nm) and a very thick ACT (˜ 130-300 nm), which is larger than reported in any previous literature. A fast growth rate (˜ 20 nm h-1) of rBC with small core sizes was observed during the experiment. High concentrations pollutants like NO2 likely accelerated the aging process and resulted in a continuous size growth of r

  8. Secondhand smoke in combination with ambient air pollution exposure is associated with increased CpG methylation and decreased expression of IFN-gamma in T effector cells and Foxp3 in T regulatory cells in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Arunima; Garcia, Marco A; Miller, Rachel L.; Maher, Christina; Humblet, Olivier; Hammond, S; Nadeau, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS) and ambient air pollution (AAP) exposures have been associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma and DNA modifications of immune cells. In the current study, we examined the association between SHS and AAP with DNA methylation and expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in T cell populations. Methods Subjects 7–18 years old were recruited from Fresno (high AAP; n ...

  9. Advanced modeling of potential air pollution dispersion around Krsko NPP using 3D wind field reconstruction and numerical lagrangean particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper a successful automatisation of advanced air pollution dispersion modelling is presented. Air pollution dispersion modelling is an important part of dose projection procedures. At Krsko NPP modelling consists of 3D wind and turbulence field reconstruction and numerical Lagrangean particle model air pollution dispersion simulation. Input data collection and modelling calculations are done every half hour totally automatically. Results are automatically available for dose calculation system. (author)

  10. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Zhou, Luyu; Dai, Liang; Shen, Wenchao; Dai, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    Particle size distribution down to 1.4 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China, in spring, summer, and winter during 2014-2015. Sub-3 nm particle event, which is equivalent to nucleation event, occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and relative humidity - RH) and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH) and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.4 at the onset and peak J1.4 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm-3 s-1, respectively, during the eight nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.4 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56-0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation), but the correlation among all eight events deteriorated (R2 = 0.17) due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate (GR) did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h-1 between 1 and 3 nm. The existence of local maxima GR in sub-3 nm size range, though sensitive to measurement uncertainties, gives new insight into cluster dynamics in polluted environments. In this study such growth rate behavior was interpreted as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei.

  11. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. PMID:25603245

  12. A comparison of strategies for estimation of ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban air pollution monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three estimation strategies (local, remote and mixed) for ultrafine particles (UFP) at three sites in an urban air pollution monitoring network. Estimates are obtained through Gaussian process regression based on concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NOx, O3, CO) and UFP. As local strategy, we use local measurements of gaseous pollutants (local covariates) to estimate UFP at the same site. As remote strategy, we use measurements of gaseous pollutants and UFP from two independent sites (remote covariates) to estimate UFP at a third site. As mixed strategy, we use local and remote covariates to estimate UFP. The results suggest: UFP can be estimated with good accuracy based on NOx measurements at the same location; it is possible to estimate UFP at one location based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations; the addition of remote UFP to local NOx, O3 or CO measurements improves models' performance. - Highlights: • UFP number concentrations are estimated using Gaussian process regression. • The independent variables include local and/or remote gaseous measurements. • Three modelling strategies (local, remote and mixed) used for UFP estimations. • NOx was the most important independent variable. • The best models explained >90% of the variance. - UFP can be estimated with good accuracy at one location based on NOx measurements at the same location and based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations

  13. Chemical composition of ambient aerosol, ice residues and cloud droplet residues in mixed-phase clouds: single particle analysis during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamphus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different single particle mass spectrometers were operated in parallel at the Swiss High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l. during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6 in February and March 2007. During mixed phase cloud events ice crystals from 5 μm up to 20 μm were separated from large ice aggregates, non-activated, interstitial aerosol particles and supercooled droplets using an Ice-Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI. During one cloud period supercooled droplets were additionally sampled and analyzed by changing the Ice-CVI setup. The small ice particles and droplets were evaporated by injection into dry air inside the Ice-CVI. The resulting ice and droplet residues (IR and DR were analyzed for size and composition by two single particle mass spectrometers: a custom-built Single Particle Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT and a commercial Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, TSI Model 3800. During CLACE 6 the SPLAT instrument characterized 355 individual ice residues that produced a mass spectrum for at least one polarity and the ATOFMS measured 152 particles. The mass spectra were binned in classes, based on the combination of dominating substances, such as mineral dust, sulfate, potassium and elemental carbon or organic material. The derived chemical information from the ice residues is compared to the JFJ ambient aerosol that was sampled while the measurement station was out of clouds (several thousand particles analyzed by SPLAT and ATOFMS and to the composition of the residues of supercooled cloud droplets (SPLAT: 162 cloud droplet residues analyzed, ATOFMS: 1094. The measurements showed that mineral dust particles were strongly enhanced in the ice particle residues. 57% of the SPLAT spectra from ice residues were dominated by signatures from mineral compounds, and 78% of the ATOFMS spectra. Sulfate and nitrate containing particles were strongly

  14. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  15. On dithiothreitol (DTT) as a measure of oxidative potential for ambient particles: evidence for the importance of soluble transition metals

    OpenAIRE

    J. G. Charrier; Anastasio, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) is increasingly used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to the adverse health effects of PM. While several quinones are known to be very reactive in the DTT assay, it is unclear what other chemical species might contribute to the loss of DTT in PM extracts. To address this question, we quantify the rate of DTT loss from individual redox-active species that are common in ambient particulat...

  16. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  17. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  18. A Study on Removal of Environmental Pollution Materials with Nano-scale Iron Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a method of nano-sized iron particles with zero valent state was developed. Also, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of silica based micro-particles were obtained for micro particle analysis. Basic physical data for standard particles were obtained in various synthesis conditions for mass production. From the experiment of removal of Pb in the solution with iron particles with zero valent state, most of Pb was removed from the solution over pH 7, as a result of reaction of Pb with iron particles with zero valent state. Nano sized iron particles with zero valent state obtained from this study will be apply for removing heavy metals and radionuclides as well as waste treatment and remediation for contaminated materials in the environment

  19. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between 16, the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 μm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients

  20. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2008-06-25

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between < 0.0004 and 0.704 mg/kg. For PAH16, the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 microm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients. PMID:18377958

  1. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: morten.jartun@ngu.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-06-25

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB{sub 7} in the urban runoff sediments ranged between < 0.0004 and 0.704 mg/kg. For PAH{sub 16}, the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 {mu}m. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients.

  2. Simultaneous exposure to concentrated ambient particles and acrolein causes cardiac effects mediated by parasympathetic modulation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that exposure to CAPs and acrolein causes an increase in HRV that is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Numerous studies show that short-term air pollution exposure modulates heart rate variability (HRV), which is an indicator of autonomic influence...

  3. Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2005-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban region (Heraklion, Greece) and processes that govern their atmospheric fate were studied from November 2000 until February 2002. Sixteen samples were collected, by using an artifact-free sampling device, on a monthly basis and the concentration of PAHs in gas and particulate phase was determined. The most abundant members (gas + particles) were phenanthrene (20.0 {+-} 7.0 ng m{sup -3}), fluoranthene (6.5 {+-} 1.7 ng m{sup -3}), pyrene (6.6 {+-} 2.4 ng m{sup -3}), and chrysene (3.1 {+-} 1.5 ng m{sup -3}). Total concentration (gas + particulate) of PAH ranged from 44.3 to 129.2 ng m{sup -3}, with a mean concentration of 79.3 ng m{sup -3}. Total concentration of PAHs in gas phase ranged from 31.4 to 84.7 ng m{sup -3} with non-observable seasonal variation. Conversely, maximum PAH concentrations in the particulate phase occurred during winter months. Particulate concentration varied from 11.4 to 44.9 ng m{sup -3}, with an average of 25.2 ng m{sup -3}. PAH distribution between gas and particulate phase was in agreement with the sub-cooled vapor pressure. Shift in gas/particle distribution due to difference in ambient temperature elucidated to some extent the seasonal variation of the concentration of PAHs in particles. - Capsule: Ambient PAH partitioning between gas and particle phases vary between compounds and with environmental conditions.

  4. A study of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of ambient aerosol particles in Southeast Asia during hazy and nonhazy days

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, S. W.; Balasubramanian, R.; Wang, W.

    2006-05-01

    Many Southeast Asian countries have been constantly plagued by recurring smoke haze episodes as a result of traditional slash-and-burn practices in agricultural areas to clear crop lands or uncontrolled forest fires. However, our current knowledge on the physiochemical and optical properties of ambient aerosols associated with regional haze phenomenon is still fairly limited. Therefore a comprehensive field study was carried out in Singapore from March 2001 to March 2002 under varying weather conditions to gain a better understanding of the characteristics. The physical (size distribution of mass and number concentrations), chemical (mass concentrations of chemical components: 14 ions, 24 metals, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)), and optical (light absorption (bap) and scattering (bsp) by particles) characteristics of ambient aerosol particles were investigated. The results are reported separately for clear and hazy days by categorizing the days as clear or hazy on the basis of visibility data. It was observed that the average concentrations of PM2.5 and most chemical components increased approximately by a factor of 2 on hazy days. Backward air trajectories together with the hot spot distributions in the region indicated that the degradation in Singapore's air quality on hazy days was attributable to large-scale forest fires in Sumatra. This visibility degradation was quantitatively measured on the basis of the light absorption and scattering by particles. As expected, scattering rather than absorption controlled atmospheric visibility, and PM2.5 particles present on hazy days were more efficient at scattering light than those found on clear days.

  5. Global source identification of arctic air pollution using statistical analysis of particle dispersion model output and measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Arctic air pollution has received renewed interest recently because of its contribution to climate change in the arctic. Nevertheless, its sources are still not known with sufficient accuracy. Most of our understanding of artic air pollution sources is based on model simulations, analysis of air pollution episodes or, at best, statistical analysis of air mass back-trajectories. We present a new approach, namely combining the output of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, with measurement data from Arctic air pollution monitoring sites (Alert, Barrow, Zeppelin). This approach is similar to existing statistical methods for analyzing back-trajectories in conjunction with air pollution monitoring data. However, it has the advantage that the underlying model calculations also take into account turbulence and convection in the atmosphere, which are ignored by ordinary trajectory calculations. FLEXPART is run 20 days backward in time from each of the stations and every three hours, for several years. With every calculation, a so-called potential emission sensitivity (PES) field is obtained, which identifies where the measured air mass has come into contact with the Earth's surface. It quantitatively measures the sensitivity of the signal obtained at the station, to emissions occurring at or near the surface. By combining these PES fields with measured concentrations of several trace species and performing a statistical analysis, we identify where the measured species originate. Statistical analyses are performed both for average concentrations as well as the 10th and 90th percentiles of the measured frequency distribution. We show results for black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) for every station individually as well as by combining data from all stations, both yearly and for different seasons of the year. We find strong differences in source regions between the 10th and 90th percentiles, in particular for CO. (author)

  6. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices. PMID:26134458

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization-based BP Neural Network for UHV DC Insulator Pollution Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangcheng Lü

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the forecasting of the UHV DC insulator's pollution conditions, we introduced a PSOBP algorithm. A BP neural network (BPNN with leakage current, temperature, relative humidity and dew point as input neurons, and ESDD as output neuron was built to forecast the ESDD. The PSO was used to optimize the the BPNN, which had great improved the convergence rate of the BP neural network. The dew point as a brand new input unit has improved the iteration speed of the PSOBP algorithm in this study. It was the first time that the PSOBP algorithm was applied to the UHV DC insulator pollution forecasting. The experiment results showed that the method had great advantages in accuracy and speed of convergence. The research showed that this algorithm was suitable for the UHV DC insulator pollution forecasting.

