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Sample records for ambient ph-regulated enzime

  1. Ambient pH-regulated enzime secretion in endophytic and pathogenic isolates of the fungal genus Colletotrichum Secreção de enzimas mediada pelo pH do ambiente em isolados patogênicos e endofíticos do fungo Colletotrichum

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    Walter Maccheroni Jr.

    2004-06-01

    ênicos pertencentes a diferentes espécies de Colletotrichum. Para todas as enzimas e em todos os isolados, observou-se um padrão de secreção dependente dos valores do pH do ambiente. Isolados endofíticos e patogênicos apresentaram padrões distintos de secreção de protease, com ótimos em pH de crescimento alcalino e ácido, respectivamente. Em meio líquido, uma fosfatase ácida Pi-repressível, secretada por um isolado endofítico, respondeu ao pH do ambiente, apresentando um aumento de 14 vezes na sua atividade específica durante o crescimento do fungo em meio ácido, quando comparado a meio alcalino. Além disso, foi clonada parte do gene pacC de Colletotrichum, o qual codifica um fator de transcrição responsável pela regulação dependente do pH do ambiente. É plausível a hipótese de que o pH ambiente é um fator de amplo espectro controlando a secreção enzimática durante as interações fungo-hospedeiro por meio de um circuito genético conservado.

  2. Complexo enzimático para suínos: digestão, metabolismo, desempenho e impacto ambiental Enzyme complex for swine: nutrient digestion, metabolism, performance and environmental impact

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    Urbano dos Santos Ruiz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para avaliar a suplementação enzimática (amilase, pentosanase, celulase, protease e a-galactosidase em rações à base de milho e farelo de soja para suínos. No Exp 1, foram determinadas as digestibilidades aparentes da energia, matéria seca, proteína e das fibras das rações, com ou sem o complexo enzimático, para suínos machos castrados, com 19,96 ± 2,90 kg de peso vivo. Foi utilizado o método da coleta total de fezes e as rações foram formuladas com níveis reduzidos de energia, proteína e aminoácidos. No Exp 2, foram mensurados o desempenho, a excreção de sólidos totais e voláteis, matéria mineral, nitrogênio, macro e microminerais nas fezes, em relação ao desempenho, de suínos machos castrados dos 50 aos 151 dias de idade, com peso médio inicial de 18,34 ± 1,35 kg. Foram utilizadas três dietas, sendo uma ração formulada para atender ou exceder as exigências nutricionais dos animais, de acordo com o NRC (1998, e outras duas com níveis reduzidos de energia, proteína e aminoácidos, suplementadas ou não com o complexo enzimático. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados. A suplementação enzimática em rações contendo milho e farelo de soja não promoveu incrementos na digestibilidade de nutrientes, não melhorou o desempenho dos animais e também não reduziu a excreção de resíduos pelas fezes. Mais estudos são necessários para testar novas matrizes e diferentes níveis do complexo enzimático.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary enzyme supplementation (amylase, pentosanase, celulase and a-galactosidase in corn-soy diets for swine. In the Exp 1, the apparent digestibilities of energy, dry matter, protein and fibers of the feeds were determined, using a nutritional matrix with or without enzyme supplementation for barrows with 19.96 ± 2.90 kg body weight. The total feces collection method was used and the diets were formulated with reduced

  3. The Role of pH Regulation in Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

    Frequently observed phenotypes of tumours include high metabolic activity, hypoxia and poor perfusion; these act to produce an acidic microenvironment. Cellular function depends on pH homoeostasis, and thus, tumours become dependent on pH regulatory mechanisms. Many of the proteins involved in pH regulation are highly expressed in tumours, and their expression is often of prognostic significance. The more acidic tumour microenvironment also has important implications with regard to chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic interventions. In addition, we review pH-sensing mechanisms, the role of pH regulation in tumour phenotype and the use of pH regulatory mechanisms as therapeutic targets.

  4. ambiental

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    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  5. Imobilisasi Enzim Papain Dari Getah Papaya Dengan Alginant

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    Firman Sebayang

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan isolasi enzim papain dari getah papaya (Carica papaya). Isolasi papain dalam penelitian ini menggunakan aseton 85% sebagai pengendap enzim. Setelah melalui tahap penyaringan dan pengeringan beku diperoleh papain 1,25 gram untuk setiap 50 ml getah. Imobilisasi isolat enzim papain dengan metoda penjebakan(entrapment) menggunakan alginat sebagai matrik polimer. pH optimum enzim imobil diperoleh 7,0 dan temperatur optimum 55oC dengan aktivitas enzim 55,60 unit/ml, sedangkan pH opt...

  6. Estabilidad y actividad enzimática del crudo enzimático del cultivo de Trametes maxima, decoloración in vitro de colorantes sintéticos

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    María Isabel Sánchez- López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos Basidiomicetos de la Podredumbre Blanca se caracterizan por su habilidad de degradar lignina y una variedad de componentes orgánicos con estructura similar. Esta habilidad se asume que esta asociada con la producción de enzimas ligninolíticas extracelulares, de las cuales lacasa y manganeso- peroxidasa son las más extensamente estudiada. La decoloración utilizando el cultivo del hongo no es fácilmente aplicable a gran escala, actualmente numerosos estudios se basan en la decoloración in vitro de colorantes sintéticos utilizando la enzima pura o crudos enzimáticos. Los objetivos del presente estudio son: Evaluar la influencia del pH y la temperatura en la estabilidad y actividad enzimática del crudo enzimático producido en los cultivos de Trametes maxima MUCL 44155 y analizar la decoloración in vitro de colorantes sintéticos. La cepa T. maxima fue seleccionada entre 19 cepas Cubanas por su eficiencia en la decoloración de colorantes y producción de enzimas ligninolíticas. El medio de cultivo esta constituido por glucosa, extracto de levadura y bagazo de caña de azúcar, los mayores niveles de actividad enzimática se alcanza a los 6 días de cultivo. Las actividades lacasa y MnP del crudo enzimático alcanzan un óptimo a pH de 3 y 3.5, respectivamente. Estas actividades fueron estables a pH 4.5 a 7 durante 7 días a 30oC. Altas actividades de las enzimas fueron obtenidas en el rango de temperatura de 30 - 50 oC. Los crudos enzimáticos mostraron habilidad de decolorar los colorantes ensayados con la adición del mediador redox HBT. La posibilidad de aplicar este extracto enzimático en el tratamiento biológico de transformación de colorantes aparece como una alternativa poderosa y amigable para la descontaminación ambiental.

  7. Targeting pH regulating proteins for cancer therapy-Progress and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2017-01-27

    Tumour acidity induced by metabolic alterations and incomplete vascularisation sets cancer cells apart from normal cellular physiology. This distinguishing tumour characteristic has been an area of intense study, as cellular pH (pHi) disturbances disrupt protein function and therefore multiple cellular processes. Tumour cells effectively utilise pHi regulating machinery present in normal cells with enhancements provided by additional oncogenic or hypoxia induced protein modifications. This overall improvement of pH regulation enables maintenance of an alkaline pHi in the continued presence of external acidification (pHe). Considerable experimentation has revealed targets that successfully disrupt tumour pHi regulation in efforts to develop novel means to weaken or kill tumour cells. However, redundancy in these pH-regulating proteins, which include Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), carbonic anhydrases (CAs), Na(+)/HCO3(-) co-transporters (NBCs) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) has prevented effective disruption of tumour pHi when individual protein targeting is performed. Here we synthesise recent advances in understanding both normoxic and hypoxic pH regulating mechanisms in tumour cells with an ultimate focus on the disruption of tumour growth, survival and metastasis. Interactions between tumour acidity and other cell types are also proving to be important in understanding therapeutic applications such as immune therapy. Promising therapeutic developments regarding pH manipulation along with current limitations are highlighted to provide a framework for future research directives.

  8. POLA AKTIVITAS ENZIM PENCERNAAN LARVA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscogutattus Forsskal, 1775)

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Melianawati; Rarastoeti Pratiwi

    2011-01-01

    Masalah utama yang masih dihadapi dalam usaha budidaya ikan kerapu macan adalah tingkat mortalitas yang tinggi pada stadia larva. Perkembangan struktur sistem pencernaan dan fungsi enzimatik yang masih sederhana dan belum sempurna diyakini merupakan salah satu penyebab terjadinya hal tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mendeteksi waktu awal aktivitas enzim pencernaan dan (2) mengetahui pola aktivitas enzim pencernaan pada larva umur 1 hingga 20 hari. Enzim yang dianalisis meliputi pr...

  9. A semipermeable enzymatic nanoreactor as an efficient modulator for reversible pH regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Lin, Youhui; Ran, Xiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-09-01

    Here we propose a new concept for the fabrication of a semipermeable enzymatic nanoreactor as an efficient modulator to reversibly switch the pH of an aqueous environment. We used amino-functionalized, expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (EMSN) as a model nanocarrier to load enzymes. In order to protect enzymes from the interference of a complicated environment, polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were coated on the surface of the EMSN through layer by layer (LbL) assembly. These PEMs can serve as semipermeable membranes, allowing small molecules to diffuse in and out freely while trapping the enzymes in the nanoreactors. Compared with traditional electrochemical stimulation or optical control methods, our enzymatic regulation platform is easy to operate without complicated instruments. In addition, this system can cover a wide range of pH values and conveniently regulate pH values by simply controlling the concentrations of catalysts or reactants. Meanwhile, this strategy could be generalized to other enzymes or nanocarriers to achieve reversible pH regulation for different purposes. The switched pH values can be implemented for the modulation of the conformational changes of nucleic acids and activation of the charge conversion in drug delivery applications.Here we propose a new concept for the fabrication of a semipermeable enzymatic nanoreactor as an efficient modulator to reversibly switch the pH of an aqueous environment. We used amino-functionalized, expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (EMSN) as a model nanocarrier to load enzymes. In order to protect enzymes from the interference of a complicated environment, polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were coated on the surface of the EMSN through layer by layer (LbL) assembly. These PEMs can serve as semipermeable membranes, allowing small molecules to diffuse in and out freely while trapping the enzymes in the nanoreactors. Compared with traditional electrochemical stimulation or optical control methods, our enzymatic regulation platform is easy to operate without complicated instruments. In addition, this system can cover a wide range of pH values and conveniently regulate pH values by simply controlling the concentrations of catalysts or reactants. Meanwhile, this strategy could be generalized to other enzymes or nanocarriers to achieve reversible pH regulation for different purposes. The switched pH values can be implemented for the modulation of the conformational changes of nucleic acids and activation of the charge conversion in drug delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S10. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03437f

  10. Structural basis of dual Ca(2+)/pH regulation of the endolysosomal TRPML1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Zhang, Wei K; Benvin, Nicole M; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Su, Deyuan; Li, Huan; Wang, Shu; Michailidis, Ioannis E; Tong, Liang; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-23

    The activities of organellar ion channels are often regulated by Ca(2+) and H(+), which are present in high concentrations in many organelles. Here we report a structural element critical for dual Ca(2+)/pH regulation of TRPML1, a Ca(2+)-release channel crucial for endolysosomal function. TRPML1 mutations cause mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a severe lysosomal storage disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mental retardation and blindness. We obtained crystal structures of the 213-residue luminal domain of human TRPML1 containing three missense MLIV-causing mutations. This domain forms a tetramer with a highly electronegative central pore formed by a novel luminal pore loop. Cysteine cross-linking and cryo-EM analyses confirmed that this architecture occurs in the full-length channel. Structure-function studies demonstrated that Ca(2+) and H(+) interact with the luminal pore and exert physiologically important regulation. The MLIV-causing mutations disrupt the luminal-domain structure and cause TRPML1 mislocalization. Our study reveals the structural underpinnings of TRPML1's regulation, assembly and pathogenesis.

  11. Evaluation the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste by pH regulation.

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    Wang, Yaya; Zang, Bing; Li, Guoxue; Liu, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the composition and characteristic of kitchen waste (KW) from closed cleaning station of Chaoyang District, Beijing. It was featured by high vegetables and peels contents. This study investigated effect of pH regulation and uncontrolled pH (CK) on the lab-scale anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of KW. The optimal adjusting mode by NaOH (including dosage and frequency) was evaluated according to indexes of pH, VFAs, NH4(+)-N, TS, VS, TS/VS, TS and VS removal rate. The treatment 4 as first two days adjusting per 16h and then one time per day at pH 7 was chosen as the optimal mode with high VFAs content(47.31g/L), TS and VS removal rate (42.95% and 54.01%, respectively), low adjusting frequency, fewer dosage and practical operability. Thus, adjusting mode of treatment 4 could be considered using in anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage on engineering.

  12. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

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    Zuhaida Mohd-Zaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  13. SCREENING DAN KARAKTERISASI PEKTINESTERASE SEBAGAI ENZIM POTENSIAL DALAM KLARIFIKASI SARI BUAH JERUK KEPROK GARUT (Citrus nobilis var.chrysocarpa

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    Rohula Utami

    2015-11-01

    6, dan KK 2 berturut-turut adalah 1,218; 0,826; 0,969; dan 1,080 U/ml. Enzim pektinesterase isolat KK 2 memiliki karakteristik yang paling sesuai untuk aplikasi dalam klarifikasi sari buah jeruk keprok garut dibandingkan dengan enzim pektinesterase isolat lainnya. Kata kunci: Enzim, klarifikasi, pektin, pektinesterase, jeruk keprok garut

  14. SLC26A Gene Family Participate in pH Regulation during Enamel Maturation.

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    Kaifeng Yin

    Full Text Available The bicarbonate transport activities of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are essential to physiological processes in multiple organs. Although mutations of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 have not been linked to any human diseases, disruption of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 or Slc26a7 expression in animals causes severe dysregulation of acid-base balance and disorder of anion homeostasis. Amelogenesis, especially the enamel formation during maturation stage, requires complex pH regulation mechanisms based on ion transport. The disruption of stage-specific ion transporters frequently results in enamel pathosis in animals. Here we present evidence that Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are highly expressed in rodent incisor ameloblasts during maturation-stage tooth development. In maturation-stage ameloblasts, Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 show a similar cellular distribution as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr to the apical region of cytoplasmic membrane, and the distribution of Slc26a7 is also seen in the cytoplasmic/subapical region, presumably on the lysosomal membrane. We have also examined Slc26a1 and Slc26a7 null mice, and although no overt abnormal enamel phenotypes were observed in Slc26a1-/- or Slc26a7-/- animals, absence of Slc26a1 or Slc26a7 results in up-regulation of Cftr, Ca2, Slc4a4, Slc4a9 and Slc26a9, all of which are involved in pH homeostasis, indicating that this might be a compensatory mechanism used by ameloblasts cells in the absence of Slc26 genes. Together, our data show that Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are novel participants in the extracellular transport of bicarbonate during enamel maturation, and that their functional roles may be achieved by forming interaction units with Cftr.

  15. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue–skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  16. pH Regulates White-Opaque Switching and Sexual Mating in Candida albicans.

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    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Jia, Wei; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-11-01

    As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating. The Rim101-mediated pH-sensing pathway is involved in the control of pH-regulated white-opaque switching and the mating response. Phr2 and Rim101 could play a major role in acidic pH-induced opaque cell formation. Despite the fact that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway does not play a major role in pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating, white and opaque cells of the cyr1/cyr1 mutant, which is defective in the production of cAMP, showed distinct growth defects under acidic and alkaline conditions. We further discovered that acidic pH conditions repressed sexual mating due to the failure of activation of the Ste2-mediated α-pheromone response pathway in opaque A: cells. The effects of pH changes on phenotypic switching and sexual mating could involve a balance of host adaptation and sexual reproduction in C. albicans.

  17. APLIKASI CRUDE ENZIM SELULASE DARI TONGKOL JAGUNG (Zea mays L PADA PRODUKSI ETANOL DENGAN METODE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

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    Ery Susiany Retnoningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol jagung yang melimpah sebagai produk samping dari hasil pengolahan industri jagung pipilan, memberikan peluang untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai substrat dalam produksi crude enzim selulase. Crude enzim selulase dari tongkol jagung selanjutnya diaplikasikan pada produksi etanol dengan memanfaatkan tongkol jagung juga dengan metode simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh volume crude enzim selulase terhadap kadar etanol, kinerja crude enzim selulase dalam memproduksi etanol dan membandingkan kinerjanya dengan crude enzim komersial. Penelitian ini terbagi dalam dua tahap yaitu : pretreatment tongkol jagung, dan fermentasi. Tongkol jagung yang sudah dikeringkan, dihaluskan hingga menjadi serbuk dengan ukuran 12 mesh, dan diberi perlakuan hidrolisis dengan uap panas (steam explosion selama 60 menit. Serbuk tongkol jagung difermentasi,dengan penambahan nutrisi, crude enzim selulase dan jamur Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proses fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30oC selama 120 jam, sedangkan pengamatan dilakukan setiap 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan produksi etanol yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan crude enzim selulase dan crude enzim komersial berturut-turut adalah 1,28 dan 2,89 %.

  18. Mananoligossacarídeos e complexo enzimático em dietas para frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina de; Cancherini,Luciana Cardoso; Marques,Rafael Henrique; Gravena, Rodrigo Antônio; Moraes,Vera Maria Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas com mananoligossacarídeos e complexo enzimático (CE) sobre o desempenho, a morfologia intestinal e a qualidade da cama de frangos aos 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 750 aves em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 + 1, com dois níveis de mananoligossacarídeos (0 e 0,1% de 1 a 21 dias e 0,05% de 22 a 42 dias de idade), dois níveis de complexo enzimático (0 e 0,05%) e uma dieta com antibióticos (CP), totalizando cinco dietas com ...

  19. Sistema enzimático antisenescencia, catalasa-superóxido dismutasa, de frutos de pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) almacenados con frío

    OpenAIRE

    R. Balois-Morales; M. T. Colinas-León; C. B. Peña-Valdivia; S. H. Chávez-Franco; I. Alia-Tejacal

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar efecto del frío en el sistema enzimático antisenescencia catalasa (EC. 1.11.1.6; CAT)- superóxido dismutasa (EC. 1.15.1.1; SOD) de frutos de pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) durante el almacenamiento con frío y temperatura ambiente. Lotes de frutos, cosechados en Tehuacán, Puebla, fueron almacenados cuatro días a 22±1 °C, y a 3, 7 y 11±1 °C durante 7, 14 y 21 días, y cuatro días a 22±1 °C al concluir cada período de frigoalmacenamiento. Se determinó la act...

  20. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  1. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; Dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  2. Preparation and properties of Pr$_{3+}$/Ce$_{3+}$:YAG phosphors using triethanolamine as dispersant and pH regulator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHIHONG TONG; JUNYAN ZHAO; XIU WEN

    2016-10-01

    Pr$_{3+}$/Ce$_{3+}$:YAG precursors were co-precipitated using triethanolamine as dispersant and pH regulator. The different dosages of triethanolamine (D) vs. the properties of Pr$_{3+}$/Ce$_{3+}$:YAG phosphors were discussed. When $D = 0.5$ vol%, the pH of titration process was controlled in the range of $\\sim$7.94–8.16 to guarantee the uniform distribution of Al, Y, Ce and Pr in the precursors. The relatively higher pH could decrease the loss of Ce and Pr in the precursors and increase the particle size of the obtained powders, which was beneficial to the enhancement of luminescent intensity. Therefore, the precursors directly converted to pure-phase YAG at 900$^{\\circ}$C, and the phosphors calcined at 1000$^{\\circ}$C showed the best dispersity due to the dispersion effect of triethanolamine and the most excellent luminescent property. When $D ≥ 2$ vol%, although pure-phase YAG was detected, the emission intensity of the phosphors decreased due to the decrease of dispersity and purity. Moreover, the co-doped Pr$^{3+}$ enhanced the red emission of Pr$^{3+}$/Ce$^{3+}$:YAG phosphors.

  3. Effects of pH regulators used as additives on the bioavailability of ibuprofen from hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, A M; Marvola, M; Rajamaeki, M; Ojantakanen, S

    1991-01-01

    In our previous study the reasons for fast absorption of ibuprofen from sodium bicarbonate based hard gelatin capsules stayed unclear. These were not investigated using pH regulators (aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, tartaric acid) with different chemical and physical properties. Ibuprofen absorption was much slower with aluminium hydroxide capsules (MRT 5.3, Tmax 3.1 h, Cmax 25.6 mg l-1, lag time 37.5 min) than with sodium bicarbonate capsules of the previous study (MRT 2.6 h, tmax 0.4 h, Cmax 51.4 mg l-1), lag time 0 min). The corresponding values for calcium carbonate and tartaric acid capsules were: MRT 3.7 h and 3.9 h, Tmax 1.7 h and 2.0 h, Cmax 32.2 mg l-1 and 30.8 mg l-1 and lag time 3.1 min and 7.6 min. No differences were noted in the AUC values. A rank order correlation existed between dissolution parameters and the in vivo parameters reflecting the rate of bioavailability. It was concluded that the rapid absorption of ibuprofen from capsules containing sodium carbonate is due to enhanced in vivo disintegration of the capsule, enhanced in vivo dissolution of the drug and enhanced gastric emptying rate.

  4. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry. PMID:28107376

  5. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O livro Epistemologia Ambiental traz uma rica discussão sobre a questão ambiental, abordando teorias relevantes para o entendimento e interpretação da crise atual, orientando para a construção de novas racionalidades e a constituição de um saber ambiental. A obra vem compartimentada em cinco capítulos distribuídos em 240 páginas. 

  6. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  7. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  8. Derecho Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Es indudable la relevancia para la vida del planeta proteger el ambiente. De ahí que a lo largo de las últimas decadas el derecho ambiental se ha consolidado como una nueva y vital rama del derecho público.

  9. Derivados de furano e tiofeno 2-substituídos: síntese, resolução cinética enzimática e aplicação na síntese de lactonas bioativas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Derivados de furano e tiofeno 2-substituídos são compostos bastante difundidos no meio ambiente e desempenham papel importante em processos bioquímicos. Além disso, estes compostos podem ser utilizados como building blocks na preparação de diversas moléculas bioativas. No entanto, reagentes prejudiciais ao meio ambiente e muitas etapas reacionais, são geralmente atribuídos às metodologias sintéticas que empregam estes derivados. Atualmente, poucos trabalhos têm reportado a utilização de enzim...

  10. Pengaruh Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk Nipis (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle Konsentrasi 10% Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Adindaputri U

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri yang berperan sebagai agen utama penyebab karies gigi, yang memiliki enzim glukosiltransferase (GTF. Enzim GTF akan mengubah sukrosa menjadi fruktosa dan glukan. Salah satu herbal tradisional yang dapat berperan sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle yang mengandung polifenol terutama flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle konsentrasi 10% terhadap aktivitas enzim GTF Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% sebagai perlakuan, chlorhexidine gluconate 0,12% sebagai kontrol positif, serta akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif. Metode penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap yaitu penyiapan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10%, penyiapan enzim GTF dari supernatan Streptococcus mutans, dan pengujian aktivitas enzim GTF melalui analisis konsentrasi fruktosa dengan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Pembacaan luas area fruktosa dilakukan berdasarkan waktu retensi. Satu unit aktivitas enzim GTF di definisikan sebagai 1 µmol fruktosa/ml dari enzim/jam. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan one way ANOVA.Hasil perhitungan aktivitas enzim GTF dengan one way ANOVA menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dengan kelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05, dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dengan kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% dapat menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans.  The Influence of 10% Concentrate of Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle on The Activities of Streptococcus Mutans Glucocyl Transferase Enzyme. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria which has glucosyl transferase (GTF enzyme and acts as the main agent that causes dental caries. GTF enzyme will convert sucrose into fructose and glucan

  11. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  12. Analisis Triasilgliserol Pada Cocoa Butter Equivalent yang Dibuat Dari RBDPO dan Asam Stearat Menggunakan Katalis Enzim Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Azlia Hafisa

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan triasilgiserol pada Cocoa Butter Equivalent yang dibuat dari RBDPO dan asam stearat menggunakan katalis enzim dedak padi. Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) merupakan lemak cokelat yang memiliki sifat fisik mirip dengan Cocoa Butter. Pembuatan CBE dilakukan dengan pencampuran rasio RBDPO dan asam stearat dengan beberapa perbandingan yaitu 1:1; 1:2,3 ; 1:3 ; 1:4 ; 1:5,6 ; 2:1 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan enzim dedak padi. Penentuan komposisi TAG menggunakan ...

  13. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM POLIFENOL OKSIDASE BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao Linn. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda Putra

    2012-05-01

    max equals to 595,24 U/gram (db of cocoa beans and K equals to 0,20 M; result of SDS- PAGE of enzyme shows protein bands at M� of 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 and 131,52 kDa; and finally, optimumcondition of enzyme activity is at the temperature of 53,43oC; pH 5,42 and incubation time of 80,91 minutes. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik enzim polifenol oksidase dan (2 menen- tukan kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase, yang diisolasi dari biji kakao kering. Hasil penelitian berupa kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase akan diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan mutu biji kakao kering melalui teknik rehidrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan: (1 isolasi enzim polifenol oksidase dari 10 sampel biji kakao kering di Provinsi Bali, (2 karakterisasi enzim polifenol oksidase (aktivitas, kinetika enzim, BM dan (3 penentuan kondisi suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa: (1 aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase rata-rata 157,49 ± 58,03 U/gram (bk biji kakao dengan aktivitas maksimum 258,22 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan minimum 59,01 U/gram (bk biji kakao; maks sebesar 595,24 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan K sebesar 0,20 M; hasil SDS-PAGE enzim menunjukkan pita-pita protein yang terbentuk pada BM 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 dan 131,52 kDa; dan (2 kondisi optimum aktivitas enzimadalah suhu 53,43oC; pH 5,42 dan waktu inkubasi 80,91 menit.

  14. Cinética enzimática de Michaellis Menten

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El documento contiene los fundamentos de la cinética enzimática de Michaellis Menten, se desarrolla el concepto a partir del estudio del complejo enzima sustrato y se explica la relación entre velocidad inicial y la concentración enzima-sustrato. Adicionalmente, contiene el mapa conceptual que presenta la síntesis de las temáticas sobre las enzimas aplicables a los sistemas metabólicos nutricionales.

  15. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  16. FRAKSINASI ENZIM LIPASE DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA DENGAN METODE SALTING OUT (Lipase fractionation of Coconut Endosperm by Salting out Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Su'i

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research learns about fractionation of lipases activity from coconut endosperm by using ammonium sulphate of 0–15%; 15-30 %, 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % and 75–90 %. The results showed that the fractions of 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % and 60–75 % have lipase activity. Meanwhile, the highest activity was fractions of 60-75%. fractions of 15-30% and 75-90%  have no lipase enzym activity. Molecule weigh of lipase enzyme was 72 kDa. Keywords: Lipases, endosperm, coconut, fractionation, ammonium sulphate   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari fraksinasi enzim lipase dari endosperm kelapa menggunakan ammonium sulfat. fraksinasi dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi ammonium sulfat 0–15% ; 15-30%; 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % dan 75–90 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa enzim lipase terdapat pada fraksi 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % dan fraksi 60–75 % dengan aktivitas enzim tertinggi pada fraksi 60-75%. Sedangkan fraksi 15-30% dan 75-90% tidak ada enzim lipase. Berat molekul enzim lipase pada semua fraksi 72 kDa. Kata kunci: Lipase, endosperm, fraksinasi, ammonium sulfat

  17. Caracterización y fotoestabilidad de compuestos fluorescentes y pardos generados en reacciones enzimáticas y no enzimáticas. Implicancias en la conservación de materiales orgánicos

    OpenAIRE

    Matiacevich, Silvia Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    Las reacciones de pardeamiento no enzimático (reacción de Maillard) y enzimático (polimerización de polifenoles oxidados) generan productos fluorescentes y pigmentos pardos que contribuyen a las características físico-químicas de materiales orgánicos (biomoléculas, alimentos, fármacos). El objetivo de esta tesis fue analizar las características cromáticas y de fluorescencia y la fotoestabilidad de los compuestos generados por la reacción de Maillard y de pigmentos polifenólicos, para dilucida...

  18. Modelación de catálisis enzimática con enzimas alostéricas

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Aranda; E. Salgado

    2008-01-01

    Las enzimas alostéricas regulan la velocidad de la reacción que catalizan en función de la concentración de un inhibidor que modifica su actividad enzimática, generando una curva de saturación sigmoidal característica. Las enzimas alostéricas son complejos enzimáticos generalmente constituidos de una subunidad catalítica y una fracción regulativa, y la actividad catalítica del complejo se establece por la cooperación entre esas subunidades enzimáticas. La simulación realista de fenómenos bioc...

  19. Actividades enzimáticas en Basidiomicetos formadores de ectomicorrizas en Pinus radiata D. Don.

    OpenAIRE

    Duñabeitia, M. Karmele; Hormilla, Susana; Pérez Moral, Emilio; Peña, José I.

    1991-01-01

    La reproducción de enzimas extracelulares por las ectomicorrizas moviliza una fracción importante de los compuestos presentes en el suelo. Se presentan resultados de las actividades enzimáticas relacionadas con la movilización de nitrógeno y fósforo para cuatro especies de hongos formadores de ectomicorrizas, Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) F. Gray, Xerocomus badius (Fr.:Fr.) Gilbert, Boletus pinicola (Vitt.) Venturi y Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. Se considera el valor potencial de l...

  20. Estudio de la cinética de la hidrólisis enzimática del bagazo pretratado

    OpenAIRE

    Albernas Carvajal, Yailet; Corsano, Gabriela; Mesa Garriga, Leyanis; Santos Herrero, Ronaldo; Gonzalez Suarez, Erenio

    2016-01-01

    En el estudio se determinan los parámetros fundamentales de la cinética enzimática a partir de un modelo cinético pseudo-homogéneo de Michaelis Menten, previamente estudiado con otros materiales lignocelulósicos, para determinar la velocidad de producción de Azúcares Reductores Totales (ART) en el tiempo. Para ello se emplearon los resultados obtenidos a nivel de laboratorio, en el cual se llevó a cabo la hidrólisis enzimática del bagazo previamente pretratado de forma ácida y básica. Se empl...

  1. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  2. Influencia del tratamiento enzimático en la calidad de aceites vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sineiro, J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of the enzymatic treatment on the quality and composition of vegetable edible oils are revised. Stability and refinability related aspects of oils from seeds, olive and other fruits are presented, so as an organoleptic valoration of the olive oil. Oils from enzyme aided processes show composition and characteristics similar to the ones from oils obtained from raw materials.

    En este estudio se revisan los efectos del tratamiento enzimático, aplicado con el fin de mejorar la extractabilidad del aceite, sobre la calidad y pureza de aceites comestibles extraídos de vegetales. Se presentan aspectos relativos a la estabilidad y refinabilidad de aceites de semillas y de aceite de oliva y otros frutos, así como la valoración organoléptica de este último. Los aceites obtenidos por aplicación de tecnología enzimática muestran composición y características similares a los obtenidos de materiales sin tratar.

  3. PENGGUNAAN ENZIM CAIRAN RUMEN SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF UNTUK MENDUKUNG PEMANFAATAN BAHAN BAKU PAKAN IKAN LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan bahan baku pakan alternatif telah banyak dilakukan yaitu dengan menggunakan bahan baku pakan lokal yang mudah didapat dan biasanya berupa limbah yang belum termanfaatkan secara optimal. Namun, upaya pemanfaatan bahan baku pakan lokal tersebut masih mengalami kendala salah satunya adalah tingginya kandungan serat kasar yaitu lebih dari 7%. Kandungan serat kasar yang tinggi menyebabkan bahan baku lokal tersebut perlu diolah lagi agar dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan. Salah satu alternatif teknologi yang dapat digunakan adalah pemanfaatan cairan rumen untuk menurunkan kandungan serat kasar bahan pakan. Cairan rumen merupakan salah satu sumber bahan alternatif yang murah dan dapat dimanfaatkan dengan mudah sebagai sumber enzim hidrolase. Pengolahan bahan baku pakan lokal hasil limbah agro industri dan limbah peternakan menggunakan enzim cairan rumen akan dapat memberikan dampak peningkatan nilai nutrisi bahan pakan lokal sehingga dapat digunakan menjadi sumber pakan alternatif yang berkualitas.

  4. Atividade enzimática pancreática de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo enzima ou probiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima ACF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de enzima e/ou probiótico, bem como do estresse calórico sobre a atividade de enzimas digestivas de frangos de corte aos 7, 14, 28 e 42 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com 6 tratamentos primários, constituindo um esquema fatorial 6x2 (rações x temperatura e 4 tratamentos secundários (idades de amostragem, com 2 repetições. Não foi verificado efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a atividade específica das enzimas, exceto para as atividades de amilase aos 14 dias e tripsina aos 28 dias de idade, nas quais a adição de enzima proporcionou maiores atividades. Já a idade de criação afetou significativamente todas as enzimas quantificadas, sendo que a atividade específica de lipase diminuiu e as atividades específicas de amilase, tripsina e quimotripsina aumentaram com a idade das aves. A temperatura ambiente (calor também afetou a produção enzimática de acordo com a idade dos frangos de corte, com um aumento na atividade de lipase e redução na tripsina e amilase.

  5. Actividad antioxidante y enzimática de albahaca “Nufar” (Ocimum basilicum L. almacenada en refrigeración.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo López-Blancas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del almacenamiento en refrigeración sobre la actividad antioxidante y actividad enzimática en albahaca ‘Nufar’. En la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (Texcoco, México, durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2012, albahaca previamente empacada en película plástica, se almacenó en cámaras frigoríficas a 5 y 10 °C, y a temperatura ambiente (20 °C - testigo, por dieciocho días. Cada 48 horas, se evaluó el contenido de fenoles totales, capacidad antioxidante y la actividad de las enzimas catalasa, superóxido dismutasa, peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa. En relación con el tiempo en refrigeración a 5 °C a los dos y cuatro días se presentó la mayor actividad de catalasa (14,3 U/mg/pro y superóxido dismutasa (2,9 U/mg/pro, y a los diez y dieciocho días hubo aumento de la actividad de peroxidasa (57,6 y 74,9 U/mg/pro. A 10 °C y diez días se incrementó el contenido de fenoles totales de 3,7 a 4,2 mg/kg/PFr; así como la capacidad antioxidante de 47,5 a 79,1 mg VCEAC/g/PFr a ocho días; también aumentó la actividad de la polifenol oxidasa de 11,7 a 31,8 U/mg/pro a diez días. El almacenamiento a 5 °C afectó el contenido de fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, así como la actividad enzimática de peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa, e incrementó la actividad de catalasa y superóxido dismutasa, por lo cual, se sugiere el almacenamiento de albahaca “nufar” a 10 °C para disminuir la actividad de las enzimas oxidativas.

  6. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  7. Neuronal pH regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular pH in the brain was studied in six healthy volunteers before and immediately after the administration of 2 g of acetazolamide. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy by a 1.5 tesla whole-body scanner was used. The chemical shift between the inorganic phosphate...... and the phosphocreatine resonance frequencies was used for indirect assessment of the intracellular pH. The mean baseline intracellular pH was 7.05 +/- 0.04 (SD). The mean pH changes obtained at 15-min intervals within the first hour of acetazolamide administration were -0.03 +/- 0.04 (SD), -0.02 +/- 0.03 (SD), and 0.......00 +/- 0.04 (SD), i.e., no statistically significant pH decrease was observed during the period where extracellular pH is known to drop markedly. Although several factors contribute to the lack of change of the intraneuronal pH, we will discuss that this observation in addition might suggest a direct...

  8. CO{sub 2} injection as pH regulator in refrigeration circuits; Inyeccion de CO{sub 2} como regulador de pH en circuitos de refrigeracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J.

    2009-07-01

    Water from rivers is not usually suitable for use in cooling circuits of industrial installations, normally because of its high fouling ability. this requires a treatment before use based on the use of fouling inhibitors, biocides and pH regulators. The most commonly used pH regulator is sulfuric acid, a very hazardous chemical product that also generates secondary saline contamination due to the sulfates. Since 2008, Iberdrola Generation, in collaboration with Air Liquid, has been carrying out a pilot project in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant focusing on the use of CO{sub 2} as an acidifier of the main condenser cooling system. (Author)

  9. Modelado de la extracción con hexano de molido de soja pretratado enzimáticamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaritzky, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the variables which can affect oil extraction from soybean enzymatically pretreated grit using hexane, were studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculating the extraction yield was proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model showed that the yield does not depend on the enzymatic incubation pH but on the temperature and time of enzymatic treatment and on the interaction between time and temperature. The proposed model fit the experimental data well.En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de las variables de proceso que pueden tener efecto sobre el rendimiento de la extracción con hexano a partir de soja molida pretratada enzimáticamente.Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo demostraron que el rendimiento en aceite no depende del pH de la incubación enzimática mientras que si depende tanto de la temperatura como del tiempo de ataque enzimático sobre el molido de soja. El modelo ajustó satisfactoriamente los datos experimentales.

  10. Polimorfismo enzimático nos tecidos de pereira Isoenzymatic variability in pear tissues for fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CARLOS FACHINELLO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o polimorfismo enzimático em diferentes tecidos de oito cultivares de pereira Pyrus communis L. Os genótipos utilizados fazem parte da coleção de plantas disponíveis na Universidade de Estudos de Bolonha. Para as análises isoenzimáticas foram utilizadas gemas floríferas dormentes no inverno, casca de ramos de um ano obtida de plantas em pleno desenvolvimento, folhas obtidas no início da primavera e folhas de plantas mantidas in vitro. A corrida eletroforética foi realizada em gel de poliacrilamida a gradiente com (5% a 12,5%. Os resultados obtidos com os genótipos utilizados indicaram que o sistema enzimático beta-glucosidase (E.C.3.2.1.21 apresentou atividade apenas nas folhas das plantas in vitro, com uma banda na mesma posição para todas as cultivares, ao passo que os sistemas para as enzimas esterase (E.C.3.1.1.2 e peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7 apresentaram elevado polimorfismo. Nas gemas dormentes analisadas, o sistema peroxidase permitiu diferenciar todos os genótipos. As formas isoenzimáticas da esterase permitiram separar todos os genótipos independentemente dos tecidos utilizados.Eight self-rooted genotype of pear (Pyrus communis L. were assessed to assert the patterns of the isoenzymatic systems beta-glucosidase (E.C.3.2.1.21, esterase (E.C.3.1.1.2 and peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7. Tissues samples of buds, leaves, shoot bark and in vitro leaves were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (5% to 12.5%. High variability of esterase isoenzyme was detected among the tissues of each cultivar. The beta-glucosidase activity was detected only in in vitro leaves, otherwise polymorphism was not found. High variability of peroxidase in all pear genotypes was found with isoenzyme extract from buds. The other tissues showed enough variability, although less variability was detected for differentiation of all assayed cultivars. Esterase proved to be most reliable enzyme for

  11. Modificación enzimática de la fibra dietaria del pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paulina Torres Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se buscó modificar el balance Fibra Dietaria Insoluble/Fibra Dietaria Soluble (32,7:1 del pergamino de café mediante tratamiento enzimático. Se trabajó con tres enzimas: Cellulase, Hemicellulase y complejo enzimático Viscozyme® L con volúmenes: 200, 400, 600, 800 y 1000 µL. El protocolo analítico para el tratamiento enzimático, fue una modificación de la metodología empleada por Mälkki y Myllymäki (1998. En las muestras tratadas enzimáticamente se determinó el contenido de fibra dietaria soluble e insoluble según el método enzimático–gravimétrico basado en la normativa AOAC 991,43 y AACC 32-07. Mediante el análisis estadístico se estableció el tratamiento óptimo en 800 µL del complejo de enzimas Viscozyme® L con un costo de ensayo de 1,59 US$/g de fibra y 94,40 % de rendimiento, obteniéndose un balance Fibra Dietaria Insoluble/Fibra Dietaria Soluble de 2,39:1.

