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Sample records for ambient field magnitude

  1. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  2. Axisymmetric field generation within an ambient axial field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, A. A.; Sarson, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of magnetic field in a homogeneous, electrically conducting fluid - as required for the dynamo generation of the fields of many astrophysical bodies - is normally a threshold process; the dynamo mechanism, applicable to such bodies in unmagnetised environments, requires motions of sufficient strength to overcome the innate magnetic diffusion. In the presence of an ambient field, however, the critical nature of the field generation process is relaxed. Motions can distort and amplify the ambient field for all amplitudes of flow. For motions with appropriate geometries, an internal `dynamo-like' field of appreciable strength can be generated, even for relatively weak flows. At least a minority of planets, moons and other bodies exist within significant external astrophysical fields. For these bodies, the ambient field problem is more relevant than the classical dynamo problem, yet it remains relatively little studied. In this paper we consider the effect of an axial ambient field on a spherical mean-field α2 ω dynamo model, through nonlinear calculations with α-quenching feedback. Ambient fields of varying strengths, and both stationary and oscillatory in time, are imposed. Particular focus is placed on the effects of these fields on the equatorial symmetry and the time dependence of the preferred solutions.

  3. Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D

    2006-03-10

    Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

  4. Variation of SEP event occurrence with heliospheric magnetic field magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2009-05-01

    Recent work based on nitrate abundances in polar ice cores has shown that large fluence solar energetic (E>30MeV) particle (LSEP) events during the spacecraft era of observations (1960-present) are diminished in comparison with those of some preceding eras detected in the ice cores dating back to 1561. McCracken et al. [McCracken, K.G., Dreschhoff, G.A.M., Smart, D.F., Shea, M.A. A study of the frequency of occurrence of large-fluence solar proton events and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, Sol. Phys., 224, 359-372, 2004] have reported an inverse correlation between LSEP events and the magnitudes of the associated reconstructed heliospheric magnetic fields (HMF). A physical working model by McCracken [McCracken, K.G. Changes in the cosmic ray and heliomagnetic components of space climate, 1428-2005, including the variable occurrence of solar energetic particle events, Adv. Space Res., 40, 1070-1077, 2007a; McCracken, K.G. High frequency of occurrence of large solar energetic particle events prior to 1958 and a possible repetition in the near future, Space Weather, 5, S07004, 2007b] is that the lower HMF and coronal magnetic field B imply that fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce shocks with enhanced Alfvenic Mach numbers MA and higher compression ratios r, leading to shock production of more numerous and energetic LSEP events. From a possible decline of the HMF over the next several solar cycles he has urged a watch for a return to the environment of high-frequency, high-fluence LSEP events preceding the current spacecraft era. His LSEP event watch involves three independent questions about (1) the physical model, (2) the prediction of decreasing solar-cycle sunspot numbers and heliomagnetic fields, and (3) the inferred anti-correlation between LSEP events and HMFs. Here we discuss observational evidence bearing on the last question and find little support for the claimed LSEP-HMF anticorrelation.

  5. Location Fingerprint Extraction for Magnetic Field Magnitude Based Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone based indoor positioning has greatly helped people in finding their positions in complex and unfamiliar buildings. One popular positioning method is by utilizing indoor magnetic field, because this feature is stable and infrastructure-free. In this method, the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone measures indoor magnetic field and queries its position. However, the environments of the magnetometer are rather harsh. This harshness mainly consists of coarse-grained hard/soft-iron calibrations and sensor electronic noise. The two kinds of interferences decrease the position distinguishability of the magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to extract location features from magnetic fields to reduce these interferences. This paper analyzes the main interference sources of the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone. In addition, we present a feature distinguishability measurement technique to evaluate the performance of different feature extraction methods. Experiments revealed that selected fingerprints will improve position distinguishability.

  6. Calculation of Calibration Functions and Explosive Aftershock Magnitudes in the Near Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuezheng; Wang Haijun; Lei Jun

    2003-01-01

    The current calibration function used in calculating the magnitude of natural earthquakes within 5km is a constant; a fact that causes several serious difficulties for the calculation of the magnitude of small and shallow-focus earthquakes. According to the attenuation law of explosions and the propagation theory of elastic waves, the calibration function is calculated for near field quakes from 0km to 5km. Magnitudes of two aftershock sequences are calculated.The magnitudes of most explosion earthquakes are small, ranging mainly from magnitude 0.5 to 1.0. The M-t chart of the explosive aftershocks is completely different from that of strong earthquake aftershocks. It not only shows positive columnar lines indicating large magnitudes but also short negative columnar lines indicating small magnitudes.

  7. Cauchy magnetic field component and magnitude distribution studied by the zero-field muon spin relaxation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Xuewen; Kossler, William J.; Stronach, Carey E.; Noakes, David R. [College of William and Mary, Physics Department (United States)

    1999-11-15

    Zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF-{mu}SR) data for dilute spin magnetic systems have been widely interpreted with what is called a Kubo-Toyabe form based on a Lorentzian distribution of local field components. We derive here the proper magnetic field magnitude distribution using independent and uncorrelated component distributions. Our result is then compared to the previously accepted formula for ZF-{mu}SR. We discuss the origins of the magnetic field component and magnitude distributions. Further, we found that after rescaling the magnetic field, the differences that are amenable to experimental examination are quite small, although the interpretations behind them are quite different.

  8. On the flow magnitude and field-flow alignment at Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Amit, H.

    We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models. An expr......We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models....... An expression linking the core surface flow magnitude tospherical harmonic spectra of the MF and SV is derived from the magneticinduction equation. This involves the angle gamma between the flowand the horizontal gradient of the radial field. We study gamma in asuite of numerical dynamo models and discuss...... that the amount of field-flow alignment depends primarily on amagnetic modified Rayleigh number Raeta = alpha g0 Delta T D / eta Omega , which measures the vigorof convective driving relative to the strength of magnetic dissipation.Synthetic tests of the flow magnitude estimation scheme are encouraging...

  9. On the flow magnitude and field-flow alignment at Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Amit, H.

    We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models. An expr......We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models....... An expression linking the core surface flow magnitude tospherical harmonic spectra of the MF and SV is derived from the magneticinduction equation. This involves the angle gamma between the flowand the horizontal gradient of the radial field. We study gamma in asuite of numerical dynamo models and discuss...... that the amount of field-flow alignment depends primarily on amagnetic modified Rayleigh number Raeta = alpha g0 Delta T D / eta Omega , which measures the vigorof convective driving relative to the strength of magnetic dissipation.Synthetic tests of the flow magnitude estimation scheme are encouraging...

  10. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  11. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  12. Methane emissions from global rice fields: Magnitude, spatiotemporal patterns, and environmental controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowen; Tian, Hanqin; Ren, Wei; Tao, Bo; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Pan, Shufen

    2016-09-01

    Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite-derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901-2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4/yr (Avg. ±1 SD) under intermittent irrigation to 38.8 ± 1.0 Tg CH4/yr under continuous flooding in the 2000s, indicating that the magnitude of CH4 emissions from global rice fields is largely dependent on different water schemes. Over the past 110 years, our simulated results showed that global CH4 emissions from rice cultivation increased by 85%. The expansion of rice fields was the dominant factor for the increasing trends of CH4 emissions, followed by elevated CO2 concentration, and nitrogen fertilizer use. On the contrary, climate variability had reduced the cumulative CH4 emissions for most of the years over the study period. Our results imply that CH4 emissions from global rice fields could be reduced through optimizing irrigation practices. Therefore, the future magnitude of CH4 emissions from rice fields will be determined by the human demand for rice production as well as the implementation of optimized water management practices.

  13. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  14. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  15. A statistical study of magnetic field magnitude changes during substorms in the near earth tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Using AMPTE/CCE data taken in 1985 and 1986 when the CCE apogee (8.8 earth radii) was within 4.5 hours of midnight, 167 injection events in the near-earth magnetotail have been cataloged. These events are exactly or nearly dispersionless on a 72-sec time scale from 25 keV to 285 keV. The changes in the field magnitude are found to be consistent with the expected effects of the diversion/disruption of the cross-tail current during a substorm, and the latitudinal position of the current sheet is highly variable within the orbit of CCE. The local time variation of the magnetic-field changes implies that the substorm current wedge is composed of longitudinally broad Birkeland currents.

  16. Validation of SplitVectors Encoding for Quantitative Visualization of Large-Magnitude-Range Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen

    2017-06-01

    We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.

  17. The October 4th, 1983 — Magnitude 4 earthquake in Phlegraean Fields: Macroseismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branno, A.; Esposito, E. G. I.; Luongo, G.; Marturano, A.; Porfido, S.; Rinaldis, V.

    1984-06-01

    On Oct. 4th, 1983 the area of Phlegraean Fields, near Naples (Southern Italy) was shaked by an earthquake of magnitude ( M L) 4.0 that caused some damage in the town of Pozzuoli and its surroundings. This seismic event was the largest one recorded during the recent (1982 84) inflation episode occurred in the Phlegraean volcanic area, and a detailed macroseismic reconstruction of the event was carried out. Failing macroseismic data on other earthquakes occurred in Phlegraean Fields, the attenuation law of the intensity as a function of the distance as obtained for the Oct. 4th earthquake was compared with those obtained for other volcanic areas in central Italy — i.e., Tolfa, Monte Amiata — in order to check the reliability of the results obtained for Phlegraean Fields. The Blake's model of the earthquake of Oct. 4th, 1983 does not agree with the experimental data because isoseismals contain areas larger than those shown by the model. This result has been interpreted as an effect of energy focusing due to a reflecting layer 6 8 km deep.

  18. Heliocentric distance and temporal dependence of the interplanetary density-magnetic field magnitude correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Helios, IMP 8, ISEE 3, ad Voyager 2 spacecraft are used to examine the solar cycle and heliocentric distance dependence of the correlation between density n and magnetic field magnitude B in the solar wind. Previous work had suggested that this correlation becomes progressively more negative with heliocentric distance out to 9.5 AU. Here it is shown that this evolution is not a solar cycle effect, and that the correlations become even more strongly negative at heliocentric distance larger than 9.5 AU. There is considerable variability in the distributions of the correlations at a given heliocentric distance, but this is not simply related to the solar cycle. Examination of the evolution of correlations between density and speed suggest that most of the structures responsible for evolution in the anticorrelation between n and B are not slow-mode waves, but rather pressure balance structures. The latter consist of both coherent structures such as tangential discontinuities and the more generally pervasive 'pseudosound' which may include the coherent structures as a subset.

  19. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  20. Differentiating induced and natural seismicity using space-time-magnitude statistics applied to the Coso Geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenball, Martin; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of earthquakes is their clustering in time and space, displaying their self-similarity. It remains to be tested if natural and induced earthquakes share the same behavior. We study natural and induced earthquakes comparatively in the same tectonic setting at the Coso Geothermal Field. Covering the preproduction and coproduction periods from 1981 to 2013, we analyze interevent times, spatial dimension, and frequency-size distributions for natural and induced earthquakes. Individually, these distributions are statistically indistinguishable. Determining the distribution of nearest neighbor distances in a combined space-time-magnitude metric, lets us identify clear differences between both kinds of seismicity. Compared to natural earthquakes, induced earthquakes feature a larger population of background seismicity and nearest neighbors at large magnitude rescaled times and small magnitude rescaled distances. Local stress perturbations induced by field operations appear to be strong enough to drive local faults through several seismic cycles and reactivate them after time periods on the order of a year.

  1. A statistical relationship between the geosynchronous magnetic field and substorm electrojet magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.; Von Rosenvinge, Tycho

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the geosynchronous magnetic field variations during substorms measured by GOES 5 and the auroral electroject as measured by AE and Poste de la Baleine is examined. It is found that the more taillike the field prior to the local onset, the greater the dipolarization of the field during the substorm. The greater the deviation of the field from a dipolar configuration, the larger the change in AE during the event. It is inferred that stronger cross-tail currents prior to the substorm are associated with larger substorm-associated westward electrojets and thus more intense substorms. Since the westward electroject is the ionospheric leg of the substorm current wedge, it is inferred that the substorm-associated westward electrojet is drawn from the near-earth region. Most of the current diversion is found to occur in the near-earth magnetotail.

  2. he dependence of response spectrum on the tectonic ambient shear stress field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-kun; CHEN Pei-shan; BAI Tong-xia

    2005-01-01

    It has been analyzed the influence of the tectonic ambient shear stress value on response spectrum based on the previous theory. Based on the prediction equation BJF94 presented by the famous American researchers, CLB20, a new prediction formula is proposed by us, where it is introduced the influence of tectonic ambient shear stress value on response spectrum. BJF94 is the prediction equation, which mainly depends on strong ground motion data from western USA, while the prediction equation SEA99 is based on the strong ground motion data from extensional region all over the world. Comparing these two prediction equations in detail, it is found that after BJF94's prediction value lg(Y) minus 0.16 logarithmic units, the value is very close to SEA99's one. This case demonstrates that lg(Y) in extensional region is smaller; the differences of prediction equation are mainly owe to the differences of tectonic ambient shear stress value. If the factor of tectonic ambient shear stress value is included into the prediction equation, and the magnitude is used seismic moment magnitude to express, which is universal used around the world, and the distance is used the distance of fault project, which commonly used by many people, then regional differences of prediction equation will become much less, even vanish, and it can be constructed the universal prediction equation proper to all over the world. The error in the earthquake-resistant design in China will be small if we directly use the results of response spectrum of USA (e.g. BJF94 or SEA99).

  3. Body-wave retrieval and imaging from ambient seismic fields with very dense arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.; Boué, P.; Beroza, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Correlation-based analyses of ambient seismic wavefields is a powerful tool for retrieving subsurface information such as stiffness, anisotropy, and heterogeneity at a variety of scales. These analyses can be considered to be data-driven wavefield modeling. Studies of ambient-field tomography have been mostly focused on the surface waves, especially fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves. Although the surface-wave tomography is useful to model 3D velocities, the spatial resolution is limited due to the extended depth sensitivity of the surface wave measurements. Moreover, to represent elastic media, we need at least two stiffness parameters (e.g., shear and bulk moduli). We develop a technique to retrieve P diving waves from the ambient field observed by the dense geophone network (~2500 receivers with 100-m spacing) at Long Beach, California. With two-step filtering, we improve the signal-to-noise ratio of body waves to extract P wave observations that we use for tomography to estimate 3D P-wave velocity structure. The small scale-length heterogeneity of the velocity model follows a power law with ellipsoidal anisotropy. We also discuss possibilities to retrieve reflected waves from the ambient field and show other applications of the body-wave extraction at different locations and scales. Note that reflected waves penetrate deeper than diving waves and have the potential to provide much higher spatial resolution.

  4. Estimating the magnitude of prediction uncertainties for field-scale P loss models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models are often used to predict phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields. While it is commonly recognized that model predictions are inherently uncertain, few studies have addressed prediction uncertainties using P loss models. In this study, an uncertainty analysis for the Annual P Loss Estima...

  5. Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc magnitudes of comparison stars in the fields of ten Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mihov, B M

    2007-01-01

    We present UBVRcIc magnitudes of 49 comparison stars in the fields of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 335, Mrk 79, Mrk 279, Mrk 506, 3C 382, 3C 390.3, NGC 6814, Mrk 304, Ark 564, and NGC 7469 in order to facilitate the photometric monitoring of these objects; 36 of the stars have not been calibrated before. The comparison stars are situated in 5x5 arcmin fields centred on the Seyfert galaxies, their V band flux ranges from 11.7 to 18.2 mag with a median value of 16.3 mag, and their B-V colour index ranges from 0.4 to 1.6 mag with a median value of 0.8 mag. The median errors of the calibrated UBVRcIc magnitudes are 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.06 mag, respectively. Comparison stars were calibrated for the first time in three of the fields (Mrk 506, 3C 382, and Mrk 304). The comparison sequences in the other fields were improved in various aspects. Extra stars were calibrated in four fields (Mrk 335, Mrk 79, NGC 6814, and NGC 7469) - most of these stars are fainter and are situated closer to the Seyfert galaxies comp...

  6. Colour-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds from wide-field electronography. 1. Hodge 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Observatory); Blecha, A. (Observatoire de Geneva (Switzerland)); Walker, M.F. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

    1984-12-01

    Utilizing the good image quality and large field available with the 9-cm McMullan electronographic camera when attached to the Danish 1.54-m Ritchey-Chretien reflector at La Silla, Chile, a number of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds have been observed in order to determine their colour-magnitude diagrams with proper correction for the field star contribution. In Hodge 11, the first cluster to be reported from this programme, good measurements have been obtained of 180 stars in the annular field 34 <= R <= 71 arcsec of the cluster itself, and of 154 stars in a nearby control field of similar area, to a limit of V of the order of 22.

  7. Ambient-temperature incubation for the field detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Stauber, C; Murphy, J L; Khan, A; Mu, T; Elliott, M; Sobsey, M D

    2011-04-01

     Escherichia coli is the pre-eminent microbiological indicator used to assess safety of drinking water globally. The cost and equipment requirements for processing samples by standard methods may limit the scale of water quality testing in technologically less developed countries and other resource-limited settings, however. We evaluate here the use of ambient-temperature incubation in detection of E. coli in drinking water samples as a potential cost-saving and convenience measure with applications in regions with high (>25°C) mean ambient temperatures.   This study includes data from three separate water quality assessments: two in Cambodia and one in the Dominican Republic. Field samples of household drinking water were processed in duplicate by membrane filtration (Cambodia), Petrifilm™ (Cambodia) or Colilert® (Dominican Republic) on selective media at both standard incubation temperature (35–37°C) and ambient temperature, using up to three dilutions and three replicates at each dilution. Matched sample sets were well correlated with 80% of samples (n = 1037) within risk-based microbial count strata (E. coli CFU 100 ml−1 counts of 1000), and a pooled coefficient of variation of 17% (95% CI 15–20%) for paired sample sets across all methods.   These results suggest that ambient-temperature incubation of E. coli in at least some settings may yield sufficiently robust data for water safety monitoring where laboratory or incubator access is limited.

  8. Absolute Magnitudes of Seismic Red Clumps in the Kepler Field and SAGA: The Age Dependency of the Distance Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Casagrande, L.; Zhao, G.; Bovy, J.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Zhao, J. K.; Jia, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Red clump stars are fundamental distance indicators in astrophysics, although theoretical stellar models predict a dependence of absolute magnitudes with age. This effect is particularly strong below ˜2 Gyr, but even above this limit a mild age dependence is still expected. We use seismically identified red clump stars in the Kepler field for which we have reliable distances, masses, and ages from the SAGA survey, to first explore this effect. By excluding red clump stars with masses larger than 1.6 {M}⊙ (corresponding to ages younger than 2 Gyr), we derive robust calibrations linking intrinsic colors to absolute magnitudes in the following photometric systems: Strömgren by, Johnson BV, Sloan griz, 2MASS JHK s , and WISE W1W2W3. With the precision achieved we also detect a slope of absolute magnitudes ˜ 0.020+/- 0.003 {mag} {{Gyr}}-1 in the infrared, implying that distance calibrations of clump stars can be off by up to ˜ 0.2 {mag} in the infrared (over the range from 2 to 12 Gyr) if their ages are unknown. Even larger uncertainties affect optical bands, because of the stronger interdependency of absolute magnitudes on colors and age. Our distance calibrations are ultimately based on asteroseismology, and we show how the distance scale can be used to test the accuracy of seismic scaling relations. Within the uncertainties our calibrations are in agreement with those built upon local red clumps with Hipparcos parallaxes, although we find a tension, which, if confirmed, would imply that scaling relations overestimate the radii of red clump stars by 2 ± 2%. Data releases post Gaia DR1 will provide an important testbed for our results.

  9. Field measurements of the ambient ozone formation potential in Beijing during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Kramer, Louisa; Thomson, Steven; Lee, James; Squires, Freya; Bloss, William

    2017-04-01

    The air quality issues in Beijing have been well-documented, and the severe air pollution levels result in a unique chemical mix in the urban boundary layer, both in terms of concentration and composition. As many of the atmospheric chemical process are non-linear and interlinked, this makes predictions difficult for species formed in atmosphere, such as ozone, requiring field measurements to understand these processes in order to guide mitigation efforts. To investigate the ozone formation potential of ambient air, we employed a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for the sampled ambient air mixture. Measurements were performed as part of the Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) field campaign in November / December 2016 at a suburban site in central Beijing. We also conducted experiments to examine the ozone production sensitivity to NOx. We will present preliminarily results from ambient sampling and NOx experiments demonstrating changes in the ozone production potential during clean and haze periods in Beijing.

  10. Evaluation study of the suitability of instrumentation to measure ambient NH3 concentrations under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Marsailidh

    2017-04-01

    The uncertainties in emissions of ammonia (NH3) in Europe are large, partially due to the difficulty in monitoring of ambient concentrations due to its sticky nature. In the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) the current recommended guidelines to measure NH3 are by coated annular denuders with offline analysis. This method, however, is no longer used in most European countries and each one has taken a different strategy to monitor atmospheric ammonia due to the increase of commercial NH3 monitoring instrumentation available over the last 20 years. In June 2014, a 3 year project funded under the European Metrology Research Programme, "Metrology for Ammonia in Ambient Air" (MetNH3), started with the aim to develop metrological traceability for the measurement of NH3 in air from primary gas mixtures and instrumental standards to field application. This study presents the results from the field intercomparison (15 instruments) which was held in South East Scotland in August 2016 over an intensively managed grassland. The study compared active sampling methods to a meteorological traceable method which was developed during the project with the aim to produce a series of guidelines for ambient NH3 measurements. Preliminary results highlight both the importance of inlets and management of relative humidity in the measurement of ambient NH3 and of the requirement to carry out frequent intercomparison of NH3 instrumentation. Overall, it would be recommended from this study that a WMO-GAW world centre for NH3 would be established and support integration of standards into both routine and research measurements.