  8. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  9. Magnetic normalization of particle size effects in a heavy metal pollution study of intertidal sediments from the Yangzte Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫国; 俞立中; HutchinsonSimonM.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic, granulometric and geochemical analyses were conducted on an intertidal sediment core from the Yangtze Estuary to evaluate the possibility of normalizing samples for particle size effects in a heavy metal pollution study by means of magnetic proxies. It has been found that the magnetic parameter XARM, indicating fine grained ferrimagnetic minerals, correlates well with the clay content and organic matter concentration of the sediments. XARM also shows significant relationship with heavy metals. Therefore XARM is proposed as a proxy for clay content in the sediments, and can be used to compensate for the particle size effect in sedimentary heavy metal records, where magnetic minerals are not subject to significant post-depositional alteration.

  10. Ambiente urbano e percepção da poluição sonora Urban environment and perception to noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bender Moreira de Lacerda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa avaliou a percepção da população de uma grande cidade em relação à poluição sonora (ruído urbano. Buscou-se identificar quais fontes sonoras são percebidas com maior freqüência pela população e quais reações psico-sociais relacionadas ao ruído urbano são identificados por ela. Foi utilizado um questionário composto de questões fechadas, abrangendo aspectos demográficos e aspectos psico-sociais referentes ao ruído ambiental. Oitocentos e noventa e dois (892 indivíduos participaram da pesquisa. As principais fontes de ruído citadas pelos moradores como causadoras de incômodo foram: 1 o tráfego de veículos (67 %, 2 os vizinhos (33%, 3 o barulho de sirenes (23%, 4 o barulho de animais (21% e 5 o barulho gerado pela construção civil (21 %. As principais reações psico-sociais foram: 1 irritabilidade (55%, 2 baixa concentração (28%, 3 insônia (20% e 4 dor de cabeça (19%. Os resultados obtidos coincidem com dados obtidos em pesquisas desenvolvidas na Europa, EUA e no Brasil, de que a poluição sonora ambiental influencia a qualidade de vida da população, gerando reações psico-sociais importantes, como: 1 irritabilidade e 2 insônia. Estes podem estar na base de outras doenças (disfunções cardiovasculares, podendo interferir na saúde e no bem estar dos indivíduos em particular e de uma população urbana como um todo, gerando um problema de saúde pública.The present study investigated the psychosocial complaints related to urban noise among the population of Curitiba. We used a questionnaire of closed-set questions to collect data on demographics and psychosocial reactions to environmental noise when subjects are at home. Eight hundred and ninety-two individuals (892 participated of the study. The main noise sources associated with discomfort or annoyance were traffic noise (67%, neighbors (33%, sirens (23%, animals (21%, and construction (21%. The main psychosocial complaints were

  11. Use of instrumental nuclear activation methods in the study of particles from major air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear methods have been used effectively in the study of particles emitted by a coal-fired power plant and a municipal incinerator. In the coal-fired plant there is appreciable fractionation of only five of the observed elements. By contrast, particles from the incinerator are highly enriched in several trace elements

  12. Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Headache as Chief Complaint

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin KIYAN; Murat ERSEL; Uluer, Hatice; Ozsarac, Murat; Aslihan YURUKTUMEN; Eylem ERSAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Particulate air pollution is a mixture of solid, liquid, or solid and liquid particles suspended in the air. There have been abundant studies on the short-term effects of air pollution on health, with emphasis on mortality and hospital admissions. Here we propose to assess the relationship between ambient air pollution, and monthly emergency department (ED) visits for headache. In the present study, the objective was to examine the relationship between monthly ED visits for headach...

  13. Impact of aerosol–meteorology interactions on fine particle pollution during China’s severe haze episode in January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2013, a severe regional haze occurred over the North China Plain. An online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model was employed to simulate the impacts of aerosol–meteorology interactions on fine particles (PM2.5) pollution during this haze episode. The response of PM2.5 to meteorology change constituted a feedback loop whereby planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics amplified the initial perturbation of PM2.5. High PM2.5 concentrations caused a decrease of surface solar radiation. The maximal decrease in daily average solar radiation reached 53% in Beijing, thereby leading to a more stable PBL. The peak PBL height in Beijing decreased from 690 m to 590 m when the aerosol extinction was considered. Enhanced PBL stability suppressed the dispersion of air pollutants, and resulted in higher PM2.5 concentrations. The maximal increase of PM2.5 concentrations reached 140 μg m−3 in Beijing. During most PM2.5 episodes, primary and secondary particles increased simultaneously. These results imply that the aerosol–radiation interactions played an important role in the haze episode in January 2013. (letter)

  14. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  15. The density of humic acids and humic like substances (HULIS from fresh and aged wood burning and pollution aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dinar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play significant roles in climatic related phenomena. Size, density and shape of particles affect their fluid-dynamic parameters which in turn dictate their transport and lifecycle. Moreover, density and shape are also related to particles' optical properties, influencing their regional and global radiative effects. In the present study we have measured and compared the effective densities of humic like substances (HULIS extracted from smoke and pollution aerosol particles to those of molecular weight-fractionated aquatic and terrestrial Humic Substances (HS. The effective density was measured by comparing the electro mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameter of aerosol particles composed of these compounds. Characterization of chemical parameters such as molecular weight, aromaticity and elemental composition allow us to test how they affect the effective density of these important environmental macromolecules. It is suggested that atmospheric aging processes increase the effective density of HULIS due to oxidation, while packing due to the aromatic moieties plays important role in determining the density of the aquatic HS substances.

  16. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  17. Intra-urban variation of ultrafine particles as evaluated by process related land use and pollutant driven regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Ruths, Matthias; Löwner, Marc-Oliver; Weber, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The microscale intra-urban variation of ultrafine particle concentrations (UFP, diameter Dp<100 nm) and particle number size distributions was studied by two statistical regression approaches. The models were applied to a 1 km2 study area in Braunschweig, Germany. A land use regression model (LUR) using different urban morphology parameters as input is compared to a multiple regression type model driven by pollutant and meteorological parameters (PDR). While the LUR model was trained with UFP concentration the PDR model was trained with measured particle number size distribution data. The UFP concentration was then calculated from the modelled size distributions. Both statistical approaches include explanatory variables that try to address the 'process chain' of particle emission, dilution and deposition. LUR explained 74% and 85% of the variance of UFP for the full data set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 668 cm(-3) and 1639 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. PDR explained 56% and 74% of the variance with RMSE of 4066 cm(-3) and 6030 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. Both models are capable to depict the spatial variation of UFP across the study area and in different outdoor microenvironments. The deviation from measured UFP concentrations is smaller in the LUR model than in PDR. The PDR model is well suited to predict urban particle number size distributions from the explanatory variables (total particle number concentration, black carbon and wind speed). The urban morphology parameters in the LUR model are able to resolve size dependent concentration variations but not as adequately as PDR. PMID:26204051

  18. Indoor Air Pollution in China: Analysis of Global Warming Contributions and Exposure to Particles

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    About 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where biomass and coal are the main sources of energy for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution from household fuel burning is a major health concern, responsible for at least 420,000 premature deaths annually in China alone. However, less is known about the emissions of greenhouse compounds from the household sector. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the global warming contribution (GWC) from main household fuels in rural Chin...

  19. Human exposure to dynamic air pollutants: Ozone in airplanes and ultrafine particles in homes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhangar, Seema Vijay

    2010-01-01

    To effectively control health risks associated with an airborne contaminant we need to understand when, where, why, and how much humans come into contact with the contaminant. To answer these questions, the temporal and spatial variability in levels of species must be evaluated in relation to the locations of humans in space and time. Characterizing human exposure through the measurement of pollutant levels within occupied microenvironments where people spend time is particularly important ...

  20. On dithiothreitol (DTT) as a measure of oxidative potential for ambient particles: evidence for the importance of soluble transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, J. G.; Anastasio, C.

    2012-10-01

    The rate of consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) is increasingly used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to the adverse health effects of PM. While several quinones are known to be very reactive in the DTT assay, it is unclear what other chemical species might contribute to the loss of DTT in PM extracts. To address this question, we quantify the rate of DTT loss from individual redox-active species that are common in ambient particulate matter. While most past research has indicated that the DTT assay is not sensitive to metals, our results show that seven out of the ten transition metals tested do oxidize DTT, as do three out of the five quinones tested. While metals are less efficient at oxidizing DTT compared to the most reactive quinones, concentrations of soluble transition metals in fine particulate matter are generally much higher than those of quinones. The net result is that metals appear to dominate the DTT response for typical ambient PM2.5 samples. Based on particulate concentrations of quinones and soluble metals from the literature, and our measured DTT responses for these species, we estimate that for typical PM2.5 samples approximately 80% of DTT loss is from transition metals (especially copper and manganese), while quinones account for approximately 20%. We find a similar result for DTT loss measured in a small set of PM2.5 samples from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Because of the important contribution from metals, we also tested how the DTT assay is affected by EDTA, a chelator that is sometimes used in the assay. EDTA significantly suppresses the response from both metals and quinones; we therefore recommend that EDTA should not be included in the DTT assay.

  1. Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, D. L.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Guo, S.; Wen, M. T.; Nowak, A.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Wang, X. S.; Li, Y. P.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2010-10-01

    In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ) and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG) in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8)×104 cm-3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1)×104 cm-3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm-3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm-3. More 20-100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100-660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m-3) and BG (69±58 μg m-3) with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42-, NO3- accounted for about 60% in 100-660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary ions in PM1.0 than other species and shifting the peaks of sulfate and ammonium mass size distributions to larger sizes. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ accounted for about 70% and 40% of PM1.0 and PM2.5, respectively.