  12. Psicologia do Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Dalila; Bernardo, Fátima; Palma-Oliveira, José-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Na aplicação da Psicologia à área do AMBIENTE importa em primeiro lugar definir o que se entende, neste contexto, por ambiente. O conceito é entendido como toda a envolvente que rodeia o ser humano. Referimo-nos pois ao espaço físico e aos estímulos que nele existem (som, ar, paisagem…), dirigindo-se a Psicologia do Ambiente ao estudo e intervenção sobre a forma como o ambiente influencia o indivíduo ou grupos, e sobre o modo como o comportamento dos indivíduos e grupos influenciam o ambiente...

  13. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  14. Određivanje alergena grinja u kućnoj prašini enzim-imunokemijskom metodom

    OpenAIRE

    Prester, Ljerka; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Macan, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Cilj ovoga rada bio je odrediti razine alergena grinja Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) i Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) u 30 uzoraka kućne prašine uzorkovane u gradskim stanovima u Zagrebu enzim-imunokemijskom metodom (ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies Ltd, Carfiff, UK). Metoda se koristi tehnikom dvaju monoklonskih protutijela, a primjenjuje se kao standardna metoda za određivanje alergena grinja u prašini. Uzorci prašine skupljeni su usisavanjem prašine s tepiha u celulozne filtre....

  15. PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK ENZIM KASAR DARI CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA PADA TEPUNG BUNGKIL KEDELAI LOKAL DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN IKAN NILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Kurniasih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kendala utama yang dihadapi dalam upaya pencarian bahan baku lokal sumber protein alternatif untuk mendapatkan pakan yang ekonomis dan efisien antara lain kualitas bahannya yang tidak sebaik tepung ikan dan tepung bungkil kedelai impor. Enzim protease, amylase, dan selulase bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan kecernaan bahan baku yang mengandung protein kompleks, karbohidrat, dan serat yang tinggi. Cairan rumen ternak domba telah dideteksi banyak mengandung enzim yang dapat membantu meningkatkan kecernaan bahan baku nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan sumber enzim alamiah yang murah dan tersedia cukup banyak di Indonesia, yaitu cairan rumen domba, untuk menghidrolisis bahan baku tepung bungkil kedelai lokal (TBKL. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap yaitu in vitro dan in vivo. Penelitian in vitro bertujuan mengevaluasi kadar produk hidrolisis yang dihasilkan setelah TBKL diinkubasi dengan ekstrak enzim kasar dari cairan rumen domba (EEK CRD dengan dosis 0, 200, 400, 600, dan 800 mL/kg TBKL, dan hasilnya adalah bahwa kadar total gula dan protein terlarut pada TBKL terhidrolisis meningkat apabila konsentrasi EEK CRD bertambah. Penelitian in vivo bertujuan menguji pemakaian TBKL yang telah dihidrolisis dengan dosis yang terpilih (dosis 800 mL EEK CRD/kg TBKL dalam formulasi pakan ikan nila dengan 5 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Ikan uji adalah nila berukuran rata-rata 2,48 ± 0,0183 g per ekor, dan dipelihara di 15 akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 60 cm x 50 cm yang diisi masing-masing 10 ekor selama 40 hari percobaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan TBKL terhidrolisis dalam formulasi pakan menghasilkan peningkatan signifikan (P0,05 untuk parameter laju pertumbuhan, konsumsi pakan, retensi protein, dan retensi lemak. Tidak ada perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 untuk tingkat sintasan di antara kelima perlakuan. EEK CRD dapat meningkatkan efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan melalui predigestion terhadap nutrien

  16. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L.) obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L.) obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    OpenAIRE

    DA SILVA,Antônio de Pádua Valença; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Gerardo Sérgio Francelino de OLIVEIRA; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    1997-01-01

    Cajás (Spondias lutea L.), oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil), em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C). A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) por 30 min, à tempe...

  17. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regularoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argent...

  18. Radiactividad y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, José Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    En los medios de comunicación frecuentemente aparecen noticias que hacen referencia a la radiactividad y al medio ambiente y, sin embargo, lo que es la radiactividad y como influye ésta sobre el medio ambiente suele ser poco conocido, incluso por personas de formación científica.

  19. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  20. Estudis estructurals i enzimàtics de la Uroporfirinogen III Sintasa humana. Bases moleculars de la Porfíria Eritropoiètica Congènita.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El grup prostètic hemo és un component essencial de moltes proteïnes, com l'hemoglobina, la mioglobina i els citocroms. Existeixen quatre reaccions concatenades en la síntesi del grup hemo que són comunes en els diferents regnes animal, vegetal, i bacterià. Dues d'aquestes reaccions estan catalitzades per l'enzim Porfobilinogen Desaminasa (PBGD) i l'enzim Uroporfirinogen III Sintasa (U3S). Alteracions en l'activitat enzimàtica de la U3S donen lloc a una malaltia, la Porfíria Eritropoiètica Co...

  1. Síntese de biodiesel a partir do farelo de arroz via catálise enzimática

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Avanços tecnológicos que possibilitem reduzir os custos do processo de produção de biodiesel praticados hoje em dia são necessários, para torná-lo mais competitivo frente aos combustíveis fósseis. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho estudou a síntese de biodiesel via catálise enzimática utilizando o farelo de arroz e o óleo bruto extraído deste através da biotransformação do óleo no farelo de arroz e utilizando a lipase presente nesta matéria-prima como biocatalisador. Ao se usar as razões mo...

  2. Caracterização de hidrolisados enzimáticos de pescado Characterization of enzymatic fish hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.M. Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidrolisados enzimáticos são utilizados no tratamento clínico de pacientes com dificuldade em digerir e absorver proteínas, sendo preferidos em relação às misturas de aminoácidos livres. Neste trabalho foram caracterizados quimicamente seis hidrolisados de minced de pescado, obtidos pelo emprego de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos, quanto à extensão da hidrólise, distribuição de peso molecular dos peptídios, composição química e perfil de aminoácidos. A hidrólise resultou na solubilização de 63,4 a 94,2% das proteínas, sendo esta diretamente proporcional ao grau de hidrólise e dependente do sistema enzimático e das variáveis do processo (relação enzima/substrato e atividade enzimática. A composição dos hidrolisados atendeu à recomendação de ingestão dietética para aminoácidos essenciais, tanto para crianças como para adultos. A relação entre a concentração de aminoácidos ramificados e aromáticos (Relação de Fischer resultou em valores superiores a 3,5 indicando que os hidrolisados obtidos podem ser úteis para a manutenção dietética de pacientes com doenças hepáticas crônicas. Os hidrolisados forneceram peptídios com pesos moleculares bem definidos, destacando-se o obtido com pepsina e protease de Streptomyces griseus, que apresentou 57% de peptídios menores do que 3 kDa, adequado para o uso em formulações hipoalergênicas.Enzymatic hydrolysates have been used in the clinical treatment of patients with protein digestion and absorption impairment and have been preferred to mixtures of free amino acids. In this present work, six protein hydrolysates of minced fish, obtained by distinct enzymatic systems were characterized regarding the extent of hydrolysis, distribution of molecular size of peptides, chemical composition and amino acids profiles. The hydrolysis resulted in solubilization of 63,4% to 94,2% of proteins according to the enzymes used and process variables (enzyme substrate ratio

  3. Influencia del uso de complejos enzimáticos en la segunda centrifugación de pastas de aceitunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackisch, Björn Oliver

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a natural fruit juice that conserves the flavor, aroma, vitamins and all the properties of the fruit from which it comes, being, in addition, the only vegetal oil that can be consumed as “virgin” or completely unrefined. The extraction of the juice from the olive is carried out exclusively by mechanical means in the first centrifugation step, in order to obtain directly consumable virgin olive oil. The use of enzymatic complexes in the process of a second centrifugation step has been contemplated in order to obtain a greater yield of refinable virgin oil.With this work, we attempt to demonstrate an increase in the yield of oil extraction with the use of an enzymatic complex in the second centrifugation and to confirm that its use does not affect the quality of the oils obtainedEl aceite de Oliva Virgen es un zumo de fruta natural que conserva el paladar, perfume, vitaminas y todas las propiedades del fruto del que procede, siendo, además, el único aceite vegetal que puede consumirse directamente virgen y crudo. Se defiende la elaboración del zumo de aceituna por medios exclusivamente mecánicos en la primera centrifugación, para obtener aceites de oliva vírgenes directamente consumibles, pero se contempla el uso de complejos enzimáticos en los procesos de segunda centrifugación, para incrementar los rendimientos en la obtención de aceites vírgenes refinables.Pretendemos demostrar con este trabajo que el uso de un complejo enzimático en la segunda centrifugación aumenta el rendimiento del aceite y, al mismo tiempo, confirmar que su uso no tiene efecto en los parámetros de calidad de los aceites obtenidos

  4. Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Hu, Marian Y; Koschnick, Nils; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Dupont, Sam; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Marine teleost fish sustain compensation of extracellular pH after exposure to hypercapnia by means of efficient ion and acid-base regulation. Elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under hypercapnia may be stimulated further by elevated temperature. Here, we characterized the regulation of transepithelial ion transporters (NKCC1, NBC1, SLC26A6, NHE1 and 2) and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase) in gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550 μatm, 1200 μatm, 2200 μatm) at optimum (10 °C) and summer maximum temperature (18 °C), respectively. Gene expression of most branchial ion transporters revealed temperature- and dose-dependent responses to elevated PCO2. Transcriptional regulation resulted in stable protein expression at 10 °C, whereas expression of most transport proteins increased at medium PCO2 and 18 °C. mRNA and protein expression of distinct ion transport proteins were closely co-regulated, substantiating cellular functional relationships. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were PCO2 independent, but increased with acclimation temperature, whereas H(+) ATPase capacities were thermally compensated but decreased at medium PCO2 and 10 °C. When functional capacities of branchial ATPases were compared with mitochondrial F1Fo ATP-synthase strong correlations of F1Fo ATP-synthase and ATPase capacities generally indicate close coordination of branchial aerobic ATP demand and supply. Our data indicate physiological plasticity in the gills of cod to adjust to a warming, acidifying ocean within limits. In light of the interacting and non-linear, dose-dependent effects of both climate factors the role of these mechanisms in shaping resilience under climate change remains to be explored.

  5. 两种碱性pH调节剂对1,3-丙二醇发酵过程的影响%Effects of two alkaline pH regulators on the fermentation of 1,3-propanediol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霖; 樊亚超; 李晓姝; 廖莎; 王鹏翔; 乔凯

    2016-01-01

    氢氧化钠、氢氧化钙作为碱性pH调节剂,被广泛应用于发酵行业。两种pH调节剂在发酵过程中形成的有机酸盐,其溶解性存在显著差异,从而间接影响发酵过程。本文重点考察了两种碱性pH调节剂对1,3-丙二醇发酵过程的影响,通过发酵液渗透压、尾气组成、发酵周期、生产强度等过程参数的试验考察,分析了可溶性强碱作为pH调节剂不利于1,3-丙二醇发酵的原因,并且在以氢氧化钠作为pH调节剂的发酵体系中,考察了区间厌氧发酵方案的可行性。从氢氧化钠pH调控下的发酵周期来看,约21h后转入发酵末期,发酵活跃期相对较短,因此缩短发酵周期,有利于提高平均生产强度。另外,通过区间厌氧通气方案,能够进一步减少氮气使用量,提高该工艺的经济性。%As alkaline pH regulators,sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide are widely applied in fermentation industry. In the fermentation process,these two pH regulators produce organic acid salts with significantly different solubility,which can indirectly affect the fermentation process. This study focused on investigating the effects of two alkaline pH regulators on the 1,3-propanediol fermentation process. Through laboratory investigations on the process parameters(including osmotic pressure of the fermentation liquor,composition of tail gas,fermentation period and production intensity),the negative effect of using soluble strong alkali as pH regulator in 1,3-propanediol fermentation has been analyzed. The feasibility of interval anaerobic fermentation has also been examined using sodium hydroxide as pH regulator,and the fermentation grows into its end stage after about 21 hours within one period. So,the active stage of fermentation is relatively short,and shortening the fermentation period should be helpful to raise the production intensity. In addition,by ventilation during the interval anaerobic fermentation,the use of nitrogen can be further reduced to improve the economical efficiency of this process.

  6. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  7. Architectural models of ambient-PRISMA in channel ambient calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nour; Tuosto, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ambient-PRISMA is an architectural approach for specifying aspect-oriented software architecture and generating code of distributed and mobile systems. Ambient-PRISMA lacks a precise semantics due to the fact that it is based only on a metamodel. In this paper, Ambient-PRISMA is mapped into a formal language called Channel Ambient Calculus, a process algebra for specifying mobile applications that provides channels and ambients as first-class citizens. We...

  8. Enzimas de função hepática na aflatoxicose aguda experimental em frangos de corte Hepatic enzimes function in experimental acute enzimes aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borsa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a função hepática de aves experimentalmente intoxicadas por aflatoxina, com e sem uso de bentonita sódica, foram utilizados 40 (quarenta frangos de corte, machos, linhagem Ross, divididos em 4 (quatro grupos de 10 (dez. animais, sendo que cada grupo foi submetido a um tratamento: T1 - controle (ração sem aflatoxina ou bentonita, T2 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxina, T3 - ração com 5ppm de aflatoxina e 0,5% de bentonita sódica e T4 - ração com 0,5% de bentonita sódica. Todos estes tratamentos foram aplicados do 1° ao 42 ° dia de vida das aves. Aos 21, 35 e 42 dias de idade, foram analisados os níveis séricos das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama glutamiltransferase (GGT, A análise da variância mostrou que houve interação entre os tratamentos e datas de colheita de material, para as seguintes variáveis: AST, LDH e GGT. Para estas, foi aplicado o teste de Tukey, comparando-se as médias de cada tratamento em cada data. Observou-se que as enzimas AST, ALT e GGT não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, porém, nos tratamentos l e 2, a AST apresentou um aumento linear (pThe aim ofthis study is to evaluate ïhe hepatic function of experimentally intoxicated broilers by aflatoxin with and without sodium bentonite. Forty Ross mole broilers, were used divided into 4 groups of 10 birds, and such groups have been submitted to the following treatments: T1- control (feed without aflatoxin or sodium bentonite, T2- feed containing 5ppm of aflatoxin, T3- feed containing 5ppm of aflatoxin and 0.5% of sodium bentonite and T4- feed containing 0.5% of sodium bentonite. Ali these treatments have been appiied from the l st to the 42nd day of lif e. On the days 21, 35 and 42, the serum leveis of the enzimes aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanino aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT

  9. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  10. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifie...

  11. Níveis decrescentes de proteína em dietas suplementadas com complexo enzimático para coelhos em crescimento. 1. Desempenho produtivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias J.C.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da redução do nível protéico da dieta, com e sem suplementação enzimática, sobre o desempenho produtivo de coelhos em crescimento. Em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, utilizaram-se 54 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, de ambos os sexos, desmamados aos 35 dias de idade e divididos em cinco grupos (tratamentos, quatro de 11 e um de 10 coelhos. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de dietas calculadas como isoenergéticas e isoaminoacídicas com 17, 16, 15 e 14% de proteína bruta (PB, suplementadas com 0,05% de um complexo enzimático comercial (VegproÒ , com atividade de protease e de celulase, e uma dieta controle com 17% de PB sem adição de complexo enzimático. Os animais submetidos aos tratamentos com 14 e 15% PB apresentaram melhores resultados no ensaio de crescimento, observando-se influência significativa (P<0,05 do teor de PB sobre o peso vivo final, peso vivo final metabólico, ganho de peso diário, consumo diário de dieta, consumo diário de proteína bruta e conversão alimentar. A redução do nível de proteína bruta da dieta para 14% com suplementação enzimática e corrigida quanto aos aminoácidos mais limitantes para os teores recomendados pela literatura não influenciou negativamente as características estudadas.

  12. Procesado acuoso de soja con tecnología enzimática: extracción de aceite y producción de aislados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, H.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available An enzymatic treatment was incorporated before the alkaline extraction during the aqueous processing of soya beans for oil and protein. The degradation on the plant cell wall structure by the enzymatic action, enhances the oil extractability by 10% of the potential extractable oil. No significant effect on the protein extractability was detected, although this effect was probably masked by the alkaline extraction. After the aqueous extraction, 30% of active enzyme was eliminated in the whey. This can be recovered and reutilized in the next stage.

    Se ha incorporado una etapa de tratamiento enzimático previa a la extracción acuosa en condiciones alcalinas durante el procesado para obtención de aceite y proteína de soja. La degradación de la estructura de la pared vegetal, causada por el ataque enzimático, aumenta la extractabilidad del aceite en un 10% respecto al aceite total extraíble. No se apreció efecto sobre el rendimiento de proteína debido posiblemente a que la posterior extracción a pH 9 inhibe los efectos de la acción enzimática. Tras la realización del proceso de extracción acuoso, se elimina en el suero un 30% de enzima activa, que puede ser reutilizada en el proceso.

  13. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  14. La radioactividad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  15. La radioactividad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  16. Hidrólise enzimática do óleo de pescado Enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Elisa da Silva Padilha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de pescado tem sido alvo de várias pesquisas em função dos benefícios nutricionais dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados. Esse fato pode ser comprovado pelos estudos epidemiológicos que relacionam a baixa incidência de doenças cardiovasculares com o consumo de ácidos graxos n-3 (EPA-eicosapentaenóico e DHA-docosahexaenóico provenientes de peixes marinhos. A obtenção de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados n-3 pode ser realizada por hidrólise enzimática. A hidrólise enzimática de óleos e gorduras, ou lipólise, é bem conhecida e vem sendo estudada para produzir ácidos graxos e modificar as gorduras por esterificação, transesterificação e interesterificação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a obtenção de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados por hidrólise enzimática do óleo de pescado industrial. A hidrólise de 1262,81 µmoles de óleo de pescado com lipase pancreática porcina (concentração de extrato enzimático de 7,647 mg.mL-1, 60 minutos, 38 °C, pH 8, tampão NH4Cl-NH4OH. Os produtos da hidrólise foram separados por cromatografia em coluna e caracterizados por cromatografia em camada delgada (TLC e gasosa (GLC. A enzima apresentou uma atividade específica de 10,14 ± 0,15 UE.mg de proteínas-1 e com 60 minutos de reação se obteve 44,45% de hidrólise com 1865,76 ± 41,15 µmols de ácidos graxos. Foram identificados ácidos graxos livres, mono-acilgliceróis, di-acilgliceróis e tri-acilgliceróis. Na fração dos tri-acilgliceróis verificou-se um aumento de 46,14% e 40,23% de ácido araquidônico e eicosapentaenóico (EPA respectivamente, enquanto que na fração monoacilglicerol um acréscimo de 96,96% e 52,55% de DPA e DHA.The fish oil has been the purpose of many researches due to the nutritional benefits of its polyunsatured fatty acids and it is confirmed by epidemic studies that relate the low incidence of cardiovascular diseases to the consumption of n-3 fatty acids (EPA - eicosapentaenóico, DHA

  17. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  18. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  19. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  20. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  1. Ambient temperature recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  2. Instrumento para avaliação de detergentes enzimáticos Instrumento para evaluación de detergentes enzimáticos An instrument for evaluating enzymatics detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rodrigues Costa Schmidt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de desenvolvimento metodológico que teve por objetivo construir um instrumento de avaliação de detergentes enzimáticos e analisar a ação dos produtos sobre os instrumentais. O instrumento foi submetido à análise de três juízes. O pré-teste foi realizado com 25 instrumentos. A amostra para a análise de campo foi constituída por mais 25 instrumentais cirúrgicos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram a construção de um instrumento com 19 itens e a análise de campo constatou que houve diferenças nos escores das soluções avaliadas. O produto P5 obteve a melhor média 78,7 (DP 6,68 e mediana 80,2 e o produto P4 obteve o pior desempenho, média 56,2 (DP 7,09 e mediana 56,7, em um intervalo possível de 19 a 95. O instrumento de medida mostrou-se confiável ao estudo, apresentando valor do Alpha de Cronbach de 0,83.Se trata de un estudio de desarrollo metodológico que tuvo como objetivo construir un instrumento de evaluación de detergentes enzimáticos y analizar la acción de los productos sobre los instrumentales. El instrumento fue sometido al análisis de tres jueces. El pre test fue realizado con 25 instrumentos. La muestra para el análisis de campo estuvo constituida por más de 25 instrumentales quirúrgicos. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron la construcción de un instrumento con 19 items y por el análisis de campo se constató que hubo diferencias en los escores de las soluciones evaluadas. El producto P5 obtuvo el mejor pro-medio de 78,7 (DP 6,68 y mediana de 80,2 y el producto P4 obtuvo el peor desempeño, promedio de 56,2 (DP 7,09 y mediana de 56,7, en un intervalo posible de 19 a 95. El instrumento de medida se mostró confiable para el estudio, presentando valor del Alpha de Cronbach de 0,83.The objective of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring the quality of enzymatic detergents and analyze their cleaning action on surgical instruments. The instrument was submitted to a panel of three judges

  3. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  4. AOX y medio ambiente.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Los productos organohalogenados son muy utilizados por la industria y su presencia en el medio ambiente está siendo controlada. En los últimos años se han desarrollado varias técnicas de detección, siendo desde finales de los 80 los AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) uno de los parámetros sobre los que se han realizado más estudios. En muchos paises de la Unión Europea y en E.E.U.U. de América, la presencia de compuestos organohalogenados en aguas continentales y suelos está legislada indicand...

  5. Optimización de la producción de un extracto enzimático keratinásico a ser utilizado en la industria textil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pippolo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Sector Textil Uruguayo tiene dificultades para alcanzar los mejores estándares de calidad requeridos por los mercados internacionales que le permitan competir con mayores posibilidades. Para esto, un procedimiento promisorio, y amigable con el medioambiente, es el tratamiento enzimático de la lana con el que se obtienen resultados de similares características al de los sistemas de oxidación, mayores rendimientos tintóreos  con un menor daño de las fibras, además de obtenerse efluentes sensiblemente menos contaminantes.Este trabajo optimizó la producción de enzimas keratinásicas a partir de un Bacillus sp., obtenido de un screening de cepas realizado por el Departamento de Bioingeniería de la Facultad de Ingeniería y estudió el comportamiento tintóreo de tops de lana tratada con los extractos enzimáticos obtenidos, respecto a la lana sin tratar. El estudio se llevó a cabo empleando la Metodología de Superficie de Respuesta. Se determinaron las condiciones de operación óptimas del fermentador de laboratorio de 3L, correspondientes a una agitación de 600 rpm y una aireación de 2,5 L/min, que se correlaciona con un  coeficiente volumétrico de transferencia de oxígeno del sistema de kLa de 140 h-1, que optimizaron la producción de enzimas keratinásicas (773±77 U/mL. Para la medida de la actividad keratinásica se desarrolló una técnica que utiliza keratin-azure como sustrato.El estudio del comportamiento tintóreo de la lana tratada con los extractos enzimáticos keratinásicos, respecto a la lana sin tratar, confirmó que las diferencias de color obtenidas con las lanas tratadas son superiores cuanto mayor es el valor de actividad keratinásica del extracto. Los tops fueron teñidos con el colorante  Rojo LANASOL CE. El valor máximo de la diferencia de color total medida en coordenadas Cielab, fue de 5,88. Se observó, que en todos los casos los colores obtenidos en los tops después de ser tratados enzim

  6. Caracterização da agressividade e atividade enzimática de isolados de Colletotrichum spp. associados à antracnose do abacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Tozze Júnior

    Full Text Available RESUMO A antracnose é a principal doença pós-colheita do abacate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar a agressividade e a atividade enzimática de 30 isolados de Colletotrichum spp. de abacate. Abacates ‘Fuerte’ foram inoculados com disco de BDA contendo estruturas de cada isolado e após sete dias mensuraram-se os diâmetros das lesões. Dois grupos de isolados foram distinguidos quanto à agressividade pelo teste de teste de Scott-Knott (p=0,05, um com lesões entre 34,0 e 38,2 mm e outro com lesões entre 38,7 e 44,0 mm de diâmetro. Para caracterização enzimática, avaliaram-se as áreas dos halos formados em substratos específicos para detecção de amilase, celulase, lacase, lipase, pectato liase e protease e a atividade da enzima catalase. Os isolados não produziram amilase suficiente para formação de halo em meio de cultura. Todos os isolados produziram catalase, pectato liase e protease, enquanto 46% produziram lacase e 97% tiveram as atividades da celulase e lipase detectadas. Distinguiram-se dois grupos de isolados para as enzimas catalase e pectato liase, cinco grupos para a celulase, seis grupos para a lacase e sete grupos para as enzimas lipase e protease, pelo teste de teste de Scott-Knott (p=0,05. Não houve relação entre as atividades enzimáticas e a agressividade dos isolados.

  7. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  8. Estratégias para desenvolvimento de um sistema operacional eficiente para a produção enzimática de monoglicerídeos

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    O presente projeto teve como objetivo selecionar a melhor rota enzimática para produção de monoglicerídeos empregando lipase imobilizada em matriz obtida pela técnica sol-gel, visando total aproveitamento do glicerol gerado como sub-produto na obtenção de biodiesel. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto foram analisadas duas metodologias: (1) esterificação do glicerol com ácidos graxos e (2) glicerólise do óleo de babaçu; testando lipases de diferentes fontes como Candida antarctica B, Thermomyce...

  9. Polimerización enzimática con lacasa : nuevos sistemas adhesivos para fabricación de tableros de madera

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira De Gouveia, Susana Margarida Alves

    2014-01-01

    La península ibérica concentra la mayor producción a nivel mundial de ligninas Kraft de E. globulus, que habitualmente son quemadas para producción de energía, sin considerar otras posibles vías de revalorización de este residuo. En esta Tesis Doctoral se propone caracterizar ligninas Kraft procedentes de E. globulus y determinar los efectos de la modificación enzimática sobre su estructura. Este es el punto de partida para una valorización integral de ligninas de E. globulus mediante tecnolo...

  10. Extractos enzimáticos fibrolíticos de Fomes sp. EUM1 y Cellulomonas flavigena en la alimentación de corderos.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Salado, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Se realizaron tres experimentos para evaluar el efecto de extractos enzimáticos fibrolíticos en el forraje de una dieta integral para corderos. En el primer experimento se evaluaron tres extractos de por su efecto en el crecimiento y la digestibilidad del alimento en corderos, utilizando dietas con 60 % de forraje (30 % rastrojo de maíz y 30 % heno de alfalfa). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, se usaron 20 corderos Pelibuey (peso inicial 26.14 kg) y para los tratamientos se a...

  11. Perfil enzimático de dermatófitos e avaliação da atividade antifúngica de própolis e lectinas

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero

    2008-01-01

    Dermatófitos são fungos filamentosos capazes de infectar pele, pêlos e unhas. São classificados nos gêneros Microsporum, Trichophyton e Epidermophyton. Com o objetivo de analisar o perfil enzimático desses fungos e avaliar atividade antifúngica de própolis brasileiras (verde e vermelha), como também de lectinas de sementes de leguminosas do Brasil (DViol, DRL, ConBr e LSL), foram utilizadas trinta amostras de seis espécies de dermatófitos preservadas na Coleção de Culturas Mico...

  12. Diagnóstico diferencial das distrofias musculares com referência especial às alterações enzimáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heick

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Depois de apresentar os dados clínicos e genéticos relativos a 221 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva (125 casos do tipo Duchenne, 63 do tipo cintura pélvica e 25 do tipo fácio-escápulo-umeral, os autores analisam os resultados das dosagens sôro-enzimáticas que fizeram; em alguns casos foram pesquisas também as atividades de 25 enzimas em homogeneizados de tecido muscular. Os mesmos exames foram feitos em casos de miopatias de outra etiologia e de distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas. Foi verificado que o teor das sôro-enzimas aumenta em todas as formas de distrofia muscular progressiva hereditária. No tipo Duchenne as-atividades enzimáticas são elevadas desde o nascimento das crianças acometidas, precedendo o aparecimento da sintomatologia clínica. Com o progredir da moléstia e com o decorrer dos anos os teores sôro-enzimáticos tendem a diminuir, podendo reduzir-se aos valores normais nas fases finais da moléstia. No tecido muscular não existe diferença significante, no que respeita à composição enzimática, entre os diversos tipos de distrofia muscular progressiva e hereditária. Com exceção de poucas enzimas cuja atividade é maior nos tecidos conjuntivo e adiposo que progressivamente substituem o tecido muscular que entra em atrofia, o teor das mio-enzimas diminui com o progredir da moléstia, como expressão do crescente esgotamento do citoplasma da célula muscular. Nas distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas as alterações são idênticas, embora de menor intensidade. Algumas diferenças quantitativas podem ser explicadas pela idade dos pacientes e pela intensidade do processo. A mesma diferença pode ser demonstrada mediante exames histopatológicos: nas formas que acometem crianças (Werdnig-Hoffmann as fibras musculares ainda não denervadas se apresentam com aspecto normal, ao passo que, nas formas do adulto (Kugelberg-Welander, possivelmente pelo desgaste provocado pelos esfor

  13. Determinación de la estabilidad del coco (Cocos nucifera L.) rallado deshidratado según el pardeamiento no-enzimático

    OpenAIRE

    Kopper Arguedas, Gisela; Love, Mark H.

    1997-01-01

    El cambio de color, además de otras reacciones, limita la vida útil de Coco rallado deshidratado. Se estudió la estabilidad de coco rallado deshidratado mediante la medición del efecto de la temperatura y el contenido de humedad en el pardeamiento no enzimático. Se utilizaron cocos de plantas del Cultivar híbrido MAYPAN en el Estudio de vida útil acelerado en muestras con un aw de 0,3, almacenadas en frascos de vidrio a 30, 40 y 50 °C bajo luz fluorescente de 15W. Se evaluó el cambio de color...

  14. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  15. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  16. Modelamiento de la cinética de reacciones del pardeamiento no enzimático y el comportamiento reológico, en el proceso térmico de jugos y pulpas de fruta

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Manayay; Albert Ibarz

    2010-01-01

    En la manufactura de jugos y pulpas de fruta, tiene singular importancia referirse al pardeamiento no enzimático y al comportamiento reológico. El pardeamiento no enzimático es un fenómeno de oscurecimiento de naturaleza exclusivamente química (Braverman, 1980), se caracteriza por la presencia de polímeros pardos llamadas melanoidinas, generadas por las reacciones de Maillard o condensación de la melanoidina, la caramelización y el deterioro del ácido ascórbico; mientras que el comportamiento...

  17. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  18. CCN activation of ambient and "synthetic ambient" urban aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Bauer, Heidi; Leder, Klaus; Kistler, Magda; Puxbaum, Hans; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activation properties of the urban aerosol in Vienna, Austria, were investigated in a long term (11 month) field study. Filter samples of the aerosol below 100 nm were taken in parallel to these measurements, and later used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosols. Activation parameters of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol were also obtained. Hygroscopicity parameters κ [1] were calculated both for the urban and the "synthetic ambient" aerosol and also from the chemical composition. Average κ for the "synthetic ambient" aerosol ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 with an average value of 0.24, while the κ from the chemical composition of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol was significantly higher (average 0.43). The full results of the study are given elsewhere [2,3].

  19. KOEFISIEN KECERNAAN FRAKSI SERAT BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT YANG DIHIDROLISIS DENGAN ENZIM ASAL CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA SEBAGAI PAKAN BENIH IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai kecernaan fraksi serat bungkil kelapa sawit yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba. Koefisien kecernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan dalam pakan uji. Bahan pakan yang digunakan adalah bungkil kelapa sawit (BKS yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim asal cairan rumen domba dengan volume 100 mL/kg BKS dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam (BKSe dan yang tidak dihidrolisis (BKS. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pakan acuan (pakan komersil, pakan uji A (30% BKSe dan B (30% BKS dengan 3 ulangan. Ikan yang digunakan 10 ekor benih ikan patin siam Pangasius hypophthalmus dengan bobot rata-rata 20 g/ekor yang dipelihara dalam fiber dengan volume air 80 liter. Pemberian pakan secara at satiation dengan frekuensi pemberian 3 kali per hari. Feses dikumpulkan selama 15 hari pemeliharaan untuk dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya. Hasil analisis kecernaan menunjukkan bahwa nilai kecernaan fraksi serat menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan di mana pakan A (30% BKSe mempunyai nilai kecernaan fraksi serat lebih tinggi dibandingkan pakan B (30% BKS.

  20. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  1. Efecto de las variantes genéticas sobre los parámetros enzimáticos de la butirilcolinesterasa humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las enzimas colinesterasas humanas – acetilcolinesterasa (AChE y la butirilcolinesterasa (BChE – se presentan a lo largo de la mayoría de los principales sistemas de órganos en una variedad de seres vivos. La BChE es una alfa glicoproteína que hidroliza ésteres de colina, compuestos alifáticos y algunos fármacos. Esta enzima presenta gran cantidad de variantes genéticas – más de 100 variantes han sido identificadas, entre las más estudiadas se encuentra la variante Kalow (K, la cual es la más frecuentemente encontrada en varias poblaciones humanas. La actividad de la BChE se puede medir por diferentes métodos: colorimétricos, potenciométricos, entre otros. Uno de los  métodos más sencillos y económicos para medir la actividad colinesterasa es el potenciométrico de Michel. Este estudio busca identificar el efecto del polimorfismo rs1803274 (variante-K en los parámetros enzimáticos de la butirilcolinesterasa humana mediante el método potenciométrico de Michel. Objetivo: Determinar si la presencia del polimorfismo genético rs1803274 (BChE modifica los parámetros enzimáticos Vmax y Km de la butirilcolinesterasa humana. Materiales y Métodos: Se utilizaros 9 muestras de sangre de personas portadoras de la variante K (homocigotos y heterocigotos. Las muestras de sangre fueron colectadas en tubos de heparina. Para las determinaciones enzimáticas se empleó el método potenciométrico de Michel y se variaron las condiciones de reacción (pH, temperatura, concentración de sustrato y efecto de un inhibidor. Resultados: Se encontró una actividad enzimática menor cuando la variante-K estaba presente en la BChE en comparación con la enzima no polimórfica. Esta diferencia iba en aumento a medida que se incrementaba la temperatura del medio. Conclusiones: La disminución de la actividad enzimática portadora de la variante-K se correlacionó con los cambios de temperatura. Esto sugiere que la disminución de

  2. Estudo da atividade inibitória enzimática da quercetina sobre a resposta vasodepressora induzida pela bradicinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Pereira Nascimento Häckl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos recentes tem sido sugerido que os flavonóides, compostos de origem vegetal sendo encontrados em vários produtos alimentares, possuem uma ação inibitória de vários sistemas enzimáticos. A inibição da enzima conversora da angiotensina (ECA tem sido utilizada no tratamento da hipertensão. O mecanismo de ação dos inibidores da ECA implica na formação da Angiotensina II e na degradação da bradicinina. O propósito do presente estudo foi de analisar a ação da quercetina na atividade da ECA através da avaliação do efeito da angiotensina I (AI e da bradicinina (BK na pressão arterial de ratos anestesiados. Foram utilizados neste estudo ratos Wistar machos adultos. Estes animais foram anestesiados com uretana e foi introduzida na traquéia uma cânula de polietileno (PE 240 para facilitar a respiração. Também foi isolada e canulada (PE 50 a veia jugular para administração das substâncias em estudo. Para registro da pressão arterial foi introduzida na artéria carótida comum esquerda uma cânula de polietileno (PE 50 acoplada a um transdutor de pressão. A administração de BK (10 nmol/kg, i.v. induziu um efeito hipotensor, enquanto que a administração de AI (0,1 nmol/kg induziu uma resposta hipertensora. Pré-tratamento com captopril v.o. (100 nmol/kg 45 min antes e i.v. (10 nmol/kg 5 min antes aumentou significativamente a resposta à BK; embora captopril reduziu, também significativamente, o efeito da AI. O tratamento com quercetina via oral (30 mg/kg 45 min antes e via intravenosa (5 mg/kg 5 min antes aumentou significativamente o efeito da BK. O efeito da AI foi significativamente reduzido por ambos os tratamentos. Estes resultados sugerem que a quercetina potenciou o efeito hipotensor da bradicinina e reduziu o efeito hipertensor da angiotensina I através de ação inibitória sobre a enzima conversora da angiotensina, portanto apresentando um mecanismo de ação semelhante ao captopril.

  3. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  4. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  5. Ciencia, cultura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Maya, Augusto

    1991-01-01

    La crisis ambiental no es un fenómeno exclusivamente de orden tecnológico. Interroga por igual las organizaciones socio-políticas y los instrumentos científicos para el estudio de la realidad: posiblemente uno de los obstáculos mayores para el encuentro de soluciones adecuadas a la crisis ambiental, radica no en deficiencias de orden técnico, sino en la incapacidad de los instrumentos teóricos para entenderla. La crisis del medio ambiente ha puesto en claro la ambivalencia no sólo de la organ...

  6. La crisis del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Clemencia Camacho Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a...

  7. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite de pipa de uva, Vitis vinifera, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, M. E.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme incorporation is analyzed over the yield of grapeseed oil extraction by cold pressing. By this type of process the objective is to preserve grapeseed active compounds and to diminish the environmental impact in comparison to oil extraction conventional methods which use higher temperatures. The enzymatic hydrolysis takes place with a commercial enzyme previous to pressing stage. Its effectiveness is compared to a control without the biocatalyst. An oil extraction yield of 72 % d.b. is obtained with an enzymatic pre-treatment for 4 hours at 50 ºC, and 60 % of moisture, increasing in 26 % the control result. It is concluded that the incorporation of an enzymatic processing would be a feasible alternative to extract grapeseed oil under softener process conditions improving the yield of extraction in comparison to the same type of methodology without an enzyme.Se analiza el efecto de la incorporación de enzimas sobre el rendimiento de extracción de aceite por prensado en frío. Con el prensado en frío se busca preservar los compuestos activos de la pipa de uva y minimizar el impacto medioambiental en comparación con los métodos convencionales de extracción de aceite que utilizan altas temperaturas. El tratamiento enzimático se efectúa previo al prensado con una enzima comercial y su efectividad se compara con un control sin catalizador. Un rendimiento de extracción de aceite del 72 % b.s. se logra con un pre-tratamiento enzimático durante 4 horas a 50 ºC, y 60 % de humedad, superando en un 26 % al control. Se concluye que la incorporación de un tratamiento enzimático sería una alternativa factible para extraer el aceite de pipa de uva bajo condiciones suaves de proceso mejorando el rendimiento de extracción en comparación con el mismo tipo de proceso sin enzima.