  11. Ambient magnetic field amplification in shock fronts of relativistic jets: an application to GRB afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, G Rocha; Kowal, G; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal

    2014-01-01

    Strong downstream magnetic fields of order of $\\sim 1$G, with large correlation lengths, are believed to cause the large synchrotron emission at the afterglow phase of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Despite of the recent theoretical efforts, models have failed to fully explain the amplification of the magnetic field, particularly in a matter dominated scenario. We revisit the problem by considering the synchrotron emission to occur at the expanding shock front of a weakly magnetized relativistic jet over a magnetized surrounding medium. Analytical estimates and a number of high resolution 2D relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (RMHD) simulations are provided. Jet opening angles of $\\theta = 0^{\\circ} - 20^{\\circ}$, and ambient to jet density ratios of $10^{-4} - 10^2$ were considered. We found that most of the amplification is due to compression of the ambient magnetic field at the contact discontinuity between the reverse and forward shocks at the jet head, with substantial pile-up of the magnetic field lines as t...

  12. The morphological mix of field galaxies to I=24.25 magnitudes (b=26 magnitudes) from a deep Hubble space telescope WFPC2 image

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Ostrander, E J; Keel, W C; Griffiths, R E; Ratnatunga, K U; Driver, Simon P; Windhorst, Rogier A; Ostrander, Eric J; Keel, William C; Griffiths, Richard E; Ratnatunga, Kavan U

    1995-01-01

    We determine the morphological mix of field galaxies down to m_{I}\\simeq 24.25 mag (m_{B}\\sim 26.0 mag) from a single ultradeep HST WFPC2 image in both the V_{606} and I_{814} filters. In total, we find 227 objects with m_{I}\\le 24.5 mag and classify these into three types: ellipticals (16%), early-type spirals (37%) and late-type spirals/Irregulars (47%). The differential number counts for each type are compared to simple models in a standard flat cosmology. We find that both the elliptical and early-type spiral number counts are well described by {\\it little or no}-evolution models, but only when normalized at b_{J} = 18.0 mag. Given the uncertainties in the luminosity function (LF) normalization, both populations are consistent with a mild evolutionary scenario based on a normal/low rate of star-formation. This constrains the end of the last {\\it major} star-formation epoch in the giant galaxy populations to z\\geq 0.8. Conversely, the density of the observed late-type/Irregular population is found to be a ...

  13. Temporal changes in shear velocity from ambient noise at New Zealand geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2016-12-01

    We use ambient noise to compare shear velocity changes with geothermal production processes at the Ngatamariki and Rotokawa geothermal fields, located in the central North Island of New Zealand. We calculate shear velocity changes through an analysis of cross correlation functions of diffusive seismic wavefields between stations, which are proportional to Green's functions of the station path. Electricity production at Ngatamariki uses an 82 MW binary type power station manufactured by Ormat Technologies, which began operations in mid-2013 and is owned and operated by Mighty River Power. The "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant at the Rotokawa geothermal field was established in 2010 with parnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 trust and currently operates 174 MW of generation. The seismometers of both networks, deployed primarily to observe microseismicity within the field, were installed prior to well stimulation and the start of production. Although cultural noise dominates the energy spectrum, a strong natural ambient noise signal can be detected when filtering below 1 Hz. Despite similar noise settings, the signal-to-noise ratio of cross correlation stacks at Rotokawa was more than two times greater than at Ngatamariki. We use stacks of cross correlations between stations prior to the onset of production as references, and compare them with cross correlations of moving stacks in time periods of well stimulation and the onset of electricity production.

  14. Preliminary Seismic Velocity Structure Results from Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Tomography: Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespestad, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Zeng, X.; Bennington, N. L.; Cardona, C.; Singer, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field is a large, restless, rhyolitic system in the Southern Andes that is being heavily studied through several methods, including seismology, by a collaborative team of research institutions. A temporary array of 52 seismometers from OVDAS (the Southern Andean Volcano Observatory), PASSCAL (Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison was used to collect the 1.3 years worth of data for this preliminary study. Ambient noise tomography uses surface wave dispersion data obtained from noise correlation functions (NCFs) between pairs of seismic stations, with one of each pair acting as a virtual source, in order to image the velocity structure in 3-D. NCFs were computed for hour-long time windows, and the final NCFs were obtained with phase-weighted stacking. The Frequency-Time Analysis technique was then utilized to measure group velocity between station pairs. NCFs were also analyzed to detect temporal changes in seismic velocity related to magmatic activity at the volcano. With the surface wave data from ambient noise, our small array aperture limits our modeling to the upper crust, so we employed teleseismic tomography to study deeper structures. For picking teleseismic arrivals, we tested two different correlation and stacking programs, which utilize adaptive stacking and multi-channel cross-correlation, to get relative arrival time data for a set of high quality events. Selected earthquakes were larger than magnitude 5 and between 30 and 95 degrees away from the center of the array. Stations that consistently show late arrivals may have a low velocity body beneath them, more clearly visualized via a 3-D tomographic model. Initial results from the two tomography methods indicate the presence of low-velocity zones at several depths. Better resolved velocity models will be developed as more data are acquired.

  15. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields; Revision didactica del sistema de magnitudes operativas ICRU para la evaluacion de la dosis equivalente en campos externos de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H{sub E} and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  16. Higher-order singletons, partially massless fields, and their boundary values in the ambient approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, Xavier [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Grigoriev, Maxim, E-mail: grig@lpi.ru [Tamm Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-11

    Using ambient space we develop a fully gauge and o(d,2)-covariant approach to boundary values of AdS{sub d+1} gauge fields. It is applied to the study of (partially) massless fields in the bulk and (higher-order) conformal scalars, i.e. singletons, as well as (higher-depth) conformal gauge fields on the boundary. In particular, we identify the corresponding generalized Fradkin–Tseytlin equations as obstructions to the extension of the off-shell boundary value to the bulk, generalizing the usual considerations for the holographic anomalies to the partially massless fields. We also relate the background fields for the higher-order singleton to the boundary values of partially massless fields and prove the appropriate generalization of the Flato–Fronsdal theorem, which is in agreement with the known structure of symmetries for the higher-order wave operator. All these facts support the following generalization of the higher-spin holographic duality: the O(N) model at a multicritical isotropic Lifshitz point should be dual to the theory of partially massless symmetric tensor fields described by the Vasiliev equations based on the higher-order singleton symmetry algebra.

  17. Maximum Magnitude and Probabilities of Induced Earthquakes in California Geothermal Fields: Applications for a Science-Based Decision Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Deborah Anne

    Induced seismicity is occurring at increasing rates around the country. Brodsky and Lajoie (2013) and others have recognized anthropogenic quakes at a few geothermal fields in California. I use three techniques to assess if there are induced earthquakes in California geothermal fields; there are three sites with clear induced seismicity: Brawley, The Geysers, and Salton Sea. Moderate to strong evidence is found at Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, and Susanville. Little to no evidence is found for Heber and Wendel. I develop a set of tools to reduce or cope with the risk imposed by these earthquakes, and also to address uncertainties through simulations. I test if an earthquake catalog may be bounded by an upper magnitude limit. I address whether the earthquake record during pumping time is consistent with the past earthquake record, or if injection can explain all or some of the earthquakes. I also present ways to assess the probability of future earthquake occurrence based on past records. I summarize current legislation for eight states where induced earthquakes are of concern. Unlike tectonic earthquakes, the hazard from induced earthquakes has the potential to be modified. I discuss direct and indirect mitigation practices. I present a framework with scientific and communication techniques for assessing uncertainty, ultimately allowing more informed decisions to be made.

  18. Microemulsions of Record Low Amphiphile Concentrations Are Affected by the Ambient Gravitational Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Behrens, Manja; Eriksson, Stefanie; Topgaard, Daniel; Olsson, Ulf; Wennerström, Håkan

    2016-07-07

    It is shown that the ternary system heavy water-heptane-hexadecyl hexaethylene oxide (C16E6) has a stable bicontinuous microemulsion phase down to an exceptionally low concentration at the balanced temperature of 26.8 °C. It is further demonstrated that the ambient gravitational field has an influence on the observed phase equilibria for typical sample sizes (∼1 cm). Direct measurements using a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technique demonstrate that sample compositions vary with the height in the vials. It is furthermore found that some samples show four phases at equilibrium in apparent violation of Gibbs' phase rule. It is pointed out that Gibbs' phase rule strictly applies only when effects of gravity are negligible. A further consequence of the ambient gravitational field is that, for the system studied, the microemulsion one-phase samples are not observed, when using standard size vials, that is, sample heights on the order of a centimeter. Quantitative determinations of concentration profiles can be used to determine parameters of the free-energy density for the system.

  19. Ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin area using the ambient seismic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippkus, Sven; Zigone, Dimitri; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna Basin is one of the most seismically active regions in Austria. Because of the population density and sensitive infrastructure, seismic hazard assessment in this area is of critical importance. An important part of seismic hazard analysis is ground motion prediction, which can in principle be done using either empirical studies to derive ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) or using a physics-based approach to simulate ground motion by modelling surface wave propagation. Recently a new method has been presented that is based on the emergence of the inter-station Green's function from ambient noise cross-correlations (Denolle et al. 2013), which provides the impulse response of the Earth from a point source at the surface (from the site of one of the two receivers to the other). These impulse responses are dominated by surface waves, which would, in the case of a real earthquake, cause the major damages. The Green's function can in principle be modified to simulate a double couple dislocation at depth, i.e., a virtual earthquake. Using an adapted pre-processing method, the relative amplitudes of the ambient noise records of different inter-station paths are preserved in the correlation functions, and effects like attenuation and amplification of surface waves in sedimentary basins can be studied. This provides more precise information that will help improve seismic hazard evaluations. Here we present a preliminary study of such ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin using about two dozen broadband stations from available networks in the area, e.g., stations from the University of Vienna (AlpArray) and Vienna Technical University. References Denolle, M. A., E. M. Dunham, G. A. Prieto, and G. C. Beroza (2013), Ground motion prediction of realistic earthquake sources using the ambient seismic field, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2102-2118, doi:10.1029/2012JB009603.

  20. Color-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic clouds from wide-field electronography. Part 3: NGC 1841

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.; Blecha, A.; Walker, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 1841, an outlying globular cluster in the Magellanic System, was constructed from electronographic photometry of 390 stars in the annular field R between 22 and 72'', to a limit of V = 22.5. The detailed CMD confirms classifications of NGC 1841 as belonging to the oldest and most metal-poor population of the Magellanic System. For an adopted reddening of E (B-V) = 0.15, the CMD of NGC 1841 closely matches that of the galactic globular cluster M 92, indicating that the clusters are of similar age and metal abundance. The fit of the 2 CMDs yields a distance modulus to NGC 1841 of (m-M)o = 18.1 + or - 0.3. This places NGC 1841 within the disk system formed by the other old LMC clusters 10 kpc from the center of the LMC itself, in contrast to earlier results placing it well beyond the LMC. It also eliminates the discrepancy between the luminosities of its giant stars and similar Galactic globular cluster giants.

  1. Phase-Based Adaptive Estimation of Magnitude-Squared Coherence Between Turbofan Internal Sensors and Far-Field Microphone Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2015-01-01

    A cross-power spectrum phase based adaptive technique is discussed which iteratively determines the time delay between two digitized signals that are coherent. The adaptive delay algorithm belongs to a class of algorithms that identifies a minimum of a pattern matching function. The algorithm uses a gradient technique to find the value of the adaptive delay that minimizes a cost function based in part on the slope of a linear function that fits the measured cross power spectrum phase and in part on the standard error of the curve fit. This procedure is applied to data from a Honeywell TECH977 static-engine test. Data was obtained using a combustor probe, two turbine exit probes, and far-field microphones. Signals from this instrumentation are used estimate the post-combustion residence time in the combustor. Comparison with previous studies of the post-combustion residence time validates this approach. In addition, the procedure removes the bias due to misalignment of signals in the calculation of coherence which is a first step in applying array processing methods to the magnitude squared coherence data. The procedure also provides an estimate of the cross-spectrum phase-offset.

  2. Deriving Deep Ocean Temperature Changes From the Ambient Acoustic Noise Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambell, K.; Evers, L. G.; Snellen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Passively deriving the deep ocean temperature is a challenge. However, knowledge about changes in the deep ocean temperature are important in relation to climate change. In-situ observations are are and satellite observations are hardly applicable. Low-frequency sound waves of a few hertz can penetrate the deep oceans over long distances. As their propagation is temperature dependent, these waves contain valuable information that can be used for temperature monitoring. In this study, the use of interferometry is demonstrated by applying this technique to ambient noise measured at two hydrophone arrays located near Robinson Crusoe Island in the South Pacific Ocean. The arrays are separated by 40 km and are located at a depth of 800 m. Both arrays consist of three hydrophones with an interstation distance of 2 km. It is shown that the acoustic velocity, and with this the temperature variation, can be derived from measured hydro-acoustic data. Furthermore, the findings are supported by ocean models that describe the propagation of sound between the hydrophone arrays. This study shows the potential of using the ambient noise field for temperature monitoring in the deep ocean.

  3. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures - while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  4. Subsurface Characterization Beneath the Coso Geothermal Field by Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzwoller, M. H.; Yang, Y.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Jones, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    The Coso Geothermal Area has been the subject of numerous geophysical studies over the past 30 years. Various seismological techniques have been applied to evaluate the regional stress distribution, velocity and attenuation structure of the subsurface. None of these studies has imaged subsurface shear velocity using surface waves generated either by local micro-earthquakes or by regional or teleseismic earthquakes, nor have any used interferometric methods based on ambient noise. In this study, we apply an interferometic method based on ambient seismic noise aimed at imaging the shallow shear velocity structure beneath the Coso Geothermal Area. Data are from a PASSCAL experiment deployed between 1998 and 2000 and regional broad-band seismometers operated by CalTech. Cross-correlations are performed between each pair of the COSO PASSCAL and CalTech stations for 15 months from March 1999 to May 2000. After compensating for or correcting instrumental irregularities and selecting reliable Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements from the inter-station cross-correlations, we obtain about 300 measurement paths as the basis for surface wave tomography at periods from 3 to 10 sec. Uncertainties of both group and phase velocity measurements are estimated using the variations among the dispersion curves from one-month cross-correlations in different months. The resulting dispersion maps reveal low group and phase velocities in the COSO volcanic field, especially at 3 sec period for group velocities, and high velocities to the east of the COSO volcanic field. The velocity variations are consistent with surface geological features, which encourages future inversion for 3-D shear velocity structure in the top 15 km of the crust.

  5. Large Subduction Earthquake Simulations using Finite Source Modeling and the Offshore-Onshore Ambient Seismic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, L.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.

    2016-12-01

    Large subduction earthquakes have the potential to generate strong long-period ground motions. The ambient seismic field, also called seismic noise, contains information about the elastic response of the Earth between two seismic stations that can be retrieved using seismic interferometry. The DONET1 network, which is composed of 20 offshore stations, has been deployed atop the Nankai subduction zone, Japan, to continuously monitor the seismotectonic activity in this highly seismically active region. The surrounding onshore area is covered by hundreds of seismic stations, which are operated the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), with a spacing of 15-20 km. We retrieve offshore-onshore Green's functions from the ambient seismic field using the deconvolution technique and use them to simulate the long-period ground motions of moderate subduction earthquakes that occurred at shallow depth. We extend the point source method, which is appropriate for moderate events, to finite source modeling to simulate the long-period ground motions of large Mw 7 class earthquake scenarios. The source models are constructed using scaling relations between moderate and large earthquakes to discretize the fault plane of the large hypothetical events into subfaults. Offshore-onshore Green's functions are spatially interpolated over the fault plane to obtain one Green's function for each subfault. The interpolated Green's functions are finally summed up considering different rupture velocities. Results show that this technique can provide additional information about earthquake ground motions that can be used with the existing physics-based simulations to improve seismic hazard assessment.

  6. Magnetic-field sensing coil embedded in ceramic for measuring ambient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironori

    2004-02-10

    A magnetic pick-up coil for measuring magnetic field with high specific sensitivity, optionally with an electrostatic shield (24), having coupling elements (22) with high winding packing ratio, oriented in multiple directions, and embedded in ceramic material for structural support and electrical insulation. Elements of the coil are constructed from green ceramic sheets (200) and metallic ink deposited on surfaces and in via holes of the ceramic sheets. The ceramic sheets and the metallic ink are co-fired to create a monolithic hard ceramic body (20) with metallized traces embedded in, and placed on exterior surfaces of, the hard ceramic body. The compact and rugged coil can be used in a variety of environments, including hostile conditions involving ultra-high vacuum, high temperatures, nuclear and optical radiation, chemical reactions, and physically demanding surroundings, occurring either individually or in combinations.

  7. Influence of ambient temperature and AC magnetic field on damping behavior of Fe-13Cr-2.5Mo alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-gang; Li, Ning; Shen, Bao-luo; Hua, Hong-xing

    2007-07-01

    The damping behaviors of Fe-13Cr-2.5Mo alloy at ambient temperatures and the AC magnetic field are tested with the improved reversal torsion machine. The precipitations distributing in the annealed alloy are also observed with SEM. The results show that because the defections decrease during the annealing treatment, causing a higher damping capacity of this alloy. This damping drops linearly to 63% when the ambient temperature changes from 23 °C to 500 °C, resulting from the gradual decrease of ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the AC magnetic field causes the damping capacity to drop sharply, and finally it reaches a much lower level.

  8. DRIFT-FREE INDOOR NAVIGATION USING SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING OF THE AMBIENT HETEROGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. K. Chow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of external reference position information (e.g. surveyed targets or Global Navigation Satellite Systems Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM has proven to be an effective method for indoor navigation. The positioning drift can be reduced with regular loop-closures and global relaxation as the backend, thus achieving a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Although vision-based systems like laser scanners are typically deployed for SLAM, these sensors are heavy, energy inefficient, and expensive, making them unattractive for wearables or smartphone applications. However, the concept of SLAM can be extended to non-optical systems such as magnetometers. Instead of matching features such as walls and furniture using some variation of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm, the local magnetic field can be matched to provide loop-closure and global trajectory updates in a Gaussian Process (GP SLAM framework. With a MEMS-based inertial measurement unit providing a continuous trajectory, and the matching of locally distinct magnetic field maps, experimental results in this paper show that a drift-free navigation solution in an indoor environment with millimetre-level accuracy can be achieved. The GP-SLAM approach presented can be formulated as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem and it can naturally perform loop-detection, feature-to-feature distance minimization, global trajectory optimization, and magnetic field map estimation simultaneously. Spatially continuous features (i.e. smooth magnetic field signatures are used instead of discrete feature correspondences (e.g. point-to-point as in conventional vision-based SLAM. These position updates from the ambient magnetic field also provide enough information for calibrating the accelerometer bias and gyroscope bias in-use. The only restriction for this method is the need for magnetic disturbances (which is typically not an issue for indoor environments; however

  9. Artificial intelligence modeling to evaluate field performance of photocatalytic asphalt pavement for ambient air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Somayeh; Hassan, Marwa; Nadiri, Ataallah; Dylla, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in asphalt pavement has received considerable attention for purifying ambient air from traffic-emitted pollutants via photocatalytic processes. In order to control the increasing deterioration of ambient air quality, urgent and proper risk assessment tools are deemed necessary. However, in practice, monitoring all process parameters for various operating conditions is difficult due to the complex and non-linear nature of air pollution-based problems. Therefore, the development of models to predict air pollutant concentrations is very useful because it can provide early warnings to the population and also reduce the number of measuring sites. This study used artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy (NF) models to predict NOx concentration in the air as a function of traffic count (Tr) and climatic conditions including humidity (H), temperature (T), solar radiation (S), and wind speed (W) before and after the application of TiO₂ on the pavement surface. These models are useful for modeling because of their ability to be trained using historical data and because of their capability for modeling highly non-linear relationships. To build these models, data were collected from a field study where an aqueous nano TiO₂ solution was sprayed on a 0.2-mile of asphalt pavement in Baton Rouge, LA. Results of this study showed that the NF model provided a better fitting to NOx measurements than the ANN model in the training, validation, and test steps. Results of a parametric study indicated that traffic level, relative humidity, and solar radiation had the most influence on photocatalytic efficiency.

  10. Image processing techniques revealing the relationship between the field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and geological conditions at a granitic area, Velence Mountains, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Torres, Silvana; Petrik, Attila; Zsuzsanna Szabó, Katalin; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, dykes, faults, soil conditions, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Mountains, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary. In order to assess the role of local geology in the spatial distribution of ambient gamma dose rates, field measurements were carried out at ground level at 300 sites along a 250 m x 250 m regular grid in a total surface of 14.7 km2. Digital image processing methods were applied to identify anomalies, heterogeneities and spatial patterns in the measured gamma dose rates, including local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction, second derivative profile curvature, local variability, lineament density, 2D autocorrelation and directional variogram analyses. Statistical inference showed that different gamma dose rate levels are associated with the rock types (i.e., Carboniferous granite, Pleistocene colluvial, proluvial, deluvial sediments and talus, and Pannonian sand and pebble), with the highest level on the Carboniferous granite including outlying values. Moreover, digital image processing revealed that linear gamma dose rate spatial features are parallel to the SW-NE dyke system and possibly to the NW-SE main fractures. The results of this study underline the importance of understanding the role of geogenic risk factors influencing the ambient gamma dose rate received by public. The study also demonstrates the power of the image processing techniques for the identification of spatial pattern in field-measured geogenic radiation.