  2. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  3. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution down to 1.38 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China in spring, summer and winter during 2014–2015. Nucleation event occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and RH and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.38 at the onset and peak J1.38 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm−3 s−1, respectively, during the 8 nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.38 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56–0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation, but the correlation among all the 8 events deteriorated (R2 = 0.17 due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h−1 between 1–3 nm. The growth rate behavior was interpreted in this study as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei using nano-Köhler theory.

  4. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, č. 1 (2010), s. 269-276. ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  5. Use of hybrid composite particles prepared using alkoxysilane-functionalized amphiphilic polymer precursors for simultaneous removal of various pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seulki; Kim, Nahae; Lee, Soonjae; Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Kim, Juyoung; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present new inorganic-organic hybrid particles and their possible application as an adsorbent for simultaneous removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic pollutants from water. These hybrid particles were prepared using tailor-made alkoxysilane-functionalized amphiphilic polymer precursors (M-APAS), which have amphiphilic polymers and reactive alkoxysilane groups attached to the same backbone. Through a single conventional sol-gel process, the polymerization of M-APAS and the chemical conjugation of M-APAS onto silica nanoparticles was simultaneous, resulting in the formation of hybrid particles (M-APAS-SiO2) comprised of hyperbranch-like amphiphilic polymers bonded onto silica nanoparticles with a relatively high grafting efficiency. A test for the adsorption of water-soluble dye (organe-16) and water insoluble dye (solvent blue-35) onto the hybrid particles was performed to evaluate the possibility of adsorbing hydrophilic and hydrophobic compound within the same particle. The hybrid particle was also evaluated as an adsorbent for the removal of contaminated water containing various pollutants by wastewater treatment test. The hybrid particle could remove phenolic compounds from wastewater and the azo dye reactive orange-16 from aqueous solutions, and it was easily separated from the treated wastewater because of the different densities involved. These results demonstrate that the hybrid particles are a promising sorbent for hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic pollutants in water. PMID:27179430

  6. The elemental composition and origin of fine ambient particles in the largest Polish conurbation: first results from the short-term winter campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal (24-h) samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with an aerodynamic diameter not greater than 2.5 μm) and soil samples were collected in an urban area in Warsaw, in winter. The samples were analysed for 24 elements with an Epsilon 5 spectrometer (PANalytical). The results were then arranged and compared with the results of research conducted earlier in Poland and other parts of the world. Afterwards, sources of ambient PM2.5 were identified and the share of each in the concentration of PM2.5 was evaluated by means of enrichment factor (EF) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). The results were interpreted using a detailed analysis of correlations between diurnal concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-elements, and of changes in meteorological conditions. The winter average ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Warsaw, was 10.7 ± 7.5 μg/m3 and was much lower than in the other sites in Poland. In Warsaw, regardless of the concentration of PM2.5, the concentrations of certain PM2.5-bound elements, mainly toxic, were high, e.g. the average ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound Se, As, Co, V, Cd and Ni were 12.7 ± 30.5, 10.6 ± 34.4, 9.4 ± 13.7, 15.1 ± 32.7, 9.6 ± 22.2 and 3.5 ± 5.0 ng/m3, respectively. The elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 appeared to be influenced mainly by the anthropogenic emissions (energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, whose mean contribution to the concentration of PM2.5 was 18.4 %, and energy production based on oil combustion with a contribution of 9.9 % in PM2.5). A mixture of soil matter and road dust was also identified in PM2.5 (8 %). The mean contribution of traffic (exhaust) emissions to the concentration of PM2.5 in an urban area, selected as representative of the Warsaw conurbation, was assessed at 15.4 %.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of severe ambient air pollution on women and the developing fetus. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.P.

    1997-11-01

    This research goal was validation of a number of biomarkers in two groups of Polish women and their newborn infants: 70 mother/child pairs from Krakow, a city with elevated air pollution and 90 pairs from Limanowa, a less polluted area.

  8. Surveillance of the short-term impact of fine particle air pollution on cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felton Henry D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the effects of particulate matter on health vary based on factors including the vulnerability of the population, health care practices, exposure factors, and the pollutant mix. Methods We used time-stratified case-crossover to estimate differences in the short-term impacts of PM2.5 on cardiovascular disease hospital admissions in New York State by geographic area, year, age, gender, co-morbid conditions, and area poverty rates. Results PM2.5 had a stronger impact on heart failure than other cardiovascular diagnoses, with 3.1% of heart failure admissions attributable to short-term PM2.5 exposure over background levels of 5 ug/m3. Older adults were significantly more susceptible to heart failure after short-term ambient PM2.5 exposure than younger adults. Conclusion The short-term impact of PM2.5 on cardiovascular disease admissions, and modifications of that impact, are small and difficult to measure with precision. Multi-state collaborations will be necessary to attain more precision to describe spatiotemporal differences in health impacts.

  9. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  10. Monitoring of Pollution of Air Fine Particles (PM2.5) and Study on Their Genetic Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG-QUN XU; WEN-LI ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    To compare PM2.5 pollation level between the city of coal-fuel pollution (Taiyuan) and the city of pollution mixed with coal fuels and vehicle exhausts (Beijing), to analyze the concentration of B[a]p and Pb in the pollutants, and to study the DNA damage by PM2.5. Methods Air fine particles (PM2.5) were collected in Beijing and Taiyuan by means of the filter membrane method, the concentration of B[a]p and Pb were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy respectveily, and the damage of DNA by PM2.5 was detected by single cell gel-electrophoresis (SCGE) using the human lung epithelial cells (A549) as target cells. Results The concentration of PM2.5 in the winter of Beijing was 0.028-0.436 mg/m3, and that in Taiyuan was 0.132-0.681 mg/m3. The concentration of B[a]p was 0.104 and 0.156 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively, whereas the concentration of Pb was 1.094 and 1.137 μg/mg on PM2.5 of Beijing and Taiyuan, respectively. Exposure to PM2.5 at the concentrations of 5, 50, and 200 μg/mL for 12 h and 24 h caused DNA damage of the human alveolar epithelium, and the ratios of the tailing and length of the tail were all significantly different from those of the negative control group (P<0.05), and indicated a dose-response relationship. Conclusion PM2.5 has certain genetic toxicity.

  11. [Pollution characteristics and source of the atmospheric fine particles and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu in autumn season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Rui; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Quan; Liu, Lu-Ning; Zhang, De-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Real-time measurements of PM2.5, secondary inorganic compounds in PM2.5 (SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-)) and related gaseous pollutants were conducted at Mount Dinghu, a regional background station of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), in October and November 2008 by using a conventional R&P TEOM and a system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC). Sources and transportation of atmospheric particles during the experiment were discussed with principal component analysis and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The average daily mass concentrations of PM2.5 were 76.9 microg x m(-3) during sampling period, and average daily mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-) were 20.0 microg x m(-3), 6.8 microg x m(-3) and 2.6 microg x m(-3), respectively. The sum of these three secondary inorganic compounds accounted for more than one third of the PM2.5 mass concentration, which had become the major source of atmospheric fine particles at Mount Dinghu. The diurnal variation of PM2.5, SO4(2-), and NH4(+) all showed a "bimodal" distribution with two peaks appeared at 10:00 am and at 16:00 pm, respectively, whereas NO3(-s) howed "single peak" distribution peaked at 10:00 am. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-) in PM2.5 had the similar diurnal variation with that of SO2, SO4(2-) in PM2.5 was mainly transformed from SO2, whereas NO3(-) showed difference diurnal variation with that of NO2, and the second conversion rate of NO2 was far lower than that of SO2. NH4(+) in PM2.5 existed mainly in the form of sulfate, nitrate and chloride. Both of principal component analysis and back trajectory analysis showed that the variations of PM2.5 and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu were mainly affected by the long-range transport air mass passed over Guangzhou, Huizhou and other highly industrialized areas which carried air pollutants to the observation site, at the same time local sulfate originated from secondary formation also

  12. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  13. Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Winquist Andrea; Flanders W Dana; Klein Mitchel; Mulholland James A; Darrow Lyndsey A; Strickland Matthew J; Tolbert Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In time-series studies of the health effects of urban air pollutants, decisions must be made about how to characterize pollutant levels within the airshed. Methods Emergency department visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations were collected from Atlanta hospitals. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5...

  14. Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand - particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Tangjarukij, Chanthana;

    2002-01-01

    officers were divided into a high exposure group (traffic police) and low exposure (office duty). Particulate matter was collected using personal pumps (2 l/min) and the eight carcinogenic PAHs were analysed by standard procedures. The traffic police was exposed to a 20-fold higher level of total PAHs than...... the office group. Lower biomarker levels were observed during the period when the traffic police officers were wearing a simple facemask, indicating that these masks protect against particle-associated PAHs. No statistically significant correlations were observed between biomarker levels and the level...... of individual PAHs or total PAH. Our data show, that people in Bangkok, who spend most of the day outside air-conditioned offices, are exposed to high levels of genotoxic PAHs. However, for people who spend their working day in offices, the exposure is similar to people living in other metropolitan...

  15. Transport of particle pollution into the Maipo Valley: winter 2015 campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Nicolás; Mazzeo, Andrea; Ordóñez, César; Donoso, Nicolás; Gallardo, Laura; Molina, Luisa; Moreno, Valeria; Muñoz, Ricardo; Orfanoz, Andrea; Vizcarra, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Each winter, Santiago (33° 27'S, 70° 40'W) the capital of Chile with a population of about 7 million people, experiences episodes with particulate matter (PM) concentrations larger than allowed by Chilean environmental regulations. Transport and residential heating largely dominate emissions prior to and during these episodes. Important impact of black carbon (BC) on the cryosphere has been documented in other parts of the world associated with urban pollution. In order to explore if BC from Santiago has the potential to reach the Andean cryosphere during the aforementioned episodes, a one week-long campaign was conducted in Santiago and the Maipo Valley between 18th and 25th of July 2015 when the air quality conditions of the city reached twice the critical levels (pre-emergency in Chilean regulations). Measurements were carried out at three sites: downtown Santiago, the entrance of the valley (and outskirts of Santiago) and 12 km inside the Maipo Valley. At each of these sites both surface and vertically distributed measurements were conducted. A meteorological station measuring standard meteorological parameters and an E-Sampler measuring PM10 concentrations were installed at each site. In addition, a tethered balloon equipped with a sonde and a mini-aethalometer was used in each site to measure vertical profiles of standard meteorological parameters and BC concentrations, respectively. The tethered balloon was raised every three hours up to a maximum of 1000 meters above ground level, whenever meteorological conditions allowed. In general, the BC concentrations inside the valley, both at the surface and in the vertical, were dominated by emissions within the valley and BC was limited to shallow layers above the ground. However, on both days with critical air quality levels, winds blowing from the city and deeper BC layers were observed inside the valley. Furthermore, during these days observations at the entrance of the valley and those taken inside were