  8. Níveis decrescentes de proteína em dietas suplementadas com complexo enzimático para coelhos em crescimento. 1. Desempenho produtivo

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito da redução do nível protéico da dieta, com e sem suplementação enzimática, sobre o desempenho produtivo de coelhos em crescimento. Em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, utilizaram-se 54 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, de ambos os sexos, desmamados aos 35 dias de idade e divididos em cinco grupos (tratamentos), quatro de 11 e um de 10 coelhos. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de dietas calculadas como isoenergéticas e isoaminoacídicas com 17, 16, 15 e 14% de proteín...

  9. Determinación de Glifosato mediante inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA en el Paisaje Protegido Laguna de Rocha y su entorno, Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el entorno de la Laguna de Rocha se ha visto incrementada la superficie dedicada a las actividades agrícolas con un mayor uso de plaguicidas, entre ellos el herbicida glifosato, usado en cultivos de soja principalmente. Mediante la utilización de técnicas de inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA, se investigó la presencia de glifosato en la Laguna y algunos de sus afluentes en dos momentos específicos de tiempo. Se detectó glifosato en 27 de las 28 muestras estudiadas. Muestras positivas por ELISA fueron confirmadas por cromatografía iónica. El método ELISA demostró ser una herramienta de screening adecuada para determinar la presencia de glifosato en agua.

  10. Hidrólise ácida e enzimática de pectina para crescimento celular de Cupriavidus necator e Pseudomonas putida

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Gabriel Olivo; Dias da Silva, Gabriella; Finkler, Leandro; Lamenha Luna Finkler, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Substâncias pécticas são encontradas em grandes quantidades nos resíduos da industrialização de sucos de frutas. Esses compostos são susceptíveis à hidrólise por métodos ácidos e enzimáticos, podendo ser empregados como substratos de baixo custo em processos de conversão biológica para obtenção de bioprodutos, como os biopolímeros. Cupriavidus necator e Pseudomonas putida são micro-organismos conhecidos por sua capacidade de acumular poli-hidroxialcanoatos (PHAs) como fonte de carbono e energ...

  11. Obtención de Maltodextrinas por vía enzimática a partir del almidón de camote (Ipomoea batatas).

    OpenAIRE

    Medina García, Luis

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación consistió en producir maltodextrinas por vía enzimática a partir del almidón del camote (Ipomoea batatas); materia prima que es ampliamente cultivada en varios estados de la República Mexicana. 5 Inicialmente se realizó el análisis químico proximal de los tubérculos del camote (Ipomoea batatas variedad nylon), después se llevó a cabo la extracción y caracterización del almidón y posteriormente se determinaron las condiciones de hidrólisi...

  12. Reducción del pardeamiento enzimático en hinojos enteros y mínimamente procesados en mitades

    OpenAIRE

    Escalona Contreras, Víctor Hugo; Aguayo Giménez, Encarnación Pilar; Artés Calero, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Con el propósito de frenar el pardeamiento enzimático sobre las superficies de corte de tubos de hinojo enteros y cortados en mitades, se aplicaron diferentes soluciones antipardeantes preparadas a partir de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico y EDTA. Para determinar el pardeamiento se evaluó el color a lo largo de la conservación en aire humidificado a 15ºC durante 8 días para los bulbos enteros y 4 días para las mitades. Periódicamente se determinaron la actividad respiratoria y la emisión de et...

  13. IMPACTO DEL ARSÉNICO EN EL AMBIENTE Y SU TRANSFORMACIÓN POR MICROORGANISMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss Airam Rangel Montoya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico (As es uno de los metaloides más tóxicos presentes en el medio ambiente y la especiación de éste depende de diversos factores químicos, físicos y biológicos. La distribución y contaminación del arsénico se debe a procesos naturales y antropogénicos, y su problemática se debe a su fácil movilización en el ambiente. Las altas concentraciones de arsénico en agua y suelo se han convertido en un problema global, ya que las exposiciones prolongadas a este metaloide pueden causar daños crónicos a la salud. Dicha situación es particularmente importante en la Comarca Lagunera en México. Por lo tanto, se ha vuelto necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias para la remoción de este metaloide, entre las cuales, la biorremediación microbiana ha cobrado importancia como una alternativa amigable con el ambiente en la solución de este problema. Los microorganismos juegan un papel fundamental en la especiación del arsénico, ya que un gran número de estos tiene la capacidad de transformar el arsénico a pesar de su toxicidad puesto que han desarrollado diferentes mecanismos que les permiten utilizar el arsénico en su metabolismo, ya sea en su forma reducida de arsenito, o en su forma oxidada de arseniato mediante reacciones de óxido-reducción transformación enzimática, metilación, quelación, exclusión e inmovilización. Este trabajo, trata sobre el impacto que tiene la especiación de arsénico, especialmente del arsenito (As III, en el medio ambiente, el riesgo que representa la contaminación para la salud, así como los mecanismos bioquímicos microbianos para la oxidación del arsenito, disminuir su toxicidad y el desarrollo de estrategias limpias y amigables con el medio ambiente para la remoción de arsénico de aguas y suelos contaminados.

  14. Atividade microbiana e enzimática em solo após a aplicação de xisto retortado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eliane Doumer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses crescentes de xisto retortado (XR sobre características biológicas indicadoras da qualidade do solo. Foram realizados experimentos, em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, em condições de laboratório e de campo. Em laboratório, os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação ao solo de sete diferentes doses de XR (0, 300, 450, 600, 750, 1.500 e 3.000 kg ha-1. Em campo, os tratamentos foram compostos por quatro diferentes doses de XR (0, 750, 1.500, 3.000 kg ha-1 combinadas à adubação mineral recomendada, avaliados em dois cultivos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no sistema plantio direto. Avaliaram-se: a evolução de CO2, o carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, a atividade enzimática do solo e o teste de ecotoxicidade. A aplicação de doses crescentes de XR melhorou a atividade microbiológica do solo, por reduzir a emissão de CO2 sem causar variação no CBM e sem provocar impactos negativos sobre a atividade enzimática do solo. Os resultados obtidos com as enzimas em condições de campo, após duas aplicações de XR, aliados aos de CBM, do quociente metabólico (qCO2 e do teste ecotoxicológico, em condições de laboratório, indicam que o uso do XR não provoca a degradação biológica do solo.

  15. Volátiles generados por hidrólisis enzimática de glicósidos de hojas de lulo (Solanum quitoense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio R.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La fracción glicosídica de hojas de lulo (Solanum quitoense L. fue obtenida por adsorción sobre Amberlita XAD-2 y posterior elución con metanol. Los glicósidos así extraídos se hidrolizaron enzimáticamente con una glicosidasa no selectiva (Rohapect D5-L y las agliconas (volátiles enlazados glicosídicamente producidas fueron caracterizadas químicamente por CGAR (cromatografía de gases de alta resolución, CGAR-EM (cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a espectrometría de masas y analizadas sensorialmente (nota olfativa por CGAR-O (cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a olfatometría. Se detectaron en total 25 compuestos volátiles y de ellos, se identificaron 21, los cuales representan el 90 % de todas las agliconas generadas. Los volátiles identificados presentaron diversas estructuras químicas que pueden agruparse en Ci3-norisoprenoides (38.1 %, 15 mg/kg hojas, compuestos aromáticos (30.5 %, alcoholes monoterpénicos (12.3 % y compuestos alifáticos Cg (9.3 %. El extracto de volátiles producido por hidrólisis enzimática presentó un olor a verde amaderado agradable, con fuertes notas dulces parecidas a la miel.

  16. Ambiente juvenil: discurso ambiental entre jóvenes universitarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn-Anderson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende hacer una aportación al conocimiento del medio ambiente del occidente de México, específicamente de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, a partir del estudio de la cultura ambiental manifestada en el discurso de los jóvenes universitarios del ITESO. La apuesta es que puede ser provechoso considerar dentro del concepto de “medio ambiente” no solamente componentes bióticos y abióticos, sino también elementos socioculturales como cultura y significado. Es evidente que hay in...

  17. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  18. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...... firewalls that are not guaranteed to be protective. This is based on a control flow analysis for recording what processes may turn up inside what other processes; in particular, we develop a syntax-directed system for specifying the acceptability of an analysis, we prove that all acceptable analyses...

  19. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  20. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  1. Medio ambiente y responsabilidad social

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las organizaciones, dentro de los procesos de responsabilidad social y con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de las comunidades que impactan, han optado por proteger y preservar el medio ambiente de acuerdo a ciertos protocolos y normas internacionales que generan una cultura al respecto. Este cuaderno de investigación aborda la norma ISO 26000, la cual asume el tema de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) en materia de medio ambiente y es una guía para ser implementada en las orga...

  2. Los estudios sobre el ambiente y la ciencia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Nancy Giannuzzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la ciencia ambiental es reconocida en libros, revistas de publicación científica y carreras de grado y posgrado. Sin embargo, se desconoce su existencia en forma literal o indirecta, al no ser considerado su aporte, por ejemplo, en los planteos referidos sobre la ciencia y la tecnología de la sustentabilidad. En este trabajo se presentan estos antecedentes, relacionándolos con el objetivo del mismo, que es el de aportar a la dilucidación de la existencia y conformación de la ciencia ambiental. Para esto, se analiza la relación de las disciplinas con la dimensión compleja del ambiente como objeto de estudio y aspectos metodológicos derivados. A los fines de aportar al esclarecimiento conceptual, se identifican las distintas acepciones de ambiente comúnmente referidas en la bibliografía. Además, se discuten aspectos relacionados de multidisciplinariedad, interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y sobre el status epistémico de la ciencia ambiental. Se concluye que una mayor precisión conceptual embasada en un marco compartido por las disciplinas que estudian el ambiente, incluida la ciencia ambiental, y los distintos actores involucrados en las problemáticas ambientales, favorecerá el refinamiento de las metodologías tendientes a disminuir la fragmentación de las investigaciones concernientes y las aplicaciones para su resolución.The existence of an environmental science is recognized in books, journals of science as well as in undergraduate and graduate studies. Its existence, however, is unknown either literally or indirectly when, for instance, its contribution to topics connected to the science and technology of sustainability is not considered. This background is presented in this paper and connected to its objective, which is to elucidate the existence and structure of the environmental science. To this goal, I analyse the relationship of the disciplines with the complex dimension of the environment

  3. Licuefacción enzimática y caracterización de las propiedades reológicas de pulpa de maracuyá amarillo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano Alva, Isabel; Quispe Condori, Sócrates; Silva Baigorria, Samuel; Crisóstomo Gordillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar el proceso de licuefacción enzimática y caracterizar las propiedades reológicas en pulpa de maracuyá amarillo. Para ello, se obtuvo el mejor tratamiento enzimático a través de un diseño de superficie  de respuesta, analizando la influencia de concentración de la enzima RAPIDASE® TF, temperatura y tiempo de licuefacción sobre el contenido de sólidos solubles y rendimiento. Se estudió el comportamiento reológico de la pulpa antes y luego de la licu...

  4. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  5. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), with strong support for an important role for ultrafine (nano-sized) particles. At present, relatively little human health or epidemiology data exists...

  6. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  7. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  8. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  9. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  10. Aspectos imunológicos do sistema enzimático fenoloxidase de Schistosoma mansoni Immunological aspects of the phenol oxidase enzymatic system of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tadeu Ribeiro-Paes

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available O sistema enzimático fenoloxidase (EC 1.10.3.1, EC 1.10.3.2 está amplamente distribuido entre os seres vivos, tendo sido descrito em diferentes espécies do reino animal e vegetal. Apesar de desempenhar um papel fundamental na formação da cápsula ou parede dos ovos de trematódeos, o sistema enzimático fenoloxidase (PO tem sido pouco estudado nesses organismos. No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados iniciais de imunizações de coelhos contra PO de fêmeas adultas de S. mansoni e tirosinase de cogumelo (Sigma. As análises imunológicas, realizadas através de imunodifusão dupla (teste de Ouchterlony e imunoeletroforese, revelaram identidade imunitária parcial entre a PO de machos e fêmeas. Não se observou reação cruzada entre os antissoros de coelhos imunizados contra PO e aqueles com tirosinase, indicando que, embora os sítios catalíticos de ambas as enzimas devam ser semelhantes, já que atuam sobre os mesmos substratos, os determinantes antigênicos devem ser diferentes. Os resultados descritos no presente trabalho representam um primeiro passo no sentido da purificação das isoenzimas da fenoloxidase e sua posterior utilização ao estudo dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na esclerotização da parede dos ovos de S. mansoni.The phenol oxidase enzymatic system (EC 1.10.3.1, EC 1.10.3.2 is widespread in different species of the animal and vegetal kingdom. Despite its importance in the eggshell formation of the trematodes phenol oxidase (PO has been little studied in these organisms, mainly in S. mansoni. This report presents the initial results concerning the immunization of rabbits with PO of S. mansoni and mushroom tyrosinase. The immunological analysis done by means of double immu-nodifusion (Ouchterlony and immunoelectrophoresis techniques revealed some immunological identity between the PO of males and females. It was not seen cross reaction between the antisera against PO and tyrosinase, what suggests

  11. Experiencia con Nexobrid® para el desbridamiento enzimático de quemaduras faciales seguido de tratamiento conservador con Medihoney®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Sampietro-De-Luis

    Full Text Available Introducción y Objetivos. El desbridamiento enzimático de las quemaduras ha sido objeto de estudio durante décadas; en este terreno, NexoBrid® (MediWound Ltd., Israel se postula como una prometedora alternativa al desbridamiento quirúrgico clásico. Por otra parte, las propiedades antibacterianas y promotoras de la cicatrización de la miel también se han evaluado recientemente con buenos resultados clínicos. Describimos nuestra experiencia preliminar con el empleo de NexoBrid® para el tratamiento de quemaduras faciales, seguido de curas tópicas con Medihoney® Wound Gel (Derma Sciences Ltd., EE.UU.. Material y Método. Incluimos en el estudio todos los pacientes atendidos en nuestra Unidad de Quemados con quemaduras faciales dérmicas o subdérmicas que afectaban a 2 o más subunidades estéticas. Realizamos desbridamiento enzimático con NexoBrid® en las primeras 24 horas. Posteriormente, llevamos a cabo tratamiento conservador con curas tópicas con Medihoney® Wound Gel. Recogimos todos los datos de calidad del desbridamiento, necesidad de desbridamiento quirúrgico, tiempo hasta epitelización completa, presencia de infección y necesidad de cirugía correctora de secuelas. Resultados. Tratamos 10 pacientes con quemaduras faciales de etiología diversa (llama, flash eléctrico, deflagración, escaldadura y química. El desbridamiento inicial fue completo en todos los pacientes. Se alcanzó la epitelización completa en una media de 13.88 días (10-20 días. Ningún paciente presentó infección clínicamente manifiesta ni precisó desbridamiento quirúrgico, cobertura mediante autoinjertos o cirugía de secuelas. Conclusiones. Nuestra experiencia preliminar indica que parece factible la aplicación de NexoBrid® y su combinación con Medihoney® para el tratamiento conservador de las quemaduras faciales.

  12. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  13. Ação de fatores enzimáticos na obtenção de hidrolisados protéicos de farinha de trigo com baixo teor de fenilalanina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Linhares Carreira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando ao preparo de farinha de trigo com baixo teor de fenilalanina (Phe, extraiu-se, enzimaticamente as proteínas, empregando-se uma protease alcalina de Bacillus licheniformis. Em seguida, os extratos protéicos foram hidrolisados pela ação de enzimas comerciais (pancreatina e bromelina e de extratos enzimáticos obtidos da casca de abacaxi (bruto e purificado, avaliando-se alguns parâmetros enzimáticos, tais como tipo de enzima, tipo de ação enzimática, tipo de associação enzimática e ordem de ação enzimática. O carvão ativado (CA foi empregado como meio adsorvente e a eficiência da remoção de Phe foi avaliada por espectrofotometria derivada segunda, determinando-se o teor de Phe na farinha de trigo e em seus hidrolisados, após tratamento com CA. O melhor resultado foi encontrado ao se empregar a associação sucessiva do extrato bruto seguida da pancreatina, tendo atingido 66,28% de remoção e o teor final de Phe de 522,44 mg/100 g de hidrolisado.With the aim of producing wheat flour with low phenylalanine (Phe content to be introduced in phenylketonuric's diet, the proteins were enzymaticaly extracted, using an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis. Then, the protein extracts were hydrolyzed by the action of commercial enzymes (pancreatin and bromelain and of enzymatic extracts obtained from pineapple peel (crude and purified. Some enzymatic parameters were evaluated, such as type of enzyme, type of enzyme action, type of enzymatic association and order of enzyme action. The activated carbon (AC was used as adsorbent and the efficiency of Phe removal was evaluated by second derivative spectrophotometry measuring the Phe content in wheat flour and in their hydrolysates after AC treatment. The best result was found for the successive association of crude extract followed by pancreatin obtaining 66.28% of removal and a final Phe content of 522.44 mg/100 g of hydrolysate.

  14. GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL METROPOLITANA

    OpenAIRE

    Déctor García, Mtro. Romeo; Correctora de estilo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo aborda la gestión ambiental y metropolitana, a partir de los elementos que han expuesto autores como Raúl Brañes, María del Carmen Carmona Lara, o Martha Schteingart y Clara Eugenia Salazar y otros más que abordan el tema urbano. Se profundiza y detalla con base en la legislación de equilibrio ecológico y protección al ambiente, en la legislación sobre biodiversidad mexiquense como en la atinente a la administración pública local o municipal.Puntos de relieve son las menciones de ...

  15. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  16. Ambient Art: Creative Information Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Beale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient art is the aesthetic presentation of information, using artistic techniques to achieve a pleasing image that also contains hidden depths, where exposure to it over time allows a viewer to understand something about the information sources that it represents. This paper reviews the artistic and computational background of ambient systems, and presents two case studies of systems developed by our research team, from their initial design to the experiences of the people encountering them. The first case presents a photo mosaic of images based on the news headlines coupled with a structured picture based on the weather; the second presents stylistic perspectives on activity in a public space. Both are evaluated and demonstrate that different forms of aesthetically pleasing displays can convey information to viewers.

  17. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  18. Fiscalidad ambiental (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Maciá, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tema fiscalidad ambiental. 1. Necesidad económica y jurídica de la protección del medio ambiente. 2. Características, naturaleza y clasificación de los tributos ambientales. 3. Competencias tributarias en el ámbito estatal, autonómico y local. 4. La fiscalidad ambiental en la legislación fiscal española. 5. Perspectivas de futuro en materia de imposición ambiental.

  19. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  20. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  1. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  2. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  3. The causal order on the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the causal structure of the ambient boundary, the conformal infinity of the ambient (Poincar\\'e) metric. Using topological tools we show that the only causal relation compatible with the global topology of the boundary spacetime is the horismos order. This has important consequences for the notion of time in the conformal geometry of the ambient boundary.

  4. Producción de biodiesel a partir de residuos grasos animales por vía enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval, Georgina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal grease wastes were successfully used in the transesterification reaction as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production. Transesterification reactions were performed using an enzymatic catalysis with two commercial lipases N435 and RM IM. N435 was the most efficient in a solvent free system as well as in the system with terbuthanol. In both systems the excess of ethanol turned out to be beneficial for the reaction obtaining conversions of 80% in 48 hours and 65% in 24 hours.Grasas animales extraídas directamente de residuos orgánicos de un matadero municipal fueron empleadas con éxito en la reacción de transesterificación como materia prima alternativa de bajo costo para la producción de biodiesel. Las reacciones de transesterificación se realizaron por vía enzimática con dos lipasas comerciales N435 y RM IM. De las dos enzimas probadas, la enzima N435 fue la más eficiente tanto en el sistema libre de solvente como en el sistema con terbutanol como solvente. En ambos sistemas el exceso de etanol fue la mejor condición para la reacción alcanzando conversiones de 80% en 48 horas en el caso del sistema libre de solvente y 65% en 24 horas en el sistema con terbutanol.

  5. Purificación y determinación de actividad enzimática de la catalasa en Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Marin Arguello

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Ampliamente distribuida en células animales, vegetales y micro- organismos, la catalasa es una enzima crucial para la vida. Su función catalítica es la descomposición del peróxido de hidrógeno (HOY, compuesto altamente tóxico y generado en los procesos metabólicos de la célula. Esta enzima en Staphylococcus aureus es una proteína tetramérica presentando grupos hemos y moléculas de NADPH en su estructura. La determinación espectrofotométrica de los parámetros cinéticos (Km, Vmax. y otros en dependencia del pH y temperatura nos podría permitir regular su actividad enzimática. La enzima manifiesta un Km de 50mM y la presencia de dos aminoácidos (Histidina y Cisteína en el sitio activo aparentemente son fundamentales en el proceso de catálisis.

  6. ¿Todo tiempo pasado fue mejor? Cómo ha incidido la tecnología enzimática en el bienestar de la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Amparo Ospina S.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La biotecnología se define como el empleo de organismos vivos o sus partes en la producción de bienes y servicios, y emplea herramientas que han evolucionado desde las técnicas simples de cultivo de microorganismos hasta las nuevas tecnologías tales como la bioinformática, la genómica, la proteómica y otras ómicas, así como las ingenierías de proteínas y metabólica.Una de las herramientas empleadas por la biotecnología es la tecnología de enzimas, que consiste en el uso de aquellas derivadas de organismos vivos para obtener algún producto o modificar algún proceso.La tecnología enzimática tiene su origen en los comienzos de la humanidad, cuando el hombre elaboraba queso utilizando cuajo (el cual contiene la enzima renina, sin entender qué sucedía en este proceso, pero aprovechando igualmente esta molécula tan interesante, cuya aplicación ha traspasado generaciones, incrementándose sus posibilidades de uso a medida que ha aumentado el conocimiento en las áreas biotecnológicas.

  7. Ambiente Familiar e Desempenho Escolar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O desempenho escolar é um fenómeno multifacetado, que pode ser influenciado por questões individuais, familiares e sociais, fazendo-se necessária a realização de pesquisas que procurem compreender esses aspectos e como eles se inter-relacionam. Nesse sentido, a presente dissertação abordará, especificamente, a relação entre as dimensões do ambiente familiar (coesão familiar, conflito, expressividade, independência, assertividade, interesses culturais/intelectuais e de lazer, religião e nível ...

  8. Estados financieros y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bischhoffshausen W., Werner von

    2001-01-01

    La contabilización de aspectos ambientales adquiere creciente relevancia para las empresas, en la medida que el deterioro ambiental se convierte en un problema social y político a través de todo el mundo. A todo tipo de organizaciones se les requiere entregar información acerca de sus políticas y objetivos ambientales, de los programas y acciones destinados a lograr estos objetivos, de su generación de riesgos e impactos ambientales y de las medidas para reducirlos o mitigarlos. Si bien es ci...

  9. Educaçao ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A idéia desse trabalho surgiu no momento em que me inseri na comunidade de Pontal do Sul, envolvida em distintas atividades educativas com o mesmo público. Uma delas refere-se ao ensino público fundamental e outra à atividades de pesquisa e Educação Ambiental (EA) dentro de um projeto de extensão universitária. A EA vem sendo realizada de forma diversificada, baseada em diferentes concepções, fundamentadas em princípios e diretrizes construídos num momento de difusão da Ecologia e de ...

  10. Feral pigeons in urban environments: dietary flexibility and enzymatic digestion? Palomas domésticas en ambientes urbanos: ¿flexibilidad dietaria y digestión enzimática?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA EUGENIA CIMINARI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Columba livia, original from Europe, is at present widely distributed all over the world. These granivores colonized urban environments where the availability of crops and seeds is not always permanent and, for that are forced to exploit other resources with different composition, e.g. high protein foodstuff. Thus, feral pigeons should have the ability to survive on a diet rich in protein as they do with starchy items by having an adequate digestive biochemical machinery to process it. Phylogenetical and functional hypothesis has been proposed linking dietary flexibility and enzyme lability. All Passeriformes studied to date show the expected positive correlation between aminopeptidase-N and dietary protein but not for intestinal carbohydrases. Conversely, all the non-passerine species modulate intestinal carbohydrases, but not peptidases. Moreover, different scenarios may be posed as the output of a phylogenetical effect, e.g., adding constraints to a lability scheme in certain groups or just determining it (e.g., intestinal disaccharidases modulated in Galloanserae and peptidases modulated in Passeriformes. Consequently, we tested the prediction that feral pigeons adjust digestive enzyme activities according to the level of the respective substrate (e.g., carbohydrates, protein in the diet. Birds were fed for 15 days with two different diets, one with high protein content (low in starch (HP and the other rich in starch and low in proteins (HS. Pigeons fed on the HP were able to survive with no other dietary supplement, as predicted. Pancreatic enzymes did not change between diet treatments. Birds fed on HP exhibited the predicted upward modulation of aminopeptidase-N activity, when compared to birds on HS, while intestinal carbohydrases did not show differences between diets. These results give an apparent support to the functional hypothesis, but are not enough to reject that the observed intestinal protease lability has a phylogenetical component, because feral pigeons are closely related to Passeriformes. Finally, feral pigeons have the ability to take full advantage of the energy content from proteins, having enough pancreatic proteases activity and modulating the intestinal aminopeptidase-N. These abilities may allow them to use effectively the nutrients found in the cities surviving even when grains are not available along the yearLa paloma doméstica, originaria de Europa, está distribuida alrededor del mundo. Estas aves granívoras colonizan zonas urbanas donde granos y semillas no están disponibles todo el año, por lo que deben explotar recursos con una composición química diferente, (e.g., ricos en proteínas. Entonces, estas aves debieran poseer la capacidad de sobrevivir con una dieta proteica, utilizando una maquinaria bioquímica digestiva adecuada. Se han propuesto dos hipótesis, una funcional y otra filogenética, para explicar la flexibilidad dietaria y la labilidad de las enzimas intestinales en aves. Los Paseriformes estudiados al momento muestran una correlación positiva entre N-aminopeptidasa y las proteínas de la dieta, aunque esto no es aparente para las carbohidrasas intestinales. Por el contrario, todas las especies no-paseriformes estudiadas modulan las carbohidrasas intestinales, pero no las peptidasas. A su vez se pueden representar diferentes escenarios como producto de la filogenia, por ejemplo, agregando limitaciones a patrones de labilidad o directamente determinándolos (e.g., la modulación de las disacaridasas en Galloanserae y la modulación de las peptidasas en Paseriformes. Por esto, sometimos a prueba que las palomas ajustan la actividad de las enzimas digestivas de acuerdo al nivel de su respectivo sustrato (carbohidratos o proteínas en la dieta. Dos grupos de palomas fueron alimentadas 15 días con dietas diferentes, una rica en proteínas y pobre en almidón (HP y otra rica en almidón y pobre en proteínas (HS. Las palomas alimentadas con HP sobrevivieron sin suplementos dietarios adicionales. Las enzimas pancreáticas fueron iguales entre tratamientos. Las palomas alimentadas con HP exhibieron una actividad de N-aminopeptidasa mayor que la de HS, mientras que las carbohidrasas fueron iguales entre dietas. Estos resultados dan soporte a la hipótesis funcional, pero también, son insuficientes para rechazar que la labilidad de la proteasa intestinal constituye un efecto filogenético, ya que estas aves constituyen un grupo cercano a los Passeriformes. En síntesis, las palomas poseen la capacidad de utilizar las proteínas debido a que poseen una actividad proteásica pancreática adecuada y modulan la N-aminopeptidasa. Estas características permiten que las palomas domésticas aprovechen efectivamente alimentos que ofrecen las ciudades y sobrevivan aun cuando la disponibilidad de granos sea escasa

  11. Qualidade fisiológica, sanitária e enzimática de sementes de arroz irrigado recobertas com silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Vanussa Madruga de Tunes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com a utilização de silício em sementes de boa qualidade constitui prática para o aumento da produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do recobrimento de sementes de arroz com duas fontes de silício, em seus atributos fisiológicos, enzimáticos e sanitários. Empregaram-se os cultivares de arroz Irga 424 e Puitá Inta CL e de duas fontes de silício: silicato de alumínio e casca de arroz carbonizada moída, consistindo nas doses de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g 100 kg-1 (de cada produto aplicado de sementes mais polímero e água, totalizando um volume de calda de 1 L 100 kg-1 de sementes. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada no (LAS-FAEM\\UFPel pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e raiz, teste de frio e emergência em campo. Para diferenciação isoenzimática, as isoenzimas analisadas foram: esterase, glutamato oxalacetato transaminase e peroxidase, para todos os tratamentos. A avaliação da qualidade sanitária das sementes foi realizada pelo método do papel de filtro ou "Blotter Test". Doses crescentes de casca de arroz carbonizada e de silicato de alumínio, até 120 g 100 kg-1 de sementes, incrementam o vigor de sementes de arroz, avaliados pelo comprimento de raiz e pela emergência a campo. As fontes casca de arroz carbonizada e caulim controlam a incidência de fungos de solo nas sementes de arroz.

  12. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  13. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  14. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  15. Predicateμ-Calculus for Mobile Ambients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min Lin

    2005-01-01

    Ambient logics have been proposed to describe properties for mobile agents which may evolve over time as well as space. This paper takes a predicate-based approach to extending an ambient logic with recursion, yielding a predicate t-calculus in which fixpoint formulas are formed using predicate variables. An algorithm is developed for model checking finite-control mobile ambients against formulas of the logic, providing the first decidability result for model checking a spatial logic with recursion.

  16. Producción de jarabes de fructosa por medio de la hidrólisis enzimática del almidón de yuca de las variedades corpoica m tai-8 y corpoica orense

    OpenAIRE

    SALCEDO M, JAIRO G.; MONTES M, EVERALDO J.; PAJARO S, JOSE L.

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la producción y evaluación del rendimiento de jarabes de fructosa a nivel de laboratorio, a partir de jarabes de glucosa obtenidos por medio de hidrólisis enzimática de almidones extraídos de dos variedades de yuca, C. Orense y C. M Tai-8. Para el desarrollo del trabajo, se implementó un diseño experimental de múltiple factor categórico completamente al azar con dos factores, el factor concentración de sustrato en cinco niveles (10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 % p/v...

  17. Utilización de la biomasa residual del cultivo de la piña (Ananas Comosus) para la desproteinización enzimática de desechos de la actividad camaronera

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para comprobar la capacidad desproteinizante de extractos proteicos obtenidos a partir de desechos de rastrojo de piña a diferentes concentraciones sobre los sub-productos de la actividad camaronera. El extracto proteolítico de los desechos de rastrojo de piña se obtuvo a partir de desechos de tallos utilizando un buffer de acido sulfúrico. Este extracto se caracterizó al determinar el contenido de proteína, de azucares totales y su actividad enzimática, contra un patrón...

  18. Pretratamiento Enzimático de Expandido de Soja para la Extracción de Aceite con Solvente Enzymatic Pretreatment of Soybean Collets for Solvent Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia V Grasso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la utilización de un pretratamiento enzimático sobre expandido de soja para la extracción de aceite con solvente. Se investigaron los efectos de un pretratamiento multi-enzimático sobre el rendimiento de la extracción. Se aplicó la Metodología de Superficies de Respuesta para evaluar el rendimiento en aceite como función del pH, temperatura y tiempo de hidrólisis enzimática empleando técnicas de regresión múltiple. Se probó la adecuación de un modelo de segundo orden y se calculó las condiciones óptimas de hidrólisis enzimática para obtener el máximo rendimiento teórico en aceite. Las condiciones óptimas calculadas fueron: temperatura de 43.5 ºC, pH de 5.4 y tiempo de incubación de 5.8 h. Bajo estas condiciones, el máximo rendimiento en aceite predicho por la función fue de 26.64 % sobre base seca.The objective of this research was to investigate the use of an enzymatic pretreatment of soybean collets for solvent extraction of the oil. The effect of multienzymatic pretreatment on extraction yield was investigated. Response Surface Methodology was applied to evaluate the oil yield as a function of pH, time, and temperature of the enzymatic hydrolysis by employing multiple regression techniques. The adequacy of a second-order model with interaction terms was tested and optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for maximum oil yield were calculated. The optimal conditions calculated were: temperature 43.5 ºC, pH 5.4 and incubation period 5.8 h. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of oil as predicted by the function was 26.64% on a dry weight basis.

  19. Avaliação da influência da temperatura e do tratamento enzimático no comportamento reológico do suco de abacaxi pérola (Ananas Comosus L. merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Cesar Calandrini Braga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o comportamento reológico do suco de abacaxi- pérola natural e tratado com enzimas pectinolíticas. As condições de tratamento enzimático foram otimizadas através de um planejamento experimental do tipo fatorial completo 2k, com três repetições do ponto central. Na avaliação do comportamento reológico foram utilizadas duas amostras submetidas a peneiramento (N e D, analisadas em quatro diferentes temperaturas (10; 25; 50 e 65 °C. As análises reológicas foram realizadas utilizando um viscosímetro de cilindros concêntricos Brookfield e os dados experimentais foram ajustados ao modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. A relação entre temperatura e viscosidade aparente foi descrita por uma equação tipo Arrhenius. A otimização da atividade enzimática indicou, através da análise de variância e da metodologia de superfície de resposta, que as variáveis temperatura e tempo de tratamento exerceram efeito estatisticamente significativo (p<0,05 sobre a concentração de pectina presente na amostra. O modelo utilizado mostrou-se adequado para descrever o comportamento reológico dos sucos de acordo com os parâmetros R², χ² e Bf. Os baixos valores obtidos para o índice de comportamento indicaram um comportamento pseudoplástico (n<1. A temperatura exerceu influência sobre a tensão de cisalhamento e a viscosidade aparente dos sucos analisados, sendo os menores valores observados nas amostras analisadas a 65 °C. A equação tipo Arrhenius descreveu de modo satisfatório o efeito da temperatura sobre a viscosidade aparente. Os valores da energia de ativação (Eat foram de 4,54 Kcal.g.mol-1 e 4,89 Kcal.g.mol-1, respectivamente, para as amostras do suco de abacaxi natural e despectinizado, aumentando com o tratamento enzimático. A atividade enzimática proporcionou uma redução nos valores dos parâmetros de comportamento reológico das amostras, bem como na viscosidade aparente, em todas as

  20. Estudio de la modificación vía enzimática de almidón de yuca para la obtención de maltodextrinas

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Miguel Angel; Filella, María Isabel; Velásquez, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    Se investigo el efecto de las variables más relevantes en el proceso de hidrolisis enzimática del almidón de yuca, a escala laboratorio, con el fin de determinar las condiciones industriales apropiadas para obtener maltodextrinas de diferentes grados de conversión. Se empleo una a-amilasa proveniente de una cepa genéticamente modificada de Bacillus Iicheniiormis. Previa selección de las variables, se parte de un diseño experimental basado en el diseño estadístico factorial fraccionado, donde ...

  1. Aplicación de métodos combinados para el control del desarrollo del pardeamiento enzimático en pera (variedad Blanquilla) mínimamente procesada.

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ CABRERA, LAURA EUGENIA

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio se aplicaron distintos métodos combinados para controlar el desarrollo del pardeamiento enzimático en pera variedad Blanquilla mínimamente procesada. En primer lugar, se evalúo el efecto de tratamientos térmicos aplicados con vapor y por inmersión en disolución acuosa a 87 ºC, a través del estudio de las propiedades de color y mecánicas en cilindros de fruta fresca y almacenada en diferentes condiciones. Los resultados muestran que ambos tratamientos provocaron cambios signifi...

  2. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shallow water near the sea-route.

  3. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI ZhengLin; PENG ZhaoHui

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shal-low water near the sea-route.

  4. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field.

  5. Diferencias en el perfil enzimático muscular y respuesta metabólica a la lidia en toros de uno a tres años de edad Differences in muscle enzyme profile and metabolic response to fighting in bulls from one to three years old

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    La respuesta metabólica al ejercicio depende parcialmente del perfil enzimático muscular y ambos factores pueden verse modificados por la edad. Los objetivos de esta investigación son: 1) Analizar las diferencias en las características musculares de toros de lidia de diferente edad y 2) Valorar si el perfil enzimático muscular se modifica con la edad de forma similar a la descrita en otras razas bovinas. Se extrajeron biopsias inmediatamente tras la lidia -de los músculos glúteo medio y semit...

  6. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  7. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  8. Ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati

    OpenAIRE

    Cori, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Il 14 dicembre scorso si ? svolto a Roma il seminario "Studi su ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati: prospettive di sviluppo metodologico e applicativo" organizzato dall'istituto di fisiologia clinica del CNR e dal Dipartimento ambiente e connessa prevenzione primaria dell'Istituto Superiore di sanit?

  9. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  10. Atividade da colinesterase plasmática como biomarcador de impacto ambiental em tartarugas verdes (Chelonia mydas no litoral do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomarcadores podem ser usados de forma preditiva, permitindo que sejam tomadas ações de controle antes que ocorram danos ambientais irreversíveis com consequências ecológicas severas, no entanto, espécies sentinelas são necessárias para avaliação desses marcadores. As tartarugas marinhas são consideradas espécies sentinelas quando acometidas por fibropapilomas, sendo sinalizadora do desequilíbrio ambiental marinho nas suas áreas de ocorrência. Com o objetivo de propor a determinação da atividade da colinesterase plasmática em tartarugas verdes (Chelonia mydas como biomarcador, procedeu-se a determinação da atividade enzimática em animais saudáveis e em localidade de baixo impacto antrópico (Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brasil para servir como referência para comparação com animais capturados em locais de maior impacto antrópico. Ao todo foram analisadas amostras de plasma heparinizado de 35 animais capturados. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram alguma atividade enzimática de colinesterase plasmática. Os valores obtidos de colinesterase variaram de 162 a 379 UI/L, com média e desvio padrão de 216,4 ± 51,4 UI/L. Nos estudos de repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade obtiveram-se coeficientes de variação menor que 5% em todas as análises, portanto a metodologia analítica utilizada se mostrou confiável. A longevidade das tartarugas marinhas da espécie C. mydas, o comportamento alimentar, juntamente com o fato de possuirem atividade enzimática detectável podem indicar essa espécie como bioindicadora de exposição a poluentes que influenciam na atividade da colinesterase plasmática

  11. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  12. Parâmetros reacionais para a síntese enzimática do butirato de butila em solventes orgânicos Reactional parameters for enzymatic synthesis of butyl butyrate in organic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. CASTRO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A síntese orgânica catalisada por enzimas envolve um mecanismo complexo dependente do tipo de substrato, enzima, solvente orgânico e teor de água no meio reacional. Neste trabalho foi estudado a influência de alguns desses parâmetros no rendimento da esterificação do butanol com ácido butírico, utilizando uma preparação enzimática comercial de lipase. A polaridade e natureza do solvente, bem como a razão molar entre o butanol e ácido butírico, foram considerados os fatores que mais influenciaram o desenvolvimento dessa síntese enzimática.The organic synthesis catalyzed by enzymes is a complex function of substrate concentration, water concentration in the liquid phase, enzyme and organic solvent properties. In this work the influence of some parameters on the esterification of butanol with butyric acid was investigated, using a commercial lipase preparation. The polarity and nature of the solvent and also the substrate mole ratios played an important role in the performance of this enzymatic synthesis.