  11. Beyond basin resonance: characterizing wave propagation using a dense array and the ambient seismic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Pierre; Denolle, Marine; Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2016-08-01

    Seismic wave resonance in sedimentary basins is a well-recognized seismic hazard; however, concentrated areas of earthquake damage have been observed near basin edges, where wave propagation is particularly complex and difficult to understand with sparse observations. The Tokyo metropolitan area is densely populated, subject to strong shaking from a diversity of earthquake sources, and sits atop the deep Kanto sedimentary basin. It is also instrumented with two seismic arrays: the dense MEtropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) within the basin, and the High sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) surrounding it. In this study, we explore the 3-D seismic wavefield within and throughout the Kanto basin, including near and across basin boundaries, using cross-correlations of all components of ambient seismic field between the stations of these two arrays. Dense observations allow us to observe clearly the propagation of three modes of both Rayleigh and Love waves. They also show how the wavefield behaves in the vicinity of sharp basin edges with reflected/converted waves and excitation of higher modes.

  12. Magnitude-frequency relationships of debris flows — A case study based on field surveys and tree-ring records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Debris-flow activity in a watershed is usually defined in terms of magnitude and frequency. While magnitude-frequency (M-F) relations have long formed the basis for risk assessment and engineering design in hydrology and fluvial hydraulics, only fragmentary and insufficiently specified data for debris flows exists. This paper reconstructs M-F relationships of 62 debris flows for an aggradational cone of a small (Swiss Alps since A.D. 1863. The frequency of debris flows is obtained from tree-ring records. The magnitude of individual events is given as S, M, L, XL, and derived from volumetric data of deposits, grain size distributions of boulders, and a series of surrogates (snout elevations, tree survival, lateral spread of surges). Class S and M debris flows ( 50 mm) in August and September, when the active layer of the rock glacier in the source area of debris flows is largest. Over the past ˜ 150 years, climate has exerted control on material released from the source area and prevented triggering of class XL events before 1922. With the projected climatic change, permafrost degradation and the potential increase in storm intensity are likely to produce " class XXL" events in the future with volumes surpassing 5 × 10 4 m 3 at the level of the debris-flow cone.

  13. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical fields: Effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli when foraging. Previously, we reported a directional response to electrical fields for two entomopathogenic nematode species; specifically, when electrical fields were generated on agar plates Steinernema glaseri (a nematode that utilizes a...

  14. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  15. Numerical Study on the Impact of Ground Heating and Ambient Wind Speed on Flow Fields in Street Canyons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; YANG Lin; ZHANG Li-Jie; JIANG Yin

    2012-01-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods.A series of numerical tests were performed,and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio,ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account.Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5,1.0 and 2.0,respectively,were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed.The ground heating intensity,which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature,ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests.The results showed that under calm conditions,ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1,which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon.It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio.When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study,the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious,and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon.When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold,the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects.The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon,which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  16. Field survey of earthquake effects from the magnitude 4.0 southern Maine earthquake of October 16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Radakovich,; Alex J. Fergusen,; Boatwright, John

    2016-06-02

    The magnitude 4.0 earthquake that occurred on October 16, 2012, near Hollis Center and Waterboro in southwestern Maine surprised and startled local residents but caused only minor damage. A two-person U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) team was sent to Maine to conduct an intensity survey and document the damage. The only damage we observed was the failure of a chimney and plaster cracks in two buildings in East and North Waterboro, 6 kilometers (km) west of the epicenter. We photographed the damage and interviewed residents to determine the intensity distribution in the epicentral area. The damage and shaking reports are consistent with a maximum Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) of 5–6 for an area 1–8 km west of the epicenter, slightly higher than the maximum Community Decimal Intensity (CDI) of 5 determined by the USGS “Did You Feel It?” Web site. The area of strong shaking in East Waterboro corresponds to updip rupture on a fault plane that dips steeply east. 

  17. Influence of bio-membrane on current characteristics induced by ambient ELF magnetic field for spherical tissue model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Noriyuki [Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Tarao, Hiroo; Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Based on the experimental works using rats and chicken eggs, possible influences of the bio-membrane on the electric field and resultant current induced by the exposure to ambient ELF magnetic field, have been pointed out. Existence of the bio-membrane is, however, rarely implemented in conventional procedures of the induced current examination. The present contribution presents results of the analytical examination on how the thickness and electric conductivity of the bio-membrane affect the induced current profiles, indicating the significant role of the bio-membrane on the exact evaluation of the induced current characteristics. (author)

  18. The Effect of Monomolecular Films on the Underlying Ambient-Noise Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    series of sea tests have been successfully conducted throughout a wide range of sea states. The basic format of each test was to deploy a pair of...cannot be solely responsible since ambient-noise levels increase rapidly from sea state 0 to sea state 2 in the absence of whitecap formation . While...beginning at a mean speed of 7.5 meters per second. He states, "The water surface, as seen from beneath, looks like a ceiling of a stalactite grotto. As

  19. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  20. New Calibrations of Pulsational Absolute Magnitudes of Field RR Lyrae Stars Using Revised Dependencies of Temperatures, Masses, and Periods on Metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, A

    2004-01-01

    The pulsational method to estimate the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars is updated with new data on field-star metallicities by Layden, a new calibration of the (B-V)_0-temperature correlation from recent atmospheric models by Bell and Tripicco, and new mass estimates by Bono et al. New linear and non-linear calibrations of M_V(RR)=f([Fe/H]) are derived that depend on the nature of the adopted envelope in a diagram of log period versus metallicity fitted to the shortest period field variables in each metallicity range, together with the stated assumptions on the colour of the stars at that envelope. These new cali- brations are compared with a recent non-linear calibration by Caputo et al. The theoretical luminosity zero points for each of the three new calibrations derived here agree with each other to within 0.1 mag over the metallicity range of -1.0>[Fe/H]>-2.0. Comparison with the empirical absolute magnitude calibra- tion of M_V(RR)=+0.52 at [Fe/H]=-1.5 by Clementini at al. from RR Lyraes in LMC als...

  1. Basin-scale Green's functions from the ambient seismic field recorded by MeSO-net stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Loïc.; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-04-01

    Seismic waves propagating through the Earth can be significantly affected by velocity structures such as sedimentary basins. We investigate the propagation characteristics of seismic waves across the Kanto basin, Japan, using Green's functions extracted from the ambient seismic field. We use two stations situated on the eastern and southern edges of the basin as virtual sources, and approximately 420 stations, which are mainly a part of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), as receivers. Using seismometers aligned along two straight lines with the virtual sources, we find that several types of waves can be recovered, each with different sensitivities to the layers that compose the basin. We also show that after amplitude calibration, the extracted Green's functions can accurately simulate the seismic waves of two moderate Mw 4-5 shallow earthquakes that occurred close to the virtual sources. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of the 5% damped pseudovelocity response at a period of 6 s computed from the records of each event and the Green's function waveforms have similar amplification patterns. This study supports the fact that dense networks recording continuously the ambient seismic field in metropolitan areas can be used to accurately assess seismic hazard at high spatial resolution.

  2. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  3. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    CERN Document Server

    Romanenko, A; Crawford, A C; Sergatskov, D A; Melnychuk, O

    2014-01-01

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: 1) record quality factors $Q > 2\\times10^{11}$ up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; 2) $Q\\sim3\\times10^{10}$ at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  4. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  5. Interaction between emerging magnetic flux and the ambient solar coronal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M.; Derosa, M.

    2008-12-01

    We study the interaction between emerging magnetic flux and pre-existing coronal field by means of numerical simulations using the magneto-frictional method. By advancing the induction equation, the magneto-frictional method models the coronal magnetic field as a quasi-static sequence of non-linear force- free field configurations evolving in response to photospheric driving. A general feature of the simulations is the spontaneous formation of tangential discontinuities, interfaces where the field line torsional coefficient changes abruptly across separate domains of connectivity. Since the method evolves the vector potential, we can follow the evolution of the relative magnetic helicity and examine its relation to the magnetic free energy. Other tools, such as the squashing factor of Titov and Démoulin, are also used to study the topology of the field configurations.

  6. The need for harmonization of methods for finding locations and magnitudes of air pollution sources using observations of concentrations and wind fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Young, George S.

    2017-01-01

    What do the terms "top-down", "inverse", "backwards", "adjoint", "sensor data fusion", "receptor", "source term estimation (STE)", to name several appearing in the current literature, have in common? These varied terms are used by different disciplines to describe the same general methodology - the use of observations of air pollutant concentrations and knowledge of wind fields to identify air pollutant source locations and/or magnitudes. Academic journals are publishing increasing numbers of papers on this topic. Examples of scenarios related to this growing interest, ordered from small scale to large scale, are: use of real-time samplers to quickly estimate the location of a toxic gas release by a terrorist at a large public gathering (e.g., Haupt et al., 2009);

  7. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  8. Development of a low cost method to estimate the seismic signature of a geothermal field form ambient noise analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibuleac, Ileana [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-06-30

    A new, cost effective and non-invasive exploration method using ambient seismic noise has been tested at Soda Lake, NV, with promising results. The material included in this report demonstrates that, with the advantage of initial S-velocity models estimated from ambient noise surface waves, the seismic reflection survey, although with lower resolution, reproduces the results of the active survey when the ambient seismic noise is not contaminated by strong cultural noise. Ambient noise resolution is less at depth (below 1000m) compared to the active survey. In general, the results are promising and useful information can be recovered from ambient seismic noise, including dipping features and fault locations.

  9. Determination of the Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Aaron; Blaauw, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    The limiting magnitude of an optical camera system is an important property to understand since it is used to find the completeness limit of observations. Limiting magnitude depends on the hardware and software of the system, current weather conditions, and the angular speed of the objects observed. If an object exhibits a substantial angular rate during the exposure, its light spreads out over more pixels than the stationary stars. This spreading causes the limiting magnitude to be brighter when compared to the stellar limiting magnitude. The effect, which begins to become important when the object moves a full width at half max during a single exposure or video frame. For targets with high angular speeds or camera systems with narrow field of view or long exposures, this correction can be significant, up to several magnitudes. The stars in an image are often used to measure the limiting magnitude since they are stationary, have known brightness, and are present in large numbers, making the determination of the limiting magnitude fairly simple. In order to transform stellar limiting magnitude to object limiting magnitude, a correction must be applied accounting for the angular velocity. This technique is adopted in meteor and other fast-moving object observations, as the lack of a statistically significant sample of targets makes it virtually impossible to determine the limiting magnitude before the weather conditions change. While the weather is the dominant factor in observing satellites, the limiting magnitude for meteors also changes throughout the night due to the motion of a meteor shower or sporadic source radiant across the sky. This paper presents methods for determining the limiting stellar magnitude and the conversion to the target limiting magnitude.

  10. Ambient in-situ immersion freezing measurements - findings from the ZAMBIS 2014 field campaign for three ice nucleation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Atkinson, James D.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the influence of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, it is crucial to understand cloud formation processes in the atmosphere. A key process, which significantly affects cloud microphysical properties and the initiation of precipitation thus contributing to the hydrological cycle, is the prevailing type of ice nucleation mechanism. In mixed-phase clouds immersion freezing is the dominant ice crystal forming mechanism, whereby ice nucleating particles (INP) first act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are activated to cloud droplets followed by freezing upon supercooling. There are a number of experimental methods and techniques to investigate the ice nucleating ability in the immersion mode, however most techniques are offline for field sampling or only suitable for laboratory measurements. In-situ atmospheric studies are needed to understand the ice formation processes of 'real world' particles. Laboratory experiments simulate conditions of atmospheric processes like ageing or coating but are still idealized. Our method is able to measure ambient in-situ immersion freezing on single immersed aerosol particles. The instrumental setup consists of the recently developed portable immersion mode cooling chamber (PIMCA) as a vertical extension to the portable ice nucleation chamber (PINC, [1]), where the frozen fraction of activated aerosol particles are detected by the ice optical depolarization detector (IODE, [2]). Two additional immersion freezing techniques based on a droplet freezing array [3,4] are used to sample ambient aerosol particles either in a suspension (fraction larger ~0.6 μm) or on PM10-filters to compare different ice nucleation techniques. Here, we present ambient in-situ measurements at an urban forest site in Zurich, Switzerland held during the Zurich ambient immersion freezing study (ZAMBIS) in spring 2014. We investigated the ice nucleating ability of natural atmospheric aerosol with the PIMCA/PINC immersion freezing setup as

  11. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; O'Donnell, Colm P.

    2016-05-01

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer avoid harvesting fecal contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil, and spinach leaves are compared. A common aperture imager designed with two identical monochromatic cameras, a beam splitter, and optical filters was used to simultaneously capture two-spectral images of leaves contaminated with both fecal matter and soil. The optical filters where 10 nm full width half maximum bandpass filters, one at 690 nm and the second at 710 nm. These were mounted in front of the object lenses. New images were created using the ratio of these two spectral images on a pixel by pixel basis. Image analysis results showed that the fecal matter contamination could be distinguished from soil and leaf on the ratio images. The use of this technology has potential to allow detection of fecal contamination in produce fields which can be a source of foodbourne illnesses. It has the added benefit of mitigating cross-contamination during harvesting and processing.

  12. Average Magnetic Field Magnitude Profiles of Wind Magnetic Clouds as a Function of Closest Approach to the Clouds' Axes and Comparison to Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Wu, C.-C.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the average magnetic field magnitude (| B | ≡ B) within magnetic clouds (MCs) observed by the Wind spacecraft from 1995 to July 2015 to understand the difference between this B and the ideal B-profiles expected from using the static, constant-α, force-free, cylindrically symmetric model for MCs of Lepping, Jones, and Burlaga ( J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11957, 1990, denoted here as the LJB model). We classify all MCs according to an assigned quality, Q0 (= 1, 2, 3, for excellent, good, and poor). There are a total of 209 MCs and 124 when only Q0 = 1, 2 cases are considered. The average normalized field with respect to the closest approach (CA) is stressed, where we separate cases into four CA sets centered at 12.5 %, 37.5 %, 62.5 %, and 87.5 % of the average radius; the averaging is done on a percentage-duration basis to treat all cases the same. Normalized B means that before averaging, the B for each MC at each point is divided by the LJB model-estimated B for the MC axis, B0. The actual averages for the 209 and 124 MC sets are compared to the LJB model, after an adjustment for MC expansion ( e.g. Lepping et al. in Ann. Geophys. 26, 1919, 2008). This provides four separate difference-relationships, each fitted with a quadratic ( Quad) curve of very small σ. Interpreting these Quad formulae should provide a comprehensive view of the variation in normalized B throughout the average MC, where we expect external front and rear compression to be part of its explanation. These formulae are also being considered for modifying the LJB model. This modification will be used in a scheme for forecasting the timing and magnitude of magnetic storms caused by MCs. Extensive testing of the Quad formulae shows that the formulae are quite useful in correcting individual MC B-profiles, especially for the first {≈ }1/3 of these MCs. However, the use of this type of B correction constitutes a (slight) violation of the force-free assumption used in the original LJB MC model.

  13. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID, on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS, and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS. The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC was dominated by alkanes (60%, followed by aromatics (15% and olefins (5%. The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc. and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other

  14. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  15. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Five distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that

  16. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  17. [Dependence of effects of weak combined low-frequency variable and constant magnetic fields on the intensity of asexual reproduction of planarians Dugesia tigrina on the magnitude of the variable field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Lisitsyn, A S; Kliubin, A V; Fesenko, E E

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that the stimulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields (constant component 42 microT, frequency of the variable component 3.7 Hz) on the division of planarians depends on the amplitude of the variable component of the field. The effect is particularly pronounced at 40 (the main maximum), 120, 160, and 640 nT. Narrow ranges of effective amplitudes alternate in some cases with equally narrow ranges in which the system does not respond to he treatment. In the range of super weak amplitudes of the variable field (0.1 and 1 nT), the stimulating effect is poorly pronounced. The data obtained indicate the presence of narrow amplitude windows in the response of the biological systems to weak and super weak magnetic fields. In a special series of experiments, it was shown that the effect of fields on planarians is partially mediated via aqueous medium preliminarily treated with weak magnetic fields. It is noteworthy that in experiments with water treated with weak magnetic fields, there were no pronounced maxima and minima in the magnitude of the effect in the range of amplitude of the variable magnetic field from 40 to 320 nT.

  18. A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-01-30

    Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Landslide seismic magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  20. How Do Heavier Halide Ligands Affect the Signs and Magnitudes of the Zero-Field Splittings in Halogenonickel(II) Scorpionate Complexes? A Theoretical Investigation Coupled to Ligand-Field Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank

    2012-07-10

    This work presents a detailed analysis of the physical origin of the zero-field splittings (ZFSs) in a series of high-spin (S = 1) nickel(II) scorpionate complexes Tp*NiX (Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)borate, X = Cl, Br, I) using quantum chemical approaches. High-frequency and -field electron paramagnetic resonance studies have shown that the complexes with heavier halide ligands (Br, I) have greater magnitudes but opposite signs of the ZFSs compared with the chloro congener (Desrochers, P. J.; Telser, J.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Krzystek, J.; Vicic, D. A. Inorg. Chem.2006, 45, 8930-8941). To rationalize the experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations of the ZFSs in this Ni(II) halide series have been conducted. The computed ZFS using wave-function-based ab initio methods (state-averaged CASSCF, NEVPT2, and SORCI) are in good agreement with the experiment. For comparison, density functional theory was only marginally successful. The ligand-field analysis demonstrates that the signs and magnitudes of the ZFSs are subtly determined by the trade-off between the negative contributions from the (1,3)A1(1e→2e) transitions relative to the positive contributions from the remaining d-d excited states. The term from (1,3)A1(1e→2e) stems from the structural feature that the metal center displaces out of the equatorial plane, and gains the importance when heavier halide ligand is involved.

  1. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  2. Evaluation of the scattered pressure due to infinite rigid cylinders, infinite elastic cylindrical shells, and rigid spheres in the presence of an ambient noise field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Steven J.

    1993-04-01

    The sound scattering due to an ambient noise field, approximated by a squared cosine function, is considered for infinite rigid and elastic cylinders and rigid spheres. For the cylinders, it is assumed that the acoustic wave front is parallel to the axis of the cylinder (informally incident). For this assumption, a closed form expression for the scattered sound field-to-incident ambient noise field (signal-to-noise) ratio is obtained not only for the cosine squared directivity, but for any arbitrary directivity which can be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. For the sphere, it is assumed that the noise is circumferentially symmetric which leads to a closed form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio due to a cosine squared directivity.

  3. Plastocrono e rendimento de feijão-de-vagem cultivado sob ambiente protegido e no ambiente externo em semeadura tardia no outono Plastochron and snap bean yield grown under protected environment and in open field in late fall sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L., ou feijão-vagem, é uma hortaliça que, durante o outono no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, pode ser favorecida pelo cultivo no interior de estufa plástica (cultivo protegido. A determinação do intervalo de tempo entre a emissão de dois nós consecutivos em dicotiledôneas, denominada plastocrono, é importante em estudos de modelagem e para o manejo dessa hortaliça. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o plastocrono e o rendimento da cultura de feijão-de-vagem em cultivo sob ambiente protegido por estufa plástica e no ambiente externo. Um experimento foi conduzido durante o outono de 2009, em Santa Maria, em dois ambientes: em ambiente protegido (estufa plástica de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 100µm de espessura e em ambiente externo (céu aberto. Foram determinadas a densidade de fluxo de radiação solar global incidente, a temperatura do ar, a soma térmica diária, a emissão de nós (plastocrono na haste principal até o florescimento e o rendimento precoce de vagens nos dois ambientes. A disponibilidade de radiação foi 26% menor no ambiente protegido, e as temperaturas mínima, média e máxima diária foram superiores. O plastocrono foi maior (velocidade de emissão de nós foi menor no ambiente protegido, enquanto o rendimento de vagens foi similar nos dois ambientes. A redução da densidade de fluxo de radiação solar global incidente em função da cobertura plástica foi apontada como a causa da menor velocidade de emissão de nós (maior plastocrono pelas plantas no ambiente protegido, enquanto o crescimento reprodutivo no ambiente protegido foi similar ao do ambiente externo, provavelmente devido a menor exposição das plantas a possíveis estresses, mecânico por vento e hídrico parcial nas horas mais quentes dos dias de maior demanda hídrica, além do aumento da fração difusa da radiação solar, que, em parte, compensou o sombreamento pela estufa.Snap bean

  4. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Båth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m and surface-wave magnitudes (M are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave magnitudes from broad-band and narrow-band short-period seismographs are compared and relations deduced. Applications are made both to underground nuclear explosions and to earthquakes. The possibilities of explosion-earthquake discrimination on the basis of magnitudes are examined, as well as the determination of explosive yield from magnitudes. For earthquakes, relations between magnitudes of main earthquakes and largest aftershocks are investigated. A world-wide station network for more homogeneous magnitude determinations is suggested in order to provide the necessary reference system.