  16. Tracking reactive pollutants in large groundwater systems by particle-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbacher, T.; Sun, Y.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Delfs, J.; Shao, H.; Park, C.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, great amounts of human and financial resources are being invested to protect and secure clean water resources. Especially in arid and semi-arid regions civilization depends on the availability of freshwater from the underlying aquifer systems where water quality and quantity are often dramatically deteriorating. Main reasons for the mitigation of water quality are extensive fertilizer use in agriculture and waste water from cities and various industries. It may be assumed that climate and demographic changes will add further stress to this situation in the future. One way to assess water quality is to model the coupled groundwater and chemical system, e.g.to assess the impact of possible contaminant precipitation, absorption and migration in subsurface media. Currently, simulating such scenarios at large scales is a challenging task due to the extreme computational load, numerical stability issues, scale-dependencies and spatially and temporally infrequently distributed or missing data, which can lead e.g. to in appropriate model simplifications and additionally uncertainties in the results. The simulation of advective-dispersive mass transport is usually solved by standard finite differences, finite element or finite volume methods. Particle tracking is an alternative method and commonly used e.g. to delineate contaminant travel times, with the advantage of being numerically more stable and computational less expensive. Since particle tracking is used to evaluate groundwater residence times, it seems natural and straightforward to include reactive processes to track geochemical changes as well. The main focus of the study is the evaluation of reactive transport processes at large scales. Therefore, a number of new methods have been developed and implemented into the OpenGeoSys project, which is a scientific, FEM-based, open source code for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in porous and fractured media (www

  17. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with Particle-into-Liquid Sampler – High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (PILS–HPAEC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saarnio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler (PILS to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS–HPAEC–MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC–MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS. As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m−3 during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m−3 seemed to originate from biomass burning in Eastern Europe, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  18. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with particle-into-liquid sampler – high-performance anion-exchange chromatography – mass spectrometry (PILS–HPAEC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saarnio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter, and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS–HPAEC–MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC–MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS. As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m−3 during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m−3 seemed to originate from biomass burning in the Baltic countries, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  19. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with particle-into-liquid sampler - high-performance anion-exchange chromatography - mass spectrometry (PILS-HPAEC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarnio, K.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter, and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC) with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS) is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS-HPAEC-MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC-MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m-3) during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m-3) seemed to originate from biomass burning in the Baltic countries, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  20. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  1. In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007: implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    We quantified ambient mixing ratios of 9 monoterpenes, 6 sesquiterpenes, methyl chavicol, the oxygenated terpene linalool, and nopinone using an in-situ gas chromatograph with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS). These measurements were a part of the 2007 Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) at Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first direct in-situ ambient quantification of the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, longifolene, α-farnesene, and β-farnesene. From average diurnal mixing ratio profiles, we show that α-farnesene emissions are dependent mainly on temperature whereas α-bergamotene and β-farnesene emissions are temperature- and light-dependent. The amount of sesquiterpene mass quantified above the canopy was small (averaging a total of 3.3 ppt during the day), but nevertheless these compounds contributed 7.6% to the overall ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Assuming that the monoterpene-to-sesquiterpene emission rate in the canopy is similar to that observed in branch enclosure studies at the site during comparable weather conditions, and the average yield of aerosol mass from these sesquiterpenes is 10-50%, the amount of sesquiterpene mass reacted within the Blodgett Forest canopy alone accounts for 6-32% of the total organic aerosol mass measured during BEARPEX. The oxygenated monoterpene linalool was also quantified for the first time at Blodgett Forest. The linalool mass contribution was small (9.9 ppt and 0.74 ppt within and above the canopy, respectively), but it contributed 1.1% to the total ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Reactive and semi-volatile compounds, especially sesquiterpenes, significantly impact the gas- and particle-phase chemistry of the atmosphere at Blodgett Forest and should be included in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  2. In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007 – implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantified ambient mixing ratios of 9 monoterpenes, 6 sesquiterpenes, methyl chavicol, the oxygenated terpene linalool, and nopinone using an in-situ gas chromatograph with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS. These measurements were a part of the 2007 Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX at Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first direct in-situ ambient quantification of the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, longifolene, α-farnesene, and β-farnesene. From average diurnal mixing ratio profiles, we show that α-farnesene emissions are dependent mainly on temperature whereas α-bergamotene and β-farnesene emissions are temperature- and light-dependent. The amount of sesquiterpene mass quantified above the canopy was small (averaging a total of 3.3 ppt during the day, but nevertheless these compounds contributed 8.5% to the overall ozone reactivity above the canopy. Assuming that the monoterpene-to-sesquiterpene emission rate in the canopy is similar to that observed in branch enclosure studies at the site during comparable weather conditions, and the average yield of aerosol mass from these sesquiterpenes is 10–50%, the amount of sesquiterpene mass reacted within the Blodgett Forest canopy alone accounts for 8–38% of the total organic aerosol mass measured during BEARPEX. The oxygenated monoterpene linalool was also quantified for the first time at Blodgett Forest. The linalool mass contribution was small (9.9 ppt and 0.74 ppt within and above the canopy, respectively, but it contributed 1.2% to the total ozone reactivity above the canopy. Reactive and semi-volatile compounds, especially sesquiterpenes, significantly impact the gas- and particle-phase chemistry of the atmosphere at Blodgett Forest and should be included in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry models.

  3. In-situ ambient quantification of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related oxygenated compounds during BEARPEX 2007: implications for gas- and particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bouvier-Brown

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantified ambient mixing ratios of 9 monoterpenes, 6 sesquiterpenes, methyl chavicol, the oxygenated terpene linalool, and nopinone using an in-situ gas chromatograph with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS. These measurements were a part of the 2007 Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX at Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first direct in-situ ambient quantification of the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, longifolene, α-farnesene, and β-farnesene. From average diurnal mixing ratio profiles, we show that α-farnesene emissions are dependent mainly on temperature whereas α-bergamotene and β-farnesene emissions are temperature- and light-dependent. The amount of sesquiterpene mass quantified above the canopy was small (averaging a total of 3.3 ppt during the day, but nevertheless these compounds contributed 7.6% to the overall ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Assuming that the monoterpene-to-sesquiterpene emission rate in the canopy is similar to that observed in branch enclosure studies at the site during comparable weather conditions, and the average yield of aerosol mass from these sesquiterpenes is 10–50%, the amount of sesquiterpene mass reacted within the Blodgett Forest canopy alone accounts for 6–32% of the total organic aerosol mass measured during BEARPEX. The oxygenated monoterpene linalool was also quantified for the first time at Blodgett Forest. The linalool mass contribution was small (9.9 ppt and 0.74 ppt within and above the canopy, respectively, but it contributed 1.1% to the total ozone-olefin loss rate above the canopy. Reactive and semi-volatile compounds, especially sesquiterpenes, significantly impact the gas- and particle-phase chemistry of the atmosphere at Blodgett Forest and should be included in both biogenic volatile organic carbon emission and atmospheric chemistry

  4. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  5. Different immunomodulatory effects associated with sub-micrometer particles in ambient air from rural, urban and industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunomodulatory effects of chemicals adsorbed to particles with aerodynamic diameter below 0.49 μm (PM0.5) collected in winter 2001 at three sampling points (industrial area [LPIn], traffic-influenced urban area [LPCi], and control area [LPCo]) of La Plata, Argentina, were investigated. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out with high-volume collectors using cascade impactors. PM0.5-adsorbed compounds were hexane-extracted by accelerated solvent extraction. For immunological investigations, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by phytohemagglutinin and exposed to dimethyl-sulfoxide dilutions of PM0.5-extracts for 24 h. Vitality/proliferation was quantified using MTT, released interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) by ELISA. Cytokine production but not vitality/proliferation was significantly suppressed by all of the highest extract concentrations. Generally, suppression of IFN-γ by PM0.5-extracts was stronger than those of IL-4. Based on administered mass of PM0.5, all extracts suppressed IFN-γ production nearly uniform. Contrary, LPCi-extracts exerted maximum IFN-γ suppression based either on air volume or regarding PM0.5-adsorbed PAH. Also the ranking of PM0.5-associated effects on IL-4 production differs in dependence of the chosen reference points, either mass or [μg/ml] or air volume [m3/ml] related dust quantities in cell culture. Based on the corresponding air volume, LPCi-extracts inhibited IL-4 production to the maximum extend, whereas suppression of IL-4 was comparable based on concentrations. This indicates that not only the disparate PM0.5-masses in air cause varying impacts, but also that disparities in PM0.5-adsorbed chemicals provoke different effects on immune responses and shifts in the regulatory balance that might have implications for allergy and cancer development

  6. Comparison of sources of urban ambient particle bound PAHs between non-heating seasons 2009 and 2012 in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to increased cconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is associated with adverse health problems and specifically with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The major PAH sources outdoors are: stationary sources from industry (power plants, incineration, local industry and domestic sources as the residential heating, burning and pyrolysis of coal, oil, gas, garbage, wood, or other organic substances mobile emissions (diesel and petrol engines, biomass burning and agricultural activities (e.g., open burning of brushwood, straw, stubble. The aim of this study was to assess potential differences in particle-bound PAH levels and source contribution between summer 2009 and 2012 sampling campaigns done at same location in Belgrade urban area. The sampling location is considered representative for a mix of residential, business and industrial areas of New Belgrade, an urban area that has been under rapid development. The average concentrations of PM10 are slightly higher in summer 2012 than in 2009. PM-bound PAH follow the same trend as the PM indicating an increasing strength of PAH sources relative to all PM sources. Appling Positive Matrix Factorization, three potential sources of PAHs in the atmosphere were distinguished: (1 stationary sources, (2 traffic (diesel and gasoline vehicle exhaust and (3 local open burning sources (OBS. The analysis confirmed higher contribution of traffic and lower of OBS in summer 2012 than in 2009, reflecting higher traffic volumes and absence of or lower local OBS emissions due to burning wood, grass and domestic waste in 2012. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41028

  7. Measurement of aerosol particles, gases and flux radiation in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, and its relationship to air pollution transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, C.; Castro, T.; Muhlia, A.; Moya, M.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.; Báez, A.