  13. Aplicación de crudos enzimáticos de origen fúngico en la hidrólisis del bagazo de caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurima Menéndez-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la influencia de crudos de enzimas celulasasy sus mezclas sobre la producción de glucosa en lahidrólisis del bagazo de caña de azúcar (BCA, pretra-tado con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH al 3 % p/v. Paraesto se empleó un diseño simple centroide. Las condi-ciones de hidrólisis enzimática corresponden con unatemperatura de 50 ºC, una velocidad de agitación de100 min-1, pH = 4,8 y concentración de enzimas y cru-dos de 10 UPF/g de celulosa en un volumen total demezcla de 50 mL. Como resultado la mezcla H1 forma-da por dos crudos enzimáticos (provenientes de lascepas J1 y C6 produjo cantidades de glucosa similaresa las obtenidas con enzimas comerciales como patrón.Se seleccionó la misma como la mejor dentro de las dife-rentes combinaciones que se probaron.

  14. Caracterização de cepas de plasmodium falciparum do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil, utilizando microtestes de sensibilidade aos antimaláricos, tipificação enzimática e anticorpos monoclonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Di Santi

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Nove amostras de Plasmodium falciparum foram coletadas de migrantes infectados no Estado de Rondônia. Estas amostras foram mantidas em cultivo para caracterização por tipificação enzimática em acetato de celulose, sensibilidade á cloroquina, amodiaquina, mefloquina e quinino e análise da diversidade antigê-nica através de anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram variação entre todas as amostras estudadas: encontrou-se resistência crescente à cloroquina, resistência intermediária à amodiaquina e quinino e sensibilidade a baixos níveis de mefloquina; apenas dois isolados mostraram sensibilidade a todas as drogas. A tipificação enzimática mostrou presença de parasitas GPI 1 e 2 e ADA 1 e 2, enquanto que para PEP e LDH todas as amostras foram do tipo 1. Sorotipagem com anticorpos monoclonais PSA mostrou presença de três sorotipos diferentes (II, III e IV. Estes resultados mostraram: a variação entre as amostras para os marcadores analisados; b nesta região, para o pequeno número de amostras analisadas, não foram observadas diferenças significativas ou novos tipos de parasitas.

  15. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  16. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  17. Hidrólisis enzimática de residuos de la cosecha de caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo G. Salcedo Mendoza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en inglés: Hydrolysis Enzymatic of crop residues sugar cane Resumen: En esta investigación, se hidrolizó un sustrato deslignificado proveniente de residuos de la cosecha caña de azúcar  (hojas y cogollos usando un  preparado enzimático con 27.53 unidades de papel filtro (FPU, obtenido a partir de enzimas comerciales. La hidrólisis se llevó a cabo a un pH de 4.2 y una temperatura de 50 oC. Fueron analizados  modelos de inhibición por sustrato, glucosa e inhibición total por producto. Los resultados mostraron que los modelos que mejor se ajustan a los datos experimentales, son los modelos de inhibición competitiva por glucosa, con una constante de Michaelis (Km de 20.37 g/L,  velocidad máxima (Vmax 39 g/L h y una constante de inhibición  (ki de 0.442. En el caso que las relaciones  enzima – Sustrato (E/S sean mayores  de 0.5, se puede aplicar el modelo cinético de Michaelis-Menten. Palabras clave: Inhibición; modelos cinéticos; hojas y cogollos; coctel de enzimas Abstract: In this research, a delignified substrate from crops residues sugar cane residues (leaves and top cane was hydrolyzed using an enzyme preparation with 27.53 FPU. This enzyme was obtained from trade. Hydrolysis was carried out to pH of 4.2 and a temperature of 50 oC. Models of inhibition models substrate, glucose and total inhibition product was analyzed. The results showed that models that best fit the data experimental was the models competitive glucose inhibition (Km= 20.37, Vmax=39 and ki= 0.442. In the event that E/S is above 0.5, can applied kinetic models of Michaelis – Menten. Keywords: Inhibition; kinetic models; leaves and tops cane; enzyme cocktail.

  18. Deficiencia de glucosa 6 fosfato deshidrogenasa: análisis enzimático y molecular en una población de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Carolina Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available bjetivo: Determinar qué tan frecuente es la deficiencia de glucosa 6 fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PD y realizar análisis molecular para identificar las variantes A+, A- y mediterránea en una población de residentes en Bogotá.Métodos: Se analizaron 348 personas que residen en Bogotá, pertenecientes a la Policía Nacional y a la Universidad del Rosario. La actividad enzimática se determinó en muestras de sangre mediante espectrofotometría con el kit Trinity Biotech (Cat 345-B. Los valores de hemoglobina (Hg y hematócrito (Hto se determinaron con el método de Drabkin y sedimentación, respectivamente. La determinación de las variantes moleculares se realizó mediante amplificación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y análisis de fragmentos de restricción de longitud polimórfica (RFLP con las enzimas NlaIII, Fok I y MboII para A+, A- y mediterránea, respectivamente. Se hicieron análisis estadísticos para comparar la concentración de Hg en personas sanas y deficientes, la actividad de G6PD por géneros y los datos de frecuencia a nivel mundial.Resultados y conclusiones: La frecuencia de deficiencia de G6PD para la población en estudio fue 3.1%. En 1.4% de los casos se observó actividad deficiente, en 1.7% actividad intermedia y en 0.6% actividad aumentada. No se encontraron las variantes moleculares A+, A- y mediterránea en ningún afectado. La actividad de G6PD no tuvo diferencias por género. Se encontró diferencia significativa en el valor de hemoglobina entre las personas sanas y deficientes de G6PD. Los individuos deficientes eran asintomáticos lo que indica mecanismos de compensación de estrés oxidativo. Las mujeres deficientes son heterocigotos con una inactivación preferencial del cromosoma X anormal y al ser portadoras tienen riesgo de 50% de tener hijos afectados con la enfermedad. La identificación de mujeres y hombres deficientes permite establecer medidas preventivas ante posibles crisis hemol

  19. Karakterisasi stem cell pulpa gigi sulung dengan modifikasi enzim tripsin (The characterization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth using trypsin enzym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti Puspitasari

    2014-06-01

    , Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Universitas Airlangga yang telah memenuhi kriteria. Pulpa gigi diisolasi dan dikultur dengan modifikasi enzim Trypsin. Hasil: SHED yang sehat hasil dari modifikasi teknik isolasi dan kultur positif menunjukkan ekspresi marker CD105 dengan berfluoresensi berwarna hijau dilihat melalui mikroskop fluoresen. Simpulan: SHED yang dikultur dan diisolasi dengan teknik modifikasi positif dikarakterisasi dengan marker CD105.

  20. Desempenho e atividades enzimáticas em girinos de rã-touro Performance and enzymatic activities of the bullfrog tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e as atividades das enzimas digestivas de girinos de rã-touro, alimentados com ração comercial durante 60 dias, com um girino por litro, em caixas com 30 L de água. Os parâmetros medidos quinzenalmente foram: sobrevivência, comprimento, peso final, consumo de ração, e a atividade de amilase, lipase e tripsina. O maior crescimento dos girinos foi do 15º ao 45º dia - 20,61 mm. Durante os primeiros 15 dias, os girinos apresentaram a maior taxa de crescimento específico, 16,73% por dia. Do 45º ao 60º dia, os girinos apresentaram o maior ganho de peso, 3,98±0,73 g, o maior consumo de ração, 14,40±1,14 g, e a melhor conversão alimentar, 3,67:1,0±0,18. Houve aumento significativo da atividade enzimática depois do 30º dia. Observaram-se relações entre as atividades específicas das enzimas e os distintos estágios de desenvolvimento dos girinos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and the digestive enzyme activity in bullfrog tadpoles, fed with commercial ration during 60 days, at the density of one tadpole per liter in 30 L boxes. The parameters measured fortnightly were: survival, length, weight, ration consumption, and amylase, lipase and trypsin activities. There larger growth of the tadpoles occurred from the 15th to the 45th day - 20.61 mm. During the first 15 days, the tadpoles had the largest specific growth rate, 16.7% per day. From the 45th to the 60th day, the tadpoles had the largest weight gain, 3.98±0.73 g, the largest ration consumption, 14.40±1.14 g and the best feed conversion, 3.67:1.0±0.18. There was significant increase in enzyme activities after the 30th day. Relationships were observed between the specific enzyme activities and the different development phases of the tadpoles.

  1. Alterações pós-colheita da "fruta-de-lobo" (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. durante o amadurecimento: análises físico-químicas, químicas e enzimáticas Postharvest changes of "fruta-de-lobo" (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. during the ripening process: physical-chemical, chemical and enzymatic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Nazaré de Oliveira Junior

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se, neste trabalho, algumas modificações físico-químicas, químicas e enzimáticas, em pós-colheita, durante o amadurecimento da fruta-de-lobo, comparando-as com as de outros frutos. Os frutos colhidos de plantas nativas no início do estádio de amadurecimento foram selecionados e armazenados durante 18 dias à temperatura ambiente (17,1 a 26,9ºC. Os frutos foram lavados com água destilada, descascados, picados, congelados em nitrogênio líquido e liofilizados até massa constante. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 3 frutos. Os valores de pH e acidez titulável não variaram estatisticamente durante o amadurecimento. A atividade de amilase e os teores de amido diminuíram gradativamente com o aumento dos açúcares solúveis totais e não redutores, enquanto os teores dos redutores se mantiveram constantes. Os teores de pectinas totais e solúveis diminuíram, enquanto a atividade de pectinametilesterase manteve-se constante. As atividades das enzimas poligalacturonase e polimetilgalacturonase não foram detectadas no fruto. Observou-se diminuição dos teores de polifenóis e das atividades das enzimas peroxidase e polifenoloxidase e conseqüente diminuição do escurecimento da polpa do fruto.Physical-chemical, chemical and enzymatic modifications were studied during the ripening of "fruta-de-lobo" compared with those in other fruits. The fruits were harvested from native plants in the ripening initial stage and they were selected and stored during 18 days at room temperature (17.1 to 26.9ºC. The fruits were washed with distilled water and peeled. Their pulps were chopped up, frozen in liquid nitrogen and lyophilized until they get a constant mass. The pH and tritable acidity did not show statistical variation during the ripening process. The amylase activity and the starch contents decreased gradually and the soluble total sugar and nonreducing sugar increased

  2. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  3. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  4. MUVA: a MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivac, Robert; Klem, Sune Øllgaard; Olsen, Sophus Béneé

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents MUVA (MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device), a prototype for a storytelling light- and sound-based ambient device. The aim of this device is to encourage social interaction and expand the emotional closeness in families with children where at least one parent has irregular...... work schedule. MUVA differs from the other ambient devices, because it is targeted to children, and it adopts a visceral design approach in order to be appealing to its users. It is a raindrop-shaped lamp, which features audio playing, while its light color is affected by the audio playing. MUVA can...

  5. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  6. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  7. ambientes mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Escribano-Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel global, dos tendencias opuestas gobiernan el uso de la tierra: la intensificación y el abandono. Esta última supone una oportunidad para larecuperación de los ecosistemas, una necesidad urgente dada la actual crisis ambiental. La comunidad de dispersores frugívoros es determinantepara recuperar la estructura y complejidad de la vegetación en campos abandonados, ya que éstos suelen estar desprovistos de propágulos.Recientes estudios han resaltado la especial relevancia de los mamíferos frugívoros en el proceso de dispersión de semillas en ambientesdegradados como los campos abandonados. Esto es debido a una serie de rasgos morfológicos y de comportamiento que caracterizan a losfrugívoros mamíferos y que les hace ser dispersores especialmente efectivos. Generalmente los mamíferos frugívoros tienen un mayor tamañocorporal, mayores áreas de campeo y distancias de dispersión, frecuente uso de hábitats abiertos, movilizando así más semillas hasta los camposabandonados que otros grupos de frugívoros (e.g. aves. Una vez que una semilla ha sido depositada tiene que superar las sucesivas etapas hastael establecimiento (depredación post-dispersiva, germinación, supervivencia y crecimiento. Los mamíferos frugívoros favorecen todo este procesoen mayor medida que otros dispersores. A nivel interespecífico pueden dispersar mayor diversidad de especies al estar generalmente menoslimitados por el tamaño de fruto, y a nivel intra-especifico no seleccionan semillas de pequeño tamaño. Además, suelen depositar las semillas enmicrohábitats que resultan especialmente adecuados para el reclutamiento. En consecuencia, los mamíferos son un elemento clave en los ensamblesde frugívoros que propician la regeneración de los campos abandonados y su función ecológica debe ser considerada en la restauración y manejode hábitats degradados.Palabras clave: áreas degradadas; bosque remanente; cambio de los usos del suelo; dispersi

  8. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Blasco; Álvaro Marco; Roberto Casas; Diego Cirujano; Richard Picking

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  9. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  10. Influencia del proceso de fibrilación y desfibrilación enzimática en las propiedades mecánicas de hilos de fibras celulósicas regeneradas obtenidas por el proceso NMMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibre spinning from a solution of cellulose in N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxidehydrate is an environmentally friendly process (NMMO, which yields cellulose fibres with excellent mechanical properties. A special feature of these fibbers is their ability to fibrillate in the swollen state. It is possible to control and exploit fibrillation of this kind of fibre (generic name: lyocell through mechanical fibrillation and enzymatic defibrillation treatments. The mechanical properties (elongation at break. Young's modulus, tensile strenght and tenacity of solvent (NMMO-spun lyocell yarns samples have been studied in untreated condition as well as after industrial mechanical fibrillation and enzymatic defibrillation treatments. It is observed that the tenacity of lyocell yarn decreases greatly as a result of the treatments, particularly after the enzymatic treatment. For this reason, the control of these operations plays a critical role in ensuring acceptable mechanical properties of the yarns.

    La obtención de fibras hiladas a partir de una solución de celulosa en N-óxido de N-metilmorfolina hidratado permite obtener fibras de celulosa regenerada, con excelentes propiedades mecánicas por medio de un proceso industrial no contaminante (proceso NMMO. Sin embargo, estas fibras presentan una propiedad especial, su elevada fibrilación, principalmente durante los tratamientos en húmedo, que es posible controlar y explotar mediante las etapas de fibrilación mecánica y desfibrilación enzimática de los productos fabricados. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las propiedades mecánicas (deformación a la rotura, módulo de Young, resistencia máxima a la tracción y tenacidad de muestras de hilo de esta nueva fibra, evaluando la influencia de los tratamientos industriales de fibrilación mecánica y desfibrilación enzimática. Se observó que la tenacidad y la resistencia a la rotura de las muestras disminuyen significativamente después de estos

  11. Tratamiento enzimático en la extracción de aceite y obtención de antioxidantes a partir de semilla de onagra, Oenothera biennis, por prensado en frío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga, María E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the yield in evening primrose oil extraction and the antioxidant potential of the residual meal using an enzyme assisted extraction process with cold pressing. Among four commercial enzymes, a mixture of two of them was selected in order to evaluate the effect of enzyme-substrate ratio, temperature, moisture and period of time of the enzymatic pretreatment on the extracted oil. The oil yield increased by 12% when the seeds were pretreated with 2% enzyme-substrate ratio of a mixture of 100G Ultrazym and Cellubrix (1:1 for 15 h at 40oC and 40% moisture. The defatted meal obtained from the enzyme aided process enhanced its phenol content and improved its potential antioxidant activity in comparison to the control from 250 to 276 mg of phenols/g of meal and from 1463 to 1558 mg of trolox/g of meal respectively.Se espera que el tratamiento enzimático, previo al prensado en frío, de la semilla de Oenothera biennis, mejore el rendimiento de extracción de aceite y la cantidad de antioxidantes extraídos de la harina residual. De una serie de cuatro preparados enzimáticos comerciales, se selecciona el más adecuado, el cual es evaluado bajo distintas condiciones de incubación: razones enzima/sustrato, tiempo, humedad y temperatura. El rendimiento aumenta un 12 % cuando se realiza un doble prensado sobre la semilla tratada con una mezcla enzimática formulada con Ultrazym 100G y Cellubrix en razón 1:1, concentración enzima/sustrato del 2 % p/p (base húmeda, durante 15 horas de incubación a 45 °C y 40 % de humedad. La harina residual desgrasada aumenta su contenido de antioxidantes desde 250 a 276 mg de fenoles expresados en catequina y el extracto mejora su actividad antioxidante desde 1463 a 1558 mg de trolox por gr de harina.

  12. Use of Enzymatic Biosensors as Quality Indices: A Synopsis of Present and Future Trends in The Food Industry Uso de Biosensores Enzimáticos como Indicadores de Calidad: Una Sinopsis del Presente y Futuro en la Industria Alimentaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are an important alternative in the food industry to ensure the quality and safety of products and process controls with effective, fast and economical methods. Their technology is based on a specific biological recognition element in combination with a transducer for signal processing. The use of enzymatic biosensor technology in food processing, quality control and on-line processes is promising compared to conventional analytical techniques, as it offers great advantages due to size, cost, specificity, fast response, precision and sensitivity. This article reviews the development and use of some enzyme biosensors in the food industry, describes the most important application areas and analyzes the current situation and future possibilities. In conclusion, enzymatic biosensors are a tool with broad application in the development of quality systems, risk analysis and critical control points, and the extent of their use in the food industry is still largely limited by the short lifetime of biosensors, in response to which the use of thermophilic enzymes has been proposed.Los biosensores constituyen una importante alternativa en la industria de alimentos para garantizar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos y controlar los procesos con métodos eficaces, rápidos y económicos; su tecnología está basada en un elemento de reconocimiento biológico específico en combinación con un transductor para el procesamiento de la señal. El uso de técnicas de biosensores enzimáticos en procesamiento de alimentos, control de calidad y de procesos “on line”, es prometedor frente a las técnicas analíticas convencionales, ya que ofrecen grandes ventajas debido a su tamaño, costo, especificidad, respuesta rápida, precisión y sensibilidad. En este artículo se revisa el desarrollo y uso de algunos biosensores enzimáticos en la industria alimentaria, se describen las áreas de aplicación más importantes y se analiza su situaci

  13. Níveis de óleo e adição de complexo enzimático na ração de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucci Luiz Eduardo Avelar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito da adição de óleo de soja e de um complexo enzimático em rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 960 pintos de corte, não sexados, os quais receberam os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de óleo de soja: 0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5%, com ou sem adição de um complexo enzimático contendo amilase, xilanase e protease, em quatro repetições de 30 aves cada, no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade, todas as aves receberam uma mesma ração de crescimento, para avaliação de possível efeito residual dos tratamentos aplicados na fase inicial de criação sobre a fase seguinte. Aos 21 dias de idade, 90 aves (três machos e duas fêmeas de cada unidade experimental foram transferidas para uma sala de metabolismo (experimento 2, em que as aves receberam as mesmas rações experimentais, para determinação dos valores energéticos e dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca e do extrato etéreo. Não houve efeito da adição do complexo enzimático, nem interação dos níveis de óleo e suplementação com enzimas sobre o desempenho das aves. O valor energético das rações melhorou em 2,3% com a adição de óleo, não havendo efeito da adição de enzimas. O nível de 2,33% de óleo permitiu máxima digestibilidade do extrato etéreo. Concluiu-se que a inclusão de óleo na ração melhorou o desempenho das aves e a conversão alimentar permaneceu constante a partir de 2,18% de inclusão.

  14. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  15. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  16. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  17. Empresas e meio ambiente: contribuições da legislação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Ferreira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p334A relação empresa-meio ambiente tem sido, ao longo da história, bastante conflitante. Entretanto, o fortalecimento do debate ambiental, pressões políticas, sociais e econômicas estão, cada vez mais, desencadeando uma mudança na conduta ambiental das empresas. Nesse contexto, o direito ambiental surge como um forte aliado para o alcance de uma nova conduta ambiental empresarial, através de seu papel inicial como regulador, até sua atuação como instrumento no processo de gestão ambiental da empresa. Desse modo, o presente artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão a respeito da importância da legislação ambiental para a evolução da inserção da variável ambiental, nas estratégias das organizações, ressaltando a conformidade legal como um pressuposto básico a ser atendido pelas empresas, independentemente do tipo de estratégias que estas utilizem no caminho pela busca de uma gestão ambiental efetiva.

  18. Some enzymatic properties of cholesterol oxidase produced by Brevibacterium sp Algumas propriedades enzimáticas da colesterol oxidase produzida por Brevibacterium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha J.G. Salva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined some properties of the cholesterol oxidase from a Brevibacterium strain isolated from buffalo's milk and identified the cholesterol degradation products by the bacterial cell. A small fraction of the enzyme synthesized by cells cultured in liquid medium for 7days was released into the medium whereas a larger fraction remained bound to the cell membrane. The extraction of this fraction was efficiently accomplished in 1 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.7% Triton X-100. The enzyme stability under freezing and at 45oC was improved by addition of 20% glycerol. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 53°C and 7.5, respectively. The only steroidal product from cholesterol oxidation by the microbial cell and by the crude extract of the membrane-bound enzyme was 4-colesten-3-one. Chromatographic analysis showed that minor no steroidal compounds as well as 4-colesten-3-one found in the reaction media arose during fermentation process and were extracted together with the enzyme in the buffer solution. Cholesterol oxidation by the membrane-bound enzyme was a first order reaction type.Neste trabalho foram definidas algumas propriedades da enzima colesterol oxidase produzida por uma linhagem de Brevibacterium sp. isolada de leite de búfala e foram identificados os compostos resultantes da degradação do colesterol pela bactéria. Uma pequena fração da enzima sintetizada pelas células cultivadas em meio líquido por 7 dias foi liberada no meio de cultura e uma fração maior permaneceu ligada à membrana celular. A extração desta fração foi eficientemente efetuada em tampão fosfato 1mM, pH 7,0, contendo 0,7% de triton X-100. A estabilidade da enzima congelada e a 45oC foi aumentada pela adição de 20% de glicerol. A temperatura ótima para a atividade enzimática esteve ao redor de 53(0C e o pH ótimo esteve ao redor de 7,5. O único produto da degradação do colesterol, causada pela a

  19. Identificação de espécies de citros mediante polimorfismo enzimático Identification of citrus species by means of enzymatic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, mediante polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida, a variabilidade genética das espécies de laranja-doce (Citrus sinensis; laranja-azeda (C. aurantium; tangerinas clementina (C. clementina, sunki (C. sunki, cleópatra (C. reshni e poncã (C. rsticulata; lima-da-pérsia (C. limettioides; limão-galego (C. aurantifolia; limão-cravo (C. limonia e trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. Extratos de folhas foram analisados para as isoenzimas de malato deidrogenase (MDH, enzima málica (ME, leucino amino peptidase (LAP, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase (GOT, fosfoglucoisomerase (PGI, fosfoglucomutase (PGM e isocitrato deidrogenase (IDH. Verificou-se grande variabilidade genética interespecífica, porém nenhuma entre os cultivares de laranja-doce. Foram encontradas algumas aloenzimas, além das referidas pela literatura em gel de amido, como aquelas de uma região próxima ao loco conhecido por Pgm-1, responsável por proteínas monoméricas. Este sistema, denominado PGM, revelou a maior diferenciação entre as espécies, tendo apresentado duas regiões distintas com 9 alelos. No sistema MDH, foram considerados dois locas codificando para proteínas diméricas com 7 alelos; no ME, um loco com 3 alelos; no LAP, possivelmente dois locos responsáveis por proteínas monoméricas com 4 alelos; no GOT, dois focos com 7 alelos; no PGI, um loco com 3 alelos e no IDH, um loco com 4 alelos.The genetic diversity of citrus cultivars was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sweet orange (C. sinensis; tangerines (C. clementine, C. sunki, C. reshni, C. reticulata; Palestine lime (C. Iimettioides; West Indian lime (C. aurantifolia; Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Sour orange (C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata. Citrus leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes of malato dehidrogenase (MDH, malic enzyme (ME, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphoglucose mutase (PGM and

  20. Digestibilidade de nutrientes em ração com complexo enzimático para tilápia-do-nilo Nutrient digestibility in diets with enzyme complex for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Resende de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio de digestibilidade foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de ração com um complexo enzimático contendo celulase, protease e amilase sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. As rações experimentais eram isoprotéicas (30% PB, isoenergéticas (4.243 kcal/kg EB e foram suplementadas com complexo enzimático comercial contendo celulase, protease e amilase nos níveis de 0,0; 0,025; 0,050; 0,075 e 0,1%. A determinação da digestibilidade aparente foi realizada pelo método indireto, com uso de óxido de cromo (Cr2O3 como indicador de digestibilidade. Foram utilizados 50 juvenis machos de tilápia-do-nilo (90 ± 15 g distribuídos aleatoriamente em dez incubadoras adaptadas para ensaio de digestibilidade. O experimento foi conduzido em três períodos experimentais, com cinco tratamentos e duas repetições por período. A adição do complexo enzimático à ração melhorou o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente de matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta, amido, cácio e fósforo. Entre os níveis testados, o de 0,05% de complexo enzimático proporcionou os valores mais expressivos.A digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of the ration with a enzyme complex containing cellulase, protease and amylase on the digestibility of nutrients in Nile tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus. The experimental diets were isoprotein (30% CP, isoenergy (4,243 kcal/kg of GE and supplemented with a commercial enzyme complex containing cellulose, protease and amylase at the levels of 0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, and 0.1%. The apparent digestibility was determinated by the indirect method using chrome oxide (Cr2O3 as an indicator of digestibility. A total of 50 male Nile tilapia juveniles (90 ± 15 g were randomly allotted to ten hatchers adapted for the digestibility trial. The experiment was conducted in three experimental periods

  1. Polimorfismo enzimático em populações de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Enzymatic polymorphism in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier populations (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Them aim scope of this study is to characterize the enzymatic polymorphism found in the Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1936 populations from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo and Espírito Santo, Brazil and its hybrids. Samples from each colony (about 52 were prepared for starch gel electrophoresis in order to investigate the genetic variation of the following enzimes: esterase (EST, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, malic enzyme (ME, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, superoxide desmutase (SOD, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (αPGD, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, hexokinase (HK and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI. The analysis showed that LAP and HK did not show enzymatic activity and EST showed two alleles(est-sand and est-f while all the others were shown to be monomorphic. The allele EST-S showed a frequency of 82,6%.

  2. Modelamiento de la cinética de reacciones del pardeamiento no enzimático y el comportamiento reológico, en el proceso térmico de jugos y pulpas de fruta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Manayay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la manufactura de jugos y pulpas de fruta, tiene singular importancia referirse al pardeamiento no enzimático y al comportamiento reológico. El pardeamiento no enzimático es un fenómeno de oscurecimiento de naturaleza exclusivamente química (Braverman, 1980, se caracteriza por la presencia de polímeros pardos llamadas melanoidinas, generadas por las reacciones de Maillard o condensación de la melanoidina, la caramelización y el deterioro del ácido ascórbico; mientras que el comportamiento reológico es la definición de la proporción de deformación del material al ser expuesta a esfuerzos de corte (σ ocasionados por un reómetro (Muller, 1978; Ibarz, 2005. Los estudios de modelamiento de la formación de color y la definición del comportamiento reológico, considerados en la presente revisión, orientan a la conclusión de la existencia de una cinética de cero y primer orden respectivamente, siendo los factores que más influyen sobre las reacciones principalmente de Maillard; temperatura, la presencia de aminoácidos, la actividad de agua y el pH, mientras que el comportamiento reológico se ve afectado por la temperatura, concentración de sólidos y el tamaño de las partículas que conforman la suspensión en el caso específico de las pulpas.

  3. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  4. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  5. Desempenho de juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo alimentados com rações contendo complexo enzimático Performance of juvenile Nile tilapia fed diets with enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de um complexo enzimático em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre o desempenho, a composição química da carcaça e a qualidade da água. Foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos (4,57 ± 1,24 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em 20 tanques de 500 litros, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, considerando a unidade experimental uma caixa com dez peixes. Os peixes foram alimentados com dietas contendo 0; 0,033; 0,066 ou 0,099% de complexo enzimático. As dietas foram processadas na forma peletizada e fornecidas quatro vezes ao dia, às 8, 11, 14 e 17 h. Os valores médios de pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, fósforo total, amônia e nitrato da água de cultivo não foram influenciados pela dieta. A inclusão do complexo enzimático na dieta não afetou o ganho de peso, as taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento específico, mas influenciou o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar, cujos valores foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com a dieta com 0,066% de complexo enzimático. Não foram observadas diferenças nos teores de matéria seca, umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral, cálcio e fósforo na carcaça dos peixes, no entanto, o teor de extrato etéreo reduziu de forma linear com o aumento do nível de complexo enzimático. A utilização de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, pectinase, xilanase, β-glucanase e fitase no nível de 0,066% em dietas para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo piora a conversão alimentar, mas não influencia o desempenho e a composição corporal dos peixes.The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of an enzimatic complex in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on performance, carcass chemical composition as well as water quality. The experiment was performed in 62 days. It was used two hundred reverted fingerlings (14.57 ± 1.24 g distributed in a

  6. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  7. Educação ambiental: acções de educação ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, Sandra; Carapeto, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Académico - Licenciaturas Este vídeo mostra os conceitos de educação ambiental e sensibilização ambiental e ilustra as fases de um projeto de educação ambiental e de uma ação de educação ambiental.

  8. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  9. Evaluación ambiental del PRMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una revisión constructiva de las actuales disposiciones sobre la evaluación ambiental de los planes reguladores, intentada con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar los procedimientos en práctica. En este sentido, aboga porque al plan regulador no se le exijan contribuciones ambientales que excedan a sus verdaderas competencias, para lo cual introduce el concepto de "efectos territoriales"; justifica que su evaluación ambiental deba ser realizda mediante una "declaración", y ahonda en la forma de elaborar y presentar esta declaración, acogiendo lo que a este respecto estipula el Art. 15° del Reglamento de la ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente.

  10. Learning from an Ambient Assisted Living Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self-registration, diar......This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self...

  11. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting the logi......We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  12. Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2004-01-01

    High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

  13. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  14. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  15. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  16. A responsabilidade civil no direito ambiental brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes,Silviana L.

    2009-01-01

    O Direito assumiu papel preponderante na gestão dos riscos na sociedade contemporânea definida, por muitos autores, como de Risco; com isso, novos direitos foram instituídos e novos instrumentos e meios de tutela foram criados. A responsabilidade civil ambiental tornou-se um dos principais instrumentos criado para a gestão do risco ambiental e tem-se harmonizado com a nova realidade marcada por incertezas científicas, riscos e danos globais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a responsabi...

  17. The brave new world of ambient intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    This chapter provides an overview of ambient intelligence in order to set the stage for the subsequent identification and discussion of threats, vulnerabilities and safeguards In this chapter, we provide a somewhat high-level description of the key technologies that are crucial to the development and deployment of ambient intelligence. The development and deployment of AmI are being propelled by certain visions of the future, which we reference in this chapter. For the most part, the development and deployment are taking place in a rather structured context composed of visions, scenarios, roadmaps, strategic research agendas, platforms and projects. We highlight the most important of these.

  18. CUIDADO AMBIENTAL E RESPONSABILIDADE: POSSÍVEL DIÁLOGO ENTRE PSICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL E LOGOTERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Arnaldo Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado ambiental vem sendo marcado pela tônica da conservação e da promoção da sustentabilidade. A premente necessidade de um dado compromisso e educação ambiental e de condutas pró-ambientais vem sendo defendida em vários contextos: na mídia, nas políticas públicas, por meio de campanhas sazonais. Todavia, pouco se descreve acerca do sentido presente nos modos de cuidado configurados a partir da inter-relação pessoa-ambiente. Nesta perspectiva, este estudo objetivou promover um possível diálogo a partir das contribuições da Psicologia Ambiental e da Logoterapia visando aproximar a noção de cuidado ambiental, delineada pela Psicologia Ambiental, à ideia de responsabilidade, como defendida pela Logoterapia, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. As articulações propositadas corroboraram, portanto, para acenar que a relação pessoa-ambiente pode ser arraigada em qualidade se a responsabilidade é reconhecida em sua propriedade de potencial humano, o que pode favorecer na emergência do sentido das atitudes e condutas pró-ambientais e explicitar o caráter de tarefa única e irrepetível inerente à vida.

  19. Inibição do escurecimento enzimático de banana maçã minimamente processada Enzimatic browning inhibition of fresh-cut apple banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ânderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico (AA, do cloreto de cálcio (CC, do cloridrato de L-cisteína (Cis e EDTA, na prevenção do escurecimento enzimático de banana maçã minimamente processada. Foram utilizadas as combinações: (i AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 0,5%, (ii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1%, (iii AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% e (iv EDTA 1%, constituindo quatro tratamentos de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Produtos minimamente processados não tratados quimicamente não foram analisados, considerando-se seu acentuado escurecimento e sua vida de prateleira inferior a 6 h. As bananas foram tratadas com hipoclorito de sódio, fatiadas, imersas nos tratamentos químicos, acondicionadas em embalagens rígidas envoltas com filme PVC 30 µm e armazenadas durante cinco dias a 5+1°C e 85+3% UR. Amostras foram analisadas diariamente, durante os cinco dias de armazenamento. Os tratamentos contendo AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1% e AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% determinaram os maiores valores de acidez titulável e menores de pH. Observaram-se aumentos no valor a* e redução nos valores b* e L* na banana maçã minimamente processada, independente do tratamento químico, durante o armazenamento. O tratamento AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% foi o mais efetivo na prevenção das modificações dos valores a*, b* e L*, associados à coloração das rodelas. Observou-se aumento na atividade da polifenoloxidase (PPO e peroxidase (POD durante o armazenamento das rodelas de banana, independente do tratamento, à exceção da redução observada na atividade da PPO, nos produtos tratados com EDTA. Os tratamentos contendo EDTA e AA 1%+CC 1%+Cis 1,5% foram os mais efetivos na contenção do aumento das atividades da PPO e POD, respectivamente.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA, calcium chloride (CC, L-cysteine hydrochloride (Cys and EDTA on prevention of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apple banana. The following combinations were used: (i AA 1

  20. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente. La psicología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Baldi López; Eleonora García Quiroga

    2005-01-01

    El medio ambiente constituye, actualmente, uno de los campos de estudio interdisciplinarios que ha venido recibiendo una atención priorizada por parte de la comunidad científica mundial. La Psicología constituye una de las disciplinas que se interesa por el medio ambiente, tanto por la dinámica de la interacción individuomedio, como por la educación ambiental, siendo necesario, entonces, brindar información para hacer conciencia sobre nuestros comportamientos y su decisiva i...

  1. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  2. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, He

  3. Ambient temperature‐directed flowering time regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, Dina Sara Leonie

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are constantly facing a fluctuating environment. In order to both profit maximally and protect themselves from these environmental cues, plants evolved ways to sense and respond to signals. Ambient temperature is one of the cues for which plants have a

  4. Ambient Intelligence: The MyCampus Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    aspects of privacy in Ambient Intelligence environments (e.g. [Ack04,Hon04, HS04 ,KFJ03, Lan02, LHJ+03, KFJ03]), to the best of our knowledge, the...CA, 2004. [ HS04 ] U. Hengartner, and P, Steenkiste. Implementing access control to people location information. In 9th ACM Symposium on Access

  5. Games and entertainment in ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors, came

  6. Nonsymbolic Gestural Interaction for Ambient Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...

  7. EXPERIENCIA INTEGRADORA PARA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Coronel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se relacionó la práctica experimental de laboratorio co n el análisis de problemas ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una propuesta que vinculó el trabajo experimental con la situación del ambiente local para promover el cuidado de la naturaleza y su uso con sostenibilidad . Esta estrategia brindó un enfoque integrador aportando a los alumnos de profesorado una alternativa de aprendizaje con exper iencias sencillas para el estudio cualitativo de l ambiente local y motivar a l análisis de problemas asociad o s. Las experiencias permitieron caracterizar las muestras de suelo, agua y aire del lugar de residencia de los alumnos. La información experimental obtenida potenció la discusión de la situación ambiental actual. E l enfoque de enseñanza basado en problemas socio - científicos posibilit ó la visión interdisciplinar del tema , redimensionando valores y acciones para el cuidado ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable.

  8. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pa

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  11. Energías vs medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Victoria Landa Fitzgerald; Juana María Robles Caycho

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una actividad ABP de química en la que los alumnos investigan sobre diferentes tipos de energía: combustibles fósiles, energías alternativas y energía nuclear, y la influencia de ellas en el medio ambiente: efecto invernadero, smog fotoquímico, capa de ozono, lluvia ácida.

  12. Psicologia Ambiental e estudos pessoas-ambiente: que tipo de colaboração multidisciplinar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura definir quais as colaborações existentes entre a Psicologia Ambiental e os diversos estudos pessoas-ambiente a partir dos trabalhos inscritos no Congresso IAPS-16 (Paris, 2000. Na relação entre transdiciplinaridade, pluridisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, entende que o funcionamento científico é necessariamente mono-disciplinar, enquanto a intervenção nas relações pessoas-ambiente envolve uma dinâmica complexa. Quanto à intervenção (manejo sócio-ambiental, distingue dois tipos de funcionamento: interdisciplinar e transdisciplinar. Conclui por um conhecimento que integre as diversas abordagens disciplinares em abordagens transdiciplinares.