  5. Crystal-field excitations in PrAl sub 3 and NdAl sub 3 at ambient and elevated pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Straessle, T; Rusz, J; Janssen, S; Juranyi, F; Sadykov, R; Furrer, A

    2003-01-01

    The crystal fields (CFs) of the binary rare-earth compounds PrAl sub 3 and NdAl sub 3 have been examined at ambient pressure by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The CF of the latter compound has also been measured under hydrostatic pressure (p = 0.84 GPa). The observed substantial changes of the CF under pressure are discussed within the framework of first-principles density functional theory calculations.

  6. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  7. Regularized estimation of magnitude and phase of multi-coil b1 field via Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping and coil combination optimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Wright, Steven M; Noll, Douglas C

    2014-10-01

    Parallel excitation requires fast and accurate B1 map estimation. Bloch-Siegert (BS) B1 mapping is very fast and accurate over a large dynamic range. When applied to multi-coil systems, however, this phase-based method may produce low signal-to-noise ratio estimates in low magnitude regions due to localized excitation patterns of parallel excitation systems. Also, the imaging time increases with the number of coils. In this work, we first propose to modify the standard BS B1 mapping sequence so that it avoids the scans required by previous B1 phase estimation methods. A regularized method is then proposed to jointly estimate the magnitude and phase of multi-coil B1 maps from BS B1 mapping data, improving estimation quality by using the prior knowledge of the smoothness of B1 magnitude and phase. Lastly, we use Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis to optimize the coil combinations, to improve the quality of the raw data for B1 estimation. The proposed methods are demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments.

  8. Magnitude-frequency relations of debris-flows on cones: evidence from tree-ring records, field surveys and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Debris-flow activity in a watershed is usually defined in terms of magnitude and frequency. While magnitude-frequency (M-F) relations have long formed the basis for risk assessment and engineering design in hydrology and fluvial hydraulics, only fragmentary and insufficiently specified data for debris flows exists. This paper reconstructs M-F relationships of 62 debris flows for an aggradational cone of a small (Swiss Alps since A.D. 1863. The frequency of debris flows is obtained from tree-ring records. The magnitude of individual events is given as S, M, L, XL, and derived from volumetric data of deposits, grain size distributions of boulders, and a series of surrogates (snout elevations, tree survival, lateral spread of surges). Class S and M debris flows ( 50 mm) in August and September, when the active layer of the rock glacier in the source area of debris flows is largest. Over the past ~150 years, climate has exerted control on material released from the source area and prevented triggering of class XL events before 1922. With the projected climatic change, permafrost degradation and the potential increase in storm intensity are likely to produce "class XXL" events in the future with volumes surpassing 5 × 104 m3 at the level of the debris-flow cone.

  9. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O livro Epistemologia Ambiental traz uma rica discussão sobre a questão ambiental, abordando teorias relevantes para o entendimento e interpretação da crise atual, orientando para a construção de novas racionalidades e a constituição de um saber ambiental. A obra vem compartimentada em cinco capítulos distribuídos em 240 páginas. 

  10. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography related performance of the Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily base...

  11. Degradation pattern of black phosphorus multilayer field-effect transistors in ambient conditions: Strategy for contact resistance engineering in BP transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chul Min; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Lee, Jae Woo; Joo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2017-10-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) has been proposed as a future optoelectronic material owing to its direct bandgap with excellent electrical performances. However, oxygen (O2) and water (H2O) molecules in an ambient condition can create undesired bubbles on the surface of the BP, resulting in hampering its excellent intrinsic properties. Here, we report the electrical degradation pattern of a mechanically exfoliated BP field-effect transistor (FET) in terms of the channel and contact, separately. Various electrical parameters such as the threshold voltage (VTH), carrier mobility (μ), contact resistance (RCT) and channel resistance (RCH) are estimated by the Y function method (YFM) with respect to time (up to 2000 min). It is found that RCT reduces and then, increases with time; whereas, the behavior of RCH is vice versa in ambient conditions. We attribute these effects to oxygen doping at the contact and the surface oxidation effects on the surface of the BP, respectively.

  12. Derecho Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Es indudable la relevancia para la vida del planeta proteger el ambiente. De ahí que a lo largo de las últimas decadas el derecho ambiental se ha consolidado como una nueva y vital rama del derecho público.

  13. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  14. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  15. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  16. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  17. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  18. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  19. Environmental framework for the development of the Los Humeros, Puebla geothermal field; Contexto ambiental del desarrollo del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana Melchor, Eugenio J.; Fernandez Solorzano, Maria Elena; Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    The construction, operation and maintenance of the Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field were undertaken in accordance with Mexican environmental regulations. The resolutions on environmental impacts, license for atmospheric pollution prevention, concession title for exploitation and use of national waters, permission for wastewater discharging services, company registration for producing dangerous wastes and fulfillment of all conditions noted in the documents show the applicable environmental laws for the project have been followed. [Spanish] La construccion, operacion y mantenimiento del campo geotermoelectrico Los Humeros, Puebla, se ha llevado a cabo dentro del marco juridico ambiental vigente en Mexico. Las resoluciones en materia de impacto ambiental, la licencia en materia de prevencion de la contaminacion de la atmosfera, el titulo de concesion para explorar, usar o aprovechar aguas nacionales, el permiso para descargar aguas residuales domesticas, el registro como empresa generadora de residuos peligrosos, y el cumplimiento de las disposiciones y condicionantes establecidos en cada uno de estos documentos, evidencian la observancia de la legislacion ambiental aplicable al proyecto.

  20. An assessment of the impact of ambient ozone on field-grown crops in New Jersey using the EDU method: part 2-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, E G; Clarke, B B; Greenhalgh-Weidman, B; Smith, G

    1990-01-01

    The yields of eleven commercially grown soybean cultivars were compared in ethylenediurea (EDU)-treated and non-treated field plots in New Brunswick, New Jersey, over a 4 year period. No statistically significant difference between treatments was found for any cultivar; the inference being ambient ozone did not adversely affect soybean yield. Succeeding field experiments supported this interpretation of the data. 'Sanilac' white bean, a legume known to be more sensitive to O(3) than soybean, was found to produce a significantly greater yield in EDU-treated than non-treated plots, unlike a companion planting of 'Williams 82' soybean which did not exhibit the differential response. The results indicated that the specific EDU protocol used in the soybean experiments is capable of detecting an ozone effect in a legume. Moreover, in a concurrent greenhouse experiment the yield of EDU-treated Sanilac white bean was not significantly different from non-treated plants in the absence of ozone pollution. In a dose-response field experiment during a year of unusually high O(3) pollution, yield of 'Williams 82' increased slightly with each EDU increment up to 500 ppm and decreased at 1000 ppm. The difference between non-treated and EDU-treated plants, however, was not statistically significant. There was no evidence to suggest that the EDU concentration (500 ppm) used in previous soybean experiments reduced seed yield. Fortuitously, the tolerance of commercially-grown soybean to ambient ozone is at least partially conditioned by the practce of not irrigating the crop. The New Jersey results are in agreement with reports from Maryland, Georgia and Tennessee in which an adverse impact of ambient O(3) was not found in soybean, but contrary to a current predictive model.

  1. Order of magnitude enhancement of monolayer MoS2 photoluminescence due to near-field energy influx from nanocrystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianle; Sampat, Siddharth; Zhang, Kehao; Robinson, Joshua A.; Rupich, Sara M.; Chabal, Yves J.; Gartstein, Yuri N.; Malko, Anton V.

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register an order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. The TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures.

  2. Determining the magnitude and direction of photoinduced ligand field switching in photochromic metal-organic complexes: molybdenum-tetracarbonyl spirooxazine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Michelle M; Patrick, Brian O; Frank, Natia L

    2011-07-06

    The ability to optically switch or tune the intrinsic properties of transition metals (e.g., redox potentials, emission/absorption energies, and spin states) with photochromic metal-ligand complexes is an important strategy for developing "smart" materials. We have described a methodology for using metal-carbonyl complexes as spectroscopic probes of ligand field changes associated with light-induced isomerization of photochromic ligands. Changes in ligand field between the ring-closed spirooxazine (SO) and ring-opened photomerocyanine (PMC) forms of photochromic azahomoadamantyl and indolyl phenanthroline-spirooxazine ligands are demonstrated through FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and computational studies of their molybdenum-tetracarbonyl complexes. The frontier molecular orbitals (MOs) of the SO and PMC forms differ considerably in both electron density distributions and energies. Of the multiple π* MOs in the SO and PMC forms of the ligands, the LUMO+1, a pseudo-b(1)-symmetry phenanthroline-based MO, mixes primarily with the Mo(CO)(4) fragment and provides the major pathway for Mo(d)→phen(π*) backbonding. The LUMO+1 is found to be 0.2-0.3 eV lower in energy in the SO form relative to the PMC form, suggesting that the SO form is a better π-acceptor. Light-induced isomerization of the photochromic ligands was therefore found to lead to changes in the energies of their frontier MOs, which in turn leads to changes in π-acceptor ability and ligand field strength. Ligand field changes associated with photoisomerizable ligands allow tuning of excited-state and ground-state energies that dictate energy/electron transfer, optical/electrical properties, and spin states of a metal center upon photoisomerization, positioning photochromic ligand-metal complexes as promising targets for smart materials.

  3. Determination of the meteor limiting magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R. C.

    2017-09-01

    We present our method to calculate the meteor limiting magnitude. The limiting meteor magnitude defines the faintest magnitude at which all meteors are still detected by a given system. An accurate measurement of the limiting magnitude is important in order to calculate the meteoroid flux from a meteor shower or sporadic source. Since meteor brightness is linked to meteor mass, the limiting magnitude is needed to calculate the limiting mass of the meteor flux measurement. The mass distribution of meteoroids is thought to follow a power law, thus being slightly off in the limiting magnitude can have a significant effect on the measured flux. Sky conditions can change on fairly short timescales; therefore one must monitor the meteor limiting magnitude at regular intervals throughout the night, rather than just measuring it once. We use the stellar limiting magnitude as a proxy of the meteor limiting magnitude. Our method for determining the stellar limiting magnitude and how we transform it into the meteor limiting magnitude is presented. These methods are currently applied to NASA's wide-field meteor camera network to determine nightly fluxes, but are applicable to other camera networks.

  4. Focal mechanisms and moment magnitudes of micro-earthquakes in central Brazil by waveform inversion with quality assessment and inference of the local stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Juraci; Barros, Lucas Vieira; Zahradník, Jiří

    2016-11-01

    This paper documents an investigation on the use of full waveform inversion to retrieve focal mechanisms of 11 micro-earthquakes (Mw 0.8 to 1.4). The events represent aftershocks of a 5.0 mb earthquake that occurred on October 8, 2010 close to the city of Mara Rosa in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The main contribution of the work lies in demonstrating the feasibility of waveform inversion of such weak events. The inversion was made possible thanks to recordings available at 8 temporary seismic stations in epicentral distances of less than 8 km, at which waveforms can be successfully modeled at relatively high frequencies (1.5-2.0 Hz). On average, the fault-plane solutions obtained are in agreement with a composite focal mechanism previously calculated from first-motion polarities. They also agree with the fault geometry inferred from precise relocation of the Mara Rosa aftershock sequence. The focal mechanisms provide an estimate of the local stress field. This paper serves as a pilot study for similar investigations in intraplate regions where the stress-field investigations are difficult due to rare earthquake occurrences, and where weak events must be studied with a detailed quality assessment.

  5. Determination of Glycol Ethers in Ambient Air by Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis: Performance Evaluation and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyo Seo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE are known to be toxic and classified as hazardous air pollutants in USA, Japan and Germany. In Korea, however, there has been no study conducted so far for these compounds in ambient air. In addition, no clear methodologies for the measurement of glycol ethers have been yet established. We carried out this study to evaluate a sampling and analytical method for the determination of glycol ethers, in ambient air samples collected in specific industrial areas of South Korea. To measure glycol ethers, adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC/MS analysis were used in this study. The analytical method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity. The lower detection limits were estimated to be approximately 0.3∼0.5 ppb. Based on storage tests, it was suggested that samples should be analyzed within two weeks. It was also demonstrated that this method can be used for the simultaneous measurement of glycol ethers and other aromatic VOCs such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Field sampling campaign was carried out at 2 sites, located in a large industrial area, from October 2006 to June 2007, and a total of 480 samples were collected seasonally. Among them, 2-ME was not detected from any samples, while 2-EE and 2-Ethyloxyethylacetate (2-EEA were found in 7 and 70 samples, respectively. The measured concentrations of 2-EE and 2-EEA for samples were ranged from 0.7-2.5 ppb and from 0.5-10.5 ppb, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement report for glycol ethers in the ambient atmosphere not only in Korea but also the rest of the world.

  6. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  7. Phase Diagram Of UGe2: The Magnetic Transition within the Ferromagnetic Phase and the Superconducting Transition; the Effect of Magnetic Field on the Ambient-Pressure Ferromagnetic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. E.; Bouquet, F.; Fisher, R. A.; Hardy, F.; Oeschler, N.; Lashley, J. C.; Flouquet, J.; Huxley, A.

    2007-03-01

    Superconductivity in UGe2 occurs near 1.2 GPa at the 0-K termination of the phase boundary (Tx, Px) of a magnetic transition that occurs within the ferromagnetic phase. Ambient-pressure specific-heat measurements show a hysteretic transition at Tx(0) ˜ 22 K, reminiscent of the CDW/SDW transition in α-U, and consistent with the suggestion that the transition in UGe2 is also a CDW/SDW transition. The magnetic field dependence of the specific heat, at ambient pressure, demonstrates the presence of structure in the electron density of states and an unusual nature of the ferromagnetic ordering at the Curie temperature. Specific-heat measurements to 1.8 GPa give an estimate of the latent heat of the transition and determine the phase boundary for 1 <= T <= 11 K. Contrary to expectations, the onset temperature of the superconducting transition is independent of pressure in the region in which it was observed, 1.08 <= P <= 1.35 GPa.

  8. Evaluation of snap bean cultivars for resistance to ambient oxidants in field plots and to ozone in chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, J.P.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Most cultivars of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) currently available in the US were evaluated for resistance to oxidant (ozone) air pollution in field plots at Beltsville and Salisbury, Maryland, in one or more of the past 8 years. Of 387 cultivars and breeding lines tested, 270 were classified resistant, 86 intermediate, and 31 susceptible. Responses of seedlings with one expanded trifoliate leaf to high concentrations of ozone revealed statistically significant differences among cultivars. The correlation between leaf injury induced by ozone on seedlings and ozone injury on the same cultivars as adult field-grown plants was low (r = .20) but significant. 13 references, 3 tables.

  9. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted......Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity...

  10. Discounting Behaviour and the Magnitude Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that individuals exhibit a magnitude effect in their discounting behaviour, where higher discount rates are inferred from choices made with lower principals, all else being equal. If the magnitude effect is quantitatively significant, it is not appropriate to use one discount...... rate that is independent of the scale of the project for cost–benefit analysis and capital budgeting. Using data from a field experiment in Denmark, we find statistically significant evidence of a magnitude effect that is much smaller than is claimed. This evidence surfaces only if one controls...

  11. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates; Ontologia de minerales: aplicacion en el abito ambiental a los silicatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. Ambient air/near-field measurements of methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from a natural gas facility in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Bonsang, Bernard; Baisnee, Dominique; Vogel, Félix; Yver Kwok, Camille; Ars, Sébastien; Finlayson, Andrew; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1970's, the natural gas consumption saw a rapid growth in large urban centers, thus becoming an important energy resource to meet continuous needs of factories and inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can be a substantial source of methane (CH4) and pollutants in urban areas. For instance, we have determined that about 20% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in downtown Paris are originating from this emission source (Baudic, Gros et al., in preparation). Within the framework of the "Fugitive Methane Emissions" (FuME) project (Climate-KIC, EIT); 2-weeks gas measurements were conducted at a gas compressor station in Northern Europe. Continuous ambient air measurements of methane and VOCs concentrations were performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (model G2201, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, USA) and two portable GC-FID (Chromatotec, Saint-Antoine, France), respectively. On-site near-field samplings were also carried out at the source of two pipelines using stainless steel flasks (later analyzed with a laboratory GC-FID). The objective of this study aims to use VOCs as additional tracers in order to better characterize the fugitive methane emissions in a complex environment, which can be affected by several urban sources (road-traffic, others industries, etc.). Moreover, these measurements have allowed determining the chemical composition of this specific source. Our results revealed that the variability of methane and some VOCs was (rather) well correlated, especially for alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.). An analysis of selected events with strong concentrations enhancement was performed using ambient air measurements; thus allowing the preliminary identification of different emission sources. In addition, some flasks were also sampled in Paris to determine the local natural gas composition. A comparison between both was then performed. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented here.

  13. CCN activation of ambient and "synthetic ambient" urban aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Bauer, Heidi; Leder, Klaus; Kistler, Magda; Puxbaum, Hans; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activation properties of the urban aerosol in Vienna, Austria, were investigated in a long term (11 month) field study. Filter samples of the aerosol below 100 nm were taken in parallel to these measurements, and later used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosols. Activation parameters of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol were also obtained. Hygroscopicity parameters κ [1] were calculated both for the urban and the "synthetic ambient" aerosol and also from the chemical composition. Average κ for the "synthetic ambient" aerosol ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 with an average value of 0.24, while the κ from the chemical composition of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol was significantly higher (average 0.43). The full results of the study are given elsewhere [2,3].

  14. Influence of ambient gases on the dc saturated breakdown field of molybdenum, tungsten, and copper during intense breakdown conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsvik, T; Reginelli, A; Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the effect of Ar, H2, air, and CO on the saturated breakdown field (Esat) of molybdenum, tungsten, and copper has been performed at intensive breakdown conditioning. A significant decrease in Esat is observed for molybdenum and tungsten when exposed to air. Specifically, at air pressures of ∼10-5   mbar, the decrease in Esat is found to be up to 50% and ∼30% compared to UHV conditions for molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. In addition, a ∼30% decrease is found when molybdenum is conditioned with a ∼10-5   mbar CO pressure. Surface analysis measurements and breakdown conditioning in O2 ambience imply that the origin of the decrease in Esat is closely linked to oxide formation on the electrode surfaces. Ex situ heat treatment of molybdenum is shown to improve the breakdown characteristics drastically.

  15. Increased upper critical field for nanocrystalline MoN thin films deposited on AlN buffered substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, R.; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Baisnab, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films have been deposited using reactive DC magnetron sputtering on aluminum nitride buffered oxidized silicon substrates at ambient temperature. GIXRD of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited under similar conditions has revealed the formation of wurtzite phase AlN. GIXRD characterization of molybdenum thin films deposited on AlN buffered oxidized silicon substrates has indicated the formation of nanocrystalline MoN thin films. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate MoN thin films have a superconducting transition temperature of ~8 K. The minimum transition width of the MoN thin film is 0.05 K at 0 T. The inferred upper critical field B c2(0) for these nanocrystalline MoN thin films obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of critical field with Werthamer, Helfand and Hohenberg theory lies in the range of 17-18 T which is the highest reported in literature for MoN thin films.

  16. Compreendendo o ambiente em Psicologia Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Lenelis Kruse

    2005-01-01

    O presente artigo consiste nas respostas às seguintes perguntas, propostas e respondidas pela autora: De que modo você, como uma psicóloga ambiental ou pesquisadora ambiente-comportamento: define o ambiente; leva em conta o ambiente em sua pesquisa; que tipo de teorias necessitamos para responder pelas relações pessoas-ambiente mais efetivamente; a interação entre as pessoas e o ambiente foi suficiente e adequadamente explicada na Psicologia Ambiental; de que modo esta interação poderia ser e...

  17. Longevity of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) compared in cages and field under ambient conditions in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickman, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) were exposed to all of the physiological stresses of a natural environment, without mortality from predation or from the defensive behavior of bitten hosts. Each replicate consisted of four cages containing 50 male and 50 female, locally reared Ae. aegypti. The cages were placed in the bedroom and kitchen of a typical Thai house in the village of Hua Samrong, Chachoengsao Province. Replicates were repeated five times between October 1991 and June 1992. Mosquitoes had constant access to sugar and were offered blood meals every day. The number of dead mosquitoes and eggs were recorded daily for 30 days. Indoor maximum temperatures were high throughout the year, ranging from a mean of 32.8 degrees C in October/November to 37.6 degrees C in March-April, with an absolute maximum of 41 degrees C. Survival in cages was related to temperature, with the force of mortality lowest in November-December (0.002) and highest in May-June (0.043). The negative slope of cohort survival was also greatest in the warmest months. Egg laying rate was lower in the cooler months (minimum 16.4 eggs/female/day in November-December), but did not vary greatly in absolute value (maximum 22.7 eggs/female/day in March-April). Statistically, survival of females in cages was much greater than survival calculated from mark-release-recapture studies conducted by other authors in Hua Samrong. The difference in survival for mosquitoes released in the field and those confined to cages suggests that predation or defensive behavior may be important in regulating adult populations of this vector.