    Continuous atmospheric measurements were carried out at the Pico de Orizaba National Park (PONP), Mexico, in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air quality. This action allowed one to identify specific threats for the effective protection of natural resources and biodiversity. Results show the presence of particles and polluted gases transported by winds from the urban zones nearby (cities of Mexico, Puebla and Tlaxcala), as well as their measurable influence on the optical properties of the park environment. Nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a daily pattern suggesting an influence of pollution generated by anthropogenic processes. Average concentration of SO 2 was higher than recorded at the southern part of Mexico City. Ozone concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 0.06 ppm suggest residual or background ozone character. Back trajectory analysis of air parcels arriving at the site confirm pollution caused by biomass burning and mass transport from urban zones. The SO 42-/TC ratio exhibited values (0.88±0.33) similar to urban areas. Ratios BC/TC and OC/BC for PONP are similar to those reported as influenced by burning emissions of fossil fuels. Typical rural aerosols were also found at the site, and sulfate and ammonium concentrations were correlated. The most predominating mode in surface particles size distribution was at 0.32 μm with no significant presence of coarse particles. Total carbon (OC+BC) content of fine particle mass (PM less than 1 μm) comprised, on average, 75%. Optical properties retrieved from photometric data show intermittent influence from urban pollution. Time periods with low absorbing particles, great visibility and abundance of small particles alternating with short times with bigger particles and high turbidity indicated by the optical depth.

  8. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    LUGINAAH, ISAAC; Fung, Karen Y.; GOREY, KEVIN M.; KHAN, SHAHEDUL

    2006-01-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respi...

  9. The effects of particulate ambient air pollution on the murine umbilical cord and its vessels: a quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Mariana Matera; Guimarães-Silva, Rosane Maria; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Mayhew, Terry M

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particulate matter (PM) compromise birth weight and placental morphology. We hypothesized that exposing mice to ambient PM would affect umbilical cord (UC) morphology. To test this, mice were kept in paired open-top exposure chambers at the same location and ambient conditions but, in one chamber, the air was filtered (F) and, in the other, it was not (NF). UCs were analysed stereologically and by immunohistochemistry to localize isoprostane and endothelin receptors. The cords of mice from NF chambers were smaller in volume due to loss of mucoid connective tissue and decrease in volume of collagen. These structural changes and in umbilical vessels were associated with greater volumes of regions immunostained for isoprostane, ET(A)R and ET(B)R. Findings indicate that the adverse effects of PM on birth weight may be mediated in part by alterations in UC structure or imbalances in the endogenous regulators of vascular tone and oxidative stress. PMID:22975478

  10. Did the Ambient Ozone Affect Stem Increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Territories under Regional Pollution Load? Step III of Lithuanian Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Algirdas Augustaitis; Ingrida Augustaitiene; Gintautas Cinga; Juozapas Mazeika; Romualdas Deltuvas; Romualdas Juknys; Adomas Vitas

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks...

  11. Development of ambient air quality population-weighted metrics for use in time-series health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-05-01

    A robust methodology was developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter (PM) components, from monitors located in the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the time period of 1999-2004 were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to Census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models, and population-weighted. Error associated with applying this procedure with fewer than the maximum number of observations was also calculated. In addition to providing more representative measures of ambient air pollution for the health study population than provided by a central monitor alone and dampening effects of measurement error and local source impacts, results were used to evaluate spatial variability and to identify air pollutants for which ambient concentrations are poorly characterized. The decrease in correlation of daily monitor observations with daily population-weighted average values with increasing distance of the monitor from the urban center was much greater for primary pollutants than for secondary pollutants. Of the criteria pollutant gases, sulfur dioxide observations were least representative because of the failure of ambient networks to capture the spatial variability of this pollutant for which concentrations are dominated by point source impacts. Daily fluctuations in PM of particles less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) mass were less well characterized than PM of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass because of a smaller number of PM10 monitors with daily observations. Of the PM2.5 components, the carbon fractions were less well spatially characterized than sulfate and nitrate both because of primary emissions of elemental and organic carbon and because of differences in measurement techniques used to assess

  12. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  13. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  14. Ambient Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  15. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  16. Efecto de la contaminación ambiental en la anatomía de la hoja de Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae Effects of the environmental pollution on the anatomy of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bruno

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar los efectos de la contaminación ambiental en la anatomía de la hoja de ejemplares de Ligustrum lucidum Aiton f. (Oleaceae «siempreverde», cultivados en veredas del centro de la Ciudad de Córdoba, Prov. de Córdoba (Argentina. Los resultados son confrontados con estudios realizados en ejemplares de dicha especie, que crecen naturalizados en áreas no contaminadas distantes del centro de la Ciudad. Para ello, se utilizó material fresco y conservado en FAA. El estudio de la epidermis en vista superficial se realizó aplicando la técnica de «raspado» y la de peeling» y se tomaron improntas «in situ» de la epidermis adaxial y abaxial. Se determinaron los tipos y frecuencia de estomas y tricomas e índice de estomas. La estructura interna de la hoja se estudió en preparados de cortes transversales, temporarios, coloreados con azul astral-safranina y preparados permanentes, coloreados con hematoxilina, safranina y verde permanente. Se compararon estadísticamente las variables epidérmicas obtenidas entre las poblaciones de la zona poluta y no poluta. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre la epidermis foliar de las plantas de ambientes contaminados y no contaminados; en las primeras es mayor la frecuencia de estomas y tricomas y el índice estomático. Asimismo, en los ejemplares de ambientes contaminados, se observa una reducción en el espesor del parénquima en empalizada respecto del esponjoso, independientemente del espesor de la misma.«Siempreverde», cultivated in the downtown of Córdoba City, Prov. Córdoba, Argentina. The results are confronted with studies made in plants of the same species, which grow naturalized in distant areas without pollution. For it, fresh and conserved materials in FAA were used. The study of epidermis was made applying «the scraped» and the «peeling» techniques and replicas «in situ» were taken. The types and frequency

  17. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles. PMID:25400029

  18. Heterogeneous reaction of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide on ambient aerosol particles under dry and humid conditions: kinetics, mechanism and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Q. Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and organic peroxides play important roles in the cycle of oxidants and the formation of secondary aerosols in the atmosphere. Recent field observations suggest that peroxyacetic acid (PAA, CH3C(OOOH is one of the most important organic peroxides in the atmosphere, whose budget is potentially related to the aerosols. Here we present the first laboratory measurements of the uptake coefficient of gaseous PAA and H2O2 onto the ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 as a function of relative humidity (RH at 298 K. The results show that the PM2.5, which was collected in an urban area, can take up PAA and H2O2 at the uptake coefficient (γ of 10−4, and both γPAA and γH2O2 increase with increasing RH. However, γPAA is more sensitive to the RH variation than is γH2O2, which indicates that the enhanced uptake of peroxide compounds on PM2.5 under humid conditions is dominated by chemical processes rather than dissolution. Considering that mineral dust is one of the main components of PM2.5, we also determined the uptake coefficients of gaseous PAA and H2O2 on authentic Asian Dust Storm (ADS and Arizona Test Dust (ATD particles. Compared to ambient PM2.5, ADS shows a similar γ value and RH dependence in its uptake coefficient for PAA and H2O2, while ATD gives a negative dependence on RH. The present study indicates that in addition to the mineral dust in PM2.5, other components (e.g., inorganic soluble salts are also important to the uptake of peroxide compounds. When the heterogeneous reaction of PAA on PM2.5 is considered, its atmospheric lifetime is estimated to be 3.3 h on haze days and 7.6 h on non-haze days, values which agree well with the field observed result.

  19. Characterization of individual airborne particles in Taiyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, R. K.; Seip, H. M.; L. Liu; Zhang, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi province, China, is one of the most polluted cities in the world. To characterize the ambient particulate pollution, samples of particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) were collected during a 6-day campaign. Individual particles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) to determine their chemical composition. Meanwhile, photomicrographs were obtained from SEM to aid in particles’ source ide...

  20. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE Epidemiologia ambiental aplicada à poluição atmosférica urbana: uma contribuição do Laboratório de Poluição Atmosférica Experimental (LPAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso de André

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.A investigação sobre os efeitos da exposição humana à poluição ambiental iniciou de maneira sistemática, com abordagem científica, apenas no século XX, como conseqüência de uma série de acidentes ambientais percebidos por um significativo aumento na mortalidade e com a realização de estudos epidemiológicos observacionais e toxicológicos em animais. Tais estudos têm se concentrado nos países considerados desenvolvidos. Este artigo relata a experiência do Laboratório de Poluição Atmosférica Experimental (LPAE, da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, no estudo dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos do sistema respiratório em face da exposição aos poluentes, utilizando abordagens experimentais e toxicol

  1. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  2. Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Yue

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8×104 cm−3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1×104 cm−3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm−3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm−3. More 20–100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100–660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m−3 and BG (69±58 μg m−3 with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42−, NO3 accounted for about 60% in 100–660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase

  3. Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Yue

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8×104 cm−3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1×104 cm−3 with intensive traffic emissions. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm−3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm−3. More 20–100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100–660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were also similar at GZ (69±43 μg m−3 and BG (69±58 μg m−3, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformations are two main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO4−2, NO3, and NH4+ accounted for about 60% in 100–660 nm particle mass and PM2.5. When south or south-southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants takes place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary

  4. Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles: A Time-Series Study in Reykjavík, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Krage Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; “volcanic ash”, “dust storms”, or “other sources” (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.6, 9.2% per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: −0.4, 15.5% in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles; Les aerosols de pollution en zone urbaine et industrielle sous influence marine: physico-chimie des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimetz, J

    2007-12-15

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D{sub a}) were performed. Ions (Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO{sub 3},...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  6. Ambient Gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Maria; Hare, Jonathon; Lewis, Paul; schraefel, m.c.

    2006-01-01

    We present Ambient Gestures, a novel gesture-based system designed to support ubiquitous ‘in the environment’ interactions with everyday computing technology. Hand gestures and audio feedback allow users to control computer applications without reliance on a graphical user interface, and without having to switch from the context of a non-computer task to the context of the computer. The Ambient Gestures system is composed of a vision recognition software application, a set of gestures to be p...

  7. Ambiente urbano e percepção da poluição sonora Urban environment and perception to noise pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bender Moreira de Lacerda; Cristiana Magni; Thais Catalani Morata; Jair Mendes Marques; Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

    2005-01-01

    A presente pesquisa avaliou a percepção da população de uma grande cidade em relação à poluição sonora (ruído urbano). Buscou-se identificar quais fontes sonoras são percebidas com maior freqüência pela população e quais reações psico-sociais relacionadas ao ruído urbano são identificados por ela. Foi utilizado um questionário composto de questões fechadas, abrangendo aspectos demográficos e aspectos psico-sociais referentes ao ruído ambiental. Oitocentos e noventa e dois (892) indivíduos par...