  13. Cuidado ambiental: ponte entre psicologia e educação ambiental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, José Q. (Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuidado ambiental é termo comum no cotidiano e em atividades como educação ambiental, embora pesquisas psicológicas façam pouco uso do conceito, o que justificou investigar a compreensão popular do termo e analisar suas possíveis relações com indicadores científicos de predisposição pró-ambiental. O questionário aplicado a 355 estudantes universitários da cidade de Natal, RN, de ambos os sexos, continha questões abertas sobre prática pelo respondente de cuidado ambiental e sobre sua disposição pessoal para participar de eventuais campanhas ecológicas futuras, e incluía ainda: Escala de Ecocentrismo e Antropocentrismo, Questionário de Individualismo-Coletivismo, e Inventário Zimbardo de Perspectiva Temporal. As duas formas utilizadas para o relato de cuidado ambiental se mostraram positivamente correlacionados com medidas de ambientalismo econcêntrico, e negativamente com apatia ambiental e individualismo, evidenciando-se como um importante controle metodológico-conceitual quando se busca a "tradução" de resultados de pesquisas psicológicas para o cotidiano das ações de intervenção e educação ambientais

  14. Controle do escurecimento enzimático e da firmeza de polpa em pêssegos minimamente processados Control of enzymatic browning and flesh firmness in fresh-cut peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Costa da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O escurecimento enzimático e o amolecimento são as principais alterações que podem afetar pêssegos minimamente processados (MP. Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de L-cisteína (Cis, ácido L-ascórbico (AA e cloreto de cálcio (CC no controle do escurecimento enzimático e da perda de firmeza de polpa de pêssegos MP, cv. 'Esmeralda'. Os frutos foram processados e, após o fatiamento, imersos nos tratamentos: (I água (controle; (II AA+CC; (III Cis+CC; e, (IV Cis+AA+CC. Em seguida, as fatias foram acondicionadas em embalagens rígidas envoltas com filme PVC de 30µm de espessura e armazenadas durante seis dias a 4±1°C e 85±3% UR. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto aos aspectos físico-químicos, enzimáticos e sensoriais a cada dois dias. O tratamento Cis+AA+CC resultou em maiores valores de L* e h°, o que indica ter sido o mais eficaz na prevenção do escurecimento. Os tratamentos com L-cisteína resultaram em menor atividade da polifenoloxidase (PPO e o tratamento Cis+AA+CC foi o mais efetivo na contenção da atividade da peroxidase (POD, indicando que o melhor desempenho desse tratamento está associado à menor atividade de PPO e POD. A avaliação sensorial indicou que o tratamento Cis+AA+CC foi o mais eficiente, proporcionando a manutenção de características sensoriais aceitáveis aos pêssegos MP, cv. 'Esmeralda'.The enzymatic browning and firmness loss are the major changes that could affect fresh-cut peaches. The objective was to evaluate the application of L-cysteine (Cis, L-ascorbic acid (AA and calcium chloride (CC in the control of browning enzymatic and loss of firmness of minimally processed dried peaches, cv. 'Esmeralda'. The fruits were processed industrially and, after slicing, immersed in treatments: (I water (control; (II AA+CC; (III Cis+CC and (IV Cis+AA+CC. After, the slices were packed in packages sealed with PVC film 30µm thick and stored for six days at 4±1°C and 85±3% UR. The samples were evaluated

  15. Extração química e enzimática das proteínas do fubá de milho Chemical and enzymatic extractions of proteins from brazilian corn flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Capobiango

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes métodos químicos e um enzimático foram testados para extração das proteínas do fubá de milho. A avaliação do rendimento da extração protéica foi feita pela determinação do teor de proteína e de sólidos totais dos resíduos obtidos. Para a extração química das proteínas, uma solução alcalina, isoladamente ou em associação com etanol, foi empregada como solvente. O método alcalino-alcoólico seqüencial foi o mais eficiente, dentre os métodos químicos testados, tendo alcançado 88,2% de rendimento. Por outro lado, o método alcalino (75,5% de rendimento apresenta a vantagem de não empregar etanol, reduzindo os custos do processo, pois se evita a etapa de remoção desse solvente. Para a extração enzimática, foi utilizada uma protease de Bacillus liccheniformis. As variáveis, tempo e temperatura, empregadas no método enzimático influenciaram no rendimento da extração protéica do fubá de milho. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5, 15 e 24 h a 55 °C, que não apresentaram diferença significativa, sendo que a condição mais vantajosa do ponto de vista econômico foi a de 5 h a 55 °C com um rendimento de 83,8%.Different chemical methods and an enzymatic one were tested for protein extraction from Brazilian corn flour. The protein extraction yield was calculated using the values of protein and solid contents of the residues. For the chemical extraction, an alkaline solution, separately or in association with ethanol, was used as a solvent. The sequential alkaline-alcoholic method was the most efficient, having reached a yield of 88.2%. However, the alkaline method presents the advantage of not using ethanol, reducing the risks for health, as well as decreasing the costs of the process. For the enzymatic extraction, a protease of Bacillus liccheniformis was used. The time and the temperature used in this method influenced the extraction yield. The best results were obtained for 5, 15 and 24 hours

  16. Actividades enzimáticas antioxidativas em Cistus Ladanifer L. provenientes de áreas não contaminadas em elementos vestigiais Antioxidant enzymes activity of Cistus Ladanifer L. from areas non contaminated in trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a actividade das enzimas antioxidativas (catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase e as concentrações em As, Cu, Pb e Zn nas folhas de duas populações de Cistus ladanifer L. colhidas, na Primavera e no Verão, em solos não contaminados em elementos vestigiais (Caldeirão e Pomarão e com condições climáticas diferentes. Nos solos das duas áreas, as concentrações totais e disponíveis (extracção com DTPA em elementos vestigiais foram baixas. A distribuição dos elementos pelas folhas novas e maduras foi semelhante entre áreas e estações do ano. As actividades enzimáticas variaram consoante a população. As folhas colhidas nas duas estações do ano, excepto as folhas novas de Verão do Pomarão, apresentaram actividade enzimática na fracção solúvel e iónica. Comparando as estações do ano e áreas de amostragem, constatou-se que as actividades enzimáticas representam um mecanismo de tolerância a vários factores de stresse (radiação UV, temperatura do ar elevada no verão, défice hídrico no verão, baixa-média fertilidade do solo e conteúdo de elementos vestigiais no solo, o que confere uma elevada plasticidade à espécie.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leaves from two populations of Cistus ladanifer growing on soils non-contaminated with trace elements (Caldeirco and Pomarco, but with different climatic conditions and in two different seasons (spring and summer. In both areas, total and available concentrations (DTPA extraction of trace elements in soils were low. The distribution of elements for young and mature leaves was similar between areas and seasons. The enzyme activities varied with the plant population. Leaves collected in the two seasons, except young leaves from Pomarco collected in summer, showed enzymatic activity in the soluble and ionic fractions

  17. Soil enzyme activities under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems in subtropical agro-ecosystems Atividade enzimática em solo sob plantio direto e rotações de culturas em agro-ecossistema subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical/subtropical soils. No-tillage planting causes minimal soil disturbance and combined with crop rotation may hold potential to meet these goals. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the potential to perform the processes in soils such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities were investigated in a split-plot experiment (3 replications where tillage (no till and conventional was the main plot and crop rotation (soybean/wheat, S/W; maize/wheat, M/W or cotton/wheat, C/W was the subplot. The experiment was established in 1976 in southern Brazil. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in 1997 and 1998. The 0-5 cm layer under NT system showed increases up 68% for amylase, 90% for cellulase, 219% for arylsulfatase, 46% for acid phosphatase, and 61% for alkaline phosphatase. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with total organic C, and C and N microbial biomass. These results showed that NT increased microbial activity and that soil enzyme activity is a sensitive indicator of alteration soil quality by management.Práticas agrícolas que reduzam a degradação do solo e promovam sustentabilidade são importantes para os agrossistemas tropicais/subtropicais. O plantio direto (PD diminui as perdas de solo e, se combinado com rotação de culturas pode proteger o solo da degradação físico-química provocada pela agricultura intensiva. A atividade enzimática do solo pode fornecer importantes informações de como o manejo do solo está afetando a decomposição da material orgânica e a ciclagem dos nutrientes. Assim, avaliou-se a atividade das enzimas amilase, celulose, arilsulfatase, fosfatase ácida e fosfatase alcalina em um experimento a campo, instalado em 1976 em Londrina, PR, que tem como tratamentos o preparo

  18. Gestão ambiental e interesses corporativos: imagem ambiental ou novas relações com o ambiente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ribeiro de Almeida Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência de um novo sistema de comunicação ambiental a serviço das grandes corporações. Este sistema agrega novos agentes entre os quais podemos destacar: ONGs supostamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificação ambiental, instituições que promovem premiações ambientais. Argumenta-se que esta situação transformou as condições em que ocorre o embate sobre as questões ambientais e sobre as potenciais soluções para estas questões. A pesquisa funda-se em uma revisão da literatura sobre o assunto e em uma análise qualitativa de um conjunto de publicidades brasileiras que se utiliza de temas ambientais. Neste conjunto de publicidades, aparecem elementos para construirmos hipóteses sobre as articulações realizadas pelo setor corporativo para responder ao desafio ambientalista.Este articulo trata sobre la emergencia de un nuevo sistema de comunicación ambiental al servicio de grandes corporaciones. Este sistema agrega nuevos agentes entre los cuales podemos destacar ONG´s supuestamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificación ambiental, instituciones que promueven premios ambientales. Se argumenta que esta situación transformó las condiciones en que ocurre el debate sobre las cuestiones ambientales y sobre las potenciales soluciones para estas cuestiones. La investigación se basa en una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema y un análisis cualitativo de un conjunto de la publicidad brasileña que utiliza los temas ambientales.En esta serie de anuncios, los elementos aparecen para construir hipótesis sobre las articulaciones hechas por el sector empresarial para responder al desafío del medio ambiente.This article discusses the emergence of a new environmental communication system at the service of large corporations. This system includes new agents among which we highlight: environmental NGO's, environmental certification companies and institutions that promote environmental awards. It is

  19. Active packaging use to inhibit enzymatic browning of apples/ Uso de embalagem ativa na inibição do escurecimento enzimático de maçãs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano Amaral Viana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic browning is the most limiting factor of fruits and vegetables shelf-life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an active packaging incorporated with anti-oxidant agents to inhibit apple’s enzymatic browning. Cellulosic films were incorporated with cysteine and sulphite and used to cover apples divided in halves. Browning inhibition was measured by polyphenoloxidase activity and colour analysis (CIE Lab colour system. Low concentration of sulphite (1% showed efficient browning inhibition and higher concentration of cysteine (15% was necessary to reach the same results. Treatments containing cysteine and sulphite resulted in brighter apples and less browning compared with control. The quantity of sulphite released to apples was lower than the limit allowed by legislation, decreasing, in this way, the levels of additives ingested by the consumer. In this study, the effectiveness of active packaging in providing product conservation was confirmed by the inhibition of browning in apples.O escurecimento enzimático é um dos fatores mais limitantes da vida de prateleira de frutas e vegetais. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do uso de embalagem ativa incorporada com agentes antioxidantes na inibição do escurecimento enzimático de maçãs. Os filmes foram produzidos a base de polímero celulósico e incorporados com sulfito e cisteína para recobrimento de maçãs divididas ao meio. Foi avaliada a inibição do escurecimento através da atividade da polifenoloxidase e pela análise de cor (sistema CIE Lab. Baixas concentrações de sulfito (1% mostraram-se eficientes na inibição do escurecimento das maçãs e altas concentrações de cisteína (15% foram necessárias para a obtenção do mesmo resultado. Os tratamentos tanto com sulfito quanto com cisteína, comparados com os tratamentos controle, proporcionaram maior brilho às maçãs e menor escurecimento. O teor de sulfito liberado para a ma

  20. Análises fisiológicas e enzimáticas em abacaxi submetido à tecnologia de radiação ionizante Physiological and enzymatic analyses of pineapple subjected to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenilda Maria da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As características fisiológicas e enzimáticas pós-colheita do abacaxi do cultivar Smooth Cayenne foram avaliadas após os frutos serem irradiados com doses de 100 e 150 Gy e armazenados durante dez, vinte e trinta dias sob temperatura de 12 °C (±1 e 85% (±5 de umidade relativa. Análises fisiológicas e enzimáticas foram realizadas a cada período de armazenamento com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações provocadas pela aplicação da radiação ionizante. Frutos controle apresentaram maiores valores das pectinas solúveis, pectinas totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose e açúcares totais e menores valores das atividades das enzimas polifenoloxidade e poligalacturonase. O tempo de armazenamento influenciou significativamente para todas as análises estudadas. Dose de 100 Gy e período de vinte dias de armazenamento apresentaram os melhores resultados do ponto de vista da conservação da maturação e qualidade dos frutos.The physiological and enzymatic post-harvest characteristics of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne were evaluated after the fruits were gamma-irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and the fruits were stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 °C (±1 and relative humidity of 85% (±5. Physiological and enzymatic analyses were made for each storage period to evaluate the alterations resulting from the application of ionizing radiation. Control specimens showed higher values of soluble pectins, total pectins, reducing sugars, sucrose and total sugars and lower values of polyphenyloxidase and polygalacturonase enzyme activities. All the analyses indicated that storage time is a significantly influencing factor. The 100 Gy dosage and 20-day storage period presented the best results from the standpoint of maturation and conservation of the fruit’s quality.

  1. Análisis estereoespecífico de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales por métodos enzimáticos y cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Gutiérrez, V.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review in which difficulties for the determination of the fatty acid stereospecific positions in the triacyl-sn-glycerol molecules of natural fats are discussed. For determining the stereospecific composition of the triacylglycerols, theoretical models for positional distribution of fatty acids in natural fats can be a useful estimation. Also, the principal methods for the stereospecific analysis by means of enzymatic analysis and high performance liquid chromatography are included. In both methods, the isolated sn-glyceridic fractions are later analysed by gas chromatography in order to know their fatty acid composition. In conclusion, combinations of several different analytical techniques such as enzymatic methods, high performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography can furnish valuable information to determine the stereospecific composition of the triacyl-sn-glycerols.

    Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica en la que se discute la complejidad que presenta la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales. Los modelos teóricos de distribución de los ácidos grasos en las grasas naturales pueden ser una estimación útil para la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de sus triacil-sn-gliceroles. Además, se recogen los principales métodos de análisis enzimático y cromatografía liquida de alta eficacia para el análisis estereoespecífico. En ambos métodos, se aislan distintas fracciones sn-glicerídicas que son posteriormente analizadas por cromatografía de gases para conocer su composición en ácidos grasos. Como conclusión, puede señalarse que la información más valiosa para determinar la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles resulta de la combinación de diferentes técnicas de análisis como son los análisis enzim

  2. Actividades Enzimáticas en Consorcios Bacterianos de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa con Manejo Convencional y Bajo Pastizal Enzyme Activities in Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Soils with Potato Crop under Conventional Management and under Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluaron las actividades enzimáticas (ureasa, proteasa, fosfatasa ácida y alcalina, fosfodiesterasa, b-glucosidasa y arilsulfatasa en consorcios bacterianos (Bacillus subtilis, Brevundimonas diminuta, Flavimonas oryzihabitants de suelos bajo cultivo de papa variedad Parda Pastusa, con manejo convencional de aplicación de agroinsumos (PCA y en suelos bajo pastizal sin aplicación de agroinsumos (PSA, en fincas de tres localidades del departamento de Cundinamarca (Tausa, Villapinzón y Zipaquirá, Colombia. Se encontraron efectos por la aplicación de insumos de síntesis química y el tipo de uso del suelo, sobre las actividades enzimáticas; sin embargo, estos fueron diferentes para cada una de las enzimas y localidades. Para el municipio de Villapinzón la actividad de ureasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfodiesterasa y b-glucosidasa, fue mayor en las muestras PCA con respecto a las PSA en un 89, 71, 67 y 75% respectivamente; para el municipio de Zipaquirá se presentó la misma tendencia en la actividad ureasa, b-glucosidasa y arilsulfatasa con un 50, 71 y 68% respectivamente; finalmente en el municipio de Tausa se mantuvo el mismo comportamiento para la actividad de proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, fosfodiesterasa, b-glucosidasa, con un 55, 20, 75, 82 y 87% de mayor actividad en las muestras PCA en relación con las de PSA.Abstract. Enzyme activities were evaluated (urease, protease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase, b-glucosidase and arylsulfatase in bacterial consortia (Bacillus subtilis, Brevundimonas diminuta, Flavimonas oryzihabitants from either soil with potato cropping under conventional management with the application of agrochemicals (PWA or grassland soils without the use of agrochemicals (GNA on farms of three municipalities (Tausa, Villapinzón and Zipaquirá in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The type of land use and the location affected the tested enzymatic activities. In the

  3. Effects of Ambient Pressure on Bubble Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 刘明海; 江中和; 潘垣

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the ambient pressure Pambient on the bubble characteristics of pulsed discharge in water are investigated. The simulation results show that, when Pambient increases from 1 atm to 100 atm, the bubble radius R decreases from 4cma to 7mm, and its pulsation period decreases frown 8ms to 0.2ms. The results also show that the peak pressure of the first shock wave is independent of Pambient, but the peak pressure of the second shock wave caused by the bubble re-expansion decreases when Pambient increases. On the other hand, the larger the ambient pressure, the larger the peak pressure of the plasma in the bubble, while the plasma temperature is independent of Pambient.

  4. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  5. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  6. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  7. ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Minaki

    2012-01-01

    mostrando que, a pesar de ser una pequeña ciudad, sus características de la ocupación son suficientes para generar una disminución en la calidad ambiental. En este trabajo, también fue posible proponer ideas para mejorar la calidad de estos espacios, desde el punto de vista de la Planificación del Paisaje.

  8. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  9. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    to this award. The Code 321 project is titled Random Matrix Theory ( RMT ) for Adaptive Beamforming (N00014-12-1-0048). The RMT project is using some...of the Philippine Sea data for testing adaptive beamformers. The RMT analysis focuses on sonar signal processing issues, rather than propagation...ambient noise, or tomography. The project described in this report may benefit from the results of the RMT project, but there is no direct overlap in

  10. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  11. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  12. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  13. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L. obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L. obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Valença DA SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajás (Spondias lutea L., oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil, em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C. A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L por 30 min, à temperatura de 25°C, o pH natural (2,98, seguido o processo mecânico de extração. Foi empregado como processo de preservação do suco integral o método "hot-fill" + aditivos. Segundo o ponto de vista estatístico as características físico-químicas permaneceram inalteradas ao longo de 120 dias, apresentando os seguintes valores médios: pH (2,78, sólidos solúveis (11,19 °Brix, acidez titulável total (1,46 g% de ácido cítrico, açúcares redutores (6,91 g% em glicose, taninos (77,36 mg% de ácido tânico, cor (0,125 em leitura de absorbância a 440 nm, pectina (0,12 g% em pectato de cálcio e viscosidade (10,8 cps. A análise sensorial classificou o suco polposo como de "boa" e "muito boa", sendo que as maiores médias couberam aos parâmetros aparência, cor e sabor.Caja fruit (Spondias lutea L. from Maranguape (Ceará-Brazil obtained at the full maturity stage were processed at a pilot-scale level with the purpose to obtain pulpy juice through enzymatic-mechanical process. The final product was analysed regarding physical-chemical characteristics as well as in relation to sensorial profile after 120 days of storage at room temperature (28°C. The pulp was treated by 120 ppm of pectinolytics enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L during 30 minutes at 25°C, keeping natural pulp pH (2,98. The "hot-fill " + aditives were used as a preservation process for the pulpy juice. At a statistical point of view physical-chemical characteristics

  14. Aplicação da técnica de imunoensaio enzimático de multiplicação (EMIT para dosagem de ciclosporina na amostra de sangue absorvido em papel-filtro Application of the enzyme-multiplied imunoassay technique (EMIT to measure ciclosporin in the blood sample absorbed in filter paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Tzu Lin-Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar a aplicabilidade da técnica de imunoensaio enzimático de multiplicação (enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique - EMIT para dosagem de ciclosporina A (CsA nas amostras de sangue absorvido em papel-filtro (STAP. Material e método: Realizaram-se determinações de CsA utilizando-se técnica de EMIT em 110 amostras; 24 eram de pacientes transplantados cardíacos e 86, dos pacientes transplantados renais. Todos faziam uso da CsA por via oral. Exatamente 12 horas após a tomada da CsA, coletou-se o sangue e prepararam-se as amostras de STAP. As amostras de STAP foram estocadas à temperatura ambiente por períodos de 15 e 30 dias, e as amostras de sangue total foram estocados a ± 4ºC, por um tempo inferior a 48 horas, para o teste. Resultados: O coeficiente de correlação entre a técnica que utiliza como amostra sangue total e a amostra de STAP realizada 15 dias após a preparação foi de 0,963, e de 30 dias foi de 0,972 (p 0,005. Conclusões: A técnica de STAP pode ser utilizada rotineiramente por ser estável, reprodutível e prática. Considerando-se a dimensão continental de muitos países, este método pode ser bastante útil para a otimização da terapia.Objective: The purpose of this work is to research the applicability of the Enzyme-multiplied imunoassay technique (EMIT to measure Ciclosporin A (CsA in the whole blood sample absorbed in filter paper (STAP. Methods: It was performed dosage of CsA in 110 blood samples: 24 samples in patients with heart transplantation and 86 patients of renal transplantation. All of them were using CsA orally. Just 12 hours after the last CsA intake, the blood was collected and the STAP samples were prepared. The STAP samples were stored at room temperature for a period of 15 and 30 days. The whole blood samples were stored at about 4ºC for a time lower than 48 hours to the test. Results: The coefficient of correlation between the whole blood and the STAP samples of 15 days

  15. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test § 325.55 Ambient conditions; stationary test. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone...

  16. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-standard ambient conditions. 610... Non-standard ambient conditions. (a) Extreme temperatures. For vehicles required to be tested at... dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in § 610.64 as determined by...

  17. Uma escuta ética de psicologia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Freire,José Célio; Vieira,Emanuel Meireles

    2006-01-01

    O artigo propõe uma nova abordagem da dimensão ética da Psicologia Ambiental e da educação ambiental, a partir da ética da alteridade radical de Emmanuel Lévinas. Inicia com uma síntese das várias perspectivas da Psicologia Ambiental e da Ética Ambiental para, em seguida, tratar de conceitos centrais da Psicologia Ambiental - apropriação do espaço, identidade de lugar e pertencimento - à luz de uma ética radicalizada.

  18. Utilização da glutamina, associada ao ácido glutâmico, sobre o desenvolvimento e a atividade enzimática em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Sakamoto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da glutamina, associada ao ácido glutâmico, proveniente de um produto comercial, sobre o desenvolvimento e a atividade enzimática em frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 800 pintos de corte, machos, de um a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos em cinco tratamentos, sendo quatro níveis de suplementação do Aminogut®: 0,5; 1,5; 3,0 e 5,0% + uma dieta-controle, isenta do produto. Observou-se melhor índice de eficiência produtiva para os frangos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com 2,8% de Aminogut®. Independentemente dos tratamentos, verificou-se aumento das atividades da maltase, sacarase e fosfatase alcalina intestinais com o avanço da idade das aves. Para as enzimas pancreáticas, observou-se maior atividade da amilase e lipase aos 14 dias de idade, coincidindo com a maior taxa de crescimento alométrico do pâncreas.

  19. Diagnóstico diferencial das distrofias musculares com referência especial às alterações enzimáticas Differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies with special reference to enzymatic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heick

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Depois de apresentar os dados clínicos e genéticos relativos a 221 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva (125 casos do tipo Duchenne, 63 do tipo cintura pélvica e 25 do tipo fácio-escápulo-umeral, os autores analisam os resultados das dosagens sôro-enzimáticas que fizeram; em alguns casos foram pesquisas também as atividades de 25 enzimas em homogeneizados de tecido muscular. Os mesmos exames foram feitos em casos de miopatias de outra etiologia e de distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas. Foi verificado que o teor das sôro-enzimas aumenta em todas as formas de distrofia muscular progressiva hereditária. No tipo Duchenne as-atividades enzimáticas são elevadas desde o nascimento das crianças acometidas, precedendo o aparecimento da sintomatologia clínica. Com o progredir da moléstia e com o decorrer dos anos os teores sôro-enzimáticos tendem a diminuir, podendo reduzir-se aos valores normais nas fases finais da moléstia. No tecido muscular não existe diferença significante, no que respeita à composição enzimática, entre os diversos tipos de distrofia muscular progressiva e hereditária. Com exceção de poucas enzimas cuja atividade é maior nos tecidos conjuntivo e adiposo que progressivamente substituem o tecido muscular que entra em atrofia, o teor das mio-enzimas diminui com o progredir da moléstia, como expressão do crescente esgotamento do citoplasma da célula muscular. Nas distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas as alterações são idênticas, embora de menor intensidade. Algumas diferenças quantitativas podem ser explicadas pela idade dos pacientes e pela intensidade do processo. A mesma diferença pode ser demonstrada mediante exames histopatológicos: nas formas que acometem crianças (Werdnig-Hoffmann as fibras musculares ainda não denervadas se apresentam com aspecto normal, ao passo que, nas formas do adulto (Kugelberg-Welander, possivelmente pelo desgaste provocado pelos esfor

  20. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectinase and CMCase activities was used for hydrolysis of pequi pulp, prior to oil extraction. The oil extractions were carried out by hydraulic pressing, with or without enzymatic incubation. The oil content in the pequi pulp (45% w/w and the physicochemical characteristic of the oil was determined according to standard analytical methods. Free fatty acids, peroxide values, iodine and saponification indices were respectively 1.46 mgKOH/g, 2.98 meq/kg, 49.13 and 189.40. The acidity and peroxide values were lower than the obtained values in commercial oil samples, respectively 2.48 mgKOH/g and 5.22 meq/kg. Aqueous extraction has presented lower efficiency and higher oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, pequi pulp pressing at room temperature has produced better quality oil. However its efficiency is still smaller than the combined enzymatic treatment and pressing process. This combined process promotes cellular wall hydrolysis and pulp viscosity reduction, contributing to at least 20% of oil yield increase by pressing.O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar o rendimento e a qualidade do óleo da polpa de pequi obtido por dois processos distintos: no primeiro, a secagem da polpa, conduzida em secador de bandeja a 60ºC, foi combinada com tratamento enzimático e prensagem para extração de óleo, no segundo, um processo mai simples foi realizado combinando-se a secagem da polpa ao sol seguida da prensagem a frio. Neste estudo, frutos de

  1. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  2. Environmental health indicators Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia

  3. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  4. La Educación Ambiental una herramienta clave de la Gestión Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María josé Esteves Ivanissevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que el objeto de la educación ambiental no es el ambiente como tal, sino nuestra relación con él; la multiplicidad y diversidad de objetivos y la necesidad de anclar la intervención en cada contexto específico, hace de ésta una tarea inmensa y compleja. La provincia del Chubut registra desde el año 1999 un historial importante. Éste trabajo, toma lo realizado en la temática de eliminación de bolsas de polietileno en los espacios públicos, de forma interinstitucional y en ámbitos educativo formal y no formal. Con la hipótesis de que la educación ambiental constituye un instrumento de política ambiental preventivo atendiendo los problemas que afecten o pudieran afectar al ambiente; nos planteamos como objetivos: construir una ciudadanía ambientalmente responsable; Impulsar la formación y capacitación de docentes y actores sociales con una mirada ambiental; Contribuir a la conservación ambiental disponiendo de las nuevas tecnologías. La metodología se sustenta en una concepción que hace eje en el aumento de la participación de la sociedad. Desde el ámbito formal se trabajó durante el 2007-2011 con capacitaciones presenciales y a distancia, para docentes de nivel inicial y primario (434 capacitados, en forma conjunta con el Ministerio de Educación. El equipo de trabajo consta de cuatro profesionales del Ministerio de Ambiente y la colaboración de especialistas según el lugar y la temática. En el ámbito no formal se realizaron charlas y talleres con la comunidad (5826 capacitados; comunicación extrainstitucional por medios masivos de comunicación; campañas ambientales, trabajando en forma conjunta con organismos municipales, provinciales, no gubernamentales y privados. Se cubrieron 28 localidades en todo el territorio provincial. Se abarcó un gran número de docentes, quedando el trabajo con directores y supervisores, para pensar en la inclusión de las temáticas como los residuos sólidos urbanos, en el

  5. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Cao, R.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-02-01

    In this paper a dynamic system is presented which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO[sub 2] in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO[sub 2]. For forecasting a mixed model is used which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. Confidence intervals are also constructed for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 7th Ambient Assisted Living Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Klausing, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this book, leading authors in the field discuss developments of Ambient Assisted Living. The contributions have been chosen and invited at the 7th AAL congress, Berlin. It presents new technological developments which support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs. As the technological innovation raises also social issues, the book addresses micro and macro economical aspects of assistive systems and puts an additional emphasis on the ethical and legal discussion. The presentation is supported by real world examples and applications.

  7. LAS MEDIDAS CAUTELARES EN EL PROCESO AMBIENTAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Arcila Salazar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La acción popular ha sido establecida como la herramienta procesal idónea para la salvaguarda del derecho al medio ambiente, y dentro de su estructura, las medidas cautelares juegan un papel fundamental para garantizar la efectividad de este derecho colectivo toda vez que el legislador las ha dotada de características especiales que se encuentran en armonía con la finalidad preventiva de la acción popular y con el principio de precaución.

  8. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Sônia de Fátima; Vieira Júnior, Hélio

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Ann...

  9. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  10. Las cuentas nacionales y el medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Torres Pérez; M. de J. Santiago Cruz; J. Matus Gardea; J. L. Romo Lozano

    2001-01-01

    El Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales (SCN) vigente, medido a través del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) soslaya todos los activos ambientales, así como su deterioro y depreciación de los recursos naturales por lo que refleja tasas que sobreestiman el crecimiento económico En el presente documento se discute sobre el SCN, sus limitaciones para cuantificar el deterioro del capital natural e impacto ambiental. Se presentan las experiencias desarrolladas en otros países y se promueve la posibilidad de d...

  11. Direito e Risco: do Consumo ao Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Carlos Alexandre Michaello

    2014-01-01

    A presente Dissertação tem como tema de investigação “Direito e Risco: do Consumo ao Ambiente”. Para tanto, essa temática foi delimitada através da investigação sobre a capacidade do Direito a partir de uma leitura Sociológica e Antropológica de compreender e promover aprendizagem nas questões que envolvem o Risco como elemento decorrente do Consumo e que externa suas consequências ao Ambiente. Neste sentido, se direcionou a responder ao problema de saber: em que medida é possível e necessári...

  12. Una propuesta canadiense en contabilidad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    García Casella, Carlos Luis

    2009-01-01

    Con el deseo de aprovechar experiencias extranjeras, se estudia la "Guide d’introduction a la comptabilite environmentale" (1997), elaborada por un grupo -Consejo KPMG para el gremio de los contadores públicos de Quebec, en Canadá. El objeto de la guía es permitir a los gerentes de empresa y profesionales independientes que actúen en el dominio del medio ambiente pensando que el sistema de contabilidad medioambiental sirve: para toma de decisiones; la evaluación de la performance de lo que se...

  13. Políticas y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente edición de Letras Verdes está dedicada al amplio tema de las interacciones entre las políticas y el ambiente. Las preguntas que planteamos tenían como fin convocar a reflexiones tanto sobre los cambios discursivos en las políticas ambientales en América Latina, como sobre los impactos materiales que éstas han tenido, al suscitar (o no procesos de transformación en la relación que mantenemos con nuestro entorno.

  14. Activity of fungal phytases stored in two ways in response to the period of storage at room temperature Atividade de fitases fúngicas armazenadas de duas maneiras em resposta ao período de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct experiments were conducted simultaneously with phytases of Aspergillus oryzae and A. niger for determining enzyme activity in response to storage period (up to 180 days at room temperature - RT. In the first experiment, enzymes were stored as they were acquired (pure form and the activity was measured periodically during 180 days of storage at RT. In the second experiment, the phytases were incorporated to a supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and amino acids; and then this supplement was stored at RT up to 180 days, so that every 30 days of storage was collected one aliquot from each replicate for determining enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the phytase activity is affected by storage duration. To ensure 80% of the initial activity, the phytases of A. oryzae and A. niger can be stored in the pure forms for up to 53 and 135 days at RT, respectively. However, if the phytases of A. oryzae and A. niger are incorporated to a supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and amino acids then the storage period at RT should not exceed 67 and 77 days, respectively.Dois experimentos distintos foram realizados simultaneamente com fitases de Aspergillus oryzae e A. niger para a determinação da atividade enzimática em resposta ao período de armazenamento (por até 180 dias em temperatura ambiente - TA. No primeiro experimento, as enzimas foram armazenadas como adquiridas (forma pura e a atividade foi determinada periodicamente durante 180 dias de armazenamento em TA. No segundo experimento, as fitases foram incorporadas a um suplemento contendo vitaminas, minerais e aminoácidos. Então este suplemento foi armazenado em TA por até 180 dias, de modo que, a cada 30 dias de armazenamento, uma alíquota de cada repetição foi coletada para a determinação da atividade enzimática. Conclui-se que a atividade da fitase é afetada pela duração do armazenamento. Para assegurar 80% da atividade inicial, as fitases de A. oryzae e A. niger

  15. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc. and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled. Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi, which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63 and carers (31 in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  16. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  17. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  18. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente. La psicología ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Baldi López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El medio ambiente constituye, actualmente, uno de los campos de estudio interdisciplinarios que ha venido recibiendo una atención priorizada por parte de la comunidad científica mundial. La Psicología constituye una de las disciplinas que se interesa por el medio ambiente, tanto por la dinámica de la interacción individuomedio, como por la educación ambiental, siendo necesario, entonces, brindar información para hacer conciencia sobre nuestros comportamientos y su decisiva influencia en el contexto físico y social. Por otro lado, la calidad de vida es un concepto multidimensional y multidisciplinario que debe ser valorado desde la presencia de las condiciones materiales y espirituales que permitan el desarrollo psicobiológico y social-histórico del ser humano y la satisfacción personal con las condiciones de vida que cada persona ha logrado alcanzar. El concepto de calidad de vida se considera claramente relacionado con el concepto de salud humana y con la necesidad de promover una educación ambiental con proyección social y comunitaria.

  19. Atividade enzimática, população e análise de dna da biodiversidade microbiana do solo em agroecossistemas do semi-árido

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Virgínia Carla

    2004-01-01

    A sociedade contemporânea preocupa-se, cada vez mais, com a qualidade de vida, retratada, principalmente, em termos de ambiente e saúde. A emergência da questão do ambiente na agenda social é, em grande parte, conseqüência da extensão em que a humanidade hoje se apropria dos recursos naturais, às vezes muito além da capacidade regenerativa da natureza. Dentro deste contexto, a biodiversidade presente nos solos constitue um excelente mediador das condições biológicas do meio ambiente. Nos ecos...

  20. Psicologia Ambiental: a busca de um ambiente melhor Environmental Psychology, the search for a better environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Q. Pinheiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A Psicologia precisa se engajar na análise e no encaminhamento de soluções para os problemas ambientais, pois estes são, de fato, problemas humano-ambientais. Para contribuir com esse propósito, um breve histórico da Psicologia Ambiental é apresentado, com destaque para as implicações teóricas e práticas de suas origens, internas e externas à Psicologia, tendo como pano de fundo a crise ambiental global. Descrevem-se alguns desdobramentos dessas fontes no contexto brasileiro, com o intuito de estimular uma crescente integração de esforços na área de estudo das inter-relações pessoa-ambiente. Aspectos teóricos e metodológicos são analisados, principalmente em vista da recente tendência internacional verificada na Psicologia Ambiental de enfatizar a determinação humana e social da chamada crise ambiental.Psychology should engage in the analysis of environmental problems, which are, in fact, human-environmental problems, aiming at their solution. To help accomplishing this goal, a brief historical account of Environmental Psychology is presented, emphasizing the theoretical and practical implications of its origins, internal and external to Psychology, with the environmental global crisis as background. Some developments of those sources within the Brazilian context are introduced to favor the integration of studies in the area of person-environment relationships. Some theoretical and methodological aspects are analyzed, especially in terms of the recent international tendency in Environmental Psychology to consider the human and social determination of the so called environmental crisis.

  1. Modal Parameter Identification of Offshore Platforms under Ambient Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hezhen(杨和振); Li Huajun

    2004-01-01

    This paper intends to identify the modal parameters of an offshore platform under ambient excitation, and to compare the identified results with theoretical solutions. Using ambient sources of excitation to determine the modal characteristics of large civil engineering structures is desirable for several reasons. The forced vibration testing of such structures generally requires a large amount of specialized equipment and makes the tests quite expensive. Also, an automated health monitoring system for a large civil structure will most likely use ambient excitation. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) is applied in conjunctied acceleration information. Finally, offshore platform numerical model gets output response data under ambient excitation. Simulated data from numerical model of an offshore platform under ambient excitation is used for the identification of the system. According to the comparison results, the proposed method is shown to be effective for modal parameter identification under ambient excitation.

  2. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  3. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  4. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  5. Vibration of a Cantilever Beam in Ambient Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, C; Zypman, F

    2016-01-01

    Here we obtain analytical expressions for the frequency response of a cantilever beam in the presence of ambient fluid. The advantage of our approach, besides its simplicity of use, is that it explicitly contains the viscosity and the density of the ambient fluid. Thus, if measuring the frequency spectrum, the expression can be used in the design of viscometers. Conversely, if the ambient fluid is known, the expression can be used in the design of force gauges such as in Atomic Force Microscopy.

  6. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    R. Weaver, and X.N. Yang, Surface wave attenuation in Tibetan Plateau from ambient noise, Monitoring Research Review, Albuquerque, NM, 2012...AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 SURFACE WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE TIBETAN PLATEAU FROM AMBIENT NOISE University of Illinois at...DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 May 2012 to 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise 5a

  7. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  8. ISO 14000 Y LA GESTIÓN MEDIO AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ISO 14000 es un conjunto de Normas Internacionales de carácter voluntario, orientadas hacia la gestión efectiva del medio ambiente en las organizaciones. Implica el desarrollo de requisitos concretos de los Sistemas de Gestión Ambiental, la Auditoría Ambiental, el Eco­ Etiquetado y el ciclo de vida de Productos, Servicios y Procesos dentro de las aspiraciones de las Organizaciones.

  9. Studies of chemical and enzymatic characteristics of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius and its flours Estudo das carcaterísticas químicas e enzimáticas de Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius e suas farinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of studies on yacon related to health, its in natura pulp, in natura peel, pulp flour, and peel flour were chemically analyzed in terms of its centesimal composition, specific minerals, total dietary fiber and fractions, pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, tannins, oxalic acid, and nitrate. The polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymatic activities were evaluated for in natura pulp and peel only. Yacon pulp and peel flour presented average yield of 7.94% and 10.86%, respectively. The in natura pulp presented a higher moisture and carboydrate content and lower lipid, protein, total dietary fiber, and ash than those of the peel flour. The same pattern was observed for pulp flour when compared to peel flour. The highest tannin, nitrate, and oxalic acid levels were found in the peel flour, 15,304.5 mg.kg-1, 1,578.3 mg.kg-1, and 7,925.0 mg.kg-1 (wet weight, respectively. The polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes presented higher enzymatic activity in the yacon peel. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the yacon and its derivatives are important dietary carbohydrate and mineral sources and contain antinutritional substance contents lower than those harmful to health.Devido à importância dos estudos com yacon em relação à saúde, foram analisadas quimicamente sua polpa in natura (PY, casca in natura (CY, farinha da polpa (FPY e casca (FCY, sendo determinados composição centesimal, minerais específicos, fibra alimentar total (FAT e frações, pH, SST, ATT, taninos, ácido oxálico e nitrato. As atividades enzimáticas de polifenoloxidase (PFO e peroxidase (PER foram avaliadas para PY e CY exclusivamente. A FPY e FCY apresentaram rendimento médio de 7,94% e 10,86%, respectivamente. A PY apresentou conteúdos numericamente maiores de umidade e carboidratos e menores de lipídios, proteínas, FAT e cinzas em relação à CY. Foi observado o mesmo para a FPY quando comparada à FCY. Na FCY

  10. Biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by ligninolytic enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus Biodegradação do azul brilhante de remazol R pelo complexo enzimático ligninolítico produzido por Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Gomes Machado

    2006-12-01

    ,6. Descoloração do RBBR foi acompanhada a 592 nm e atividades de peroxidases e lacase pela oxidação do ABTS. Peroxidase da raiz forte (HRP foi usada como referência. O tempo de crescimento de P. ostreatus influenciou a degradação do RBBR e a produção das atividades enzimáticas de peroxidases e de lacase. Concentração de 1 mM de H2O2 e pH 4,0 mostraram-se ótimos para descoloração do RBBR. Descoloração total do RBBR foi obtida com adição de apenas uma alíquota de 50 µL de H2O2 (1 mM. Maior estabilidade dos extratos foi obtida por refrigeração que por congelamento. Foi evidenciado o potencial de aplicação de extratos enzimáticos de Pleurotus ostreatus e do resíduo da produção do cogumelo para a degradação de compostos xenobióticos.