  18. Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 nanoparticulates spinel ferrites:An approach to enhance the antenna field strength for improved magnitude versus offset (MVO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; R. Raza; M. Saleem; S.N. Khan; Nadeem Nasir; Muhammad Kashif; Noorhana Yahya; Mukhtar Ahmad; Ghulam Murtaza; Muhammad Azhar Khan; M.H. Asif; A. Sattar

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic signals in deep reservoir are very weak so that it is difficult to predict about the presence of hydrocarbon in seabed logging (SBL) environment. In the present work, Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 nanoferrites were prepared by a sol-gel technique at different sintering temperatures of 450 1C, 650 1C and 850 1C to increase the strength of electromagnetic (EM) antenna. XRD, FESEM, Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM were used to analyze the phase, surface morphology and size of the nanoferrites. Magnetic properties of the nanoferrites were also measured using an impedance network analyzer. However, nanoferrites sintered at 850 1C with initial permeability of 200 and Q factor of 50 were used as magnetic feeders with the EM antenna. Lab scale experiments were performed to investigate the effect of magnetic field strength in scale tank. SPSS and MATLAB softwares were also used to confirm the oil presence in scale tank. It was observed that the magnitude of the EM waves for the antenna was increased up to 233%. Finally, the correlation values also show 208% increase in the magnetic field strength with the presence of the oil. Therefore, antenna with Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 nanoferrites based magnetic feeders can be used for deep water and deep target hydrocarbon exploration.

  19. Studying CO2 storage with ambient-noise seismic interferometry: A combined numerical feasibility study and field-data example for Ketzin, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullenger, B.; Verdel, A.; Paap, B.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Draganov, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to ambient-noise measurements allows the retrieval of the seismic response between pairs of receivers. We studied ambient-noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to retrieve time-lapse reflection responses from a reservoir during CO2 geologic sequestration, using the case

  20. The effects of mesoscale regions of precipitation on the ionospheric dynamics, electrodynamics and electron density in the presence of strong ambient electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. de Boer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new high resolution two-dimensional model of the high latitude ionosphere in which nonlinear advection terms are closely coupled with the electrodynamics. The model provides a self-consistent description of the ionospheric feedback on the electrodynamical perturbations produced by auroral arc-related particle precipitation in regions with strong ambient electric fields. We find in particular that a heretofore neglected ion Pedersen advection term can introduce considerable changes in the electron density profile, the current density distribution, the conductivities and the electron temperatures. We find that the convective effects can carry the ionisation more than 150 km outside the precipitation region in a few minutes, with attendant large changes in the current distribution and E-region densities that become enhanced outside the region of particle precipitation. The production of a tongue of ionisation that slowly decays outside the auroral boundaries contrasts with the sharp geometric cut-off and associated stronger current densities found in previous studies.

  1. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of transport, dispersion, and infiltration. The theoretical solution for the relationship between the time-dependent indoor PM concentration and the initial PM concentration at the outdoor source was obtained. The theoretical models and solutions helped us to identify important parameters in the

  2. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  3. Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Campillos, Enrique; Buldain Pérez, David; Orrite Uruñuela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis se presentan un conjunto de redes neuronales llamadas Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks (MSCNNs). Se trata de un conjunto de algoritmos de Competitive Learning que incluyen un término de magnitud como un factor de modulación de la distancia usada en la competición. Al igual que otros métodos competitivos, MSCNNs realizan la cuantización vectorial de los datos, pero el término de magnitud guía el entrenamiento de los centroides de modo que se representan con alto de...

  4. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  5. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  6. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes.

  7. A dialética dos campos sociais na interpretação da problemática ambiental: uma análise crítica a partir de diferentes leituras sobre os problemas ambientais The dialectics of social fields in the interpretation of the environmental problematic: a critical analysis based on different readings of environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Henrique Gerhardt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A problemática ambiental constitui, atualmente, um importante espaço catalisador e produtor de valores regulatórios da vida humana e não-humana na biosfera terrestre. Porém, o que faz com que esta temática adquira tamanha envergadura em relação à sua identificação como problema social importante? A hipótese lançada aqui é a de que por trás desta difusa sensibilidade ambiental encontra-se em processo a configuração de um campo ambiental relativamente estruturado, no qual se busca, cada vez mais, a legitimidade para tratar das discussões sobre tudo aquilo que diz respeito ao meio ambiente. Neste sentido, tal espaço de lutas simbólicas tende a concentrar confrontos em torno do reconhecimento de certas ações e modos de pensamento, sendo que o que está colocado em jogo, neste caso, são as próprias percepções acerca do que seja o meio ambiente e, em contrapartida, as relações ontológicas construídas entre seres humanos e natureza. Com isto, a paulatina estruturação de um campo ambiental - este último funcionando como um amplo, dinâmico, instável e heterogêneo espaço de debate e de ação - tende a fazer com que determinados conceitos e práticas possam naturalizar-se e, concomitantemente, serem reconhecidas como "ambientalmente corretas". Em suma, a constituição deste domínio prático/discursivo irá concentrar os agentes e suas disputas sobre que saberes, comportamentos e procedimentos deveriam ser instituídos como sendo os mais "adequados" do ponto de vista ambiental. Entretanto, nesta perspectiva, o que seria visto (e adotado como ambientalmente "correto" ou "adequado" está, desde já, em disputa.At present, the environmental question constitutes an important space of catalysis and production of regulatory values of human and non-human life in the earth's biosphere. However, what makes this theme to attain such magnitude in relation to its identification as an important social problem? The hypothesis

  8. Calibration de la magnitude absolue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A. E.; Mennessier, M. O.

    Les parallaxes mesurées par Hipparcos permettront d'obtenir des magnitudes absolues individuelles meilleures que ±0m4 pour les étoiles placées dans un volume de rayon inférieur à 150 pc environ autour du soleil. Les algorithmes développés dans le cadre de l'exploitation des données d'Hipparcos, basés sur la méthode de maximum de vraisemblance, permettent non seulement de faire une estimation de la magnitude absolue moyenne d'un groupe physiquement homogène d'étoiles, de son comportement cinématique et de sa distribution spatiale mais aussi d'estimer une magnitude absolue individuelle pour chaque étoile de l'échantillon considéré.

  9. Inversion of H/V in layered media from seismic ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory and on improved calculation of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is widely used to assess the dominant frequency of soil sites. Measurements are relatively simple as only one station is needed. It has been recently proposed a theoretical basis linking ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory. In this theory the directional energy density computed as the average spectral density of motion at a point, is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function at the observation point. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In order to efficiently compute the imaginary part of Green's functions in a layered medium we start from an integral on the complex k plane and, using Harkrider's nomenclature, separate formulae for body-, Rayleigh-, and Love-wave components to the spectral densities are obtained. Then the poles allow for integration using the Cauchy residue theorem plus some contributions from branch integrals. It is possible to isolate pseudo reflections from ImG11 and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (from an a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V )2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer controls the slope in high frequency. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the estimate of ImG11 will be improved. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712, by the MINECO research project CGL2010-16250, Spain, by the EU with FEDER, and the AXA Research Fund.

  10. Compreendendo o ambiente em Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenelis Kruse

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste nas respostas às seguintes perguntas, propostas e respondidas pela autora: De que modo você, como uma psicóloga ambiental ou pesquisadora ambiente-comportamento: define o ambiente; leva em conta o ambiente em sua pesquisa; que tipo de teorias necessitamos para responder pelas relações pessoas-ambiente mais efetivamente; a interação entre as pessoas e o ambiente foi suficiente e adequadamente explicada na Psicologia Ambiental; de que modo esta interação poderia ser explicada mais satisfatoriamente; deveríamos estar construindo diferentes tipos de informação ou de conhecimento para criar teorias explanatórias mais úteis; o que está faltando na pesquisa da Psicologia Ambiental: qual é o seu background disciplinar; quais metodologias de pesquisa comportamento-ambiente você usou e achou mais úteis e porque ao trabalhar com outras disciplinas.

  11. Effect of Ambient UV-B on Stomatal Density, Conductance and Isotope Discrimination in Four Field Grown Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactions between UV-B radiation and drought stress have been studied but the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized that ambient UV-B radiation would increase water use efficiency (WUE) through its effects on epidermal development, specifically reduced stoma...

  12. Soil acidification occurs under ambient conditions but is retarded by repeated drought: results of a field-scale climate manipulation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Kopittke; A. Tietema; J.M. Verstraten

    2012-01-01

    Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient

  13. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  14. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  15. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shallow water near the sea-route.

  16. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI ZhengLin; PENG ZhaoHui

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shal-low water near the sea-route.

  17. Tectonic stress - Models and magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Bergman, E. A.; Richardson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that global data on directions of principal stresses in plate interiors can serve as a test of possible plate tectonic force models. Such tests performed to date favor force models in which ridge pushing forces play a significant role. For such models the general magnitude of regional deviatoric stresses is comparable to the 200-300 bar compressive stress exerted by spreading ridges. An alternative approach to estimating magnitudes of regional deviatoric stresses from stress orientations is to seek regions of local stress either demonstrably smaller than or larger than the regional stresses. The regional stresses in oceanic intraplate regions are larger than the 100-bar compression exerted by the Ninetyeast Ridge and less than the bending stresses (not less than 1 kbar) beneath Hawaii.

  18. Subject position affects EEG magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Justin K; Rorden, Christopher; Little, Jessica S; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    EEG (electroencephalography) has been used for decades in thousands of research studies and is today a routine clinical tool despite the small magnitude of measured scalp potentials. It is widely accepted that the currents originating in the brain are strongly influenced by the high resistivity of skull bone, but it is less well known that the thin layer of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has perhaps an even more important effect on EEG scalp magnitude by spatially blurring the signals. Here it is shown that brain shift and the resulting small changes in CSF layer thickness, induced by changing the subject's position, have a significant effect on EEG signal magnitudes in several standard visual paradigms. For spatially incoherent high-frequency activity the effect produced by switching from prone to supine can be dramatic, increasing occipital signal power by several times for some subjects (on average 80%). MRI measurements showed that the occipital CSF layer between the brain and skull decreases by approximately 30% in thickness when a subject moves from prone to supine position. A multiple dipole model demonstrated that this can indeed lead to occipital EEG signal power increases in the same direction and order of magnitude as those observed here. These results suggest that future EEG studies should control for subjects' posture, and that some studies may consider placing their subjects into the most favorable position for the experiment. These findings also imply that special consideration should be given to EEG measurements from subjects with brain atrophy due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases, since the resulting increase in CSF layer thickness could profoundly decrease scalp potential measurements.

  19. Magnetic-Field Sensitive Line Ratios in EUV and Soft X-ray Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Scofield, J; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Trabert, E; Lepson, J K

    2006-04-24

    We discovered a class of lines that are sensitive to the strength of the ambient magnetic field, and present a measurement of such a line in Ar IX near 49 {angstrom}. Calculations show that the magnitude of field strengths that can be measured ranges from a few hundred gauss to several tens of kilogauss depending on the particular ion emitting the line.

  20. Data analysis results of the second sea trial of ambient noise imaging with acoustic lens in 2014: Two-dimensional target images affected by direction of field of view and spatial noise distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    An aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m has been designed and fabricated to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). A sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay in November 2010. It was verified that targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps. Recently, we have built a second prototype ANI system using an acoustic lens with a two-dimensional (2D) receiver array with 127 elements corresponding to a field of view (FOV) spanning 15° horizontally by 9° vertically. In this study, we investigated the effects of the direction of the FOV and the spatial noise distribution on the 2D target image obtained by ANI. Here, the noise sources in front of the target are called “front light”, and those at the rear of the target are called “back light”. The second sea trial was conducted to image targets arranged in the FOV and measure the positions of noise sources at Uchiura Bay in November 10-14, 2014. For front light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were greater than those in other directions owing to the dominant target scatterings. Reversely, for back light, the pixel values in the on-target directions were lower than those in other directions owing to the dominant direct noises such as “silhouette”.

  1. Subsidence crack closure: rate, magnitude and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graff, J.V.; Romesburg, H.C.

    1981-06-01

    Tension cracks are a major surface disturbance resulting from subsidence and differential settlement above underground coal mines. Recent engineering studies of subsidence indicate that cracks may close where tensile stresses causing the cracks are reduced or relaxed. This stress reduction occurs as mining in the area is completed. Crack closure was confirmed by a study in the Wasatch Plateau coal field of central Utah. Cracks occurred in both exposed bedrock and regolith in an area with maximum subsidence of 3 m. Mean closure rate was 0.3 cm per week with individual crack closure rates between 0.2 cm and 1.0 cm per week. The mean crack closure magnitude was 80% with closure magnitudes varying between 31% and 100%. Actual magnitude values ranged from 0.6 cm to 6.5 cm with a mean value of 3.8 cm. Statistical analysis compared width change status among cracks over time. It was found that: 1) a 41% probability existed that a crack would exhibit decreasing width per weekly measurement, 2) closure state sequences seem random over time, and 3) real differences in closure state sequence existed among different cracks. (6 refs.) (In English)

  2. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ryan A; Rovey, Joshua L; Pommerenke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of [Formula: see text] probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two [Formula: see text] probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first [Formula: see text] probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface

  3. Psicologia do Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Dalila; Bernardo, Fátima; Palma-Oliveira, José-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Na aplicação da Psicologia à área do AMBIENTE importa em primeiro lugar definir o que se entende, neste contexto, por ambiente. O conceito é entendido como toda a envolvente que rodeia o ser humano. Referimo-nos pois ao espaço físico e aos estímulos que nele existem (som, ar, paisagem…), dirigindo-se a Psicologia do Ambiente ao estudo e intervenção sobre a forma como o ambiente influencia o indivíduo ou grupos, e sobre o modo como o comportamento dos indivíduos e grupos influenciam o ambiente...

  4. Spectral ratios of ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory: Improved inversion of H/V in layered media using analytical properties of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Piña, J.; Luzón, F.; Garcia-Jerez, A.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is well know the popularity of H/V spectral ratio to extract the dominant frequency of soil sites for microzonation studies (Nakamura, 1989). It is relatively easy to make measurements as only one station is needed. Despite its success, this approach had not solid theoretical basis until a proposal to link ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory was made (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011a). Based on this theory the average spectral density of a given motion of a point, also called directional energy density (Perton et al, 2009), is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function precisely at the observation point. The proportionality implies that vector components are all multiplied by the current spectral level of the diffuse illumination. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio of ImG11 and ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. From ImG11 it could be possible through Fourier analysis to extract pseudo reflections and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We propose to assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (obtained from a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V)2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the most relevant property is the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer which controls the slope in high frequency (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011b). Pseudo-reflection seismograms are thus obtained from Fourier transform, back to time domain, of i{ImG11-ImG11HSS}, where ImG11HSS is the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal load at the surface of a half-space with the properties of the uppermost layer. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the

  5. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  6. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  7. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  8. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regularoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argent...

  9. Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-03-15

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R{sup 2}=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R{sup 2}>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. - Highlights: • Development of a nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging model • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and harmonic frequencies • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and intermodulation

  10. Control of amplification without inversion in H2 and LiH molecules: Dependence on relative magnitude of probe and coherent field Rabi frequencies in three-level system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulagna Dutta; Krishna Rai Dastidar

    2006-12-01

    Dependence of amplification without inversion (AWI) on the relative strength of probe and coherent field Rabi frequencies has been studied in H2 and LiH molecules for three-level configuration. We have derived exact analytical expressions for coherences and populations keeping all the orders of probe field Rabi frequency () and coherent field Rabi frequency () in the steady state limit. Previously, first-order approximation (i.e. keeping only the first-order term in ) was used and hence AWI was studied for the condition ≫ . Here, by using the exact analytical expressions of coherences and populations, we have shown that AWI is maximum when is within the same order of probe field Rabi frequency irrespective of the choice of different ro-vibrational transitions in both the molecules. However, the shape of the gain profile and the maximum value of gain on the probe field and the absorption on coherent field depend on the choice of different ro-vibrational levels as the upper lasing levels. Effect of bidirectional pumping, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening on AWI process has been studied. By solving the density matrix equations numerically it has been shown that both the transient and the steady state AWI can be obtained and the numerical values of coherences and populations at large time are in very good agreement with exact analytical values in the steady state limit. It has been shown that in molecules AWI can be obtained on probe field of smaller wavelength than that of the coherent field which has not been observed in atoms so far.

  11. The color-magnitude distribution of small Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of survey observations targeting the leading L4 Jupiter Trojan cloud near opposition using the wide-field Suprime-Cam CCD camera on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The survey covered about 38 deg$^2$ of sky and imaged 147 fields spread across a wide region of the L4 cloud. Each field was imaged in both the $g'$ and the $i'$ band, allowing for the measurement of $g-i$ color. We detected 557 Trojans in the observed fields, ranging in absolute magnitude from $H=10.0$ to $H = 20.3$. We fit the total magnitude distribution to a broken power law and show that the power-law slope rolls over from $0.45\\pm 0.05$ to $0.36^{+0.05}_{-0.09}$ at a break magnitude of $H_{b}=14.93^{+0.73}_{-0.88}$. Combining the best-fit magnitude distribution of faint objects from our survey with an analysis of the magnitude distribution of bright objects listed in the Minor Planet Center catalog, we obtain the absolute magnitude distribution of Trojans over the entire range from $H=7.2$ to $H=16.4$. We show that the $g-i...

  12. Radiactividad y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, José Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    En los medios de comunicación frecuentemente aparecen noticias que hacen referencia a la radiactividad y al medio ambiente y, sin embargo, lo que es la radiactividad y como influye ésta sobre el medio ambiente suele ser poco conocido, incluso por personas de formación científica.

  13. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  14. Rapid Earthquake Magnitude Estimation for Early Warning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Dara; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake magnitude is a concise metric that provides invaluable information about the destructive potential of a seismic event. Rapid estimation of magnitude for earthquake and tsunami early warning purposes requires reliance on near-field instrumentation. For large magnitude events, ground motions can exceed the dynamic range of near-field broadband seismic instrumentation (clipping). Strong motion accelerometers are designed with low gains to better capture strong shaking. Estimating earthquake magnitude rapidly from near-source strong-motion data requires integration of acceleration waveforms to displacement. However, integration amplifies small errors, creating unphysical drift that must be eliminated with a high pass filter. The loss of the long period information due to filtering is an impediment to magnitude estimation in real-time; the relation between ground motion measured with strong-motion instrumentation and magnitude saturates, leading to underestimation of earthquake magnitude. Using station displacements from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, we can supplement the high frequency information recorded by traditional seismic systems with long-period observations to better inform rapid response. Unlike seismic-only instrumentation, ground motions measured with GNSS scale with magnitude without saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. We refine the current magnitude scaling relations using peak ground displacement (PGD) by adding a large GNSS dataset of earthquakes in Japan. Because it does not suffer from saturation, GNSS alone has significant advantages over seismic-only instrumentation for rapid magnitude estimation of large events. The earthquake's magnitude can be estimated within 2-3 minutes of earthquake onset time [Melgar et al., 2013]. We demonstrate that seismogeodesy, the optimal combination of GNSS and seismic data at collocated stations, provides the added benefit of improving the sensitivity of

  15. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  16. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  17. Environmental sensitive and licensing of productive oil fields during the period 2008-2017; Sensibilidade ambiental e licenciamento dos campos petroliferos produtivos no decenio 2008-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Veronica S.M.; Silva, Cesar M.B.; Coelho, Cristiane M.; Serran, Flavia Pompeu; Vieira, Hermani de Moraes; Conde, Marcos R.; Santos, Gustavo R. dos; Miceli, Giam C.C.; Nuti, Mirian Regini; Furtado, Ricardo C. [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Meio Ambiente], e-mail: veronica.gomes@epe.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an socio environmental analysis of the expected production of the oil fields for the next ten years. First, it has has been studied the environmental sensitivity of the region in which are inserted the fields. From that base on and other information, it have been estimated the time for the environmental licensing, and the possible delays compared with the initial estimation. Nevertheless the existing limitations related to the licensing information, this study allowed the identification of aspects relevant to the petroleum and natural gas offer expansion in the country.

  18. An Overview of the Study on Stress Magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Shuzhong; Wan Yongge

    2009-01-01

    Crustal stress field holds an important position in geodynamics research, such as in plate motion simulations, uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and earthquake preparation and occurrence. However, most of the crustal stress studies emphasize particularly on the determination of stress direction, with little study being done on stress magnitude at present. After reviewing ideas on a stress magnitude study from geological, geophysical and various other aspects, a method to estimate the stress magnitude in the source region according to the deflection of stress direction before and after large earthquakes and the stress drop tensor of earthquake rupture has been developed. The proposed method can also be supplemented by the average apparent stress before and after large earthquakes. The stress direction deflection before and after large earthquakes can be inverted by massive focal mechanisms of foreshocks and aftershocks and the stress drop field generated by the seismic source can be calculated by the detailed distribution of the earthquake's rupture. The mathematical relationship can then be constructed between the stress drop field, where its magnitude and direction are known and the stress tensor before and after large earthquakes, where its direction is known but magnitude is unknown, thereby obtaining the stress magnitude. The average apparent stress before and after large earthquakes can be obtained by using the catalog of broadband radiated energy and seismic moment tensor of foreshocks and aftershocks and the different responses to stress drops. This relationship leads to another estimation of stress magnitude before a large earthquake. The stress magnitude and its error are constrained by combining the two methods, which provide new constraints for the geodyuamics study.