  8. Biomarkers for Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution - Comparison of Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Levels with Other Exposure Markers and Markers for Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  9. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  10. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0.......96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/mu g albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  11. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul

    2006-08-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing. PMID:21234298

  12. A poluição do ar em ambientes internos e a síndrome dos edifícios doentes Air pollution in internal environments and sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A Qualidade do Ar Interno (QAI surgiu como ciência a partir da década de 70 com a crise energética e a consequente construção dos edifícios selados (desprovidos de ventilação natural, principalmente nos países desenvolvidos, e se destacou após a descoberta de que a diminuição das taxas de troca de ar nesses ambientes era a grande responsável pelo aumento da concentração de poluentes no ar interno. Admite-se que a ventilação seja um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade do ar interno e que os próprios ocupantes dos edifícios contribuem substancialmente com a poluição destes ambientes através de suas atividades. Sabe-se ainda que a má qualidade do ar interno está associada a doenças (como tosse, rinite, alergia, etc. e à Síndrome dos Edifícios Doentes (SED. Para amostragem de substâncias gasosas no ar de ambientes internos dispõe-se de diversas metodologias, sendo as principais: sistemas passivos de monitoramento, sistemas ativos e automáticos. Para a efetiva promoção de um ambiente saudável, deve-se conciliar a aplicação de legislações específicas com pesquisas e conscientização dos ocupantes dos edifícios. Essa revisão objetiva relacionar os diferentes contaminantes encontrados em ambientes internos, seus efeitos à saúde humana e suas metodologias de amostragem.Indoor Air Quality (IAQ emerged as a science from the 1970s onwards with the energy crisis and the subsequent construction of sealed buildings (without natural ventilation. This mainly occurred in developed countries and it soon came to public attention that lower levels of air exchange in these environments was the main culprit for the increase in concentration of indoor air pollutants. It is common knowledge that ventilation is one of the principal factors that interfere with air quality in indoor environments and that the occupants contribute to the pollution of these environments with their activities. Furthermore, poor indoor

  13. Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

  14. Heart Rate Variability, Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution, and Glucose Homeostasis: The Environmental Epidemiology of Arrhythmogenesis in the Women's Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibrera, P. Miguel; Christ, Sharon L.; Liao, Duanping; Prineas, Ronald J.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic neuropathophysiology underlying the prediabetic state may confer susceptibility to the adverse health effects of ambient particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10). The authors therefore examined whether impaired glucose homeostasis modifies the effect of PM10 on heart rate variability in a stratified, random sample of 4,295 Women's Health Initiative clinical trial participants, among whom electrocardiograms and fasting blood draws were repeated at 3-year intervals from 1993 to 2004. In multilevel, mixed models weighted for sampling design and adjusted for clinical and environmental covariables, PM10 exposure was inversely associated with heart rate variability. Inverse PM10–heart rate variability associations were strongest for the root mean square of successive differences in normal-to-normal RR intervals (RMSSD). Among participants with impaired fasting glucose, there were −8.3% (95% confidence interval: −13.9, −2.4) versus −0.6% (95% confidence interval: −2.4, 1.3), −8.4% (95% confidence interval: −13.8, −2.7) versus −0.3% (95% confidence interval: −2.1, 1.6), and −4.3% (95% confidence interval: −9.4, 1.0) versus −0.8% (95% confidence interval: −2.7, 1.0) decreases in the RMSSD per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10 at high versus low levels of insulin (P < 0.01), insulin resistance (P < 0.01), and glucose (P = 0.16), respectively. These associations were stronger among participants with diabetes and weaker among those without diabetes or impaired fasting glucose. The findings suggest that insulin and insulin resistance exacerbate the adverse effect of PM10 on cardiac autonomic control and thus risk of coronary heart disease among nondiabetic, postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose. PMID:19208727

  15. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy - The Environmental Epidemiology of Arrhythmogenesis in Women’s Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Whitsel, Eric A.; Duan, Yinkang; Lin, Hung-Mo; Quibrera, P. Miguel; Smith, Richard; Peuquet, Donna J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Anderson, Garnet

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between ambient PM2.5 and PM10 and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from EPA air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals from 59 examination sites in 24 US states in 1999-2004. The acute and subacute exposures were estimated as mean, geocoded address-specific PM concentrations on the day of, 0-2 days before, and averaged over 30 days before the ECG (Lag0; Lag1; Lag2; Lag1-30). At the time of standard 12-lead resting ECG, the mean age (SD) of participants was 67.5 (6.9) years (84% non-Hispanic White; 6% current smoker; 15% with coronary heart disease; 5% with ectopy). After the identification of significant effect modifiers, two-stage random-effects models were used to calculate center-pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of arrhythmia per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM concentrations. Among current smokers, Lag0 and Lag1 PM concentrations were significantly associated ventricular ectopy (VE) - the OR (95% CI) for VE among current smokers was 2 (1.32-3.3) and 1.32 (1.07-1.65) at Lag1 PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The interactions between current smoking and acute exposures (Lag0; Lag1; Lag2) were significant in relationship to VE. Acute exposures were not significantly associated with supraventricular ectopy (SVE), or with VE among non-smokers. Subacute (Lag1-30) exposures were not significantly associated with arrhythmia. Acute PM2.5 and PM10 exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM. PMID:18979352

  16. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; F. Ditas; Wu, Z.; Hu, M; Liu, X; J. Mao; N. Sugimoto; WIEDENSOHLER A

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based...

  17. A sequential radiochemical procedure to determine natural radionuclides in samples from a strongly polluted river by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River Tinto is located in the Huelva province, SW of Spain. This river has been strongly affected by anthropogenic activities in its vicinity such as mining, paper mills or phosphoric acid industries (in fact phosphogypsum deposits, so-called gyp-stacks, are located in the mouth of the Tinto River estuary). The combination of acid water from mines, different industrial effluents and fluvial and sea waters plays a determining role in the evolutionary process of the environmental characteristics of the Tinto River and its estuary. In this context several natural radionuclides as polonium, radium, thorium and uranium isotopes, could be used as markers and/or tracers of several environmental processes. Therefore, environmental matrixes (superficial sediments, waters and suspended matter) have been collected from 12 points along the Tinto River and its estuary. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (210Po, 226,228Ra, 230,232Th, 234,238U) have been determined in these samples. Due to sampling conditions, low water volumes and suspended matter masses were collected, so radioactive activities were expected to be close to the mBq order of magnitude. As a consequence, alpha-particle spectrometry was a suitable radiometric technique to perform our wide set of measurements. Then a radiochemical scheme for polonium, radium, thorium and uranium isolation, purification and deposition from these polluted environmental samples was needed. This work will show the sequential radiochemical procedure, originally developed by CSIRO laboratories, adapted to our laboratory conditions and applied for natural radionuclides determination in environmental samples collected from the Tinto River. Hence, and after pretreatment of the sample, polonium was extracted by DDTC and deposited onto silver planchets. Then, after a co-precipitation process, uranium was found in the supernatant whereas radium and thorium were found in the precipitate. Using TBP, uranium was separated and

  18. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  19. Ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, W; Aarts, E

    2005-01-01

    Addresses ambient intelligence used to support human contacts and accompany an individual''s path through the complicated modern world, from applications that are imminent, since they use essentially existing technologies, to ambitious ideas whose realization is still far away, due to major unsolved technical challenges.

  20. Quantification of environmentally persistent free radicals and reactive oxygen species in atmospheric aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Arangio, Andrea M.; Tong, Haijie; Socorro, Joanna; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter plays a central role in adverse health effects of air pollution. Inhalation and deposition of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract can lead to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause oxidative stress. In this study, we have detected and quantified a wide range of particle-associated radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Ambient particle samples were collected using a cascade impactor at a semi-urban site in centr...

  1. Is the association of airborne particles with daily deaths confounded by gaseous air pollutants? An approach to control by matching.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Joel David

    2004-01-01

    Although particulate air pollution has been associated with increased numbers of daily deaths in dozens of cities around the world, issues still remain about the association. Some have questioned the complex modeling used to control for season in Poisson regression or the role of gaseous air pollutants as potential confounders of the association. I examined the association between deaths and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10) using a case-cr...

  2. Field measurement and estimate of gaseous and particle pollutant emissions from cooking and space heating processes in rural households, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Weijian; Du, Wei; Su, Shu; Duan, Yonghong; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Pollutant emissions into outdoor air from cooking and space heating processes with various solid fuels were measured, and daily household emissions were estimated from the kitchen performance tests. The burning of honeycomb briquette had the lowest emission factors, while the use of wood produced the highest pollutants. Daily emissions from space heating were significantly higher than those from cooking, and the use of honeycomb briquette for cooking and raw coal chunk for space heating reduces 28%, 24% and 25% for CO, PM10 and PM2.5, compared to wood for cooking and peat for space heating. Much higher emissions were observed during the initial phase than the stable phase due to insufficient air supply and lower combustion temperature at the beginning of burning processes. However, more mass percent of fine particles formed in the later high temperature stable burning phase may increase potential inhalation exposure risks.

  3. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Scanning electron microscopy applied to the study of solid pollution particles deposited on monumental stone; La microscopia electronica de barrido aplicada al estudio de particulas solidas de contaminacion depositadas sobre la piedra momumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Pache, F.; Alonso, F.J.; Esbert, R.M. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    Solid pollution particles play an important role in the decay of monumental stone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with microanalysis (EDX) are a very valuable study tool. In the present paper, particular attention is paid to sample collection and preparation. Examples of particles providing information on the source of decay are submitted. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Interactions of mineral dust with pollution and clouds: An individual-particle TEM study of atmospheric aerosol from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, Mihály; Axisa, Duncan; Tompa, Éva; Freney, Evelyn; Bruintjes, Roelof; Buseck, Peter R.

    2013-03-01

    Aerosol particles from desert dust interact with clouds and influence climate on regional and global scales. The Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) aerosol campaign was initiated to study the effects of dust particles on cloud droplet nucleation and cloud properties. Here we report the results of individual-particle studies of samples that were collected from an aircraft in April 2007. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron diffraction, and imaging techniques for the morphological, chemical, and structural characterization of the particles. Dust storms and regional background conditions were encountered during four days of sampling. Under dusty conditions, the coarse (supermicrometer) fraction resembles freshly crushed rock. The particles are almost exclusively mineral dust grains and include common rock-forming minerals, among which clay minerals, particularly smectites, are most abundant. Unaltered calcite grains also occur, indicating no significant atmospheric processing. The particles have no visible coatings but some contain traces of sulfur. The fine (submicrometer) fraction is dominated by particles of anthropogenic origin, primarily ammonium sulfate (with variable organic coating and some with soot inclusions) and combustion-derived particles (mostly soot). In addition, submicrometer, iron-bearing clay particles also occur, many of which are internally mixed with ammonium sulfate, soot, or both. We studied the relationships between the properties of the aerosol and the droplet microphysics of cumulus clouds that formed above the aerosol layer. Under dusty conditions, when a large concentration of coarse-fraction mineral particles was in the aerosol, cloud drop concentrations were lower and droplet diameters larger than under regional background conditions, when the aerosol was dominated by submicrometer sulfate particles.