  11. Horizontal Correlation of Ambient Noise near a Sea Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI Zheng-Lin; ZHANG Ren-He; PENG Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted near the sea route are analysed.It is found that at low frequency,the measured horizontal correlation coeffients at different separations oscillate much larger than that predicted by the classical ambient noise model.The theoretical analyses show that the observed phenomenon is mainly caused by windy noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby.An ambient noise model is proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources and can be used to forecast the ambient noise field neara sea route.

  12. Simulation of microbubble response to ambient pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The theory on microbubbles clearly indicates a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behaviour of two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20 cycles driving pulse, a reduction...... is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  13. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    D. Uclés

    2006-01-01

    La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio.

  14. Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations,...

  15. PRINCIPIOS GENERALES DE DERECHO INTERNACIONAL DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    López Zamarripa, Dra. Norka; Correctora de estilo

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la importancia de los principios y normas generales del derecho internacional ambiental que surgen de los tratados, acuerdos y costumbres internacionales para la protección del medio ambiente. El derecho internacional ambiental, se desarrolla bajo dos principios, el primero señala que los estados tienen derechos soberanos sobre sus recursos naturales, mientras que el segundo se basa en que los estados no deben causar daño al medio ambiente. Asimismo, se desarrollan una se...

  16. El inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA en el diagnóstico serológico de Plasmodium vivax The immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA in the serodiagnosis of Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda A. Perez

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos nuestra experiencia con la aplicación del inmunoensayo enzimático al diagnóstico serológico de Plasmodium vivax con antígeno homólogo. Este se obtuvo a partir de una muestra de sangre de un paciente y luego de lisar los glóbulos rojos con detergente (NP-40. En un "pool" conformado con 11 sueros de pacientes con malaria por P. vivax se encontraron anticuerpos de las clases IgM, IgG e IgA. Se introdujo además la proteína A como sonda secundaria para determinar la respuesta anti-P. vivax en una muestra de 30 sueros de pacientes con un primer episodio palúdico. Se encontró un 93% de correlación con el diagnóstico parasitológico y la prueba resultó específica y reproducible.ELISA was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of Plasmodium vivax using homologous antigen. This was a crude fraction obtained after detergent (NP-40 lysis of human parasitized red blood cells. Antibodies of the classes IgM, IgG, IgA were determined in a pool of eleven sera from patients with P. vivax malaria. The protein A was introduced as secondary probe to screen P. vivax antibodies in 30 sera of patients harbouring a first episode of P. vivax malaria. There was a correlation of 93% with the parasitological diagnosis and the test resulted specific and reproducible.

  17. Utilización de la biomasa residual del cultivo de la piña (Ananas Comosus para la desproteinización enzimática de desechos de la actividad camaronera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodrigo Alpízar Cordero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para comprobar la capacidad desproteinizante de extractos proteicos obtenidos a partir de desechos de rastrojo de piña a diferentes concentraciones sobre los sub-productos de la actividad camaronera. El extracto proteolítico de los desechos de rastrojo de piña se obtuvo a partir de desechos de tallos utilizando un buffer de acido sulfúrico. Este extracto se caracterizó al determinar el contenido de proteína, de azucares totales y su actividad enzimática, contra un patrón de bromelina comercial. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que el uso del extracto crudo de rastrojo de piña en forma directa logró desproteinizar el 97% de los desechos de camarón, el cual resultó más efectivo que cualquier dilución de esta misma, en un tiempo de 24 horas. Los resultados sugieren que los desechos de la comercialización de la piña pueden ser considerados como potenciales bioagentes para la desproteinizacion de desechos de camarón. Con esto se genera una alternativa biotecnológica para sustituir los procesos químicos tradicionales que utilizan hidróxido de sodio. Esta novedosa metodología promoverá nuevas aplicaciones para los desechos del cultivo de la piña y reducirá los costos y la contaminación del proceso de producción de quitina y quitosano.

  18. Efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA sobre a qualidade do suco de banana Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Helena Cardoso

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii, em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O suco clarificado com Clarex apresentou-se significativamente (p The effect of the clarifier enzymatic complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA, used in the proportion 0.03% v/w in industrialized banana (Musa cavendishii pulp, at the conditions of gentle hydrolysis 40 degree Celsius, 15 minutes, was observed to determine the quality here represented by indicators such as yield, viscosity, Brix, pH, centesimal composition, counts of moulds and yeasts and of mesophilics, and sensorial properties of color, aroma, flavor and body by both clarified banana juices. The juice clarified by Clarex was significantly (p < 0.01 more yellow, less grey, less opaque and less viscous than that obtained with CEC1-CTAA. There was no significant difference between the means of aroma of fresh banana and flavor in these juices. Furthermore, the values obtained for flavor for both juices were judged good (6.72 and 6.05 for the juices clarified with Clarex and CEC1- CTAA, respectively, because they were up the middle of the scale (from 0 to 10.

  19. Otimização da extração enzimática da proteína do feijão - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i3.6277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Oliveira Lopes Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a importância do feijão na dieta do brasileiro e, ainda, que este alimento não é permitido na alimentação de fenilcetonúricos, é fundamental promover a extração de suas proteínas, visando à posterior remoção de fenilalanina. No intuito de se otimizar a extração proteica do feijão, dois métodos enzimáticos foram, inicialmente, empregados. Para aquele que produziu o maior rendimento de extração proteica (REP, foi realizado um estudo do efeito de diversos parâmetros, tais como velocidade de centrifugação, tempo de reação, pH inicial e tipo de enzima (uma de Bacillus licheniformis, duas de Bacillus subtilis, uma de Aspergillus sojae e uma de Papaya carica. Os resultados indicaram que o melhor método foi o que empregou uma concentração de matéria-prima de 1:10 (p v-1, pH inicial de 10,5, temperatura de 50°C, e ausência de agitação em ultraturrax. Com relação aos parâmetros testados, o maior REP (93,1% foi obtido ao se utilizar a enzima de Bacillus licheniformis, na velocidade de centrifugação de 10.640 x g, tempo de reação de 3h e pH inicial de 10,5.

  20. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  1. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  2. Ranking risks in ambient intelligence projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, numerous ambient intelligent (AmI applications are emerging which support current electronic and digitalenvironments. Professionals develop each of them by means of projects. AmI application projects have certain features that make them different from other engineering projects. Moreover, a wide rage of risks are present in the whole project. Therefore, to increase these projects’ chances to be successful, it is necessary to manage their specific risks adequately. In order to support the work of those practitioners managing these threats, this research proposes a multicriteria decision-making methodology called Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique will enable theprioritization of risks in AmI projects according to their level of threat.

  3. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  4. Contaminación ambiental y salud

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES ALANÍS, OSCAR; Garza Ocañas, Lourdes; Abrego Moya, Valdemar; Bernal Hernández, Marco A.; Piñeyro López, Alfredo.

    2001-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en 207 niños del área metropolitana de Monterrey, Nuevo León, con el objeto de determinar la concentración de plomo en sangre, como reflejo de la exposición ambiental a este contaminante. 108 niños fueron del sexo femenino y 99 del sexo masculino, el rango de edad fue de 6 a 14 años. El rango de las concentraciones sanguíneas de Pb fue de 3.5 a 20 ?g/dl (promedio 11.5 ?g/dl ± 5). Con los resultados obtenidos se establecieron tres grupos con dif...

  5. Medio ambiente y calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Burgui Burgui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo un acercamiento al concepto de calidad de vida en relación con el medio ambiente, analizando los distintos entornos en los que el ser humano realiza sus actividades y de cómo infl uyen los factores ecológicos, culturales y socioeconómicos en la calidad de vida de las personas. Además, se realizan algunas propuestas para mejorar la calidad de vida, bien a través de la participación pública individual o colectiva, bien mediante la toma de conciencia sobre los propios hábitos de vida.

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aquino-Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study.

  7. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  8. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  9. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  10. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  11. COMPLEJIDAD AMBIENTAL: PROPUESTAS ÉTICAS EMERGENTES DEL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera de Echeverri Ana Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se recogen las propuestas ético ambientales más importantes de la Escuela de Pensamiento Ambiental Latinoamericano, que ha ido construyéndose desde hace 30 años. Se destacan autores de primera línea en el campo de la construcción de Pensamiento Ambiental filosófico, como el Filósofo y Pensador Colombiano, de trascendencia latinoamericana, Augusto Ángel Maya, quien plantea la posibilidad de construir una Filosofía Ambiental Ético estética, dado que la Filosofía Moderna ha sido Metafísica, aún en sus corrientes empiristas, positivistas y neopositivistas. Se destaca la obra de Enrique Leff, mexicano, que propone los conceptos de Complejidad y Saber Ambiental, como puntos de partida de una ética en la educación, la ciencia y la tecnología, dentro de unas relaciones sistémicas y holísticas. Igualmente la propuesta ético estética compleja de Julio Carrizoza, colombiano, se hace presente en este ensayo, como una propuesta política fundamental ante problemas colombianos como son la violencia y la exclusión. Las propuestas de Filósofos colombianos de gran importancia en el campo de la Filosofía Política y Moral, que han desembocado en la propuesta de una Ética Ambiental, Pública y Comunicativa, como es el caso de Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez y de otros pensadores tanto de Colombia como de otros países latinoamericanos, se presentan en este espacio, con el fin de recoger de manera crítica nuestras ideas acerca de la posibilidad de una ética ambiental, es decir una ética descentrada, sin sujeto y sin objeto, una ética sistémica, donde los valores se construyen en las relaciones y donde la intricada trama de la vida, que ha venido construyéndose desde hace más de 2.500 millones de años, y de la cual somos meros hilos, pasa de ser objeto a ser valor primero en su más genuino sentido.

  12. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  13. New Codes for Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, F.; Mooney, W. D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine a velocity model of the crust, scientists generally use earthquakes recorded by seismic stations. However earthquakes do not occur continuously and most are too weak to be useful. When no event is recorded, a waveform is generally considered to be noise. This noise, however, is not useless and carries a wealth of information. Thus, ambient seismic noise analysis is an inverse method of investigating the Earth's interior. Until recently, this technique was quite difficult to apply, as it requires significant computing capacities. In early 2007, however, a team led by Gregory Benson and Mike Ritzwoller from UC Boulder published a paper describing a new method for extracting group and phase velocities from those waveforms. The analysis consisting of recovering Green functions between a pair of stations, is composed of four steps: 1) single station data preparation, 2) cross-correlation and stacking, 3) quality control and data selection and 4) dispersion measurements. At the USGS, we developed a set of ready-to-use computing codes for analyzing waveforms to run the ambient noise analysis of Benson et al. (2007). Our main contribution to the analysis technique was to fully automate the process. The computation codes were written in Fortran 90 and the automation scripts were written in Perl. Furthermore, some operations were run with SAC. Our choices of programming language offer an opportunity to adapt our codes to the major platforms. The codes were developed under Linux but are meant to be adapted to Mac OS X and Windows platforms. The codes have been tested on Southern California data and our results compare nicely with those from the UC Boulder team. Next, we plan to apply our codes to Indonesian data, so that we might take advantage of newly upgraded seismic stations in that region.

  14. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  15. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  16. REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES DE AMBIENTE Y EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN DOCENTES DE BÁSICA SECUNDARIA Y MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Ramirez Bermudez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Posicionar la educación ambiental en el sector educativo, se ha convertido en uno de los grandes retos de la educación en el país. Al indagar las representaciones sociales de ambiente y educación ambiental en docentes se establece un campo de reflexión y discusión sobre la forma como se están educando y como fueron educados los profesionales que orientan la educación ambiental en el sector escolar. Aunque se han generados políticas nacionales e internacionales sobre formación de ciudadanos comprometidos con el ambiente, aún no es evidente una metodología clara sobre la investigación en educación ambiental en la escuela.   Esta investigación tiene como objeto hacer  un diagnóstico educativo-ambiental a partir de la búsqueda y análisis de las representaciones sociales de ambiente y educación ambiental que tienen los docentes de básica secundaria y media en la provincia de Vélez Santander, específicamente en el municipio de Chipatá.   Bajo esta premisa, este trabajo presenta la diversidad de representaciones sociales y las visiones compartidas relacionadas con el ambiente y la educación ambiental, así como sus actitudes, prácticas ambientales y propuestas, en los que se aprecian sus posturas epistemológicas, pedagógicas, éticas, políticas y ambientales, revelando la importancia del cuidado del ambiente en una comunidad educativa. De igual forma, se comprenderá el rol social del profesorado y su incidencia en la construcción de significados acerca de las realidades ambientales en los contextos locales y regionales.

  17. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    OpenAIRE

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes; Kristopherson Lustosa Augusto; Caio César Furtado Freire; Francisco Afrânio Cunha; Renan Magalhães Montenegro; Renan Magalhães Montenegro Júnior

    2007-01-01

    O diabetes mellitus (DM), uma doença endócrino-metabólica de alta e crescente prevalência, é citada como responsável pela ocorrência das candidíases orais. A candidíase constitui um espectro de infecções causadas por fungos do gênero Candida, sendo o seu agente mais comum a Candida albicans, embora outras espécies tenham sido identificadas (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência e a atividade enzimática ...

  18. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues; Rui Manuel Furtado Bezerra; José Albino Gomes Alves Dias; Cristina Vitória de Miranda Guedes; Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira; Fernando Nunes

    2010-01-01

    This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi) enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos) complexos enzimáticos.

  19. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos complexos enzimáticos.

  20. Perfil enzimático de α-amilase, lipase e tripsina do pâncreas e crescimento do fígado, intestino e pâncreas de frangos de corte na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,George Henrique Kling de; Rodrigues,Ana Claudia Peres; Oliveira,Maria Goreti de Almeida; Albino,Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Silva,Fernanda Álvares da; Lopes, Rita de Cássia Stampini Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de órgãos do aparelho digestório e o perfil enzimático de α-amilase, lipase e tripsina, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 21 dias utilizando-se pintos de 1 dia, machos, Avian Farm, criados em baterias aquecidas e alimentados à vontade com água e dieta purificada contendo os L-aminoácidos essenciais, ácido L-glutâmico (fonte de nitrogênio não-específico), minerais e vitaminas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com ...

  1. Derecho ambiental municipal: las intendencias frente a la problemática del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo presentado en las III Jornadas de Derecho Municipal celebradas del 9 al 11 de setiembre de 1998.en el Palacio Munieipal, con el auspicio de la IMM y la Éditorial Nueva Juridica.Contenido: Panorama de las competencias municipales a través de la ley 2.820 de 1903. Ley Orgánica Municipal 9515 de 1935 y capítulos de la Constitución de 1966 (arts.7,72 y 332. La Reforma Constitucional de 8 de diciembre de 1996 aprobada por la Asamblea General el 14 de enero de 1997, constitucionaliza el Derecho Ambiental y el Congreso Nacional de Intendentes. Naturaleza Jurídica, del Plenario Municipal Nacional. Antecedentes, vía de hecho, distintas materias, unidad y organicidad. El advenimiento del Derecho Ambiental en la legislación contemporánea y su incorporación en el ámbito municipal. El siglo XXI, el Derecho Ambiental, el rol de los Municipios y su trascendencia para el ciudadano

  2. Liquid Water Structure from Anomalous Density under Ambient Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei

    2006-01-01

    @@ From discussion of the structure of liquid water, we deduce that water under ambient condition is mainly composed of ice Ih-like molecular clusters and clathrate-like molecular clusters. The water molecular clusters remain in a state of chemical equilibrium (reversible clustering reactions). This structural model can be demonstrated by quantitative study on anomalous density with increasing temperature at ambient pressure.

  3. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  4. Data degradation to enhance privacy for the Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerde, van H.J.W; Anciaux, N.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing research in ubiquitous computing techniques towards the development of an Ambient Intelligence raises issues regarding privacy. To gain the required data needed to enable application in this Ambient Intelligence to offer smart services to users, sensors will monitor users' behavior to fil

  5. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  6. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  7. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  8. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  9. Ambient Vibration Test on Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Nurul Shazwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine dynamic characteristic of reinforced concrete (RC bridges by using ambient vibration test (AVT. The ambient vibration sources on bridges may come from traffic, wind, wave motion and seismic events. AVT describes the dynamic characteristics of the bridge and ground by measuring the natural frequencies using highly sensitive seismometer sensor. This test is beneficial due to light weight equipment and smaller number of operator required, cheap and easy to be handled. It is able to give a true picture of the bridge dynamic behavior without any artificial force excitation when vibration data is recorded. A three-span reinforced concrete bridge located in Sri Medan, Batu Pahat, Johor was measured by using microtremor equipment consist of three units of 1 Hz eigenfrequency passive sensors used in this test was performed in normal operating condition without excitation required from any active sources or short period noise perturbations. Ten measurements were conducted on the bridge deck and ten measurements on the ground surface in order to identify the natural frequencies of the bridge. Several peak frequencies were identified from three components of Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS in transverse (North-South, longitudinal (East-West and vertical (Up-Down direction as well as squared average Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR of ground response, computed by using Geopsy software. From the result, it was expected the bridge have five vibration modes frequencies in the range of 1.0 Hz and 7.0 Hz with the first two modes in the transverse and longitudinal direction having a frequency 1.0 Hz, the third mode is 2.2 Hz in transverse direction, fourth and fifth mode is 5.8 Hz and 7.0 Hz. For ground natural frequencies are in range 1.0 Hz to 1.3 Hz for North-South direction and 1.0 Hz to 1.6 Hz for East-West direction. Finally the results are compared with several empirical formulas for simple

  10. Língua e meio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildo Honório do Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Embora as primeiras reflexões sobre as inter-relações entre língua emeio ambiente recuem a pelo menos Heráclito e ao Crátilo de Platão,elas não rêm recebido a atenção que merecem na linguística moderna.Uma das poucas exceções é a escola dialetológica alemã conhecidacomo “Wörter und Sachen”. No século XX, Edward Sapir e EinarHaugen também tocaram no assunto, mas foi só na última décadado século passado que surgiu uma disciplina dedicada especificamentea esse tipo de inter-relações, ou seja, a ecolinguística. O principalobjetivo deste artigo é mostrar que há pelo menos quatro meiosambientes da língua, quais sejam, o ecossistema fundamental dalíngua, subdividido em três outros, que são os ecossistemas social,mental e natural da língua. Alguns dos principais assuntos que podemser abordados dessa perspectiva são sugeridos. Entre outras coisas,vê-se que há duas maneiras de atacá-lo. A primeira localiza a línguaentre nós e o mundo, o que significa que só temos acesso a ele pormeio dela. A segunda nos vê entre o mundo e a língua, o que implicaque ela é criada por nós para interagirmos não somente uns com osoutros, mas também com o próprio meio ambiente. Em sintoniacom a ciência moderna, a nova abordagem vê a língua como fazendoparte de uma teia de inter-relações, não isolada como nos modelosde Descartes e de Newton. Uma fonte adequada de onde se podemtirar conceitos para erigir as suas bases epistemológicas é a ecologia,parte da biologia, a ciência da vida. Na nova visão de mundo, cadaespecialista pode se dedicar ao seu domínio específico, mas não seesquecendo de que ele faz parte de um todo maior (ecossistema,com sua diversidade interna e as inter-relações que aí se dão.

  11. Ambient noise spectral properties in the north area of Xisha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DA Lianglong; WANG Chao; HAN Mei; ZHANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ambient noise is very important in the prediction system of a sonar performance, because it determines the detection ranges always in a passive sonar and usually in an active sonar. In the uncertainty issue for the so-nar performance, it is necessary to know this factor’s statistical characteristics that are only obtained by data processing from the underwater ambient noise measurements. Broad-band ambient noise signals from 16 hydrophones were amplified and recorded for 2 min every 1 h. The results show that the ambient noise is essentially depth independent. The cross correlation of the ambient noise levels (1, 6 and 12 h average) with a wind speed is presented. It was found that the correlation is excellent on the upper frequency band and the noise levels correlate better with high wind speed than with low wind speed.

  12. Turbulent Boyant Jets and Plumes in Flowing Ambient Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hai-Bo

    Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in flowing ambient environments have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in flowing ambients have been discussed. Dimensional analysis was employed to investigate the mean behaviour of the turbulent....... Comprehensive laboratory experiments were conducted to study the mean behaviour of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes in a flowing ambient by using both fresh and salt receiving waters. The experimental data on the jet trajectories and dilutions, for a horizontal jet in a coflowing ambient and for a vertical jet......, the available field observated data on the initial dilutions for a horizontal jet issuing into a perpendicular crossflowing ambient have been presented and discussed. Mathematical modelling of the turbulent buoyant jets and plumes has been carried out by using both an integral model and a turbulence model...

  13. Effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziuti, Toru; Hatanaka, Shin-ichi; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Mitome, Hideto

    2002-04-01

    The effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence (MBSCL) is studied experimentally with a luminol solution through measurements of MBSCL intensity as a function of ultrasound irradiation time, applied voltage to a transducer and ultrasonic frequencies to accomplish high efficiency in chemical reactions. From the measurement of ambient-pressure dependence, it is shown that there is an ambient pressure that produces the maximum intensity of the MBSCL and the maximum intensity appears at higher ambient pressure as the applied voltage to the transducer increases. The highest intensity of MBSCL is obtained by appropriate reduction of ambient pressure both for various applied voltages and frequencies. This is caused by both the number of bubbles induced with supersaturation of the gas in a luminol solution and the variation in bubble dynamics.

  14. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2x2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent

  15. Emociones y comportamiento pro-ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Durán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Basándonos en los trabajos de Fishbein y Ajzen (1975, 1980, Ajzen y Madden, (1986, Ajzen, (2002, este trabajo propone una extensión del modelo de la Teoría de la Conducta Planificada (TCP para poder explicar mejor el comportamiento pro-ambiental. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es explorar la importancia de los aspectos emocionales a la hora de comprender y explicar la conducta de reducir la utilización del coche más allá de la explicación dada por la TCP. Así, se construyó un cuestionario que se aplicó a una muestra de 797 representativa de la población gallega. Los resultados muestran a la ira como una de las variables que contribuyen a la explicación de esa conducta siendo su peso incluso superior a uno de los elementos centrales del modelo de la TCP, como es el control conductual.

  16. 3rd International symposium on ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Dante I; Novais, Paulo; ISAmI 2012; Ambient Intelligence : Software and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  17. ESPACIOS RENATURALIZADOS COMO AMBIENTES DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rosas

    2015-12-01

    Los espacios renaturalizados, se consolidan como ambientes de aprendizaje para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía y la convivencia, a partir del desarrollo de metodologías participativas y haciendo uso de tecnologías apropiadas. Para ello se diseñaron e implementaron una serie de sesiones, con el fin de contribuir a la transformación del entorno y de permitir la conectividad ecológica presente en el ecosistema estratégico ubicado allí mismo, además de consolidar experiencias en el desarrollo de capacidades ciudadanas esenciales. Para la institución educativa se construyó, un jardín agroecológico y se sembraron árboles con fines productivos y ornamentales, permitiendo de esa manera la generación de identidad con respecto a los espacios renaturalizados, la estructura ecológica, además de reconocer las relaciones socio-ecológicas que alrededor de estos espacios se desarrollan. Entorno a la intervención, se construyeron conocimientos propios del currículo, además se identificaron las problemáticas ambientales propias de la zona, permitiendo de esa manera la armonización de la relación naturaleza-cultura y la adaptación ecosistémica al cambio climático, que requiere la ciudad de Bogotá.

  18. 4th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenborg, Kasper; Rodríguez, Juan; Tapia, Dante; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  19. 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Nihan, Céline; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  20. Cinema Interativo: novas possibilidades de ambientes imersivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Aly Menezes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto “Cinema Interativo: novas possibilidades de ambientes imersivos”, sintetiza a pesquisa  de-senvolvida pela autora, como projeto de Pós-Graduação no curso Tecnologia da Inteligência e Design Digital – PUC-SP. A pesquisa busca reunir uma análise atenciosa diante da entrada da tecnologia di-gital, tecnologia esta que interfere inevitavelmente na linguagem cinematográfica, e não apenas em sua estética. Com a abertura do mundo dos números binários (código das informações computacionais, e a possibilidade de digitalização da imagem, o que era matéria se desmaterializa e infinitas possibilidades criacionais surgem, inclusive, abrindo portas para experimentar o cinema de maneira expandida. No-vas formas de construção narrativa, nova relação espectador-cinema, um novo tempo e espaço, novas formas de significações; tudo pode sofrer alterações. O texto parte de estudos feitos com base em teóri-cos como Peter Weibel, Jeffrey Shaw, Lev Manovich, entre outros.

  1. Ciudades y contaminación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mayr Maldonado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente Dossier aborda una de las problemáticas más complejas de nuestros tiempos. En 2007, por primera vez en la historia de la humanidad, la concentración de población mundial asentada en centro urbanos superó la cifra del 50%; porcentaje que muestra una acelerada dinámica de este fenómeno si se compara con los datos de 1970 y 1990, cuando la población rural a nivel mundial era de un 57.4% y un 62.9% respectivamente. Esta dinámica de movilidad poblacional de lo rural hacia lo urbano se ha dado en un periodo de tiempo relativamente corto y su gran velocidad plantea nuevos desafíos en diferentes materias; una de ellas, los procesos de contaminación producida por la actividad humana y los sistemas productivos en los centros urbanos, situación que tiene especialafectación en la calidad de vida de los ciudadanos y del medio ambiente en general. Éste es el tema del cual trata el presente Dossier.

  2. EVALUACION DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL EN OBRAS VIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez D.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es escrito, con el propósito de proporcionar elementos técnicos que contribuyan para orientar a los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinario, en valorar objetivamente los impactos ambientales provocados por la construcción de obras civiles y que suscitan el interés del dominio público y profesionales en la materia. Para ello hemos contado con la experiencia acumulada en instituciones gubernamentales y de índole privado y con nuestra experiencia profesional, en la construcción de obras civiles. El contenido del mismo, toma en cuenta varios criterios de especialistas en la materia y recursos disponibles; con ética y rigurosidad técnica. El objetivo de la evaluación de impactos ambientales, es predecir sobre la marcha y a futuro, estados alternativos de recursos y ambiente; convencidos que el cuido de la naturaleza puede convocar la voluntad de todas las partes y lograr trabajar armoniosamente, por la construcción de un futuro con desarrollo sostenible para nuestra nación y generaciones posteriores; satisfaciendo las necesidades del presente, sin poner en riesgo los recursos del futuro.

  3. 7th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan; Novais, Paulo; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Yoe, Hyun; Ramírez, Andres; Villarrubia, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inherent...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  5. Desenvolvimento de um modelo da cinética enzimática da transesterificação de óleos vegetais para produção de biodiesel - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i1.79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a tecnologia de produção enzimática do biodiesel é mais uma alternativa em relação aos métodos químicos que utilizam catalisadores ácidos ou básicos. A enzima lipase utilizada como catalisador desse processo pode ser obtida de microrganismos como Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. cepacia, Candida antarctica, dentre outros. Neste trabalho, propomos um mecanismo da transesterificação de triglicerídeos catalisada por enzima lipase. O processo foi formalizado em três reações consecutivas, nas quais são formados os diglicerídeos e monoglicerídeos. Outras três etapas intermediárias das reações envolvendo a lipase foram consideradas. A identificação dos parâmetros do modelo desenvolvido foi feita para condições reacionais em que a alimentação é feita na proporção estequiométrica dos reagentes. O modelo desenvolvido foi testado com dados experimentais em diversas condições operacionais encontradas na literatura. Os resultados das simulações mostram boa flexibilidade do modelo, ajustando os dados em várias condições de transesterificação enzimática para produção de biodiesel.

  6. Does spacecraft potential depend on the ambient electron density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. T.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cahoy, K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Shprits, Y.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Wong, F.

    2014-12-01

    In a Maxwellian space plasma model, the onset of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous altitudes is due to the ambient electron, ambient ions, and secondary electrons. By using current balance, one can show that the onset of spacecraft charging depends not on the ambient electron density but instead on the critical temperature of the ambient electrons. If the ambient plasma deviates significantly from equilibrium, a non-Maxwellian electron distribution results. For a kappa distribution, the onset of spacecraft charging remains independent of ambient electron density. However, for double Maxwellian distributions, the densities do have a role in the onset of spacecraft charging. For a dielectric spacecraft in sunlight, the trapping of photoelectrons on the sunlit side enhances the local electron density. Using the coordinated environmental satellite data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellites, we have obtained results that confirm that the observed spacecraft potential is independent of the ambient electron density during eclipse and that in sunlight charging the low-energy population around the sunlit side of the spacecraft is enhanced by photoelectrons trapped inside the potential barrier.

  7. Effect of ambient temperature on female endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Julie; Sandsund, Mariann; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature can affect physical performance, and an ambient temperature range of -4 °C to 11 °C is optimal for endurance performance in male athletes. The few similar studies of female athletes appear to have found differences in response to cold between the genders. This study investigated whether ambient temperature affects female endurance performance. Nine athletes performed six tests while running on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at different ambient temperatures: 20, 10, 1, -4, -9 and -14 °C and a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up, followed by four 5-min intervals at increasing intensities at 76%, 81%, 85%, and 89% of maximal oxygen consumption. This was followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Although peak heart rate, body mass loss, and blood lactate concentration after the incremental test to exhaustion increased as the ambient temperature rose, no changes in time to exhaustion, running economy, running speed at lactate threshold or maximal oxygen consumption were found between the different ambient temperature conditions. Endurance performance during one hour of incremental exercise was not affected by ambient temperature in female endurance athletes.

  8. Agents and ambient intelligence achievements and challenges in the intersection of agent technology and ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, T

    2012-01-01

    The concept of an intelligent agent - a computational system capable of performing certain tasks autonomously - derived from the growing potential of digital computers in the mid 20th century and had been widely adopted by the early 1990s. Partly in parallel with this concept, the perspective of ambient intelligence (AmI) emerged in the late 1990s.Agent technology and AmI have many similarities, and the main purpose of this book is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the scientific area that integrates these two. The book addresses a wide variety of topics related to agents and A

  9. Contabilidade ambiental: sistema contábil de gestão ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Lagoeiro de Oliveira, Fernando Augusto; Dos Santos Antunes, María de Lourdes; Lepsch, Miriam; Instituto de Investigaciones en Administración, Contabilidad y Métodos Cuantitativos para la Gestión

    2012-01-01

    Los sistemas desarrollados por la Contabilidad y Gestión Ambiental se refieren al concepto de desarrollo sostenible adoptada por el Banco Mundial, la UNESCO y otras organizaciones internacionales, para marcar una nueva filosofía de desarrollo que involucra la eficiencia económica con la justicia social y la prudencia ecológica, defendido por Sachs. La actividad económica mundial sostenible no debe ser pensado o practica por separado, ya que esta actividad está interrelacionado en el diálogo e...

  10. Caracterização físico-química e enzimática de uva 'Patricia' cultivada na região de Primavera do Leste - MT Physical chemistry and enzymatic characterization of grape 'Patricia' cultivated in Primavera do Leste - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Teodora Aguil Santana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de uva (Vitis labrusca L. cv Patrícia, produzidos na região de Primavera do Leste no Estado de Mato Grosso, foram analisadas pelos parâmetros químicos segundo a legislação: pH, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, acidez titulável, vitamina C e atividade enzimática das enzimas polifenoloxidase (PPO; peroxidase (POD; pectinametilesterase (PME; e poligalacturonase (PG. O valor de sólidos solúveis (SS das amostras analisadas foi de 17,69 ºBrix. O valor de pH encontrado foi de 3,69. A acidez titulável (AT apresentou valor de 0,8 g de ácido tartárico/100 mL de suco. O valor de vitamina C foi de 17,54 mg/mL. A atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO foi de 22,15 U/g/min. As atividades enzimáticas para as enzimas peroxidase (POD e poligalacturonase apresentaram valores de: 11,59 U/g/min e 3778,61 U/g/min, respectivamente. Não foram detectados valores para a atividade enzimática da pectinametilesterase (PME, nas amostras analisadas. Os parâmetros químicos analisados se encontram dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Pelos resultados apresentados a cultivar Patrícia apresenta um valor elevado de vitamina C e, quando em estado de maturação, apresenta valores elevados da atividade enzimática da poligalacturonase (PG.Grape samples (Vitis labrusca L. 'Patrícia', produced in the area of Primavera do Leste in the State of Mato Grosso, were analyzed by the chemical parameters according to the legislation: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, titrable acidity, vitamin C and enzymatic activity of the polyfenoloxidase (PPO; peroxydase (POD; pectinmetylesterase (PME; and polygalacturonase (PG. The value of soluble solids (SS of the analyzed samples it was of 17.69 ºBrix. The value of found pH was of 3.69. The titrable acidity (AT showed value of 0.8 g of acid tartaric/100 mL juice. The vitamin C value was 17.54 mg/mL. The enzymatic activity of the polyfenoloxidase (PPO was 22.15 U/g/min. The enzymatic activities for the enzymes

  11. Estudo do potencial fitotóxico de extratos de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre a divisão celular e atividade enzimática em plântulas de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. PAULA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho visou avaliar a ação fitotóxica de extrato e frações obtidas das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L sobre a divisão celular e atividade das enzimas α-amilase, catalase, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase em plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa, var Grand rapis. Sementes de alface foram expostas às concentrações de 250, 500 e 1000 µg.mL-1 do extrato de Bauhinia ungulata e frações do mesmo, em condições ambientais controladas. Após três dias de protusão radicular, as raízes das plântulas foram cortadas e submetidas a preparo específico para visualização e contagem do número de células em cada fase mitótica. No sétimo dia, as amostras foram submetidas à avaliação da atividade enzimática utilizando técnica específica para cada enzima e leitura espectrofotométrica. Na análise da divisão celular observou-se que houve redução no número de células em mitose nas raízes das plântulas testadas, e a fração acetato de etila apresentou maior efeito inibitório sobre a divisão celular. O efeito sobre as enzimas que demonstram alterações no sistema de defesa antioxidante de L. sativa mostram que o extrato bruto e frações alteraram a produção das enzimas α- amilase, peroxidase, catalase e polifenol oxidase em, ao menos, uma das concentrações testadas, sendo um indicativo de estresse que interfere na divisão celular. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a presença de compostos com atividade inibidora ou estimulatória nas folhas de B. ungulata revelando potencial fitotóxico sobre as plântulas de alface.

  12. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais = Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveisestudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%,espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commerciallaying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical compositionof hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the

  13. Kağıt Geri Dönüşümünde Enzim ve Ultrasonik Enerji Kullanımı / Use of Enzyme and Ultrasonic Energy in Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Karademir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medeniyetin kurulmasında, bilgi depolama ve aktarımında tartışmasız bir yeri olan kâğıt, günümüzde artık çok çeşitli amaçlar için hayatın her kademesinde yer almakta, giderek tüketimi inanılmaz boyutlara ulaşmaktadır. Kâğıt sektöründe hammadde problemine çözüm için, sürdürülebilir ormancılık çalışmalarından daha ziyade, sürdürülebilir geri dönüşüm teknolojilerini geliştirmek gerekmektedir. Bu anlamda atık sınıfına giren kâğıtın, lifler dışında bulunan bütün bileşenlerini en ekonomik ve çevreci metotlarla ayırmak son derece önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, toner baskılı ofis kâğıtlarının mürekkep ve kirliliklerinden arındırılmasında enzim ve ultrasonik enerji kullanımı konusunda elde edilen bazı sonuçlar tartışılmış ve geri dönüşüm açısından kâğıt sektörü çevresel açıdan irdelenmiştir. Use of Enzyme and Ultrasonic Energy in Paper Recycling Paper has undeniable key roles in establishing civilization, archiving and transferring knowledge. Paper is in all parts of daily life for different purposes today and its consumption is getting at unbelievable level. For solving the problems related to insufficient raw materials, the sustainable recycling technologies should be developed rather than concentrating on sustainable forestry practices. In this sense, extracting all materials from waste papers with economical and environmentally friendly methods are extremely important. In this study, some results obtained from an experimental study carried out on the deinking of toner printed office papers with the help of enzymes and ultrasonic energy were discussed and paper industry was examined in respect to recycling and environment.

  14. Obtención de Preparados Enzimáticos a Partir de Tallos de Piña (Ananas Comosus con Potencialidades de uso en la Biotecnología y la Medicina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento y purificación de productos naturales a partir de plantas es una vertiente muy importante de la biotecnología moderna. La bromelina (EC 3.4.22.32 es una proteasa aislada de plantas de piña que se ha empleado tradicionalmente en la industria alimenticia. La enzima también se ha usado en la industria farmacéutica. En la actualidad existe un renovado interés por ella, desde que fue descrita su actividad antitumoral y antimetastizante frente a algunos tumores. En este estudio, se obtuvo extracto crudo de bromelina a través de un procedimiento de extracción novedoso. Los rendimientos de la tecnología fueron de 20.8 g de producto/kg de tallos, con una actividad específica de 1.36 U/mg. Tiene pH óptimo 7 para la hidrólisis de hemoglobina durante 20 minutos. El producto aislado es muy estable en un rango de pH de 3-9 y temperaturas de hasta 50°C durante cuatro horas. El extracto crudo se utilizó en la industria biotecnológica para obtener un hidrolizado proteico de Clorella vulgaris, con un rendimiento (g de hidrolizado/100 g de biomasa de 30%. La preparación enzimática fue purificada. Se determinó la secuencia amino terminal de la mayor fracción obtenida. Se realizó un estudio toxicológico y farmacológico del producto parcialmente purificado por cromatografía de intercambio iónico en carboximetil celulosa-52 (CMC-52. La dosis letal media a dosis única fue 216.35 mg/kg y a dosis repetida 105.91 mg/kg. La proteasa, comparada con el citostático 5-Fluoracilo, mostró una marcada actividad antitumoral frente a los tumores trasplantables de ratón: leucemia P-388, carcinoma pulmonar de Lewis, tumor ascítico de Ehrlich, sarcoma-37 y adenocarcinoma mamario-755. Frente a este último se demostró por primera vez la actividad antitumoral de la bromelina.

  15. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  16. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  17. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  18. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Sandra T; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  19. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Anne Barrére, Antonio Chizotti e Maria Minayo. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e entrevistas com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas a professores e pais e observação em sala dos alunos. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir com a escola na sensibilização de futuros consumidores, e como trabalhar com conceitos de valores do ‘ser’ e não do ‘ter’. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a realidade na qual foi pesquisado, o reflexo do consumismo e contundentes e que o consumismo não é o único fator a influenciar nas relações e formação subjetiva dos alunos.Palavras-chave: educação; ensino fundamental; anos iniciais; consumismo; sociointeracionismo.

  20. Sociología Ambiental: 5 lecciones virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    5 LECCIONES EN SOCIOLOGÍA AMBIENTAL: TEMA 1. La crisis socioambiental y su interpretación sociológica; TEMA 2. Ecoutopías: movimentos y pensamientos ecologistas; TEMA 3.- Desastres socioambientales; TEMA 4.- Megaproyectos: análisis impactos socioambientales; TEMA 5.- Globalización y Medio Ambiente. Cada lección desarrolla un tema principal del corpus teórico de la sociologia ambiental contemporánea. Contienen los materiales y links necesários para su seguimiento por parte del lector. Los tema...