  19. A Helicity-Based Method to Infer the CME Magnetic Field Magnitude in Sun and Geospace: Generalization and Extension to Sun-Like and M-Dwarf Stars and Implications for Exoplanet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    Patsourakos et al. ( Astrophys. J. 817, 14, 2016) and Patsourakos and Georgoulis ( Astron. Astrophys. 595, A121, 2016) introduced a method to infer the axial magnetic field in flux-rope coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar corona and farther away in the interplanetary medium. The method, based on the conservation principle of magnetic helicity, uses the relative magnetic helicity of the solar source region as input estimates, along with the radius and length of the corresponding CME flux rope. The method was initially applied to cylindrical force-free flux ropes, with encouraging results. We hereby extend our framework along two distinct lines. First, we generalize our formalism to several possible flux-rope configurations (linear and nonlinear force-free, non-force-free, spheromak, and torus) to investigate the dependence of the resulting CME axial magnetic field on input parameters and the employed flux-rope configuration. Second, we generalize our framework to both Sun-like and active M-dwarf stars hosting superflares. In a qualitative sense, we find that Earth may not experience severe atmosphere-eroding magnetospheric compression even for eruptive solar superflares with energies {≈} 104 times higher than those of the largest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-class flares currently observed. In addition, the two recently discovered exoplanets with the highest Earth-similarity index, Kepler 438b and Proxima b, seem to lie in the prohibitive zone of atmospheric erosion due to interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), except when they possess planetary magnetic fields that are much higher than that of Earth.

  20. Diurnal depression in leaf hydraulic conductance at ambient and elevated [CO2] reveals anisohydric water management in field-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and water use in field-grown soybean (Glycine max) are tied to light intensity and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). At high mid-day VPD, transpiration rates can lead to a decline in leaf water potential if leaf hydraulic conductance is insufficient to supply water to in...

  1. Diurnal depression in leaf hydraulic conductance at ambient and elevated [CO2] and reveals anisohydric water management in field-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and water use in field-grown soybean (Glycine max) are tied to light intensity and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). At high mid-day VPD, transpiration rates can lead to a decline in leaf water potential ('leaf) if leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is insufficient to su...

  2. From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: on-line seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce dominated forest in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2013-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in Central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids govern the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that were emitted most strongly in April. We exploit the wide range of conditions experienced at the site to filter the dataset with a combination of temperature, ozone and absolute humidity values in order to derive the emission potential and temperature dependency development for the major chemical species investigated. A profound reduction of monoterpene emission potential (E30) and temperature dependency (β) was found under low temperature regimes, combined with low ozone levels (E30MT, LTLO3=56 ± 9.1 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, βMT,LTLO3=0.03±0.01 K-1) while a combination of both stresses was found to alter their emissions responses with respect to temperature

  3. Structure of large nitrate-water clusters at ambient temperatures: simulations with effective fragment potentials and force fields with implications for atmospheric chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yifat; Thomas, Jennie L; Kemp, Daniel D; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J; Gordon, Mark S; Tobias, Douglas J; Gerber, R Benny

    2009-11-19

    Structural properties of large NO(3)(-).(H(2)O)(n) (n = 15-500) clusters are studied by Monte Carlo simulations using effective fragment potentials (EFPs) and by classical molecular dynamics simulations using a polarizable empirical force field. The simulation results are analyzed with a focus on the description of hydrogen bonding and solvation in the clusters. In addition, a comparison between the electronic structure based EFP and the classical force field description of the 32 water cluster system is presented. The EFP simulations, which focused on the cases of n = 15 and 32, show an internal, fully solvated structure and a "surface adsorbed" structure for the 32 water cluster at 300 K, with the latter configuration being more probable. The internal solvated structure and the "surface adsorbed" structure differ considerably in their hydrogen bonding coordination numbers. The force field based simulations agree qualitatively with these results, and the local geometry of NO(3)(-) and solvation at the surface-adsorbed site in the force field simulations are similar to those predicted using EFPs. Differences and similarities between the description of hydrogen bonding of the anion in the two approaches are discussed. Extensive classical force field based simulations at 250 K predict that long time scale stability of "internal" NO(3)(-), which is characteristic of extended bulk aqueous interfaces, emerges only for n > 300. Ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory is used to test the geometries of selected surface and interior anions for n = 32, and the results are compared to the EFP and MD simulations. Qualitatively, all approaches agree that surface structures are preferred over the interior structures for clusters of this size. The relatively large aqueous clusters of NO(3)(-) studied here are of comparable size to clusters that lead to new particle formation in air. Nitrate ions on the surface of such clusters may have significantly different photochemistry

  4. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  5. Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI.

  6. Produção e qualidade do tomate produzido em substrato, no campo e em ambiente protegido Tomato production and quality in soiless culture conducted in the field and under unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar R. Fontes

    2004-09-01

    ambiente protegido quanto no campo.The tomato (hybrid Carmen fruit yield and quality in the FITO system were evaluated, using plastic bags containing organic compost + sand + nutrients, in the field and under unheated greenhouse conditions. Seven treatments were evaluated: 1 FITO, under unheated greenhouse, using perforated plastic bags, with 9 dm³ substratum per plant, containing 25% of organic compost and 75% of sand, all the macro and micronutrientes being added through trickle irrigation; 2 FITO A, similar to the previous treatment, except that only sand was used as substratum; 3 FITO 1, similar to FITO, except that the N and K were applied through trickle irrigation and the other nutrients were directly mixed in the substratum; 4 check plot in unheated greenhouse in which plants were directly transplanted in the soil; 5 FITO C, similar to FITO, except that the plants were cultivated under field condition; 6 check plot in unheated greenhouse in which plants were transplanted to the soil N and K being applied through trickle irrigation; 7 check plot with plants directly transplanted in the soil under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks design with four repetitions. There was no significant effect of treatments on N, Zn and Mn contents in leaf; in big and small sized fruits; in total fruit yield and fruit quality (pH, acidity, total soluble solids and vitamin C. Significant differences were found among treatments for leaf dry weight, medium, commercial and non-commercial production of fruits per day after transplantation (PCD. Significant differences were observed for P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe and Cu contents in leaves. The highest commercial, weighted and PCD yields, 104.79 t ha-1, 94,71 t ha-1 and 0.851 t ha-1 day-1, respectively, were obtained with the FITO system. However these values did not differ from those observed in the check plot using soil in the unheated greenhouse. FITO system can substitute the cultivation in the soil, either in

  7. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  8. Architectural models of ambient-PRISMA in channel ambient calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nour; Tuosto, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ambient-PRISMA is an architectural approach for specifying aspect-oriented software architecture and generating code of distributed and mobile systems. Ambient-PRISMA lacks a precise semantics due to the fact that it is based only on a metamodel. In this paper, Ambient-PRISMA is mapped into a formal language called Channel Ambient Calculus, a process algebra for specifying mobile applications that provides channels and ambients as first-class citizens. We...

  9. Extreme value distribution of earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jun Gan; Tung, C. C.

    1983-07-01

    Probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude is first derived for an unspecified probability distribution of earthquake magnitude. A model for energy release of large earthquakes, similar to that of Adler-Lomnitz and Lomnitz, is introduced from which the probability distribution of earthquake magnitude is obtained. An extensive set of world data for shallow earthquakes, covering the period from 1904 to 1980, is used to determine the parameters of the probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude. Because of the special form of probability distribution of earthquake magnitude, a simple iterative scheme is devised to facilitate the estimation of these parameters by the method of least-squares. The agreement between the empirical and derived probability distributions of maximum earthquake magnitude is excellent.

  10. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2016-01-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2 > 0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  11. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  12. El ambiente social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el título de« Ambiente Social» se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecológico (físico-biótico. Así mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la noción de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significación a la «experiencia ambiental», ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensión de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediación de las dimensiones psicológica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolíticos y económicos con el ánimo de planificación, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  13. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  14. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  15. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifie...

  16. Magnitude Anomalies and Propagation of Local Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-31

    statistically significant variation of magnitude anomalies versus one of this above parameters. A contrario, we observed a significant dependance between...enough to demand a more detailed analysis. III - Local dependance of magnitude anomalies. A smoothing of our data on all quakes originating in the same

  17. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  18. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  19. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  20. Meio ambiente e literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Oliveira Fantini Scarpelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca reconhecer alguns pontos de tangência entre os romances Vidas secas, de Graciliano Ramos, As cidades invisíveis, de Italo Calvino, e Grande sertão: veredas, de Guimarães Rosa, sobretudo no que respeita às relações modalizantes entre literatura e meio ambiente. Em meio à diversidade temática das obras indicadas, subjaz o tema da consciência ambiental, que, nas últimas décadas, vem recebendo a crescente adesão não apenas de ambientalistas, mas também de intelectuais, políticos, escritores. O foco na degradação ambiental, no alerta implícito acerca das precárias condições de vida futura em nosso planeta revela um dos nucleares e contundentes problemas a desafiar a agenda contemporânea. Nesse sentido, revela-se paradigmático o “lugar-sertão” rosiano, que, ao difundir seu território, seus valores e denúncias, patenteia uma concepção ambiental inovadora e reticular, em estreito diálogo com as atuais pesquisas interdisciplinares sobre o tema, as quais deveriam doravante guardar, em seu horizonte de expectativa, os paradigmas, as perspectivas e os equacionamentos que alicerçam as artes em geral e a literatura em particular.

  1. La radioactividad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  2. La radioactividad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  3. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Surratt, Jason D.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-11-27

    Samples of ambient aerosols from the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study were analyzed using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (nano-DESI/MS). Four samples per day were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 20-24 with a collection time of 6 hours per sample. Four characteristic groups of organic constituents were identified in the samples: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only (CHO), sulfur- (CHOS), nitrogen-(CHON), and both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics (CHONS). Within the groups, organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates were assigned based on accurate mass measurements and elemental ratio comparisons. Changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol samples were observed throughout the day. The number of observed CHO compounds increased in the afternoon samples, suggesting regional photochemical processing as a source. The average number of CHOS compounds had the smallest changes throughout the day, consistent with a more broadly distributed source. Both of the nitrogen-containing groups (CHON and CHONS) had greater numbers of compounds in the night and morning samples, indicating that nitrate radical chemistry was likely a source for those compounds. Most of the compounds were found in submicron particles. The size distribution of CHON compounds was bimodal. We conclude that the majority of the compounds observed were secondary in nature with both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  4. Horizontal Correlation of Ambient Noise near a Sea Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI Zheng-Lin; ZHANG Ren-He; PENG Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted near the sea route are analysed.It is found that at low frequency,the measured horizontal correlation coeffients at different separations oscillate much larger than that predicted by the classical ambient noise model.The theoretical analyses show that the observed phenomenon is mainly caused by windy noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby.An ambient noise model is proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources and can be used to forecast the ambient noise field neara sea route.

  5. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  6. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  7. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  10. Absorção de nutrientes pelo tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido Nutrient absorption by tomato plants grown under field and protected conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Abdalla Fayad

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, objetivando caracterizar a absorção de nutrientes pelo tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido. O primeiro, com a cultivar Santa Clara, cultivada a campo, no sistema de cerca cruzada e sete cachos. O segundo, em estufa plástica, com o híbrido EF-50, conduzidas verticalmente, mantendo-se oito cachos em cada uma. Ambos experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro constituído por oito e o segundo por nove tratamentos. Em ambos experimentos, o padrão de absorção de nutrientes seguiu o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas plantas. No experimento de campo, a ordem decrescente de acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea foi: K, N, Ca, S, P, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe e Zn, alcançando os valores máximos de 360; 206; 202; 49; 32; 29 kg.ha-1; 3.415; 2.173; 1.967 e 500 g.ha-1, respectivamente. Em ambiente protegido, o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea do tomateiro decresceu na seguinte ordem: K, N, Ca, S, Mg, P, Mn, Fe; Cu e Zn, alcançando os valores de 264; 211; 195; 49; 40; 30 kg.ha-1; 3.200; 2.100; 1.600 e 700 g.ha-1, respectivamente. As taxas de absorção diária dos nutrientes são apresentadas bem como as porcentagens de absorção do N e de K em determinados períodos do crescimento do tomateiro, visando auxiliar na programação das épocas de aplicação destes nutrientes em cobertura.Two experiments were conducted at Universidade Federal de Viçosa to evaluate nutrient absortion by tomato plants grown under field and protected conditions. In the first experiment, tomato cv. Santa Clara was grown in the field with seven clusters/plant. In the second one tomato hybrid EF-50 was grown in plastic greenhouse and pruned to eight clusters. Both experiments were designed as randomized blocks, with four replicates. The first and second experiments were performed with eight and nine treatments, respectively. In both

  11. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  12. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  13. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  14. Ambient temperature recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  15. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field.

  16. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  17. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  18. Local magnitude estimate at Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maiolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the duration magnitude MD we calculated local magnitude ML values of 288 earthquakes occurring from October 2002 to April 2003 at Mt. Etna. The analysis was computed at three digital stations of the permanent seismic network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Catania, using the relationship ML = logA+alog?-b, where A is maximum half-amplitude of the horizontal component of the seismic recording measured in mm and the term «+alog?-b» takes the place of the term «-logA0» of Richter relationship. In particular, a = 0.15 for ?<200 km, b=0.16 for ?<200 km. Duration magnitude MD values, moment magnitude MW values and other local magnitude values were compared. Differences between ML and MD were obtained for the strong seismic swarms occurring on October 27, during the onset of 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption, characterized by a high earthquake rate, with very strong events (seismogram results clipped in amplitude on drum recorder trace and high level of volcanic tremor, which not permit us to estimate the duration of the earthquakes correctly. ML and MD relationships were related and therefore a new relationship for MD is proposed. Cumulative strain release calculated after the eruption using ML values is about 1.75E+06 J1/2 higher than the one calculated using MD values.

  19. Representations of the magnitudes of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S

    2010-10-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However, atypical characteristics of the presented fractions might have provoked the use of atypical comparison strategies in that study. In our 3 experiments, university and community college students compared more balanced sets of single-digit and multi-digit fractions and consistently exhibited a logarithmic distance effect. Thus, adults used integrated, analog representations, akin to a mental number line, to compare fraction magnitudes. We interpret differences between the past and present findings in terms of different stimuli eliciting different solution strategies.

  20. Achieving continuity: a story of stellar magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S.

    2010-03-01

    Scientists tell a story of 2,000 years of stellar magnitude research that traces back to Hipparchus. This story of continuity in practices serves an important role in scientific education and outreach. STS scholars point out many ways that stories of continuity, like many narratives about science, are disconnected from practices. Yet the story of continuity in stellar magnitude is a powerful scientific achievement precisely because of its connection to practice. The historical development of star catalogues shows how specific recording practices connected past and present in a useful way. The narrative of continuity in stellar magnitude, however else it might be subject to STS critique of narrative, maintains its power because of its connection to practice. I suggest that more attention be paid to connections between practice and narrative in STS, and in particular to the ways that historical practices sustain narratives by connecting past and present.

  1. Saccadic compression of symbolic numerical magnitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    Full Text Available Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities.

  2. Axiomatic approaches to Stevens' magnitude scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Karin; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, Narens showed that Stevens’ methods of magnitude scaling are based on but a few qualitative assumptions that are straightforward to evaluate empirically. Two crucial assumptions are commutativity (the outcome of a sequence of two assessments does not depend on their order) and multiplica......In 1996, Narens showed that Stevens’ methods of magnitude scaling are based on but a few qualitative assumptions that are straightforward to evaluate empirically. Two crucial assumptions are commutativity (the outcome of a sequence of two assessments does not depend on their order...

  3. Argument on the magnitude-frequencyrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈时军; 王丽凤; 马丽; 张红军

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of seismicity and the relation of magnitude and frequency are discussed in this paper on the basis of nonlinear dynamics and multifractal theory. We argue that seismic active systems normally have multifractal characteristics, either for the spatial-temporal distribution or the intensity distribution of events. In the view of multifractal theory the nonlinear characteristics of the magnitude-frequency relation are discussed and the formulation is revised. Also, one example of the variance of bq estimated based on the recent New Zealand catalogue is enumerated.

  4. Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

  5. Determinants of Magnitude of Pseudohyperkalemia in Thrombocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jung; Chung, Choon-Hae; Moon, Chul-Oong; Park, Chan-Gook; Hong, Soon-Pyo; Oh, Man Seok; Carroll, Hugh J.

    1990-01-01

    The release of potassium from platelets is a well-known cause of pseudohyperkalemia in thrombocytosis. In predicting the magnitude of pseudohyperkalemia associated with thrombocytosis, previous investigations considered only the amount of potassium released from platelets during blood clotting, although the increment in serum potassium during blood clotting depends on the quantity of potassium released from platelets as well as the volume of distribution of the released potassium, which is inversely proportionate to the hematocrit. The present study proposes a new mathematical formula to predict the magnitude of increase in serum potassium during blood clotting, and accuracy of this formula has been tested in a patient with thrombocytosis. PMID:2098099

  6. Arquitectura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Carulla, Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    La arquitectura y la planificación son el resultado de una integración ponderada de conocimientos técnicos y una multiplicidad de aspectos relacionados con el conocimiento natural y social. En este trabajo el autor propone, desde el ámbito de las ciencias del medio ambiente, diversos planteamientos teóricos y prácticos relacionados con la arquitectura y el urbanismo. El conocimiento de la naturaleza de los sistemas naturales y de los sistemas ecosociales permite al diseñador aplicar un marco ...

  7. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  8. AOX y medio ambiente.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Los productos organohalogenados son muy utilizados por la industria y su presencia en el medio ambiente está siendo controlada. En los últimos años se han desarrollado varias técnicas de detección, siendo desde finales de los 80 los AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) uno de los parámetros sobre los que se han realizado más estudios. En muchos paises de la Unión Europea y en E.E.U.U. de América, la presencia de compuestos organohalogenados en aguas continentales y suelos está legislada indicand...

  9. Improving Children's Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Kennedy, Casey A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played "Catch…

  10. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection; Revision historica de la magnitud exposicion y las magnitudes dosimetricas empleadas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  11. Fast Regional Magnitude Determination at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.; Bono, A.; Amato, A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent, very large earthquakes in the Indian Ocean and Indonesia have shown the importance of rapid magnitude determination for tsunami warning. In the Mediterranean region, destructive tsunamis have occurred repeatedly in the past; however, because of the proximity of the tsunami sources to populated coasts, very rapid analysis is necessary for effective warning. Reliable estimates of the earthquake location and size should be available within tens of seconds after the first arriving P-waves are recorded at local and regional distances. Currently in Europe there is no centralized agency such as the PTWC for the Pacific Ocean dedicated to issue tsunami warnings, though, recent initiatives, such as the NEAMTWS (North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System), aim toward the establishment of such an agency. Thus established seismic monitoring centers, such as INGV, Rome, are currently relied upon for rapid earthquake analysis and information dissemination. In this study, we describe the recent, experimental implementation at the INGV seismic center of a procedure for rapid magnitude determination at regional distances based on the Mwp methodology (Tsuboi et al., 1995), which exploits information in the P-wave train. For our Mwp determinations, we have implemented an automatic procedure that windows the relevant part of the seismograms and picks the amplitudes of the first two largest peaks, providing within seconds after each P arrival an estimate of earthquake size. Manual revision is completed using interactive software that presents an analysis with the seismograms, amplitude picks and magnitude estimates. We have compared our Mwp magnitudes for recent earthquakes within the Mediterranean region with Mw determined through the Harvard CMT procedure. For the majority of the events, the Mwp and Mw magnitudes agree closely, indicating that the rapid Mwp estimates forms a useful tool for effective tsunami warning on a regional scale.

  12. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  13. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  14. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  15. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  16. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  17. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  18. From 'sense of number' to 'sense of magnitude' - The role of continuous magnitudes in numerical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Katzin, Naama; Harel, Maayan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-08-17

    In this review, we are pitting two theories against each other: the more accepted theory-the 'number sense' theory-suggesting that a sense of number is innate and non-symbolic numerosity is being processed independently of continuous magnitudes (e.g., size, area, density); and the newly emerging theory suggesting that (1) both numerosities and continuous magnitudes are processed holistically when comparing numerosities, and (2) a sense of number might not be innate. In the first part of this review, we discuss the 'number sense' theory. Against this background, we demonstrate how the natural correlation between numerosities and continuous magnitudes makes it nearly impossible to study non-symbolic numerosity processing in isolation from continuous magnitudes, and therefore the results of behavioral and imaging studies with infants, adults and animals can be explained, at least in part, by relying on continuous magnitudes. In the second part, we explain the 'sense of magnitude' theory and review studies that directly demonstrate that continuous magnitudes are more automatic and basic than numerosities. Finally, we present outstanding questions. Our conclusion is that there is not enough convincing evidence to support the number sense theory anymore. Therefore, we encourage researchers not to assume that number sense is simply innate, but to put this hypothesis to the test, and to consider if such an assumption is even testable in light of the correlation of numerosity and continuous magnitudes.

  19. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  20. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  1. Toward Order-of-Magnitude Cascade Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ruocheng; Shaabani, Elham; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Shakarian, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    When a piece of information (microblog, photograph, video, link, etc.) starts to spread in a social network, an important question arises: will it spread to "viral" proportions -- where "viral" is defined as an order-of-magnitude increase. However, several previous studies have established that cascade size and frequency are related through a power-law - which leads to a severe imbalance in this classification problem. In this paper, we devise a suite of measurements based on "structural dive...