  6. Ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Basten, Twan; de Groot, Harmke

    2007-01-01

    ""This book is truly an eye-opener as it is the first book that relates the dream scenarios of Ambient Intelligence quantitatively to the technical challenges and requirements of the huge distributed and interoperable embedded systems needed to implement AmI systems in the real world. This book is strongly recommended to a wide spectrum of engineers interested to embark in this rapidly emerging and fascinating technology."" (From the foreword by Hugo De Man, Professor K.U. Leuven and Senior Research Fellow IMEC)

  7. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particles sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  8. Microscale anthropogenic pollution modelling in a small tropical island during weak trade winds: Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations using real nested LES meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécé, Raphaël; Bernard, Didier; Brioude, Jérome; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2016-08-01

    Tropical islands are characterized by thermal and orographical forcings which may generate microscale air mass circulations. The Lesser Antilles Arc includes small tropical islands (width lower than 50 km) where a total of one-and-a-half million people live. Air quality over this region is affected by anthropogenic and volcanic emissions, or saharan dust. To reduce risks for the population health, the atmospheric dispersion of emitted pollutants must be predicted. In this study, the dispersion of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) is numerically modelled over the densely populated area of the Guadeloupe archipelago under weak trade winds, during a typical case of severe pollution. The main goal is to analyze how microscale resolutions affect air pollution in a small tropical island. Three resolutions of domain grid are selected: 1 km, 333 m and 111 m. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to produce real nested microscale meteorological fields. Then the weather outputs initialize the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (FLEXPART). The forward simulations of a power plant plume showed good ability to reproduce nocturnal peaks recorded by an urban air quality station. The increase in resolution resulted in an improvement of model sensitivity. The nesting to subkilometer grids helped to reduce an overestimation bias mainly because the LES domains better simulate the turbulent motions governing nocturnal flows. For peaks observed at two air quality stations, the backward sensitivity outputs identified realistic sources of NOx in the area. The increase in resolution produced a sharper inverse plume with a more accurate source area. This study showed the first application of the FLEXPART-WRF model to microscale resolutions. Overall, the coupling model WRF-LES-FLEXPART is useful to simulate the pollutant dispersion during a real case of calm wind regime over a complex terrain area. The forward and backward simulation results showed clearly that the

  9. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  10. Graphene-coated materials using silica particles as a framework for highly efficient removal of aromatic pollutants in water

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kaijie; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial aggregation of pristine graphene nanosheets decreases its powerful adsorption capacity and diminishes its practical applications. To overcome this shortcoming, graphene-coated materials (GCMs) were prepared by loading graphene onto silica nanoparticles (SiO2). With the support of SiO2, the stacked interlamination of graphene was held open to expose the powerful adsorption sites in the interlayers. The adsorption of phenanthrene, a model aromatic pollutant, onto the loaded grap...

  11. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  12. Size distribution of natural aerosols and radioactive particles issued from radon, in marine and hardly polluted urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to studying the natural radioactive particles produced by atttachment of 222Rn daughters on environmental aerosol particles, the behaviours of CASELLA MK2 and ANDERSEN cascade impactors were first investigated. Their characteristic stage diameters were determined and size distributions of airborne particles were obtained in various situations. Moreover, an experimental and automatic equipment for measuring radon was devised and a method was developed in order to evaluate RaA, RaB, RaC concentrations in the free atmosphere. A degree of radioactive desequilibrium between 222Rn and its daughters, more important than that in other locations was thus demonstrated. Furthermore, by means of various aerosol collection systems (ion tubes, diffusion batteries, cascade impactors, filters), the cumulative size distribution of natural radioactivity was established in the air, at ground level. Finally, from a theory of attachment of small radioactive ions on atmospheric particles, a tentative explanation of experimental results was made

  13. Volume reduction on all particle size of the contaminated soil. Continuous processing technology of attrition, chemical wash under an ambient temperature and pressure condition and magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination was conducted in order to establish a practical purification system that could largely reduce the storage volume of radioactive waste in the Intermediate Storage Facility. The examination consists of a 3-step washing treatment of contaminated soil, which includes “Milling Washing” of removed contaminated soil, chemical extraction of fine soil fraction resulted from the “Milling Washing” under an ambient temperature and pressure condition, and magnetic separation of cesium from the extracted solution. As a result of the examination, we succeeded in development of a safe system with low initial cost and running cost. (author)

  14. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  15. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles applied to pollutant transfers characterization; Etude d`un dispositif de comptage en continu d`un aerosol fluorescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevost, C. [CEA Saclay, Departement de Prevention et d`Etude des Accidents, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-06-01

    The studies on aerosol transfer carried out in the field of staff protection and nuclear plants safety become more and more important. So techniques of pollutants simulation by specific tracers with the same aeraulic behaviour are an interesting tool in order to characterize their transfers. Resorting to aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye allows to realize different studies in ventilation and filtration field. The feasibility of detection in real time for a particulate tracer is the main aim of this work. The need of such a technique is obvious because it can provide the specific aerosol behaviour. Furthermore, direct measurements in real time are required for model validation in calculation codes: they give the most realistic informations on interaction between contaminant and ventilation air flows. Up to now, the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measurement allows only an integral response in a delayed time, by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after a specific conditioning of these filters. In order to have the opportunity to detect in real time specific tracer, we have developed a new monitor able to count these particles on the following basis: fluorescent particles pass through a sampling nozzle up to a measurement chamber specially designed; sheath flow rate is defined to confine the test aerosol in the test aerosol in the sample flow rate at nozzle outlet; the interception of this stream by a highly focused laser beam allows aerosol detection and characterization particle by particle; the signature of a passing aerosol is the burst of photons that occurs when the fluoro-phore contained in the glycerol particle is excited by a light of adapted wavelength; these signals are transmitted to a photodetector by a patented optical arrangement. Then, an acquisition interfaced board connected to a computer, converts them into frequencies histograms. In the end, two kind of results could be provided simultaneously : the

  16. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode and/or with gas amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and cetera. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification. . To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of 1. The second type alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10E4). A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as comparison with the commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible ap...

  17. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blend application on modern passenger cars. Part 1: Feedstock impact on regulated pollutants, fuel consumption and particle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Kousoulidou, Marina [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karavalakis, Georgios [Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Ntziachristos, Leonidas [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bakeas, Evangelos [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Stournas, Stamoulis [Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Samaras, Zissis, E-mail: zisis@auth.g [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    Five biodiesels from different feedstocks (rapeseed, soy, sunflower, palm, and used fried oils) blended with diesel at 10% vol. ratio (B10), were tested on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car. Limited effects (-2% to +4%) were observed on CO{sub 2} emissions. CO and HC emissions increased between 10% and 25% on average, except at high speed - high power where emissions were too low to draw conclusions. NOx emissions increased by up to 20% for two out of the five blends, decreased by up to 15% for two other blends, and remained unchanged for one blend. Particulate matter (PM) was reduced for all blends by up to 25% and the reductions were positively correlated with the extent of biodiesel saturation. PM reductions are associated with consistent reductions in non-volatile particle number. A variable behaviour in particle number is observed when volatile particles are also accounted. - Fleet-wide biodiesel application on passenger cars may affect pollutant emissions and the impact can vary depending on biodiesel feedstock.

  18. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blend application on modern passenger cars. Part 1: Feedstock impact on regulated pollutants, fuel consumption and particle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five biodiesels from different feedstocks (rapeseed, soy, sunflower, palm, and used fried oils) blended with diesel at 10% vol. ratio (B10), were tested on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car. Limited effects (-2% to +4%) were observed on CO2 emissions. CO and HC emissions increased between 10% and 25% on average, except at high speed - high power where emissions were too low to draw conclusions. NOx emissions increased by up to 20% for two out of the five blends, decreased by up to 15% for two other blends, and remained unchanged for one blend. Particulate matter (PM) was reduced for all blends by up to 25% and the reductions were positively correlated with the extent of biodiesel saturation. PM reductions are associated with consistent reductions in non-volatile particle number. A variable behaviour in particle number is observed when volatile particles are also accounted. - Fleet-wide biodiesel application on passenger cars may affect pollutant emissions and the impact can vary depending on biodiesel feedstock.

  19. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung...... effect on the concentration of CC16 in plasma and urine or on the static and dynamic volumes or ventilation distribution of the lungs. The study thus demonstrates increased permeability of the alveolar blood-gas barrier following moderate exercise, whereas exposure to ambient levels of urban air.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood...

  20. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: ► Reusable chemical sensor. ► Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. ► High sensitivity. ► Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb2O6) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 ± 10 nm. UV–visible absorption spectra (∼286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb2O6. The chemical sensing of CoSb2O6 NPs have been primarily investigated by I–V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 μA cm−2 mM−1) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 μM–0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb2O6 nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb2O6 nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  1. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  2. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens;

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which ...... bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air....

  3. Applications of Cu2O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic activity of Cu2O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. • They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H2O2. • H2O2 amount could affect the degradation efficiency. • Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. • Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu2O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO4 solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H2O2 under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu2O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H2O2 amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions

  4. Applications of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Wei [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Sun, Fengqiang, E-mail: fqsun@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, South China Normal University (China); Exhibition Base of Production, Study and Research on New Polymer Materials and Postgraduate Students’ Innovation Training of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes (China); Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lihe; Min, Zhilin; Li, Weishan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. • They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount could affect the degradation efficiency. • Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. • Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO{sub 4} solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions.

  5. On dithiothreitol (DTT as a measure of oxidative potential for ambient particles: evidence for the importance of soluble ewline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Charrier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT is increasingly used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM, which has been linked to the adverse health effects of PM. While several quinones are known to be very reactive in the DTT assay, it is unclear what other chemical species might contribute to the loss of DTT in PM extracts. To address this question, we quantify the rate of DTT loss from individual redox-active species that are common in ambient particulate matter. While most past research has indicated that the DTT assay is not sensitive to metals, our results show that seven out of the ten transition metals tested do oxidize DTT, as do three out of the five quinones tested. While metals are less efficient at oxidizing DTT compared to the most reactive quinones, concentrations of soluble transition metals in fine particulate matter are generally much higher than those of quinones. The net result is that metals appear to dominate the DTT response for typical ambient PM2.5 samples. Based on particulate concentrations of quinones and soluble metals from the literature, and our measured DTT responses for these species, we estimate that for typical PM2.5 samples approximately 80% of DTT loss is from transition metals (especially copper and manganese, while quinones account for approximately 20%. We find a similar result for DTT loss measured in a small set of PM2.5 samples from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Because of the important contribution from metals, we also tested how the DTT assay is affected by EDTA, a chelator that is sometimes used in the assay. EDTA significantly suppresses the response from both metals and quinones; we therefore recommend that EDTA should not be included in the DTT assay.