  1. Conociendo el ambiente de aprendizaje y sus contenidos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El video nos muestra el ambiente de aprendizaje que se constituye en el entorno básico donde el estudiante podrá descargar y consultar todo el material de aprendizaje y comenzar su proceso de formación autónoma. En el menú principal del ambiente interactivo puede ver los principales menús como Nuestro ambiente, Información general, Metodologías, Guías de trabajo, Glosario, los cuales ayudaran a complementar el proceso. También están los objetos de aprendizaje que facilitan la comprensión del...

  2. Perspectiva jurídico-financiera del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo plantea el estudio del concepto del medio ambiente y de los principios que lo informan desde el gasto público. El marco teórico es el Derecho financiero constitucional y el Derecho de los gastos públicos. Se analiza ampliamente la concepción de la protección del medio ambiente como necesidad pública y los instrumentos jurídicos para satisfacer esta necesidad.La posibilidad de configurar el medio ambiente como necesidad pública obliga al análisis de la compleja función otorgada al...

  3. A RESPONSABILIZAÇÃO CIVIL DO DANO AMBIENTAL FUTURO

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tiago Vieira de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a análise do microssistema jurídico da responsabilidade civil do dano futuro no plano ambiental. Traz, como solução aos atuais atos humanos, a teoria do conhecimento-emancipação, esta responsável por mostrar à humanidade um repensar nas ações do homem frente ao meio ambiente, tratando-o como sujeito de direito e não de deveres. Vê-se que o meio ambiente possui uma visão antropocêntrica moderada; visto isso, a Constituição definiu o meio ...

  4. Política, derecho y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    González Ballar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Una introducción breve al tema. Una primera parte referente a la situación de la política, del derecho y del medio ambiente en Costa Rica, analizando esencialmente lo que consideramos son errores cometidos en los aspectos relacionados con la política, su relación con el derecho y el medio ambiente. Una segunda parte donde hacemos una propuesta sobre lo que realmente sería el punto prioritario por el cual debe comenzar cualquier intento por mejorar y realizar la protección del medio ambiente e...

  5. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  6. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent... methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental... in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human Exposure...

  7. [Research on Raman spectra of isooctane at ambient temperature and ambient pressure to 1. 2 GPa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei-fei; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2012-03-01

    The experimental study of the Raman spectral character for liquid isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, ATM) was con ducted by moissanite anvil cell at the pressure of 0-1.2 GPa and the ambient temperature. The results show that the Raman peaks of the C-H stretching vibration shift to higher frenquencies with increasing pressures. The relations between the system pressure and peaks positions is given as following: v2 873 = 0.002 8P+2 873.3; v2 905 = 0.004 8P+2 905.4; v2 935 = 0.002 7P+ 2 935.0; v2 960 = 0.012P+2 960.9. The Raman spectra of isooctane abruptly changed at the pressure about 1.0 GPa and the liquid-solid phase transition was observed by microscope. With the freezing pressure at ambient temperature and the melting temperature available at 1 atm, the authors got the liquid-solid phase diagram of isooctane. According to Clapeyron equation, the authors obtained the differences of volume and entropy for the liquid-solid phase transition of isooctane: deltaV(m) = 4.46 x 10(-6) m3 x mol-1 and deltaS = -30.32 J x K(-1) x mol(-1).

  8. Psicologia Ambiental e futuro: reflexões geopolíticas sobre Política Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara

    2005-01-01

    A partir de uma conceituação de ambiente oferecida pelos geógrafos Milton Santos e Aziz Ab'Saber, o artigo propõe, para que se possa chegar à construção intencional do futuro um novo paradigma científico transdisciplinar: a Ciência Ambiental prospectiva. Tal paradigma deveria possibilitar relacionar, em seus projetos de conhecimento e intervenção, ciência, filosofia, história e política, configurando para a Psicologia Ambiental como objeto de estudo as relações entre a subjetividade humana e ...

  9. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  10. Percepção ambiental sobre "meio ambiente" e "educação ambiental" de seringueiros no sudoeste da Amazônia, Mato Grosso, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    zillmer-oliveira, tatiane; Manfrinato, Márcia Helena Vargas

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p119A conversão das áreas naturais em áreas agricultadas é considerada o principal impacto ambiental resultante das atividades humanas e constitui uma ameaça à biodiversidade. Isso pode estar relacionado ao nível de compreensão e percepção da sociedade entre a problemática ambiental e as atividades agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a percepção ambiental dos moradores da comunidade Seringal, inserida na Bacia do Rio Xingu, Querênci...

  11. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  12. The effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce-Torres A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid bridge is a liquid column held captive between two coaxial and parallel solid disks. It is an excellent test bench where measuring the surface tension. In this paper, we used this fluid configuration to examine experimentally the effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension over time. For this purpose, the liquid bridge equilibrium shape was analyzed when the liquid bridge was surrounded by three environments: the uncontrolled ambient, and both air and argon encapsulated in a small glass cover. Ambient contamination produced a sharp decrease of the surface tension of ultra-pure water. The presence of an anionic surfactant in the free surface of an aqueous solution did not inhibit the action of impurities coming from the ambient. Impurities can influence the dynamical behavior of the free surface in flows dominated by the surface tension. Therefore, a careful control of that influence can be crucial in many applications of fluid mechanics.

  13. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  14. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  15. MEDIO AMBIENTE, TUTELAS DE URGENCIA Y PROCESO COLECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Marin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A problemática ambiental vem assumindo grande importância na sociedade atual. A utilização demasiada dos recursos serve como base para grandes discussões. Ao mesmo tempo em que se reconhece ao cidadão o direito de usufruir do ambiente que o cerca, impõe deveres, no sentido de garantir-se a utilização racional dos recursos ambientais. Apesar da existência de uma vasta legislação ambiental, o tema exige maiores mecanismos de controle, visando a proteção e garantia dos recursos naturais. Assim, faz-se necessária uma nova interpretação dos princípios processuais que vigoram no ordenamento, no sentido de melhorar a tutela do bem ambiental.

  16. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  17. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  18. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Uclés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio.

  19. El valor económico del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Uclés Aguilera, David

    2006-01-01

    La economía ambiental y su némesis, la economía ecológica, comenzaron a preocuparse por el medio ambiente en la década de los 70, aunque desde ópticas distintas. Sin embargo, ambas visiones están de acuerdo en el valor del medio ambiente para la economía. La economía ambiental ha desarrollado numerosas metodologías de valoración, que se exponen aquí como una aproximación al concepto de desarrollo sostenible y al de valoración económica del medio. Environmental economy and its Neme...

  20. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  1. Biorregionalismo, ética e justiça ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, retomo a argumentação de Gary Snyder, um libertário biorregionalista, e do socialista John Clark, verificando os limites e possibilidades de suas propostas na formulação de uma ética ambiental, à luz dos critérios estabelecidos por Kenneth Goodpaster (vida e por Tom Regan (valor inerente, para fundamentar uma ética genuinamente ambiental.

  2. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola;

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  3. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission by Ambient Extracellular Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, David E.; Scott A. Shippy

    2007-01-01

    Many neuroscientists assume that ambient extracellular glutamate concentrations in the nervous system are biologically negligible under nonpathological conditions. This assumption is false. Hundreds of studies over several decades suggest that ambient extracellular glutamate levels in the intact mammalian brain are ~0.5 to ~5 μM. This has important implications. Glutamate receptors are desensitized by glutamate concentrations significantly lower than needed for receptor activation; 0.5 to 5 μ...

  4. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-12-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111), versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 hours in ambient, followed by a ~10^3 decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 hours. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~10^3 and mobilities of ~100 cm2/(V*s) for over two weeks in ambient. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  5. O MEIO AMBIENTE COMO DIREITO HUMANO FUNDAMENTAL NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

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    FRANCIELI PUNTEL RAMINELLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO meio ambiente como objeto de proteção iniciou-se com o Direito Ambiental. Este, por sua vez, emana da conscientização acerca das agressões em face do ambiente natural, originário de toda a vida na Terra, o qual, desta forma, resta ameaçado. Desta feita, surgem os princípios diretores do Direito Ambiental, os quais, indiretamente, têm em vista a proteção da saúde e da dignidade humana, ambos assegurados pela Constituição Federal bem como pelos mais diversos tratados e convenções internacionais.Palavras-chave: meio-ambiente; direito ambiental; direito humano fundamental; Constituição Federal; ABSTRACTThe environment as an object of protection began with the Environmental Law. This, in turn, stems from the awareness of aggression in the face of the natural environment, origin of all life on Earth, which thus remains threatened. This time, there are guiding principles of environmental law, which indirectly aim at protecting the health and human dignity, both secured by the Constitution and by various international treaties and conventions.Keywords: environment, environmental law, fundamental human right; Constitution, biodiversity, human dignity; Identificador de Objeto Digital (DOI10.5902/198136947173 

  6. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

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    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  7. Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-12-10

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111) versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 h in ambient, followed by a ∼ 10(3) decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ∼ 10(3) and mobilities of ∼ 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for over 2 weeks in ambient conditions. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  8. ANÁLISIS DE CONFLICTO SOCIO AMBIENTAL

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    María Beatriz Eguiguren Riofrío

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO El presente artículo hace referencia a las problemáticas socioambientales que han venido surgiendo en la Región Sur del Ecuador, las cuales modifican permanentemente el escenario social, político, económico y ambiental, factores que además se encuentran supeditados a fuerzas externas a nivel regional y mundial. Desde la perspectiva socio ambiental podemos observar algunos cambios jurídico – institucional, que se han dado desde el proceso de reforma de la Constitución 2008, cuyo mayor logro ha sido la incorporación de los derechos de la Naturaleza como sujeto de de derecho, situación que pone al país a la vanguardia de reconocer aquellos derechos fundamentales para la vida, pero que irónicamente a nivel de todo el planeta los gobiernos no le dan la debida importancia. Así mismo el texto explica la conflictividad existente en la región sur del Ecuador específicamente en la Provincia de Morona Santiago, sus actores, el proceso y dinámica del conflicto, la identificación de los Actores involucrados, un detenido análisis de posiciones, intereses y necesidades de actores centrales, las estrategias y métodos aplicados por los actores, los resultados de las acciones de cada actor, el papel del Estado y/o autoridades competentes y las acciones emprendidas y balance de la Intervención. De la misma forma se realiza un análisis de nuevos cuerpos legales orientados a recuperar el rol planificador del estado y así mejorar la gestión sobre el manejo del territorio, los recursos naturales y la inversión social, impulsando además un proceso de desconcentración y descentralización. Sin embargo pese a tener un nuevo marco legal bajo un ideal que se orienta a lograr un equilibrio entre el ser humano y la naturaleza (régimen del Buen Vivir o Sumak Kausay, aún estamos lejos de lograrlo, pues en la práctica muchas políticas y acciones se contradicen con los enunciados de la nueva Constitución, por lo tanto ahí reside el gran

  9. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

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    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espacio-temporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  10. Psicologia Ambiental e futuro: reflexões geopolíticas sobre Política Ambiental

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    Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma conceituação de ambiente oferecida pelos geógrafos Milton Santos e Aziz Ab'Saber, o artigo propõe, para que se possa chegar à construção intencional do futuro um novo paradigma científico transdisciplinar: a Ciência Ambiental prospectiva. Tal paradigma deveria possibilitar relacionar, em seus projetos de conhecimento e intervenção, ciência, filosofia, história e política, configurando para a Psicologia Ambiental como objeto de estudo as relações entre a subjetividade humana e a consciência ambiental, na história e na geografia.

  11. Brote del virus ISA: crisis ambiental y capacidad de la institucionalidad ambiental para manejar el conflicto

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    Beatriz Bustos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria salmonera chilena vivió recientemente una crisis de magnitud a partir de la aparición del virus ISA. El artículo examina esta situación, concentrándose en el papel que desempeña la ciencia en las soluciones políticas propuestas, como caso para discutir la capacidad de los mecanismos de gobernanza ambiental neoliberal para solucionar crisis ambientales y económicas. La pregunta que guía el trabajo es: ¿cuál fue el rol de la ciencia en la política ambiental para la industria? El argumento promovido es que la crisis representa un momento de reestructuración de la relación sociedad-naturaleza, en el cual se redefinieron mecanismos de propiedad, control y acceso a recursos naturales, pero en el que, pese al discurso neoliberal de confianza en los expertos y la ciencia como elementos de toma de decisiones, la información científica tuvo escasa relevancia.The Chilean salmon industry recently experienced a crisis due to an outbreak of the ISA virus. The article examines the crisis focusing on the role of science in the policy solutions proposed, to discuss the real capacity of neoliberal environmental governance mechanisms to solve environmental and economic crisis. The question guiding this research is, which was the role of science in environmental policy createdfor the salmon industry? The argument is that the crisis represents a reestructuring of the relationship between society and nature through the redefinition of property rights, control and access to natural resources, but in which, in spite of a neoliberal discourse of trust in experts and science as elements of decision making, scientific information had little relevance.

  12. Avaliação fenotípica da enzima Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC em Enterobacteriaceae de ambiente hospitalar Phenotypic research on Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC enzyme in Enterobacteriaceae from hospitals

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    Rosabel Dienstmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: A resistência bacteriana é problema frequente e importante no ambiente nosocomial. Nesse contexto, várias bactérias apresentam habilidade de desenvolver mecanismos de resistência enzimáticos, destacando-se as Enterobacteriaceae. Nesta família de microrganismos, a produção de Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC é um mecanismo emergente, o que justifica sua vigilância constante. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Este trabalho pesquisou o fenótipo de KPC em 30 isolados clínicos de enterobactérias resistentes a cefalosporinas de terceira geração e sensibilidade diminuída a carbapenem oriundas de dois hospitais (em Porto Alegre e na Grande Porto Alegre, RS. Realizou-se discodifusão com imipenem, meropenem e ertapenem, e 14 cepas com halo INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial resistance is a frequent and important problem in the nosocomial environment. In this context, several bacteria have the ability to develop mechanisms of enzymatic resistance, mainly Enterobacteriaceae. In this family of microorganisms, the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is an emerging mechanism, which should be under constant observation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study investigated the phenotype of KPC in 30 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third generation cephalosporin and carbapenem from two hospitals (Porto Alegre city and Porto Alegre, RS. It was performed disk diffusion method with imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem. Additionally, 14 strains with halo < 22 mm for the last antimicrobial agent underwent modified Hodge test. RESULTS: No sample showed carbapenemase (Hodge negative. DISCUSSION: Despite the fact there was no carbapenemase, resistance to carbapenems is possibly attributed to the presence of beta-lactamases AmpC and/or ESBL associated with changes in the permeability of porin channels. CONCLUSION: Given the emerging nature of KPC, it is important to trace it in Enterobacteriaceae

  13. CONCEPCIONES SOBRE EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL DE DOCENTES DE PROGRAMAS DE LICENCIATURA EN EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL O AFINES

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    Fabiola Cuéllar Caicedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación abordó las concepciones que sobre educación ambiental tienen los docentes universitarios que forman educadores en el área de educación ambiental en las diferentes universidades de Colombia. Ello mediante un enfoque cuali-cuantitativo, estructurando unas herramientas confiables cuyos resultados nos permitieron conocer que los docentes identifican comúnmente la educación ambiental con la ecología, con el medio ambiente, y más allá, la confunden con los PRAES; además no aplican la estructura transversal en los currículos, sino que la toman como una asignatura o un tema más de la asignatura de ciencias naturales o biología. Esto nos indicó que los docentes poseen diversas concepciones, en muchos casos erradas, sobre la educación ambiental. Como resultado de esta investigación se destaca la necesidad de que los docentes reflexionen y si es posible transformen las concepciones y la aplicación de la educación ambiental.

  14. La renta ambiental de los bosques

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    Ovando Pol, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show the measurement of the environmental income from two private Spanish forests, the Cork Oak Woodlands of the Alcornocales Natural Park (Cádiz and Málaga and the Scotch Pine Forest of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid and Segovia. We also contribute to the technical and political debate on governmental regulations of forest environmental accounting in European Union. We have measured the environmental goods and services consumed by private landowners and public visitors through the contingent valuation technique. We have estimated the value of mushrooms gathering by public visitors in the Scotch Pine Forests of the Sierra de Guadarrama taking the price and harvest from the mushroom market in Pinar Grande (Soria. The value for carbon estimated accounts for the avoided damage of the greenhouse effect mitigation due to the sequestration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The environmental valuations show that the private environmental profitability rates in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama are 2.13 % and 3.43 %, in relation to their corresponding land market prices. We have estimated that the total net values added are 1.63 and 3.28 times higher than its corresponding conventional net values added in the Alcornocales Natural Park and in the Sierra de Guadarrama.El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una medición de la renta ambiental en dos tipos de bosques privados representativos españoles, como son los alcornocales del Parque Natural Los Alcornocales (Cádiz y Málaga y los pinares de silvestre de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid y Segovia. Con este objetivo también se pretende contribuir a los debates técnico y político sobre la necesidad de que los gobiernos regulen la aplicación de las cuentas ambientales integradas de los bosques europeos. La medición de los bienes y servicios ambientales del bosque consumidos por los propietarios privados y los visitantes p

  15. Produção de complexos enzimáticos por A. niger a partir de soja por fermentação em estado sólido - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.9447

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    Leandro Daniel De Paris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A soja possui ampla disponibilidade de componentes bioquímicos como proteínas, polissacarídeos, lipídios, carboidratos, minerais, vitaminas, fibras, lecitina, dentre outros, tornando interessante sua utilização como substrato para a fermentação em estado sólido (FES. Este processo, apesar de não ser tão utilizado industrialmente quanto à fermentação submersa (Fsm, apresenta-se viável, pois tem apresentado resultados superiores de produtividade, principalmente no cultivo de fungos filamentosos e na produção de enzimas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de comparar a produção de diferentes tipos de complexos enzimáticos por FES utilizando diferentes tipos de sojas (orgânica, transgênica e convencional com o fungo Aspergillus niger. Realizou-se a caracterização dos substratos para a produção de amilase, protease e lipase, avaliação das curvas de crescimento do microrganismo e das condições ótimas de produção da protease utilizando planejamento de experimentos. As maiores atividades enzimáticas no estudo dos parâmetros da fermentação foram observadas para a protease, utilizando soja convencional com umidade inicial de 50%, 144h de fermentação, concentração inicial do inóculo de 4.106 esporos g-1 e tamanho de partícula de 0,6 mm. O estudo de otimização do processo indicou que os melhores resultados de atividade enzimática para a protease foram obtidos em pH 3,0 e tamanho de partícula dos grãos de soja de 0,6 mm após a fragmentação para as fermentações.

  16. Carbono orgânico total, biomassa microbiana e atividade enzimática do solo de áreas agrícolas, florestais e pastagem no médio Vale do Paraíba do Sul (RJ

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    Cristiane Figueira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Características do solo, como o carbono orgânico total (COT, a biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzimática, são influenciadas por diversos fatores e têm sido apontadas como indicadores adequados de alterações provocadas por diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o COT, a biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzimática de um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico de áreas agrícolas, florestais e de pastagem, no Médio Vale do Paraíba do Sul (RJ. Os sistemas avaliados foram: agricultura anual (AgAn; agricultura perene (AgP; pasto; floresta secundária em estádio inicial de sucessão (FSEI; floresta secundária em estádio médio de sucessão (FSEM; e floresta secundária em estádio avançado de sucessão (FSEA. Foram coletadas amostras de terra na camada de 0-5 cm, em duas épocas distintas (úmida e seca, e analisados o COT e as propriedades biológicas: C da biomassa microbiana - CBM; N da biomassa microbiana - NBM; respiração basal - RB; quociente metabólico - qCO2; quociente microbiano - qMIC; e atividade das enzimas arilsulfatase, β-glicosidase e fosfatase ácida. As áreas agrícolas apresentaram redução no COT e nas propriedades biológicas (atividade enzimática e carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana do solo quando comparadas ao pasto e às áreas florestais. Com as análises de componentes principais, foi possível separar os sistemas agrícolas e os sistemas florestais e de pasto. Observou-se que, em ambas as épocas, a FSEM e o pasto estiveram associados ao COT e à maioria das variáveis biológicas, ao contrário dos sistemas agrícolas.

  17. Degradabilidade in situ de silagens de milho confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.658 In situ degradability of corn silages prepared with bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.658

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    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos sobre a degradabilidade ruminal da silagem de milho. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ, em quatro bovinos adultos, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos nas frações solúvel (a, potencialmente degradável (b, taxa de degradação da fração b (c, degradabilidade potencial (DP e degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS e MO. A DE da PB foi maior para o tratamento SIE (63,13% e menor para o tratamento SIBE (53,69%. A fração b da FDN apresentou maior valor para SIBE (74,13% e menor para SIB (64,07%. O resíduo indigerido (I da FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos. As frações b e I e a taxa c da FDA não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Palavras-chave: degradação, fibra, matéria orgânica, matéria seca, proteína bruta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on corn silage degradation. The in situ technique was used in four adult steers in a 4x4 latin square design. The evaluated treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. There was no difference among treatments in soluble fraction (a, potential degradable fraction (b, fraction b rate of degradation (c, potential degradability (PD and effective degradability (ED of DM and OM. The ED of CP was higher in SEI treatment (63.13% and lower in SBEI treatment (53.69%. The b fraction of NDF was higher for SBEI (74.13% and lower for SBI (64.07%. The NDF indigestible residue (I did not show any difference among treatments. The ADF b and I fraction and the c rate values did not show any difference among

  18. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As candidíases bucais (também chamadas sapinhos que ocorrem em crianças são causadas por uma deficiência imunológica, bem como por outros fatores tais como má higiene bucal e esterilização inadequada dos utensílios utilizados pelas mesmas, que potencializam a ocorrência dessa infecção fúngica. Considerando esse fato, foram avaliadas a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida sp. isoladas em crianças de uma creche pública (Aprisco na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas amostras da mucosa bucal de 364 alunos de 1 a 5 anos de idade. Elas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, incubadas por 72 horas a 37ºC e identificadas por testes micológicos. Verificou-se que 67 (18% apresentaram leveduras do gênero Candida. A Candida albicans foi a mais freqüente, com 30 isolados (45%, seguida pelas C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondii (17%, C. glabrata (4,5% e C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Com relação às atividades enzimáticas das cepas de Candida albicans, 20% produziram a enzima proteinase e 33%, a fosfolipase. As Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças dessa creche da prefeitura apresentaram uma fraca atividade enzimática. Assim, conclui-se que essas cepas parecem ter uma baixa virulência.Immunedefficiency is one of the main causes of buccal candidiasis, also called thrush, in children. Other factors like inadequate mouth hygiene and inappropriate sterilization utensils potentialize this fungal infection. Considering these facts, Candida sp. frequency and enzymatic activity were evaluated in 364 stocks from mouth mucous of one to five year-old children from a public day care center in Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil. The samples were cultured in dextrose Sabouraud with chloranfenicol agar and incubated for 72 hours at 37°C. They were identified by mycological tests. It was verified that 67 samples (18% presented Candida sp. and the most frequent genus was Candida albicans (30

  19. MEKANISME FLUOR MENGHAMBAT KERJA ENZIM AIR LIUR

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    Melanie S. Djamil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the number of DMF-T remain high, the development continues for its prevention and cures. Fluoride supplement is one of the alternative treatments in tooth decay prevention. Fluoride can suppress the glycolysis cycle by preventing the enolase process, thus preventing 2-P glycerate into PEP. Lack of PEP may cuase the transfer of sugar through PEP phosphotransferase system, in increasing the acid through glycolysis process being reduced. Salivary enzyme such as lactoperoxidase, myeloperoxidase and total salivary peroxidase play an important role in saliva, especially antimicrobial activity. THe enzyme in peroixdase system work with tyocianate (SCN as a catalisator. In oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxides to hypotiocianate, the enzyme activate the peroxidases system. FLuoride effect to salivary enzyme activities in certain fluoride concentration can inhibit the activities of peroxidases system. Therefore, in a high caries frequency it is better to avoid fluoride administration.

  20. Detección de proteínas prionicas en cerebros de bovino mediante inmunoensayo enzimático. (Detection of prion proteins from bovine’s brains through a ELISA.

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    Farías R., Gustavo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina (EEBpertenece a un grupo de enfermedades neurodegenerativas denominadas Encefalopatías Espongiformes Transmisibles (EETs, dentro de las cuales se destacanademás la Enfermedad de Creutzfeld-Jakob (ECJ con su nueva variante (vECJ en los humanos y el Scrapie en animales. Estas patologías se caracterizan por ser mortales, tener un largo período de incubación, signos neurológicos progresivos y por presentar lesiones vacuolares en la materia gris del sistema nervioso central (SNC. El agente etiológico de estas patologías de denomina “prión” (partícula infecciosa de naturaleza proteica, PrP y consiste en una isoforma infectiva (PrPSc, de una proteína constitutiva celular normal (PrPC que posee una gran resistencia a la proteinasa K. Pese a que en Chile no se han diagnosticado casos de EEB, es importante contar conherramientas diagnósticas de alta especificidad, rápidas y reconocidasinternacionalmente, por lo cual se realizó una inmunodetección de PrP mediante un “kit” de inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA. Se analizaron 90 muestras de óbex bovinos mayores de 30 meses de edad, provenientesde mataderos de la Región Metropolitana. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 2 muestras sospechosas, las que luego de un nuevo ensayo se sumaron al resto de las que inicialmente fueron diagnosticadas como negativas, obteniendo finalmente un 100% de las muestras estudiadas negativas a EEB.A partir de este estudio se establecieron las pautas para la implementación de este método diagnóstico de la EEB en nuestropaís, lo cual nos permite contar con una de las herramientas diagnósticas más rápida, reconocida y utilizada a nivel internacionalpara la prevención, el control y el reconocimiento de la EEB.The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE belongs toa group ofneurodegenerative disease called transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs that it includes ti Creutzfeld-Jakob`sDisease (CJD with his new variant (v

  1. Influência das condições de processo na cinética de hidrólise enzimática de carne de frango Influence of process conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics of chicken meat

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    Louise Emy Kurozawa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A influência da temperatura, pH e razão enzima:substrato na cinética de hidrólise enzimática de carne de frango utilizando a protease Alcalase® 2,4 L foi avaliada neste trabalho. Os experimentos foram conduzidos à temperatura de 43 a 77 °C, razão enzima:substrato de 0,8 a 4,2% p/p e pH de 7,16 a 8,84, de acordo com um planejamento experimental completo, totalizando 17 ensaios. A reação foi monitorada, utilizando-se o método pH-stat para obtenção dos graus de hidrólise em função do tempo de processo. As curvas de hidrólise obtidas apresentaram uma alta taxa inicial de reação, seguida da sua diminuição até alcançar uma fase estacionária. Os resultados experimentais da cinética de reação foram ajustados a um modelo empírico, que consiste na variação do grau de hidrólise em função do logaritmo neperiano do tempo. Esse modelo apresentou um bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação superior a 0,96 e desvio relativo médio inferior a 10%. Os parâmetros do modelo foram avaliados através de um planejamento experimental, de modo a verificar a influência das variáveis de reação sobre eles. O aumento da razão enzima:substrato e da temperatura acarretou maiores valores do parâmetro a. O parâmetro b não sofreu influência da variável razão enzima:substrato e o seu valor aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. A variável pH afetou significativamente os parâmetros estudados.The hydrolysis of chicken breast meat by commercial protease Alcalase® 2.4 L was studied in order to evaluate the temperature, renzyme:substrate ratio, and pH influence on enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics. The tests were carried out under different conditions with respect to temperature (43-77 °C, enzyme:substrate ratio (0.8-4.2% w/w, g enzyme/100 g protein, and pH (7.16-8.84 according to factorial 2³ experimental design with the total of 17 tests. The reaction was monitored by the pH-stat method to obtain the degree of hydrolysis values at

  2. Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies Estudo com dois diferentes ensaios imuno-enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus Mayaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay in which Mayaro virus-infected cultured cells ara used as antigen (EIA-ICC and an IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA for Mayaro serologic diagnosis using 114 human sera obtained during a Mayaro outbreak occurred in Bolivia, in 1987. Results were compared with those obtained by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI. MAC-ELISA was the most sensitive technique for anti-Mayaro IgM detection. MAC-ELISA was twice sensitive as IgM EIA-ICC. The data shows that MAC-ELISA is a practical and valid technique for diagnosis of recent mayaro infection. IgG-ICC showed hight sensitivity and high specificity compared to HAI. The combination of anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM EIA-ICC results presented the highest sensitivity of the study. Anti-Mayaro IgG and IgM simultaneous detection by ELISA-ICC can be used for recent infection diagnosis (in spite of a less sensitive IgM detection than by MAC-ELISA, for surveillance and sero-epidemiologic studies, and for studies of IgG and IgM responses to Mayaro infection.Apresentamos a avaliação de um teste imuno-enzimático no qual células infectadas com o vírus Mayaro são usadas como antígeno (EIA-ICC e a de um teste de captura de IgM (MAC-ELISA, no diagnóstico sorológico de infecções por Mayaro. Soros humanos em número de 114, obtidos durante uma epidemia ocorrida em 1987 na Bolívia, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HAI. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se duas vezes mais sensível que EIA-ICC na detecção de anticorpos do tipo IgM para Mayaro. MAC-ELISA mostrou-se uma técnica válida e prática para o diagnóstico de infecções recentes por Mayaro. EIA-ICC para detecção de IgG mostrou-se mais sensível e também mais específico que HAI. Os resultados da combinação de EIA-ICC para detecção de IgM e IgG de Mayaro apresentaram a maior sensibilidade dentre os testes

  3. Influência das variáveis de processo na alcoólise enzimática de óleo de mamona Evaluation of the influence of process variables on enzimatic alcoholysis of castor oil

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    D. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de aplicação de lipases em processos biotecnológicos para a modificação de óleos e gorduras tem sido objeto de grande interesse nos meios científico, econômico e industrial nos últimos anos. Além da atividade de hidrólise de ésteres, as lipases podem catalisar uma grande variedade de reações de esterificação, transesterificação e poliesterificação. A transesterificação inclui acidólise, interesterificação e alcoólise. Neste trabalho reações de alcoólise de óleo de mamona para produção de ésteres de ácidos graxos foram estudadas devido a sua importância na obtenção de, por exemplo, agentes de antifricção, emulsificantes, intermediários para produzir uma numerosa quantidade de oleoquímicos e combustível alternativo ao diesel e/ou aditivo ao diesel de petróleo (biodiesel. Neste contexto, foi estudada a etanólise enzimática de óleo de mamona com lipase comercial (Lipozyme IM usando n-hexano como solvente. Os experimentos foram realizados variando a temperatura, as concentrações de água e enzima no meio reacional e a razão molar óleo-etanol, de acordo com um planejamento de experimentos pré-estabelecidos. Um modelo empírico foi utilizado para avaliar a influência das variáveis de processo no rendimento e, desta forma, as condições de operação que maximizam a produção de ésteres foram estabelecidas para a enzima utilizada.The use of lipases as biocatalysts in ester synthesis has been the object of growing interest. In addition to glycerol ester hydrolysis, lipases can catalyze a wide variety of esterification, transesterification and polyesterification reactions. The transesterification includes acidolysis, interesterification and alcoholysis. We consider in this report the application of lipases in the alcoholysis of brazilian vegetable oil in the production of fatty acid esters due to its importance as, for example, antifriction agents, food preservatives, emulsifiers and

  4. Enzyme activity and microbial biomass in an Oxisol amended with sewage sludge contaminated with nickel Atividade enzimática e biomassa microbiana num Latossolo tratado com lodo de esgoto contaminado com níquel

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    Marcos Donizeti Revoredo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of nickel in soils of tropical areas under the application of sewage sludge is still not very well known. This study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the impact of the application of sewage sludge previously contaminated with rates of nickel (329, 502, 746 and 1119 mg kg-1, dry basis on a soil cropped with sorghum, in relation to soil enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass. Soil samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments (control and four rates of Ni in the sewage sludge and four replications. C and N of the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatases were sensitive indicators for impact evaluation caused by sewage sludge contaminated with nickel. There were positive correlations between "total" and extractable nickel (Mehlich 1 with C-microbial biomass and negative with the microbial C/N relationship. N-microbial biomass correlated positively with "total" and extractable Ni at the last sampling. At the end of the experiment, the acid phosphatase activity correlated negatively with "total" Ni while the alkaline phosphatase correlated with both forms of the metal.O comportamento do níquel em solos de regiões tropicais, principalmente quando adicionado através de lodos de esgoto, ainda é pouco conhecido. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, localizada no município de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto da aplicação de lodo de esgoto contaminado com níquel (329, 502, 746 e 1119 mg kg-1, base seca sobre a atividade enzimática e a biomassa microbiana de um solo cultivado com sorgo. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em duas épocas (início e final do experimento. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (testemunha

  5. Otimização da extração enzimática da proteína do feijão = Optimization of enzymatic protein extraction from beans

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    Carlos de Oliveira Lopes Junior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a importância do feijão na dieta do brasileiro e, ainda, que este alimento não é permitido na alimentação de fenilcetonúricos, é fundamental promover a extração de suas proteínas, visando à posterior remoção de fenilalanina. No intuito de se otimizar a extração proteica do feijão, dois métodos enzimáticos foram, inicialmente, empregados. Para aquele que produziu o maior rendimento de extração proteica (REP, foi realizado um estudo do efeito de diversos parâmetros, tais como velocidade de centrifugação, tempo de reação, pH inicial e tipo de enzima (uma de Bacillus licheniformis, duas de Bacillus subtilis, uma de Aspergillus sojae e uma de Papaya carica. Os resultados indicaram que o melhor método foi o que empregou uma concentração de matéria-prima de 1:10 (p v-1, pH inicial de 10,5, temperatura de 50ºC, e ausência de agitação emultraturrax. Com relação aos parâmetros testados, o maior REP (93,1% foi obtido ao se utilizar a enzima de Bacillus licheniformis, na velocidade de centrifugação de 10.640 x g, tempo de reação de 3h e pH inicial de 10,5. Considering the importance of beans in the Brazilian diet and the fact that it is forbidden in phenylketonuric feeding, it is relevant to promote the extraction of its proteins, for phenylalanine removal. Aiming for the optimization of protein extraction from beans, twoenzymatic methods were initially employed. For the one that produced the highest protein extract yield (PEY, a study was conducted to assess de effect of several parameters, such as centrifugation velocity, reaction time, initial pH and type of enzyme (one of Bacillus licheniformis, two of Bacillus subtilis, one of Aspergillus sojae and one of Papaya carica. The results showed that the best method was the one that employed a concentration of raw material of 1:10 (w v-1, initial pH of 10.5, temperature of 50°C, in the absence of ultraturrax treatment. With regard to the parameters

  6. Pre and Postharvest Enzymatic Activity in Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims Fruits from the Colombian Lower Montane Rain Forest / Actividad Enzimática Precosecha y Poscosecha en Frutos de Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, en Condiciones del Bosque Húmedo Mo

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    Germán Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “High-Andean fruits” are deemed important because oftheir potential for domestic consumption and exportation. Among them, gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims is an exotic fruit of good acceptance in European markets. However, the technological support associated with the crop is incipient and its short shelf life leads to rapid deterioration of the product. This fact makes it necessary to investigate the physical, physiological and biochemical processes that characterize fruit ripening, in order to take actions to ensure that it arrives in its best possible condition to the consumer. In this context, the current study aimed at identifying enzymatic activity in gulupa fruits during pre and postharvest. Plant materialfrom the Colombian Gene Bank (administered by Corpoica was used. Fruits of known age were periodically harvested to determine the activity of the enzymes α-amylase, polygalacturonase (PG, pectinmethylesterase (PME and polyphenol oxidase (PPO through destructive samplings. It was found that α-amylase and PG are linked to the increase of soluble solids, which favors the sweet taste of the fruit. In turn, the low activity of PPO enables agroindustrial processing without severe fruit browning. / Los “frutales alto-andinos”, se consideran importantes por su potencial de consumo nacional y exportación. Entre ellos está la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, reconocida como un frutal exótico de buena aceptación en mercados europeos. Sin embargo, el respaldo tecnológico asociado al cultivo, es incipiente y su corta vida poscosecha conduce al rápido deterioro del producto. Esto hace necesario plantear estudios de los procesos físicos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos que caracterizan la maduración, con el fin de procurar que el fruto llegue en las mejores condiciones de calidad a los consumidores. El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la actividad enzimática en los frutos de gulupa en precosecha y en poscosecha, con el

  7. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  8. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air monitoring for inorganic....184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to which... arsenic concentrations in the ambient air. (b) The ambient air monitors shall be located at sites...

  9. Effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Adrian C. H.; Er, J. W.; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2015-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume. Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent ambient water was generated by a random jet array in a glass tank. Glass beads of different particle diameters were released continuously into this turbulent ambient using a submerged hourglass, forming particle plumes with a constant efflux velocity; different initial velocities were tested for each particle size. We focused on the region in which the integral length scale of the ambient eddies is larger than that of the particle plume size. Following the arguments of Hunt (1994) and the observation of Hubner (2004) on a single-phase plume, it is expected that in this region, the internal structure or Lagrangian spreading of the particle plume, will not be significantly affected, but the plume centerline would meander due to the ambient turbulence leading to an increase in the Eulerian width. In the presentation, first, we will present our preliminary experimental data which showed that this is also true for two-phase particle plumes. Second, based on this observation, we developed a theoretical framework using a stochastic approach to predict the spreading of the plume. Predictions of the model will be compared with our experimental data. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  10. PERCEPCIÓN AMBIENTAL EN ESTUDIANTES DE SECUNDARIA

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    Benito Zamorano González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó un grupo de 254 estudiantes de una secundaria pública de Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México, adaptando el cuestionario utilizado por el Grup de Recerca Educació i Ciutadani (GREIC de la Universitat de les Illes Balears. El estudio se basa en un conjunto de 39 preguntas distribuidas en cuatro secciones: Afirmaciones relacionadas con el medio ambiente, para indagar su postura; Preocupación por el medio ambiente, para identificar el lugar que genera mayor interés; Problemas ambientales, sirvió para identificar el conocimiento de la problemática que afecta a su región y la cuarta sección Acciones para hacer un mundo mejor, para identificar la disposición de los estudiantes para mejorar el ambiente. La validación del cuestionario adaptado refiere un coeficiente del Alfa de Cronbach de 0.862 y los datos en estudio representan de forma generalizada la percepción ambiental que tienen los estudiantes y manifiestan la importancia de la educación ambiental.

  11. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

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    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  12. El ambiente en la agenda periodística

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    Lisbeth Fog Corradine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente en la agenda periodística da cuenta de las dinámicas y de las relaciones entre los hechos que son noticia en el campo ambiental, los medios de comunicación y la ciudadania. Inicia con una mirada a las páginas de medio ambiente en los diarios colombianos durante tres meses del 2006, hace un recuento de los diferentes enfoques de los medios masivos de comunicación frente al tema ambiental, para concentrarse luego en las historias periodísticas sobre ambiente, desde la generación de la idea hasta el impacto que tiene sobre el público receptor. Este proceso realiza tambien una mirada general a la investigación científica en Colombia, en especial, la que se realiza en temas ambientales y en particular en el departamento de Córdoba.