  2. Log-scaling magnitude modulated watermarking scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING HeFei; YUAN WuGang; ZOU FuHao; LU ZhengDing

    2007-01-01

    A real-time watermarking scheme with high robustness and security has been proposed based on modulating the log-scaling magnitudes of DCT coefficients,which is most suitable for JPEG images and MPEG streams. The watermark bit is encoded as the sign of the difference between the individual log-scaling magnitude of a group-region and the average one of all group-regions. The log-scaling magnitude can be modulated by modifying the low and middle frequency DCT coefficients imperceptibly. The robustness of scheme is not only dependent on those largest coefficients, but also on the other coefficients with the same proportion. It can embed 512 bits into an image with a size of 512×512, which can satisfy the payload requirement of most video watermarking applications. Moreover, the watermark embedding process only requires one-sixth of the time consumed during normal playing of video, and the watermark detection only requires one-twelfth of that, which can meet the real-time requirements of most video watermarking applications. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the presented scheme is transparent and robust to significant valumetric distortions (including additive noise, low-pass filtering, lossy compression and valumetric scaling) and a part of geometric distortions. It performs much better than the EMW algorithm in resisting all kinds of distortions except Gaussian noise with a larger deviation.

  3. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  4. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  5. Magnitude-frequency of sea cliff instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude-frequency relationship of sea cliff failures in strong, low retreat rate cliffs, was studied using systematic historical inventories carried out in the coasts of Portugal and Morocco, in different geological and geomorphological settings, covering a wide size scale, from small to comparatively large rockslides, topples and rockfalls, at different time and spatial scales. The magnitude-frequency expressed in terms of volume displaced and of horizontal area lost at the cliff top showed good fit by inverse power laws of the type p=a.x−b, with a values from 0.2 to 0.3, and exponents b close to 1.0, similar to those proposed for rockfall inventories. The proposed power laws address the magnitude-frequency for sea cliff failures, which is an important component of hazard assessment, to be completed with adequate models for space and time hazard components. Maximum local retreat at the cliff top provided acceptable fitting to inverse power laws only for failures wider than 2m, with a = 4.0, and exponent b = 2.3, which may be useful to assess the cliff retreat hazard for the use of areas located near the cliff top.

  6. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  7. Spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate data by means of digital image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Petrik, Attila; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    A detailed ambient gamma dose equivalent rate mapping based on field measurements at ground level and at 1 m height was carried out at 142 sites in 80 × 90 km area in Pest County, Hungary. Detailed digital image processing analysis was carried out to identify and characterise spatial features such as outlying points, anomalous zones and linear edges in a smoothed TIN interpolated surface. The applied method proceeds from the simple shaded relief model and digital cross-sections to the more complex gradient magnitude and gradient direction maps, 2nd derivative profile curvature map, relief map and lineament density map. Each map is analysed for statistical characteristics and histogram-based image segmentation is used to delineate areas homogeneous with respect to the parameter values in these maps. Assessment of spatial anisotropy is implemented by 2D autocorrelogram and directional variogram analyses. The identified spatial features are related to underlying geological and tectonic conditions using GIS technology. Results show that detailed digital image processing is efficient in revealing the pattern present in field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rates and they are related to regional scale tectonic zones and surface sedimentary lithological conditions in the study area.

  8. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  9. Scaling Relations of Local Magnitude versus Moment Magnitude for Sequences of Similar Earthquakes in Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, F.

    2011-03-22

    Theoretical considerations and empirical regressions show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, local magnitude, ML, and moment magnitude, Mw, scale 1:1. Previous studies suggest that for smaller magnitudes this 1:1 scaling breaks down. However, the scatter between ML and Mw at small magnitudes is usually large and the resulting scaling relations are therefore uncertain. In an attempt to reduce these uncertainties, we first analyze the ML versus Mw relation based on 195 events, induced by the stimulation of a geothermal reservoir below the city of Basel, Switzerland. Values of ML range from 0.7 to 3.4. From these data we derive a scaling of ML ~ 1:5Mw over the given magnitude range. We then compare peak Wood-Anderson amplitudes to the low-frequency plateau of the displacement spectra for six sequences of similar earthquakes in Switzerland in the range of 0:5 ≤ ML ≤ 4:1. Because effects due to the radiation pattern and to the propagation path between source and receiver are nearly identical at a particular station for all events in a given sequence, the scatter in the data is substantially reduced. Again we obtain a scaling equivalent to ML ~ 1:5Mw. Based on simulations using synthetic source time functions for different magnitudes and Q values estimated from spectral ratios between downhole and surface recordings, we conclude that the observed scaling can be explained by attenuation and scattering along the path. Other effects that could explain the observed magnitude scaling, such as a possible systematic increase of stress drop or rupture velocity with moment magnitude, are masked by attenuation along the path.

  10. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  11. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  12. Introducción : el consumo y la responsabilidad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-01-01

    La recurrente pregunta sobre quién ha podido, puede, o podría dar alternativas para atenuar y quizás detener la crisis ambiental tiene varias respuestas. Asuntos de magnitud considerable, como el cambio climático o el uso desmedido de energía proveniente de fuentes no renovables, como los hidrocarburos, pueden obtener respuestas a nivel gubernamental e intergubernamental, local y global. Pero estos mismos asuntos, y otros de menor magnitud (pero no de menor importancia), también son respondid...

  13. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  14. Mid-IR period-magnitude relations for AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, I S; Blommaert, J A D L; Sahai, R; Stute, M; Uttenthaler, S

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic Giant Branch variables are found to obey period-luminosity relations in the mid-IR similar to those seen at K_S (2.14 microns), even at 24 microns where emission from circumstellar dust is expected to be dominant. Their loci in the M, logP diagrams are essentially the same for the LMC and for NGC6522 in spite of different ages and metallicities. There is no systematic trend of slope with wavelength. The offsets of the apparent magnitude vs. logP relations imply a difference between the two fields of 3.8 in distance modulus. The colours of the variables confirm that a principal period with log P > 1.75 is a necessary condition for detectable mass-loss. At the longest observed wavelength, 24 microns, many semi-regular variables have dust shells comparable in luminosity to those around Miras. There is a clear bifurcation in LMC colour-magnitude diagrams involving 24 micron magnitudes.

  15. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  16. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  17. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consulto...

  18. Ciencia, cultura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Maya, Augusto

    1991-01-01

    La crisis ambiental no es un fenómeno exclusivamente de orden tecnológico. Interroga por igual las organizaciones socio-políticas y los instrumentos científicos para el estudio de la realidad: posiblemente uno de los obstáculos mayores para el encuentro de soluciones adecuadas a la crisis ambiental, radica no en deficiencias de orden técnico, sino en la incapacidad de los instrumentos teóricos para entenderla. La crisis del medio ambiente ha puesto en claro la ambivalencia no sólo de la organ...

  19. La crisis del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Clemencia Camacho Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a...

  20. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  1. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Estimating the magnitude of coseismic landslide strain accumulation at both local and regional scales is a key goal in understanding earthquake-triggered landslide distributions and landscape evolution, and in undertaking seismic risk assessment. Research in this field has primarily been carried out using the 'Newmark sliding block method' to model landslide behaviour; downslope movement of the landslide mass occurs when seismic ground accelerations are sufficient to overcome shear resistance at the landslide shear surface. The Newmark method has the advantage of simplicity, requiring only limited information on material strength properties, landslide geometry and coseismic ground motion. However, the underlying conceptual model assumes that shear strength characteristics (friction angle and cohesion) calculated using conventional strain-controlled monotonic shear tests are valid under dynamic conditions, and that values describing shear strength do not change as landslide shear strain accumulates. Recent experimental work has begun to question these assumptions, highlighting, for example, the importance of shear strain rate and changes in shear strength properties following seismic loading. However, such studies typically focus on a single earthquake event that is of sufficient magnitude to cause permanent strain accumulation; by doing so, they do not consider the potential effects that multiple low-magnitude ground shaking events can have on material strength. Since such events are more common in nature relative to high-magnitude shaking events, it is important to constrain their geomorphic effectiveness. Using an experimental laboratory approach, we present results that address this key question. We used a bespoke geotechnical testing apparatus, the Dynamic Back-Pressured Shear Box (DynBPS), that uniquely permits more realistic simulation of earthquake ground-shaking conditions within a hillslope. We tested both cohesive and granular materials, both of which

  2. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  3. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    for in situ measurements up to water depths of 1000 m. The architecture of the unit, pre-deployment and deployment procedures, details of field testing and the results obtained thereof from the analysis are presented. The instrument has potential applications...

  4. Preliminary experimental characterization of the ambient humidity response of Bi{sub 3}TiNbO{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuppo, E; Avila, R E [Departamento de Materiales Nucleares, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Cas. 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Serafini, D [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dudik, L [Electronics Design Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cabrera, A L [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ravila@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    A preliminary electrical characterization of Bi{sub 3}TiNb0{sub 9} pellets, prepared by mechanochemical activation shows a nearly exponential conductivity increase over 4 orders of magnitude from dry ambient to dew point of 10 deg. C, at 23 deg. C ambient temperature; or 5 order of magnitude in thick films over interdigitated electrodes. Relaxation currents, following bias stress, respond also, at a lower sensitivity level. Under different DP on either electrode, the lower DP value controls the overall current, which flows through the bulk, not through the mantle of the cylindrical pellets. Repetitive cycling does not deteriorate the response to the ambient humidity.

  5. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  6. Evolution and Magnitudes of Candidate Planet Nine

    CERN Document Server

    Linder, Esther F

    2016-01-01

    Context. Given the recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer Solar System, the thermodynamic evolution of such an object was studied, assuming that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims. We have modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the black body spectrum of distant ice giants. The aim is to provide also estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess the object's detectability. Methods. Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 Mearth containing 10, 14, 21, and 37 % H/He in mass that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition was varied from purely rocky to purely icy as well as 50% rock and 50% ice. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results. We find for the nominal 10 Mearth planet at 700 AU at the current age of the Solar System an effective temperature of 47 K, much more ...

  7. 7th Ambient Assisted Living Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Klausing, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this book, leading authors in the field discuss developments of Ambient Assisted Living. The contributions have been chosen and invited at the 7th AAL congress, Berlin. It presents new technological developments which support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs. As the technological innovation raises also social issues, the book addresses micro and macro economical aspects of assistive systems and puts an additional emphasis on the ethical and legal discussion. The presentation is supported by real world examples and applications.

  8. Denitrification in upland of China: Magnitude and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    A better understanding of influencing factors and accurate estimate of soil denitrification is a global concern. Here we present a synthesis of 300 observations of denitrification in Chinese upland soils from 39 field and laboratory studies using the acetylene inhibition technique. The results of a linear mixed model analysis showed that the rates of soil denitrification were significantly affected by crop type, soil organic carbon, soil pH, the measurement period, and the rate of N application. The emission factor (EF) and N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio for soil denitrification were on average 2.11 ± 0.17% and 0.508 ± 0.020, respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that N fertilization increased soil denitrification by 311% (95% CI: 279-346%) and 112% (95% CI: 66-171%) in the field and laboratory studies, respectively. Substantial interactive effects between soil properties and N fertilization on soil denitrification were found. Although the highest values of both the rate of denitrification and the EF were found in vegetable fields, the size of the stimulating effect of N fertilization on soil denitrification was lower in vegetable fields than in maize and wheat fields. These results suggest that the crop-specific effect is important and that vegetable fields are potential hot spots of denitrification in Chinese uplands. Based on either the EF or the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio obtained, the estimated amount of total denitrification from the upland soils was an order of magnitude lower than that from budget calculations, suggesting that the acetylene inhibition technique may significantly underestimate denitrification in Chinese upland soils.

  9. The moment magnitude M w and the energy magnitude M e: common roots and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Peter; di Giacomo, Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for M w and M e calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M 0 and radiated seismic energy E S, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-energy relationship. Further, it is shown that M w and M e are linked via the parameter Θ = log( E S/ M 0), and the formula for M e can be written as M e = M w + (Θ + 4.7)/1.5. This relationship directly links M e with M w via their common scaling to classical magnitudes and, at the same time, highlights the reason why M w and M e can significantly differ. In fact, Θ is assumed to be constant when calculating M w. However, variations over three to four orders of magnitude in stress drop Δ σ (as well as related variations in rupture velocity V R and seismic wave radiation efficiency η R) are responsible for the large variability of actual Θ values of earthquakes. As a result, for the same earthquake, M e may sometimes differ by more than one magnitude unit from M w. Such a difference is highly relevant when assessing the actual damage potential associated with a given earthquake, because it expresses rather different static and dynamic source properties. While M w is most appropriate for estimating the earthquake size (i.e., the product of rupture area times average displacement) and thus the potential tsunami hazard posed by strong and great earthquakes in marine environs, M e is more suitable than M w for assessing the potential hazard of damage due to strong ground shaking, i.e., the earthquake strength. Therefore, whenever possible, these two magnitudes should be both independently determined and jointly considered. Usually, only M w is taken as a unified magnitude in many

  10. Construção do "Habitat-Ação" saudável por meio de fundamentação teórico-metodológica do campo da semiologia do ambiente construído The construction of the healthy "Habitat-Action" through a theoretical-methodological framework from the field of the semiotics of the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cynamon Cohen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo de como se dá a qualidade do ambiente construído e as inter-relações com o seu entorno. Inicia-se com a reflexão sobre o campo da promoção da saúde, habitação saudável e conceitos correlatos. Em seguida, são introduzidas questões fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de propostas sociais de habitats saudáveis. Um caminho possível de aprofundamento teórico-metodológico desse campo dá-se por meio da Semiologia do Ambiente Construído, como ferramenta para a análise dos aspectos da habitabilidade. Aspectos fundamentais para construção de espacialidades saudáveis. Construção que se torna possível por meio da elaboração de políticas públicas saudáveis e da utilização de uma linguagem analítica para o ambiente construído. Ambas importantes no processo de desenvolvimento local, integrado e sustentável, adicionadas e incorporadas ao conceito e à prática metodológica da habitação saudável, campo intersetorial da promoção da saúde, habitação e meio ambiente.This article approaches how the quality of the built environment and the interrelationships to its surroundings occur. It begins with a reflection on the field of health promotion, healthy housing and related concepts. Then it introduces the key issues concerning the development of social proposals for healthy habitats. One possible way of furthering the theoretical and methodological framework in this field is by using the Semiotics of the Built Environment as a tool to examine aspects of habitability. Fundamental aspects for building healthy spatialities. A construction that is made possible through the development of healthy public policies and through the use of an analytic language for the built environment. Both are important in the local, integrated and sustainable process of development, added and incorporated into the concept and methodological practice of healthy housing, which is an intersectoral field of health

  11. Magnitude Estimation for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Based on Ground Motion Prediction Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Attieh; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Ghofrani, Hadi; Atkinson, Gail M.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates whether real-time strong ground motion data from seismic stations could have been used to provide an accurate estimate of the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. Ultimately, such an estimate could be used as input data for a tsunami forecast and would lead to more robust earthquake and tsunami early warning. We collected the strong motion accelerograms recorded by borehole and free-field (surface) Kiban Kyoshin network stations that registered this mega-thrust earthquake in order to perform an off-line test to estimate the magnitude based on ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). GMPEs for peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity (PGV) from a previous study by Eshaghi et al. in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103. (2013) derived using events with moment magnitude ( M) ≥ 5.0, 1998-2010, were used to estimate the magnitude of this event. We developed new GMPEs using a more complete database (1998-2011), which added only 1 year but approximately twice as much data to the initial catalog (including important large events), to improve the determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling. These new GMPEs were used to estimate the magnitude of the Tohoku-Oki event. The estimates obtained were compared with real time magnitude estimates provided by the existing earthquake early warning system in Japan. Unlike the current operational magnitude estimation methods, our method did not saturate and can provide robust estimates of moment magnitude within ~100 s after earthquake onset for both catalogs. It was found that correcting for average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m () improved the accuracy of magnitude estimates from surface recordings, particularly for magnitude estimates of PGV (Mpgv). The new GMPEs also were used to estimate the magnitude of all earthquakes in the new catalog with at least 20 records. Results show that the magnitude estimate from PGV values using

  12. Ambiente juvenil: discurso ambiental entre jóvenes universitarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn-Anderson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende hacer una aportación al conocimiento del medio ambiente del occidente de México, específicamente de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, a partir del estudio de la cultura ambiental manifestada en el discurso de los jóvenes universitarios del ITESO. La apuesta es que puede ser provechoso considerar dentro del concepto de “medio ambiente” no solamente componentes bióticos y abióticos, sino también elementos socioculturales como cultura y significado. Es evidente que hay in...

  13. Factors affecting the association between ambient concentrations and personal exposures to particles and gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R; Suh, Helen H

    2006-05-01

    Results from air pollution exposure assessment studies suggest that ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameterpersonal exposures. For particles, the strength of the personal-ambient association can differ by particle component and level of home ventilation. For gases, however, such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), the impact of home ventilation on personal-ambient associations is untested. We measured 24-hr personal exposures and corresponding ambient concentrations to PM2.5, sulfate (SO2-(4)), elemental carbon, O3, NO2, and SO2 for 10 nonsmoking older adults in Steubenville, Ohio. We found strong associations between ambient particle concentrations and corresponding personal exposures. In contrast, although significant, most associations between ambient gases and their corresponding exposures had low slopes and R2 values; the personal-ambient NO2 association in the fall season was moderate. For both particles and gases, personal-ambient associations were highest for individuals spending most of their time in high- compared with low-ventilated environments. Cross-pollutant models indicated that ambient particle concentrations were much better surrogates for exposure to particles than to gases. With the exception of ambient NO2 in the fall, which showed moderate associations with personal exposures, ambient gases were poor proxies for both gas and particle exposures. In combination, our results suggest that a) ventilation may be an important modifier of the magnitude of effect in time-series health studies, and b) results from time-series health studies based on 24-hr ambient concentrations are more readily interpretable for particles than for gases.

  14. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate.

  15. Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Wells, Spencer A; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-12-10

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111) versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 h in ambient, followed by a ∼ 10(3) decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ∼ 10(3) and mobilities of ∼ 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for over 2 weeks in ambient conditions. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  16. Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-12-01

    Unencapsulated, exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) flakes are found to chemically degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions. Atomic force microscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are employed to characterize the structure and chemistry of the degradation process, suggesting that O2 saturated H2O irreversibly reacts with BP to form oxidized phosphorus species. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers and on H-Si(111), versus hydrophilic SiO2. For unencapsulated BP field-effect transistors, the ambient degradation causes large increases in threshold voltage after 6 hours in ambient, followed by a ~10^3 decrease in FET current on/off ratio and mobility after 48 hours. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers effectively suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~10^3 and mobilities of ~100 cm2/(V*s) for over two weeks in ambient. This work shows that the ambient degradation of BP can be managed effectively when the flakes are sufficiently passivated. In turn, our strategy for enhancing BP environmental stability will accelerate efforts to implement BP in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  17. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  18. Comparison between different earthquake magnitudes determined by China Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui-feng; CHEN Yun-tai; REN Xiao; XU Zhi-guo; SUN Li; YANG Hui; LIANG Jian-hong; REN Ke-xin

    2007-01-01

    By linear regression and orthogonal regression methods, comparisons are made between different magnitudes (local magnitude ML, surface wave magnitudes MS and MS7, long-period body wave magnitude mB and short-period body wave magnitude mb) determined by Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, on the basis of observation data collected by China Seismograph Network between 1983 and 2004. Empirical relations between different magnitudes have been obtained. The result shows that: ①As different magnitude scales reflect radiated energy by seismic waves within different periods, earthquake magnitudes can be described more objectively by using different scales for earthquakes of different magnitudes. When the epicentral distance is less than 1 000 km, local magnitude ML can be a preferable scale; In case MMS, i.e., MS underestimates magnitudes of such events, therefore, mB can be a better choice; In case M>6.0, MS>mB>mb, both mB and mb underestimate the magnitudes, so MS is a preferable scale for determining magnitudes of such events (6.08.5, a saturation phenomenon appears in MS, which cannot give an accurate reflection of the magnitudes of such large events; ②In China, when the epicentral distance is less than 1 000 km, there is almost no difference between ML and MS, and thus there is no need to convert between the two magnitudes in practice; ③Although MS and MS7 are both surface wave magnitudes, MS is in general greater than MS7 by 0.2~0.3 magnitude, because different instruments and calculation formulae are used; ④mB is almost equal to mb for earthquakes around mB4.0, but mB is larger than mb for those of mB(4.5, because the periods of seismic waves used for measuring mB and mb are different though the calculation formulae are the same.

  19. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  20. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  1. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  2. Medio ambiente y responsabilidad social

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las organizaciones, dentro de los procesos de responsabilidad social y con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de las comunidades que impactan, han optado por proteger y preservar el medio ambiente de acuerdo a ciertos protocolos y normas internacionales que generan una cultura al respecto. Este cuaderno de investigación aborda la norma ISO 26000, la cual asume el tema de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) en materia de medio ambiente y es una guía para ser implementada en las orga...