  6. 校园空气微生物和悬浮物污染评价及相关性分析%Air Micro-organisms and Suspended Particles Pollution Evaluation and Correlation Analysis on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杏辉; 罗燕群; 周振明

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitoring of atmospheric total suspended particles and micro-organisms of teaching areas, living quarters, sports fields and traffic areas of campus Yucai of Cuangxi Normal University, this article evaluated and analysis of its situation of air pollution. According to the standards of air microbiological evaluation which is recommended by the Ecological Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the atmospheric microbial contamination is not so serious, although the traffic areas and sports fields content more micro-organisms than other areas, but they still can achieve to clean air standards; atmospheric pollution of the total suspended paniculate matter is more serious in the afternoon and most over the grade two standard limits of The Peoples Republic of China ambient air quality standards, but all of The measured value was lower in the moming for these four functional areas, the atmospheric total suspended particles of the traffic zone is more than sports fields,the teaching zone of it is in the third and the living quarters is the least, the atmospheric total suspended particles have significant correlation with the total number of bacteria but not with the mold in the morning ;in the afternoon,it have no significant correlation with the number of bacteria as well as the mold. But the number of bacteria and the mold of campus have a very significant relation.%在对广西师范大学育才校区教学区、宿舍区、运动场和交通区大气微生物和总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)进行监测的基础上,评价与分析了育才校区大气污染状况.依照中国科学院生态中心推荐使用的空气微生物评价标准,育才校区大气微生物污染轻微,其中交通区和运动场大气微生物含量相对较高,但都能达到清洁空气的标准;大气总悬浮颗粒物污染下午较严重,多数测定值超过了国家环境空气质量标准中的二级标准限值,而上午的测定值相对较低;四个功能区中TSP浓度

  7. Secondhand smoke in combination with ambient air pollution exposure is associated with increasedx CpG methylation and decreased expression of IFN-γ in T effector cells and Foxp3 in T regulatory cells in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Arunima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS and ambient air pollution (AAP exposures have been associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma and DNA modifications of immune cells. In the current study, we examined the association between SHS and AAP with DNA methylation and expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 in T cell populations. Methods Subjects 7–18 years old were recruited from Fresno (high AAP; n = 62 and Stanford, CA (low AAP; n = 40 and divided into SHS-exposed (Fresno: n = 31, Stanford: n = 6 and non-SHS-exposed (nSHS; Fresno: n = 31, Stanford: n = 34 groups. T cells purified from peripheral blood were assessed for levels of DNA methylation and expression of IFN-γ (in effector T cells or Foxp3 (in regulatory T cells. Results Analysis showed a significant increase in mean % CpG methylation of IFN-γ and Foxp3 associated with SHS exposure (IFN-γ: FSHS 62.10%, FnSHS 41.29%, p p Foxp3: FSHS 74.60%, FnSHS 54.44%, p p IFN-γ: FSHS 0.75, FnSHS 1.52, p p Foxp3: FSHS 0.75, FnSHS 3.29, p p IFN-γ: FSHS vs. SSHS, p p Foxp3: FSHS vs. SSHS, p p IFN-γ: FSHS vs. SSHS, p p Foxp3: FSHS vs. SSHS, p p IFN-γ: p = 0.15; Foxp3: p = 0.27, nor was Foxp3 expression (p = 0.08; IFN-γ expression was significantly decreased in AAP-only subjects (p  Conclusions Exposures to SHS and AAP are associated with significant hypermethylation and decreased expression of IFN-γ in Teffs and Foxp3 in Tregs. Relative contributions of each exposure to DNA modification and asthma pathogenesis warrant further investigation.

  8. Study on particulate pollution in cities of China and evaluation of protective measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENHenggen; YANGLei; WANGHuaying; LIUGang

    2003-01-01

    By studying the air quality in the public traffic area of Shanghai, the harm to people''s health caused by particulate pollution in Chinese cities has been evaluated. In addition, two devices were developed to test the performance of protective mask against ambient aerosol, and the efficiency of recycle filtedng of the air-condition was contrastive tested with the new filtration material. The results show that these protective measures need to be improved because that filtering efficiency of protective mask and air-condition in miniature is too low to filter superfine particles in ambient air.

  9. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  10. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  11. Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Gerard; Krishnan, Ranjini M; Beelen, Rob; Peters, Annette; Ostro, Bart; Brunekreef, Bert; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Current day concentrations of ambient air pollution have been associated with a range of adverse health effects, particularly mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. In this review, we summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies on long-term exposure to fine and coarse particles, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon on mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. We also summarize the findings on potentially suscepti...

  12. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with particle-into-liquid sampler – high-performance anion-exchange chromatography – mass spectrometry (PILS–HPAEC–MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Saarnio, K.; K. Teinilä; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; M. Aurela; R. Hillamo

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter, and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PIL...

  13. Identification of potential sources and source regions of fine ambient particles measured at Gosan background site in Korea using advanced hybrid receptor model combined with positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. S.; Moon, K. J.; Kim, Y. J.

    2006-11-01

    The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. As a result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range (0.07 ˜ 1.15 μm), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT), was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.

  14. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:26841792

  15. Relationship between Ambient Fine Particles and Ventricular Repolarization Changes and Heart Rate Variability of Elderly People with Heart Disease in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei Mei; JIA Yu Ping; LI Guo Xing; LIU Li Qun; MO Yun Zheng; JIN Xiao Bin; PAN Xiao Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of particulate matters less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on heart repolarization/depolarization and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods We conducted a panel study for elderly subjects with heart disease in Beijing from 2007 to 2008. PM2.5 was measured at a fixed station for 20 h continuously each day while electrocardiogram (ECG) indexes of 42 subjects were also recorded repeatedly. Meteorological data was obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. A mixed linear regression model was used to estimate the associations between PM2.5 and the ECG indexes. The model was adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, day of the week and meteorology. Results Significant adverse effects of PM2.5 on ECG indexes reflecting HRV were observed statistically and the strongest effect of PM2.5 on HRV was on lag 1 day in our study. However, there were no associations between PM2.5 and ECG indexes reflecting heart repolarization/depolarization. Additionally, the effects of PM2.5 on subjects with hypertension were larger than on the subjects without hypertension. Conclusion This study showed ambient PM2.5 could affect cardiac autonomic function of the elderly people with heart disease, and subjects with hypertension appeared to be more susceptive to the autonomic dysfunction induced by PM2.5.

  16. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Keller C Peter; Hystad Perry W; Setton Eleanor M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of ai...

  17. Research on Characteristics and Precision Injection Angle Control System of Micro Particles Blaster Cleaning for Stone Material Surface Pollutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For analyzing the injection angle impact of micro particles blaster cleaning system, the numerical two-phase flow model of gas-solid is built according to the characteristics of cleaning system, and the injection processes are simulated for different injection angle and soft/hard grinding materials. The simulation results indicate that the injection angle contributes a great influence on average pressure and effective area of cleaning, especially for the soft grinding materials. And concerning the actual operation difficulties of injection angle adjustment, the system is optimized by adding an electrical servo system to control angle of nozzle, which can realize the precise and quick positioning of angle-dimension in the course of cleaning.

  18. Long-range transport of pollutants to the Falkland Islands and Antarctica: evidence from lake sediment fly ash particle records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Jones, Vivienne J; Noon, Philippa E; Hodgson, Dominic A; Flower, Roger J; Appleby, Peter G

    2012-09-18

    (210)Pb-dated sediment cores taken from lakes on the Falkland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, and the Larsemann Hills in Antarctica were analyzed for fly ash particles to assess the temporal record of contamination from high temperature fossil-fuel combustion sources. Very low, but detectable, levels were observed in the Antarctic lakes. In the Falkland Island lakes, the record of fly ash extended back to the late-19th century and the scale of contamination was considerably higher. These data, in combination with meteorological, modeling, and fossil-fuel consumption data, indicate most likely sources are in South America, probably Chile and Brazil. Other southern hemisphere sources, notably from Australia, contribute to a background contamination and were more important historically. Comparing southern polar data with the equivalent from the northern hemisphere emphasizes the difference in contamination of the two circumpolar regions, with the Falkland Island sites only having a level of contamination similar to that of northern Svalbard. PMID:22891669

  19. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  20. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  1. Aerobyologic monitoring in urban and extra urban areas : analysis of airborne fungal particle concentration; Indagini aerobiologiche in ambiente urbano ed extraurbano componente fungina aerodiffusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A. [ENEA, Saluggia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia; Caramiello, R.; Fossa, V.; Potenza, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1995-12-01

    In the environmental monitoring studies carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) a research about air quality of Turin and Saluggia (VC) has started in collaboration with the University of Turin. This research concerns the study of pollen and airborne fungal particle concentrations in the atmosphere. In the last few years the interest in airborne spores and hyphal fragments has increased. Indeed these particles play a very important role in allergic reactions, in several other human diseases, and in plant pathology. The incidence and the risk of infections by airborne fungal spores are correlated to the general climate and to the local micro climatic conditions; a complete aerosporological knowledge can be in many cases a useful indicator for infection risks. In this study the concentrations of airborne fungal spores in two different stations (urban station, Turin; and rural station, Saluggia (VC)) has been evaluated and compared, only for the year 1992, in order to verify the influence of climatic conditions and of floristic and vegetational aspects. In order to establish the correlations between the climate and the airborne fungal data, the results of aerosporogical analysis, relative to the Turin station, are reported. This investigation cover a six year period, three of which under standard climatic conditions and three with considerable peculiarities. A comparative evaluation of the efficiency in the collection of aerobiological particles (pollen and spores) by natural traps (mosses) has been attempted in Saluggia. The results obtained by this palinological analysis have been compared with the composition of the local flora and the data monitored by a spore-trap (volumetric pollen trap) positioned on the roof of a building in the ENEA Research Center of Saluggia.

  2. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  3. Secondhand smoke in combination with ambient air pollution exposure is associated with increasedx CpG methylation and decreased expression of IFN-γ in T effector cells and Foxp3 in T regulatory cells in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli Arunima; Garcia Marco A; Miller Rachel L; Maher Christina; Humblet Olivier; Hammond S; Nadeau Kari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS) and ambient air pollution (AAP) exposures have been associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma and DNA modifications of immune cells. In the current study, we examined the association between SHS and AAP with DNA methylation and expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in T cell populations. Methods Subjects 7–18 years old were recruited from Fresno (high AAP; n = 62) and Stanford, CA (low AAP; n = 40...

  4. Nitric oxide and superoxide mediate diesel particle effects in cytokine-treated mice and murine lung epithelial cells — implications for susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzo Nicholas D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and alle