  13. Axisymmetric field generation within an ambient axial field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, A. A.; Sarson, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of magnetic field in a homogeneous, electrically conducting fluid - as required for the dynamo generation of the fields of many astrophysical bodies - is normally a threshold process; the dynamo mechanism, applicable to such bodies in unmagnetised environments, requires motions of sufficient strength to overcome the innate magnetic diffusion. In the presence of an ambient field, however, the critical nature of the field generation process is relaxed. Motions can distort and amplify the ambient field for all amplitudes of flow. For motions with appropriate geometries, an internal `dynamo-like' field of appreciable strength can be generated, even for relatively weak flows. At least a minority of planets, moons and other bodies exist within significant external astrophysical fields. For these bodies, the ambient field problem is more relevant than the classical dynamo problem, yet it remains relatively little studied. In this paper we consider the effect of an axial ambient field on a spherical mean-field α2 ω dynamo model, through nonlinear calculations with α-quenching feedback. Ambient fields of varying strengths, and both stationary and oscillatory in time, are imposed. Particular focus is placed on the effects of these fields on the equatorial symmetry and the time dependence of the preferred solutions.

  14. Crisis ambiental, desastre natural y la "sociedad desierto"

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    Reynol Díaz Coutiño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis ambiental y los "desastres naturales" se muestran como un conjunto que está definido por la sensibilidad de los factores de correlación. La crisis ambiental se entiende como los cambios "inesperados" delos procesos de aquellos factores que forman el ambiente local. La transición silenciosa de tales cambios altera, cuando va más allá de ciertos límites, el frágil balance del medio ambiente, hasta que emerge el desastre. En este sentido, el desastre nos es natural, pero sí los fenómenos meteorológicos, geológicos o biológicos que lo provoca, los cuales afectan el medio ambiente físico de las criaturas vivientes. Considerando el estado de Sinaloa como un territorio local, este no está exento de las contradicciones medioambientales (riesgos y crisis o los desastres tales como ondas de calor, sequía, inundaciones, ciclones, heladas, granizadas y otros tipos de tormentas. La falta de interés de la sociedad local de tomar parte en la apropiación del riesgo y de sus implicaciones contribuye con estas contradicciones. Esta es la sociedad desierto, la cual se debate en una condición de desacuerdo moral.

  15. Quantificação dos níveis endógenos de auxinas e da actividade enzimática das polifenoloxidases em oliveira (Olea europaea L. Quantification of endogenous auxin levels and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity in olive (Olea europaea L.

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    C. Serra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade enzimática de polifenoloxidases foi avaliada em folhas e na zona apical, média e basal de ramos de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L., comuns no Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar’ e ‘Cobrançosa’, mostrando que a actividade enzimática nas folhas foi muito superior à encontrada em tecidos de ramos do ano. Maior actividade enzimática foi também detectada na variedade ‘Cobrançosa’ versus ‘Galega vulgar’. As condições óptimas para a determinação da actividade enzimática foram: pH= 5.5 e T= 40 ºC, com 20 mM de 4-metilcatecol em tampão acetato. Nestas condições o KM determinado foi: 2,60 e 3,48 mM com o método de Michaelis-Menten e Lineweaver-Burk, respectivamente. A melhor recuperação das auxinas AIA (ácido indol-3-acético e AIB (ácido indolbutírico em material vegetal foi conseguida através da extracção das amostras com acetona. A separação, identificação e quantificação do AIA e AIB em padrões, material vegetal dopado (tecidos de oliveira dopados com uma concentração conhecida de padrão e não dopado, foi efectuada por técnicas cromatográficas (HPLC-DAD e LCMS, mostrando os resultados taxas de recuperação superiores a 40% para o AIA e 60% para o AIB.The poliphenoloxidase enzymatic activity was evaluated in two olive cultivars (Olea europaea L. widespread in Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar and ‘Cobrançosa. Leaves and apical, medium and basal regions of the year stems were used as sample material. When compared with the different regions of the year stem, the results have shown that enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the leaves of both cultivars. Between cultivars, it was observed that ‘Cobrançosa’ presented higher enzymatic activity than ‘Galega vulgar’. The pH at 5.5 and 40 ºC temperature, using 20 mM of 4methylcatecol in acetate buffer were the optimized conditions for the enzymatic analysis. Under these conditions, the measured KM was 2,60 and 3,48 m

  16. Estudio de laboratorio del efecto de las concentraciones de calcio y caseína, el pH y la temperatura sobre la incorporación de proteínas lácteas al coágulo obtenido por acción enzimática

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    Pires Miryam S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of casein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, temperature and pH on the amount and size of protein aggregates (fines in the whey produced by enzimic coagulation of nonfat milk was studied in laboratory conditions. Casein concentrations about 0.3 g/L showed a minimal amount of caseins in the whey, with presence of small aggregates of casein micellles. Ca2+ concentrations higher than 5 mM were neccesary to reduce the whey protein to a minimum constituted by protein particles smaller than casein micelles. The coagulation temperature, in the 35 - 45oC range, produced almost no variations in the whey proteins. The obtention of a minimum amount of whey proteins was possible only in a narrow pH range around 6.4. These results pointed to casein concentration and pH as important variables to be controlled in connection with the process yield.

  17. Influência do tamanho das partículas na solubilização enzimática da proteína do farelo de soja = The influence of particle size in the enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Stenzel; Ana Kelly Girata; Nehemias Curvelo Pereira; Gisella Maria Zanin; Oswaldo Curty Motta Lima

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho das partículas na quantidade de proteína solubilizada a partir do farelo de soja. O farelo foi peneirado e cada fração foi submetida à hidrólise enzimática com as proteases Alcalase e Flavourzyme. Ashidrólises foram realizadas a 60ºC, agitação de 100 rpm, concentração de Alcalase 0,5% (proteína/proteína) por 3h e concentração de Flavourzyme 1% (proteína/proteína) por 5h. A quantidade de proteína solubilizada foi determinada pelo ...

  18. Influência do tamanho das partículas na solubilização enzimática da proteína do farelo de soja - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.696

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Stenzel; Ana Kelly Girata; Nehemias Curvelo Pereira; Gisella Maria Zanin; Oswaldo Curty Motta Lima

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho das partículas na quantidade de proteína solubilizada a partir do farelo de soja. O farelo foi peneirado e cada fração foi submetida à hidrólise enzimática com as proteases Alcalase e Flavourzyme. As hidrólises foram realizadas a 60ºC, agitação de 100 rpm, concentração de Alcalase 0,5% (proteína/proteína) por 3h e concentração de Flavourzyme 1% (proteína/proteína) por 5h. A quantidade de proteína solubilizada foi determinada pelo...

  19. Inoculante enzimático-bacteriano, composição química e parâmetros fermentativos das silagens dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Enzymatic-bacterial inoculants, chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of Tanzaniagrass and Mombaçagrass silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marchiori Coan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos de idades de colheita e do uso de inoculante enzimático-bacteriano sobre os parâmetros de fermentação, de composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das silagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. As forragens foram colhidas aos 45 e 60 dias após o corte de uniformização, submetidas a dois tratamentos (A - Ensilagem sem aditivo [Controle]; B - Ensilagem com adição de inoculante enzimático-bacteriano e distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (dois capins x duas inoculações x duas idades de corte, com três repetições. O conteúdo de MS das silagens confeccionadas com as plantas colhidas aos 60 dias de rebrota foi superior àquele das silagens colhidas com 45 dias. As silagens confeccionadas com as plantas colhidas aos 45 dias de rebrota apresentaram os maiores teores de PB (11,9%. Não se observaram efeitos das silagens, dos tratamentos e das idades de corte sobre os teores de hemicelulose, celulose e DIVMS e valores de pH e N-NH3. As silagens do capim-tanzânia apresentaram os maiores teores de MS, FDN, FDA, ácido lático e ácido butírico, enquanto as de capim-mombaça, os de PB e de ácido acético. A adição de inoculante enzimático-bateriano promoveu silagens com menores teores de MS, PB e lignina que as não-tratadas. Os capins tanzânia e mombaça não apresentaram limitações ao processo de ensilagem. O inoculante enzimático-bacteriano não melhorou as características qualitativas, fermentativas e nutricionais das silagens avaliadas.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the harvest time (45 or 60 days of regrowth, and enzymatic-bacterial inoculants on the fermentation characteristics, chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of silages from Tanzânia and Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cultivars. Forages, cut in the different

  20. Determinación de la actividad enzimática extracelular de endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanasa y amplificación de genes endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanasa a partir de Moniliophthora roreri.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se estudio la cinética de fermentación del hongo fitopatógeno Moniliophthora roreri en un sistema de fermentación en estado solido (FES) utilizando bagazo de caña de azúcar (BCA) como sustrato inductor. Los tratamientos (T) evaluados fueron: T1 bagazo de caña con inóculo de M. roreri; T2: Bagazo de caña sin inóculo. Se evaluó la actividad enzimática endo 1, 3(4)-β-glucanasa, pH y biomasa durante un período de 30 días. El hongo fitopatógeno M. roreri se identificó mediante la prueba de PCR y s...

  1. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0

  2. Utilização de dietas úmidas e de rações e água de bebida com edulcorante para leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento histológico e enzimático intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Caio Abércio da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com leitões desmamados visando avaliar os efeitos de oito tratamentos, correspondentes à combinação dos fatores, apresentações de ração (seca e úmida, tipos de ração (sem e com edulcorante e tipos de água de consumo (sem e com edulcorante sobre o desenvolvimento morfológico e enzimático intestinal. Foram avaliadas a altura das vilosidades (V, a profundidade das criptas (C e a relação altura das vilosidades e profundidade das criptas (V:C do duodeno e do jejuno, o conteúdo de proteína na mucosa do jejuno, e as atividades enzimáticas (UA da maltase, sacarase e dipeptidase. Utilizaram-se 32 leitões machos castrados, Large White x Landrace, desmamados aos 21 dias, submetidos aos tratamentos durante oito dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com oito tratamentos, fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, com quatro repetições. Foram observadas diferenças para a altura das vilosidades do duodeno para os grupos tratados com dieta úmida e ração com edulcorante e para a relação V:C do duodeno para os animais que receberam ração com edulcorante. Houve diferença para a UA da sacarase e da maltase para os grupos que receberam água sem edulcorante. As características histológicas foram favorecidas pelas dietas úmidas, o que pode sugerir que esta apresentação foi menos agressiva ao trato digestivo. Para os demais fatores os resultados contrariaram as expectativas de que o tratamento água com edulcorante melhoraria a qualidade do epitélio intestinal. A fase crítica pela qual os leitões foram submetidos, possivelmente, comprometeu os resultados.

  3. Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography across SE Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, DingChang; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Ge, Zengxi; Min, Zhaoxu; Cipta, Athanasius; Yang, Runhai

    2017-02-01

    We analyze seismic ambient noise data recorded at a set of permanent and temporary stations across southeastern Tibet to image crustal structure. High-resolution phase velocity maps are presented based on Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography. Seismic images exhibit more apparent horizontal heterogeneities and show more detailed information compared to previous studies based on traditional ambient noise tomography. As noted from the phase velocity image at 25 s, the rigid high velocity anomalies beneath the Sichuan Basin and the South China Fold System act as a blockage to crustal material expansion, and the distribution of velocity anomalies contributes to the interpretation of a surface clockwise rotation pattern. Our results imply a more complex distributed low-velocity zone rather than two isolated channels beneath SE Tibet.

  4. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  5. Monoclinic deformation of calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation powder diffraction shows that the average crystal structure of calcite at ambient conditions is described with the trigonal space group R 3 bar c but there is a systematic hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening. A modelling of this anisotropic peak broadening with the microstrain model from Stephens (1999) [15] is presented. The observed lattice parameters' correlations can be described by assuming a monoclinic-type deformation of calcite crystallites. A quantitative model of this monoclinic deformation observed at ambient conditions is described with the space group C 2 / c . The monoclinic unit cell suggested at ambient conditions is related with the monoclinic unit cell reported in calcite at high pressure (Merrill and Bassett (1975) [10]).

  6. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  7. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  8. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  9. INFLUÊNCIA DO TREINAMENTO AMBIENTAL NA CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL DE PROFISSIONAIS DA ÁREA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Accioly Baccaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, muchas organizaciones trabajan para minimizar y contribuir para resolver los problemasambientales. En esa dirección, el área de recursos humanos emerge como facilitadora de la implantación deprácticas y políticas ambientales en las empresas, principalmente por la utilización de los programas deentrenamiento. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia del entrenamiento ambiental enla conciencia ambiental de los profesionales de recursos humanos. Con un abordaje cuantitativodescriptivo, se aplicó un cuestionario, ya validado, a 73 profesionales de recursos humanos de la región deLondrina-PR. El análisis de datos involucró la estadística descriptiva y el teste sin parámetros χ 2 dePearson. Los resultados señalaron la relación entre el entrenamiento ambiental y la conciencia ambientalde los profesionales de recursos humanos investigados: de hecho, los que recibieron algún tipo deentrenamiento ambiental presentaron un nivel de conciencia ambiental mayor que los que no recibieronningún entrenamiento en esa área.

  10. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants' visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user's attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE).

  11. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL: A crise ambiental como uma crise da razão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Silva De Gregori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a crise do meio ambiente sob uma abordagem epistemológica, ou seja, a partir do conhecimento produzido em relação à natureza. Verifica-se que o pensamento ocidental, manifestado pelos paradigmas da Ciência Moderna, está ligado à organização dos sistemas econômicos que reconheceram historicamente a natureza apenas como recurso e potencial de produção de capital, vindo a encontrar, por esta via, o limite entrópico da biosfera e, por conseguinte, do crescimento. Abordou-se o processo de construção do conhecimento, questionando-se a possibilidade de concepção de outras perspectivas, fundadas na inseparabilidade entre sujeito-objeto, ação-pensamento e homem-natureza. É percebida a necessidade do ser humano de se re-significar no mundo, conhecendo a complexidade da natureza e pensando além da crise ecológica.

  12. Ambient Response Analysis Modal Analysis for Large Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an outline is given of the basic ideas in ambient respons analysis, i.e. when modal analyses is performed on systems based on output only. Some of the most known techniques are briefly introduced, and the basic problems discussed. The introduced techniques are the frequency domain...... based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. The techniques are illustrated on an example of ambient response measurments...

  13. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... the relationships between ambient air pollution and biological markers of dose and early response. The evidence for each marker was evaluated using assessment criteria which rate a group of studies from A (strong) to C (weak) on amount of evidence, replication of findings, and protection from bias. Biomarkers...

  14. Design participativo de um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de histologia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A progressiva diminuição de carga horária destinada às disciplinas baseadas em microscopia, os altos custos dos laboratórios e a necessidade de materiais multimídia que integrem a teoria com a prática e incentivem os alunos a estudar têm propiciado o desenvolvimento de atlas interativos e ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem, que são, em geral, pouco adotados por professores e alunos. O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de Histolo...

  15. Algunos nuevos retos del derecho ambiental en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hemos sido testigos del nacimiento, y del desarrollo que en su infancia ha tenido el Derecho Ambiental (D.A.). La década de los años setentas permitió ver con gran expectación, como la criatura empezaba a tomar forma. Intuimos que esta nueva criatura del derecho tenía un papel importante que jugar, pues para unos, en su concepción original su objeto esencial u objetivos estaba destinado a equilibrar, por medio de la protección del ambiente, la naturaleza, los recursos naturales, la biosfera. ...

  16. IMPACTOS DEL TURISMO EN EL MEDIO AMBIENTE DE HUANCHACO

    OpenAIRE

    ZAVALETA ALFARO, MARÍA SIXTINA

    2007-01-01

    Se analiza los impactos negativos del turismo sobre el medio ambiente de la Bahía de Huanchaco, previamente se evalúa el flujo de visitantes, la oferta turística en cuanto a recursos naturales, culturales y planta o infraestructura (hoteles, restaurantes, otros). Se incide en al generación de residuos sólidos domésticos, calidad del agua, transporte, deterioro de ecosistema de humedales (calidad ambiental) y se analiza la opinión o percepción del turista a través de una encuesta. Los resulta...

  17. Competitivitat i medi ambient a Catalunya. Part 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Freire González, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Hi ha una creixent preocupació social per la protecció del medi ambient i les pressions que l’activitat econòmica exerceix sobre aquest. Els poders públics, empesos per aquesta demanda social, han d’impulsar polítiques que, sense deixar de considerar el desenvolupament econòmic i la competitivitat de les empreses i l’economia en el seu conjunt, incorporin prioritàriament criteris de protecció mediambiental. Hay una creciente preocupación social por la protección del medio ambiente y las pr...

  18. Direct Protocol for Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging on Agar Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angolini, Célio Fernando F; Vendramini, Pedro Henrique; Araújo, Francisca D S; Araújo, Welington L; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Oliveira, Luciana Gonzaga

    2015-07-07

    Herein we describe a new protocol that allows direct mass spectrometry imaging (IMS) of agar cultures. A simple sample dehydration leads to a thin solid agar, which enables the direct use of spray-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques. To demonstrate its applicability, metal scavengers siderophores were imaged directly from agar culture of S. wadayamensis, and well resolved and intense images were obtained using both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) with well-defined selective spatial distributions for the free and the metal-bound molecules, providing clues for their roles in cellular metabolism.

  19. O Palmito Pupunha, A Gastronomia e o Meio Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O artigo apresentado a seguir trata de uma questão gastronômica associada a um contexto ambiental: a devastação da Mata Atlântica é um fenômeno histórico e atual cada vez mais preocupante, e combatido pela consciência ambiental crescente e pela legislação. Entre os agentes desta devastação, estão os extratores do apreciado palmito juçara, ameaçado de extinção: objetiva-se ...

  20. HISTORIA Y AMBIENTE: UN REPLANTEAMIENTO METODOLÓGICO

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un replanteamiento metodológico de la historia oficial y tradicional, la cual ignora o subestima la relación recíproca entre el ser humano y la naturaleza, particularmente en el tiempo actual en que el capitalismo voraz ha llegado a extremos inimaginables en la destrucción del ambiente, y al mismo tiempo propone una historia ambiental que parte de una concepción dialéctica, holística, sistémica, entrópica y interdisciplinaria de la relación entre el ser humano y s...

  1. Ambient pressure sensitivity of microbubbles investigated through a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on microbubbles clearly indicate a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... 1999, who found a linear reduction of 9.6 dB. Further simulations of Levovist show that also the shape and the acoustic pressure of the driving pulse are very important factors. The best pressure sensitivity of Levovist was found to be 0.88 dB/kPa. For Sonazoid, a sensitivity of 1.14 dB/kPa has been...

  2. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  3. Damping Estimation Using Free Decays and Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Brincker, Rune; Cunha, Álvaro

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of modal damping ratios of Civil Engineering structures is a subject of major importance, as the amplitude of structural vibrations in resonance is inversely proportional to these coefficients. Their experimental identification can be performed either from ambient...... vibration or from free vibration tests. In the last case, the structural response after application of an impulse or after the application of harmonic loads can be used. Ambient vibration tests have the strong advantage of being more practical and economical. However, recent applications of both approaches...

  4. La larga marcha ambiental en la provincia de Santa Fe.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Recibido: Jun. 2008 – Aceptado Sep. 2008 Alejandro Kaminsky La ley 10.000 (T.O. 12.015) de la Provincia de Santa Fe, se construyó como instrumento pionero –09/01/87– del universo jurídico ambiental. Esta verdadera “acción popular de protección” de los intereses colectivos – formalmente denominada “recurso contencioso administrativo sumario” – ostenta las ventajas de la acción de amparo ambiental (ley 25.675), sin exigir las condiciones y requisitos de aquella, y al mismo tiempo prohibe ...

  5. Responsabilidade civil pelo risco da atividade e o meio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Magda

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho se dedica ao estudo da responsabilidade civil e sua aplicação como instrumento de tutela do meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado, assegurado pelo art. 225 da Constituição Federal. Para tanto, analisa a evolução do instituto, evidenciando os valores que nortearam a sua construção e aplicação ao longo do desenvolvimento da sociedade. Discorre, igualmente, sobre o crescimento da conscientização ambiental e da natureza múltipla do sistema jurídico de proteção do m...

  6. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  7. Historia, ambiente, política: el camino de la historia ambiental en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Después de unos años de gestación, la historia ambiental en muchos países de América Latina es actualmente un campo con legitimidad académica y al cual se le reconoce relevancia como espacio de investigación y formación. El artículo hace unalectura sobre la marcha de este campo en la región e individualiza tres aristas que han caracterizado la literatura publicada en América Latina: las teorías y los métodos de la historia ambiental latinoamericana; la lectura cultural de la historia ambiental; y el estudio de las interrelaciones entre expansión territorial, bienes de exportación y nuevos conocimientos entre 1870 y 1930.

  8. VIOLÊNCIA E MEIO AMBIENTE: PODE A EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL CONTRIBUIR PARA A PAZ E A SUSTENTABILIDADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira da Costa Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente a relação social e humana com o meio ambiente sempre implicou em algum tipo de destruição e degradação. Com a constituição da sociedade industrial capitalista e seu desdobramento em sociedade de consumo de massa, esse avanço sobre os recursos naturais tem se dado de forma tão radical que ameaça a continuidade da vida e da biosfera como a conhecemos nos últimos milênios. O texto reflete sobre a relação entre a violência social e o meio ambiente a partir de um feixe de teorias e conceitos provenientes do cruzamento da questão ambiental, da teoria crítica, da teoria da complexidade, da teoria da sociedade de risco e de contribuições de filosofias tradicionais como o Budismo. Os conceitos considerados são os de sustentabilidade, de interdependência, de cidadania ambiental e de justiça socioambiental. Nesse sentido, procura investigar as raízes sociais e psicossociais da violência que condicionam as relações e instituições sócio-culturais, entre as quais figuram a própria ciência, como saber social hegemônico, e a educação; observar suas implicações sobre a vida social e ambiental; e verificar a possível contribuição da educação, em geral, e da educação ambiental como foco curricular, em particular, para transformar ou reorientar essas forças e práticas associadas à violência para fins mais pacíficos e construtivos.

  9. Rol del Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo: protección y prevención en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Heilin; Graciela García, Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A través de este artículo, se pretende difundir la existencia de un órgano llamado "Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo" que tutela la legislación ambiental y los recursos naturales donde todo ciudadano, persona física o jurídica puede plantear denuncias cuando existan violaciones en esa materia. Además, se intenta resaltar los aportes que brinda, no solo para Costa Rica, sino a nivel mundial, debido a que la protección y la prevención es responsabilidad de todos. Los gobiernos, el Estado y sus...

  10. Ambiente y salud: Reflexiones sobre la interacción entre el Derecho Ambiental y el Derecho de la Salud

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista sanitario se entiende por Ambiente “el conjunto de condiciones físicas, químicas biológicas, psicológicas, sociales, culturales y económicas en las que vive una población y sus interacciones”.Asu vez, la Salud Pública ha identificado al ambiente como un determinante de la salud, concibiéndolo como el de mayor significación del proceso salud/enfermedad.Por ende, puede llegar a constituirse en un entorno peligroso o saludable.La salud admite entonces cuatro influencias d...

  11. Psicologia Ambiental e Política Ambiental: questões teóricas e práticas

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Garcia Mira; David Stea; Silvia Elguea

    2005-01-01

    O artigo indaga como contribuir para construir uma ponte entre os psicólogos ambientais e os políticos dado que os psicólogos ambientais estiveram mais preocupados com o desenvolvimento teórico e acadêmico da disciplina do que com conectar áreas aplicadas da Psicologia Ambiental ao mundo complexo da Política Ambiental Aponta que, embora as pontes variem quanto à escala, há outras suposições igualmente importantes a serem consideradas como o contexto democrático e participativo. Apresenta a co...

  12. Daños por frío en zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore and Stearn). II. cambios en fenoles totales y actividad enzimática

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En frutos de zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore and Stearn) se estudió la maduración a temperatura ambiente (20 °C; 50-60 % HR) y el comportamiento de este proceso durante y después del almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas (5, 10 y 15 °C; 80-85 % HR). Durante el cambio de madurez fisiológica a madurez de consumo en los frutos de zapote mamey almacenados a 20 °C por 12 d los fenoles totales disminuyeron de 1653 a 646 mg kg-1 y la actividad de polifenol oxidasa (PFO) se incrementó...

  13. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  14. Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Albrektsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its...

  15. On Modal Parameter Estimates from Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agneni, A.; Brincker, Rune; Coppotelli, B.

    2004-01-01

    Modal parameter estimates from ambient vibration testing are turning into the preferred technique when one is interested in systems under actual loadings and operational conditions. Moreover, with this approach, expensive devices to excite the structure are not needed, since it can be adequately...

  16. Laser ablation plume expansion into an ambient gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an ambient gas is a well-established method employed in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with nanosecond pulses and has been extensively studied in this context. Most of the existing treatments of the plume expansion are tackled by using complex numerical modeling involving specific target...

  17. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  18. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...

  19. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long-ra...

  20. Geoacoustic inversion of ambient noise: A simple method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, C.H.; Simons, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The vertical directionality of ambient noise is strongly influenced by seabed reflections. Therefore, potentially, geoacoustic parameters can be inferred by inversion of the noise. In this approach, using vertical array measurements, the reflection loss is found directly by comparing the upward- wit

  1. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  2. El gasto público ambiental en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Barrantes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   En la actualidad, la sociedad se ha visto amenazada por los altos niveles de degradación ambiental experimentados en los últimos tiempos, y por el creciente agotamiento de los recursos naturales que han limitado la seguridad alimentaria en algunas regiones del país -y en algunos países del mundo- (FMI, 1996. La contaminación ambiental ha sobrepasado niveles críticos y se está revirtiendo en contra del mismo ser humano en términos de salud, disponibilidad de recursos y del disfrute que podía experimentar de la naturaleza (Brown, 1991.   El replanteamiento del estilo de desarrollo requiere la implementación de acciones alternativas que conduzcan a un mejoramiento de la calidad ambiental, a una recuperación de la base de recursos naturales y, en general, a niveles de calidad de la sociedad manifiesto en mejoras de la salud, educación, seguridad, etc. Para tal efecto, se pueden desarrollar un conjunto de indicadores que permitan evaluar el comportamiento y la evolución de los recursos naturales y la calidad ambiental; por ejemplo, indicadores para monitorear la calidad del aire y del agua.

  3. Content-Based Design and Implementation of Ambient Intelligence Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Grootjen, M.; Ubink, E.M.; Zomeren, M. van; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal support of professionals in complex ambient task environments requires a system that delivers the Right Message at the Right Moment in the Right Modality: (RM)3. This paper describes a content-based design methodology and an agent-based architecture to enable real time decisions of informati

  4. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference

  5. Realidad de los sistemas de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Constanza Escobar Cárdenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre la posibilidad de integrar los diferentes sistemas de gestión y la importancia que tiene los sistemas de gestión ambiental para el mejoramiento de las organizaciones. Luego de analizar comparativamente los modelos existentes, la autora presenta algunas recomendaciones de implementación.

  6. Seasonal association between ambient ozone and mortality in Zhengzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijie; Gu, Jianqin; Liang, Shijie; Fang, Fang; Bai, Weimin; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Tao; Walline, Joseph; Zhang, Shenglong; Cui, Yingjie; Xu, Yaxin; Lin, Hualiang

    2016-12-01

    Different seasonal health effects of ambient ozone (O3) have been reported in previous studies. This might be due to inappropriate adjustment of temperature in different seasons. We used daily data on non-accidental mortality and ambient air pollution in Zhengzhou from January 19, 2013 to June 30, 2015. Season-stratified analyses using generalized additive models were conducted to evaluate the seasonal associations with adjustment of temperature with different lagged days (lag0-1 for warm season, lag0-14 for cold season). We recorded a total of 70,443 non-accidental deaths in Zhengzhou during the study period. Significant associations were observed between ambient O3 and mortality in cold season. Every 10-μg/m3 increment of 24-h O3 of 1-day lagged time was associated with a 1.38% (95% CI 0.60, 2.16%) increase in all cause mortality, 1.35% (95% CI 0.41, 2.30%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.78% (95% CI 0.43, 3.14%) increase in respiratory mortality. Similar associations were observed when using daily 1- and 8-h maximum concentrations of O3. No significant association was found during warm season. This study suggests a more pronounced ozone-mortality association in cold season in Zhengzhou, and we suggest that different lagged temperatures should be considered when examining the seasonal health effects of ambient ozone.

  7. O papel da geografia em face da crise ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL DEZIDÉRIO SOUTO

    Full Text Available resumo Diante da crise ambiental atual, diversas disciplinas científicas têm se voltado para sua análise, a fim de apontar soluções para dirimir ou minimizar os danos ambientais e sociais causados pelas atividades econômicas e por outros tipos de fatores de pressão ambiental. Este artigo propõe-se inicialmente a mostrar sucintamente como mudou a visão geográfica predominante no mundo ocidental a respeito da relação entre as populações humanas e o ambiente. Uma mudança de visão que foi reflexo das mudanças que estavam em curso na geografia como um todo, resguardadas as diferenças entre os países. Discute-se ainda que a crise ambiental é uma crise do conhecimento, como afirmam cada vez mais autores. Este texto culmina com as virtudes e limitações da geografia na busca desse entendimento, no intuito de colaborar para seu avançar.

  8. Low ambient temperature and neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Kvetnanský, R; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1995-12-01

    Nutritional factors, such as an excess or a deficiency of glucose, play an important role in neuroendocrine regulations. Hormonal and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were examined in healthy non-obese volunteers under conditions of low ambient temperature. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous injection of insulin in two randomized trials performed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. At room temperature, the typical neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia was established. The increases of ACTH, beta-endorphin, growth hormone and cortisol in response to insulin hypoglycemia failed to be modified by low ambient temperature. Acute cold exposure significantly reduced epinephrine and totally inhibited prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In spite of significant changes in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at low ambient temperature, no striking differences in plasma glucose levels compared to those measured at room temperature were observed. However, under conditions of low temperature the reestablishment of normoglycemia was delayed. No changes in free fatty acids were found under our experimental conditions. The presented data show that low ambient temperature exerts selective effects on some neuroendocrine and metabolic parameters.

  9. Flow by Mean Curvature inside a Moving Ambient Space

    CERN Document Server

    Magni, Annibale; Tsatis, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    We show some computations related in particular to the motion by mean curvature flow of a submanifold inside an ambient Riemannian manifold evolving by Ricci or backward Ricci flow. Special emphasis is given to the analogous of Huisken's monotonicity formula and its connection with the validity of some Li-Yau-Hamilton Harnack-type inequalities in a moving manifold.

  10. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  11. MODERN APPROACES IN THE CONTEXT OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldeanu Dana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI, as a new vision and concept of the tomorrow, gathers a few features regarding both the integration of technology in the environment and the capacity technology has to recognize the user and its context, the system capacity to i

  12. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  13. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  14. Multi-radio resource management for ambient networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, F.; Bria, A.; Badia, L.; Karla, I.; Litjens, R.; Magnusson, P.; Meago, F.; Tang, H.; Veronesi, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Ambient Networks concept targets forthcoming dynamic communication environments, characterized by the presence of a multitude of different wireless devices, radio access technologies, network operators and business actors, which can form instant inter-network agreements with each other. MultiRad

  15. Entrainment of circadian rhythm by ambient temperature cycles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Much is known about how environmental light-dark cycles synchronize circadian rhythms in animals. The ability of environmental cycles of ambient temperature to synchronize circadian rhythms has also been investigated extensively but mostly in ectotherms. In the present study, the synchronization of the circadian rhythm of running-wheel activity by environmental cycles of ambient temperature was studied in laboratory mice. Although all mice were successfully entrained by a light-dark cycle, only 60% to 80% of the mice were entrained by temperature cycles (24-32 degrees C or 24-12 degrees C), and attainment of stable entrainment seemed to take longer under temperature cycles than under a light-dark cycle. This suggests that ambient temperature cycles are weaker zeitgebers than light-dark cycles, which is consistent with the results of the few previous studies using mammalian species. Whereas 80% of the mice were entrained by 24-h temperature cycles, only 60% were entrained by 23-h cycles, and none was entrained by 25-h cycles. The results did not clarify whether entrainment by temperature cycles is caused directly by temperature or indirectly through a temperature effect on locomotor activity, but it is clear that the rhythm of running-wheel activity in mice can be entrained by ambient temperature cycles in the nonnoxious range.

  16. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  17. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  18. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  19. An Ambient Awareness Tool for Supporting Supervised Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, H. S.; Dillenbourg, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ambient awareness tool, named "Lantern", designed for supporting the learning process in recitation sections, (i.e., when students work in small teams on the exercise sets with the help of tutors). Each team is provided with an interactive lamp that displays their work status: the exercise they are working on, if they have…

  20. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  1. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  2. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  3. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  4. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to change below-ground nutrient cycling and thereby alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases. We measured fluxes of CH4 and N2O in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands grown in open-top chambers under ambient and twice...

  5. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  6. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  7. Medio ambiente, empresa y periodismo ambiental. El caso de Canal Natura y las noticias sobre medio ambiente en Andalucía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La revolución industrial del siglo XIX provocó un salto en la evolución de la humanidad sin precedentes, a la que siguieron otras revoluciones como la nuclear y en este final de milenio la de la comunicación. Hoy el progreso se mide no sólo por el beneficio económico que produce una determinada actividad, sino que en el balance intervienen de forma decisiva el respeto que la gestión de un recurso tiene por el medio ambiente.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  9. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2008 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  12. Evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE; un instrumento preventivo de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Gómez Orea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE es un instrumento para integrar primero el medio ambiente en el proceso de formulación de políticas, planes y programas (PPP y verificar después la realidad de ello. La integración consiste en incorporar sensibilidad, criterio, conocimiento y compromiso ambiental al proceso de elaboración del PPP, desde el principio, con el fin de que la decisión pública al respecto sea la más acertada posible. La verificación comporta dos facetas: la comprobación de que efectivamente se ha hecho un esfuerzo de integración ambiental en la elaboración del PPP y la evaluación del resultado conseguido, evaluación que se realiza a través de la identificación, valoración, prevención y seguimiento de los impactos que se producirían en caso de que llegue a ejecutarse.La integración ambiental comienza en el momento mismo en que surge la idea de elaborar el PPP, y su evaluación también; luego se concreta en un documento técnico (Informe de Sostenibilidad Ambiental: ISA que es parte integrante de la documentación del PPP y que se va desarrollando al mismo tiempo que el borrador del PPP; después sigue el proceso de integración incorporando las determinaciones establecidas en la Memoria Ambiental, que incluirá los resultados de la participación pública, a la elaboración del PPP definitivo.La EAE está regulada a nivel de la UE por la Directiva 2001/42/CE sobre evaluación de los efectos de determinados planes y programas en el medio ambiente; en el ámbito español por la Ley 9/2006 y en las comunidades autónomas por la legislación propia.En el procedimiento administrativo a través del que se aplica existe una fase técnicamente crucial: la elaboración al mismo tiempo del borrador del PPP y del ISA, de tal manera que este se podría interpretar como la incorporación de la dimensión ambiental al proceso de elaboración del borrador del PPP, la verificación de ello y la identificación, valoraci

  13. The awareness of Privacy issues in Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar LÓPEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI involves extensive and invisible integration of computer technologies in people´s daily lives: Smart Sensors, Smart Phones, Tablets, Wireless Sensor Network (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, RFID, etc., Internet (Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, You Tube, Blogs, Cloud Computing, etc.. The Intelligent Environments (IE collect and process a massive amount of person-related and sensitive information.The aim of this work is to show the awareness of privacy issues in AmI and to identify the relevant design issues that should be addressed in order to provide privacy in the design of Ambient Intelligence’s applications focused in the user´s domain and involved technologies. We propose a conceptual framework in order to enforce privacy that takes care of interaction between technologies and devices, users and application´s domain with different modules that contain different steps relating to the privacy policies.

  14. EXTRACTING MODAL PARAMETERS FROM STRUCTURES UNDERGOING AMBIENT EXCITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宏星; 陈之炎; 傅志方; 李中付; 宋汉文

    2001-01-01

    On Line Parameter Identification Technique (OLPIT) was presented according to ambient excitation characteristics and the response cross-correlation function that is a sum of decaying sinusoids of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. OLPIT is a new method of identification modal parameters from response of structures under ambient excitation. OLPIT is different from NExT (natural excitation technique) based on ITD method in four aspects: ① The algorithm is improved by the singular-value decomposition (SVD). ② Multi-value of br in the Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is avoided. ③ OLPIT is used in both SIMO (single input, multi-output) and MIMO (multi input, multi-output). ④ The precision of modal parameter identificatioin is improved. The simulation studies demonstrate that the method is effective in identifying complex modes even with close frequencies and is robust to measurement noise.

  15. The large-scale structure of the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a review of a recent construction, the ambient cosmological metric, and its implications for the global geometry of the universe. According to this proposal, the universe is a bounding hypersurface carrying a conformal structure and lying at the (conformal) infinity of a new, 5-geometry which satisfies the Einstein equations with fluid sources. We discuss our main results about the implied topological nature of the conformal infinity of the ambient metric, the non-existence of spacetime singularities on the boundary, as well as the validity of cosmic censorship as a direct consequence of a new principle on the boundary. Various further issues associated with this proposal are also briefly discussed.

  16. Ambient Intelligence 2.0: Towards Synergetic Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emile; Grotenhuis, Frits

    Ten years of research in Ambient Intelligence have revealed that the original ideas and assertions about the way the concept should develop no longer hold and should be substantially revised. Early scenario's in Ambient Intelligence envisioned a world in which individuals could maximally exploit personalized, context aware, wireless devices thus enabling them to become maximally productive, while living at an unprecedented pace. Environments would become smart and proactive, enriching and enhancing the experience of participants thus supporting maximum leisure possibly even at the risk of alienation. New insights have revealed that these brave new world scenarios are no longer desirable and that people are more in for a balanced approach in which technology should serve people instead of driving them to the max. We call this novel approach Synergetic Prosperity, referring to meaningful digital solutions that balance mind and body, and society and earth thus contributing to a prosperous and sustainable development of mankind.

  17. Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications COST Action 2100

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications reports the findings of COST 2100, a project of the European intergovernmental COST framework addressing various topics currently emerging in mobile and wireless communications. Drawing on experience developed in this and earlier COST projects, the text represents the final outcome of collaborative work involving more than 500 researchers in 140 institutions and 30 countries (including outside Europe). The book’s subject matter includes: • transmission techniques; • signal processing; • radio channel modelling and measurement; • radio network issues; and • recent paradigms including ultra-wideband, cooperative, vehicle-to-vehicle and body communications. The research reported comes from a variety of backgrounds: academic, equipment-manufacturing and operational. The information contained in this book will bring the study reported to a wider audience from all those spheres of work. Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications will be of i...

  18. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  19. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Peeters, B.; Hermans, L.

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....

  20. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method......, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. It is not the entention to elect a winner among the four methods, but more to emphasize the different advantages of each of the methods....