  3. Los estudios sobre el ambiente y la ciencia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Nancy Giannuzzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la ciencia ambiental es reconocida en libros, revistas de publicación científica y carreras de grado y posgrado. Sin embargo, se desconoce su existencia en forma literal o indirecta, al no ser considerado su aporte, por ejemplo, en los planteos referidos sobre la ciencia y la tecnología de la sustentabilidad. En este trabajo se presentan estos antecedentes, relacionándolos con el objetivo del mismo, que es el de aportar a la dilucidación de la existencia y conformación de la ciencia ambiental. Para esto, se analiza la relación de las disciplinas con la dimensión compleja del ambiente como objeto de estudio y aspectos metodológicos derivados. A los fines de aportar al esclarecimiento conceptual, se identifican las distintas acepciones de ambiente comúnmente referidas en la bibliografía. Además, se discuten aspectos relacionados de multidisciplinariedad, interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y sobre el status epistémico de la ciencia ambiental. Se concluye que una mayor precisión conceptual embasada en un marco compartido por las disciplinas que estudian el ambiente, incluida la ciencia ambiental, y los distintos actores involucrados en las problemáticas ambientales, favorecerá el refinamiento de las metodologías tendientes a disminuir la fragmentación de las investigaciones concernientes y las aplicaciones para su resolución.The existence of an environmental science is recognized in books, journals of science as well as in undergraduate and graduate studies. Its existence, however, is unknown either literally or indirectly when, for instance, its contribution to topics connected to the science and technology of sustainability is not considered. This background is presented in this paper and connected to its objective, which is to elucidate the existence and structure of the environmental science. To this goal, I analyse the relationship of the disciplines with the complex dimension of the environment

  4. Exploring the relationship between the magnitudes of seismic events

    CERN Document Server

    Spassiani, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of the magnitudes of seismic events is generally assumed to be independent on past seismicity. However, by considering events in causal relation, for example mother-daughter, it seems natural to assume that the magnitude of a daughter event is conditionally dependent on the one of the corresponding mother event. In order to find experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis, we analyze different catalogs, both real and simulated, in two different ways. From each catalog, we obtain the law of triggered events' magnitude by kernel density. The results obtained show that the distribution density of triggered events' magnitude varies with the magnitude of their corresponding mother events. As the intuition suggests, an increase of mother events' magnitude induces an increase of the probability of having "high" values of triggered events' magnitude. In addition, we see a statistically significant increasing linear dependence of the magnitude means.

  5. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  6. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  7. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  8. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  9. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  10. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  11. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Onkar Ambekar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  12. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  13. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  14. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  15. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (<135 mmol/L) was evident pre- and post-stage in n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p < 0.001) as competition progressed in UER, with no change in CON. Plasma volume and extra-cellular water increased (p < 0.001) 22.8% and 9.2%, respectively, from pre-Stage 1 to 5 in UER, with no change in CON. Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition

  16. A note on the magnitude of the flux superpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Conlon, Joseph P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Kebble St, Oxford (United Kingdom); Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Quevedo, Fernando [Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-08

    The magnitude of the flux superpotential W{sub flux} plays a crucial role in determining the scales of IIB string compactifications after moduli stabilisation. It has been argued that values of W{sub flux}≪1 are preferred, and even required for physical and consistency reasons. This note revisits these arguments. We establish that the couplings of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes to light states scale with the internal volume as g∼M{sub KK}/M{sub P}∼V{sup −2/3}≪1 and argue that consistency of the superspace derivative expansion requires gF/M{sup 2}∼m{sub 3/2}/M{sub KK}≪1, where F is the auxiliary field of the light fields and M the ultraviolet cutoff. This gives only a mild constraint on the flux superpotential, W{sub flux}≪V{sup 1/3}, which can be easily satisfied for O(1) values of W{sub flux}. This regime is also statistically favoured and makes the Bousso-Polchinski mechanism for the vacuum energy hierarchically more efficient.

  17. A Note on the Magnitude of the Flux Superpotential

    CERN Document Server

    Cicoli, Michele; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of the flux superpotential $W_{flux}$ plays a crucial role in determining the scales of IIB string compactifications after moduli stabilisation. It has been argued that values of $W_{flux}$ much less than one are preferred, and even required for physical and consistency reasons. This note revisits these arguments. We establish that the coupling (g) of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes to light states scales as ${M_{KK} / M_{Pl}}$ (hence is suppressed by two third powers of the inverse volume of compactification) and argue that consistency of the superspace derivative expansion requires $gF/M^2 \\sim m_{3/2}/ M_{KK} << 1$, where $F$ is the auxiliary field of the light fields and $M$ the ultraviolet cutoff. This gives only a mild constraint on the flux superpotential, $W_{flux} << V^{1/3}$ (where V is the volume of the compactification), which can be easily satisfied for order one values of $W_{flux}$. This regime is also statistically favoured and makes the Bousso-Polchinski mechanism for the v...

  18. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  19. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second

  20. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second is indire

  1. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  2. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  3. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  4. Aspectos del desarrollo institucional ambiental en Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susana Julia, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Los problemas ambientales actuales demandan acciones y respuestas por parte de las instituciones que tienen a su cargo la ejecucion de la politica ambiental y que gestionan el ambiente en el territorio que les compete...

  5. Agroquímicos un problema ambiental global: uso del análisis químico como herramienta para el monitoreo ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, D.; T. Capote

    2004-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio documental para determinar la magnitud de la contaminación ambiental, en el ámbito global y local, producto de la actividad agrícola intensiva, fundamentalmente del uso de agroquímicos. El resultado obtenido refleja un alto nivel de contaminación no sólo del ambiente, sino en los seres humano, lo que se manifiesta en enfermedades, destrucción de flora, fauna y de los recursos naturales disponibles. Seguidamente se analizaron las alternativas existentes en el análisis quí...

  6. Introducción : el consumo y la responsabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La recurrente pregunta sobre quién ha podido, puede, o podría dar alternativas para atenuar y quizás detener la crisis ambiental tiene varias respuestas. Asuntos de magnitud considerable, como el cambio climático o el uso desmedido de energía proveniente de fuentes no renovables, como los hidrocarburos, pueden obtener respuestas a nivel gubernamental e intergubernamental, local y global. Pero estos mismos asuntos, y otros de menor magnitud (pero no de menor importancia, también son respondidos desde las asociaciones civiles y desde acciones individuales. En ciertas ocasiones, se trata de reacciones ante la ineficacia de ciertos sistemas de representación democrática (y la deliberada inmovilidad de algunos representantes del pueblo, mientras en otros la motivación es la conciencia y el deseo de vivir en un mundo mejor y posible.

  7. Fiscalidad ambiental (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Maciá, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tema fiscalidad ambiental. 1. Necesidad económica y jurídica de la protección del medio ambiente. 2. Características, naturaleza y clasificación de los tributos ambientales. 3. Competencias tributarias en el ámbito estatal, autonómico y local. 4. La fiscalidad ambiental en la legislación fiscal española. 5. Perspectivas de futuro en materia de imposición ambiental.

  8. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  9. GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL METROPOLITANA

    OpenAIRE

    Déctor García, Mtro. Romeo; Correctora de estilo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo aborda la gestión ambiental y metropolitana, a partir de los elementos que han expuesto autores como Raúl Brañes, María del Carmen Carmona Lara, o Martha Schteingart y Clara Eugenia Salazar y otros más que abordan el tema urbano. Se profundiza y detalla con base en la legislación de equilibrio ecológico y protección al ambiente, en la legislación sobre biodiversidad mexiquense como en la atinente a la administración pública local o municipal.Puntos de relieve son las menciones de ...

  10. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  11. Ambient Art: Creative Information Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Beale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient art is the aesthetic presentation of information, using artistic techniques to achieve a pleasing image that also contains hidden depths, where exposure to it over time allows a viewer to understand something about the information sources that it represents. This paper reviews the artistic and computational background of ambient systems, and presents two case studies of systems developed by our research team, from their initial design to the experiences of the people encountering them. The first case presents a photo mosaic of images based on the news headlines coupled with a structured picture based on the weather; the second presents stylistic perspectives on activity in a public space. Both are evaluated and demonstrate that different forms of aesthetically pleasing displays can convey information to viewers.

  12. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  13. A Color-Magnitude Diagram for a Globular Cluster In the Giant Elliptical Galaxy NGC 5128

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, G L H; Harris, W E

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain WFPC2 (V,I) photometry for a large sample of stars in the outer halo of the giant elliptical NGC 5128 (d = 4 Mpc). The globular cluster N5128-C44, at the center of the Planetary Camera field, is well enough resolved to permit the construction of a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for it which covers the brightest two magnitudes of the giant branch. The CMD is consistent with that of a normal old, moderately low-metallicity ([Fe/H] = -1.30 globular cluster, distinctly more metal-poor than most of the field halo stars at the same projected location (which average [Fe/H] ~ -0.5). This is the most distant globular cluster in which direct color-magnitude photometry has been achieved to date, and the first one belonging to a giant E galaxy.

  14. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  15. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  16. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  17. The causal order on the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the causal structure of the ambient boundary, the conformal infinity of the ambient (Poincar\\'e) metric. Using topological tools we show that the only causal relation compatible with the global topology of the boundary spacetime is the horismos order. This has important consequences for the notion of time in the conformal geometry of the ambient boundary.

  18. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  19. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  20. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  1. Relationship between the magnitude of singular value and nonlinear stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆穆; 郭欢; 王佳峰; 李勇

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between the magnitude of singular value and nonlinear stability or instability of the basic flow is investigated. The results show that there is a good corresponding relationship between them. The magnitude of singular value decreases as the stability (or instability) of the basic flow increases (or decreases). In the stable case, the magnitude of the maximum singular value is much smaller than in the unstable case.

  2. Realization of Quadrature Signal Generator Using Accurate Magnitude Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Yoon, Changwoo; Zhao, Rende

    2016-01-01

    -signal parameters, espically when a fast resonse is required for usages such as grid synchronization. As a result, the parameters design of the SOGI-QSG becomes complicated. Theoretical analysis shows that it is caused by the inaccurate magnitude-integration characteristic of the SOGI-QSG. To solve this problem......, an Accurate-Magnitude-Integrator based QSG (AMI-QSG) is proposed. The AMI has an accurate magnitude-integration characteristic for the sinusoidal signal, which makes the AMI-QSG possess an accurate First-Order-System (FOS) characteristic in terms of magnitude than the SOGI-QSG. The parameter design process...

  3. FPGA-specific decimal sign-magnitude addition and subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Martín; Todorovich, Elías

    2016-07-01

    The interest in sign-magnitude (SM) representation in decimal numbers lies in the IEEE 754-2008 standard, where the significand in floating-point numbers is coded as SM. However, software implementations do not meet performance constraints in some applications and more development is required in programmable logic, a key technology for hardware acceleration. Thus, in this work, two strategies for SM decimal adder/subtractors are studied and six new Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-specific circuits are derived from these strategies. The first strategy is based on ten's complement (C10) adder/subtractors and the second one is based on parallel computation of an unsigned adder and an unsigned subtractor. Four of these alternative circuits are useful for at least one area-time-trade-off and specific operand size. For example, the fastest SM adder/subtractor for operand sizes of 7 and 16 decimal digits is based on the second proposed strategy with delays of 3.43 and 4.33 ns, respectively, but the fastest circuit for 34-digit operands is one of the three specific implementations based on C10 adder/subtractors with a delay of 4.65 ns.

  4. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Hazmin Sabri, Nor; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  5. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Sabri, Nor Hazmin; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  6. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  7. An empirical evolutionary magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Da-Yi

    2016-04-01

    For earthquake early warning (EEW) system, it is a difficult mission to accurately estimate earthquake magnitude in the early nucleation stage of an earthquake occurrence because only few stations are triggered and the recorded seismic waveforms are short. One of the feasible methods to measure the size of earthquakes is to extract amplitude parameters within the initial portion of waveform after P-wave arrival. However, a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw > 7.0) may take longer time to complete the whole ruptures of the causative fault. Instead of adopting amplitude contents in fixed-length time window, that may underestimate magnitude for large-magnitude events, we suppose a fast, robust and unsaturated approach to estimate earthquake magnitudes. In this new method, the EEW system can initially give a bottom-bund magnitude in a few second time window and then update magnitude without saturation by extending the time window. Here we compared two kinds of time windows for adopting amplitudes. One is pure P-wave time widow (PTW); the other is whole-wave time window after P-wave arrival (WTW). The peak displacement amplitude in vertical component were adopted from 1- to 10-s length PTW and WTW, respectively. Linear regression analysis were implemented to find the empirical relationships between peak displacement, hypocentral distances, and magnitudes using the earthquake records from 1993 to 2012 with magnitude greater than 5.5 and focal depth less than 30 km. The result shows that using WTW to estimate magnitudes accompanies with smaller standard deviation. In addition, large uncertainties exist in the 1-second time widow. Therefore, for magnitude estimations we suggest the EEW system need to progressively adopt peak displacement amplitudes form 2- to 10-s WTW.

  8. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co{sub 60}; Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte I. Estudio de la homogeneidad de la respuesta dosimetros personales (tarjetas G-1, TLD-100), en campos de radiacion de Co{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    and without personal dosemeters, and for the bottom readings and sensibility of the reader equipment; and of the adjustment kindness to the normal for each game of data.The main conclusions that they were derived of this study they are: i.That the reader equipment presents differences statistically significant ({alpha}=5%) in their sensibilities; that which is necessary correct the readings of the dosemeter, making stand out the necessity of building the curves of operation of the equipment for the bottom and the sensibility. ii. The filter of A1 is not equivalent among the different personal dosemeters i i.For this sample of 40 cards with personal dosemeters to the one fewer exist: eleven populations different statistic significant, ({alpha}) to the response glass 1 five for the response of the glass 2, respectively. i v. That exist difference significant statistical, ({alpha} =5%) among the repetitions; what implies that it is necessary to control but strictly the experimental parameters to the one moment of carrying out the irradiations, (field size, correction for time of obturator of the source, distances source-detecting, etc), since the influence of the reader equipment it has already been considered. (Author)

  9. EMRP JRP MetNH3: Towards a Consistent Metrological Infrastructure for Ammonia Measurements in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Gieseking, Bjoern; Hieta, Tuomas; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Pogány, Andrea; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In addition to its acidifying effect on natural waters and soils and to the additional nitrogen input to ecosystems, ammonia is an important precursor for secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation regarding certified reference material (CRM), applicable analytical methods, measurement uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. As shown in a key comparison in 2007, there are even discrepancies between reference materials provided by European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) at amount fraction levels up to three orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air), a three-year project that started in June 2014 in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), aims to reduce the gap between requirements set by the European emission regulations and state-of-the-art of analytical methods and reference materials. The overarching objective of the JRP is to achieve metrological traceability for ammonia measurements in ambient air from primary certified reference material CRM and instrumental standards to the field level. This requires the successful completion of the three main goals, which have been assigned to three technical work packages: To develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods Realisation and characterisation of traceable preparative calibration standards (in pressurised cylinders as well as mobile generators) of ammonia amount fractions similar to those in ambient air based on existing methods for other reactive analytes. The

  10. Impact of ambient humidity on child health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed.

  11. Temporal Trends in Satellite-Derived Erythemal UVB and Implications for Ambient Sun Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Langston

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function. Linear regression models for local geographic areas were used to make inferences across the entire study area using a global field significance test. Temporal trends were investigated across all years and separately for each satellite type due to documented differences in UVB estimation. UVB increased from 1978 to 2014 in 48% of local tests. The largest UVB increase was found in Western Nevada (0.145 kJ/m2 per five-year increment, a total 30-year increase of 0.87 kJ/m2. This largest change only represented 17% of total ambient exposure for an average January and 2% of an average July in Western Nevada. The observed trends represent cumulative UVB changes of less than a month, which are not relevant when attempting to estimate human exposure. The observation of small trends should be interpreted with caution due to measurement of satellite parameter inputs (ozone and climatological factors that may impact derived satellite UVR nearly 20% compared to ground level sources. If the observed trends hold, satellite-derived UVB data may reasonably estimate ambient UVB exposures even for outcomes with long latency phases that predate the satellite record.

  12. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  13. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: 1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  14. Some Effects of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Persistence of Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie C.; Jimenez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The influence of magnitude of reinforcement was examined on both response rate and behavioral persistence. During Phase 1, a multiple schedule of concurrent reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcement for one response option was held constant at VI 30 s across both components, while magnitude of reinforcement for the other response option…

  15. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  16. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  17. Brote del virus ISA: crisis ambiental y capacidad de la institucionalidad ambiental para manejar el conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bustos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria salmonera chilena vivió recientemente una crisis de magnitud a partir de la aparición del virus ISA. El artículo examina esta situación, concentrándose en el papel que desempeña la ciencia en las soluciones políticas propuestas, como caso para discutir la capacidad de los mecanismos de gobernanza ambiental neoliberal para solucionar crisis ambientales y económicas. La pregunta que guía el trabajo es: ¿cuál fue el rol de la ciencia en la política ambiental para la industria? El argumento promovido es que la crisis representa un momento de reestructuración de la relación sociedad-naturaleza, en el cual se redefinieron mecanismos de propiedad, control y acceso a recursos naturales, pero en el que, pese al discurso neoliberal de confianza en los expertos y la ciencia como elementos de toma de decisiones, la información científica tuvo escasa relevancia.The Chilean salmon industry recently experienced a crisis due to an outbreak of the ISA virus. The article examines the crisis focusing on the role of science in the policy solutions proposed, to discuss the real capacity of neoliberal environmental governance mechanisms to solve environmental and economic crisis. The question guiding this research is, which was the role of science in environmental policy createdfor the salmon industry? The argument is that the crisis represents a reestructuring of the relationship between society and nature through the redefinition of property rights, control and access to natural resources, but in which, in spite of a neoliberal discourse of trust in experts and science as elements of decision making, scientific information had little relevance.

  18. Estados financieros y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bischhoffshausen W., Werner von

    2001-01-01

    La contabilización de aspectos ambientales adquiere creciente relevancia para las empresas, en la medida que el deterioro ambiental se convierte en un problema social y político a través de todo el mundo. A todo tipo de organizaciones se les requiere entregar información acerca de sus políticas y objetivos ambientales, de los programas y acciones destinados a lograr estos objetivos, de su generación de riesgos e impactos ambientales y de las medidas para reducirlos o mitigarlos. Si bien es ci...

  19. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Los municipios tienen una responsabilidad directa, inmediata e ineludible hacia el medio ambiente que hasta hace pocos años no reconocían como pri mor dial sino como una función secundaria. Hoy es más que una obligación jurídica, es un compromiso so cial del nivel de gobierno más cercano a la sociedad. Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ...

  20. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), with strong support for an important role for ultrafine (nano-sized) particles. At present, relatively little human health or epidemiology data exists...... for engineered nanomaterials (NM) despite clear parallels in their physicochemical properties and biological actions in in vitro models. OBJECTIVES: NMs are available in a range of physicochemical characteristics which allow a more systematic toxicological analysis. Therefore, the study of ultrafine particles...

  1. Ambiente Familiar e Desempenho Escolar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O desempenho escolar é um fenómeno multifacetado, que pode ser influenciado por questões individuais, familiares e sociais, fazendo-se necessária a realização de pesquisas que procurem compreender esses aspectos e como eles se inter-relacionam. Nesse sentido, a presente dissertação abordará, especificamente, a relação entre as dimensões do ambiente familiar (coesão familiar, conflito, expressividade, independência, assertividade, interesses culturais/intelectuais e de lazer, religião e nível ...

  2. Educaçao ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A idéia desse trabalho surgiu no momento em que me inseri na comunidade de Pontal do Sul, envolvida em distintas atividades educativas com o mesmo público. Uma delas refere-se ao ensino público fundamental e outra à atividades de pesquisa e Educação Ambiental (EA) dentro de um projeto de extensão universitária. A EA vem sendo realizada de forma diversificada, baseada em diferentes concepções, fundamentadas em princípios e diretrizes construídos num momento de difusão da Ecologia e de ...

  3. Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J C; Beccaceci, Sonya; Butterfield, David M; Quincey, Paul G; Harris, Peter M; Maggos, Thomas; Panteliadis, Pavlos; John, Astrid; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Karanasiou, Angeliki

    2017-09-11

    The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM2.5 within its working group 35 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the carbonaceous content of PM2.5. This paper details the results of a laboratory and field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate the standard method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that the expanded combined uncertainty for transmittance protocol measurements of OC, EC and TC is expected to be below 25%, at the 95% level of confidence, above filter loadings of 2 μg cm(-2). An estimation of the detection limit of the method for total carbon was 2 μg cm(-2). As a result of the laboratory and field measurement campaign the EUSAAR2 transmittance measurement protocol was chosen as the basis of the standard method EN 16909:2017.

  4. An empirical evolutionary magnitude estimation for early warning of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Yi; Wu, Yih-Min; Chin, Tai-Lin

    2017-03-01

    The earthquake early warning (EEW) system is difficult to provide consistent magnitude estimate in the early stage of an earthquake occurrence because only few stations are triggered and few seismic signals are recorded. One of the feasible methods to measure the size of earthquakes is to extract amplitude parameters using the initial portion of the recorded waveforms after P-wave arrival. However, for a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw > 7.0), the time to complete the whole ruptures resulted from the corresponding fault may be very long. The magnitude estimations may not be correctly predicted by the initial portion of the seismograms. To estimate the magnitude of a large earthquake in real-time, the amplitude parameters should be updated with ongoing waveforms instead of adopting amplitude contents in a predefined fixed-length time window, since it may underestimate magnitude for large-magnitude events. In this paper, we propose a fast, robust and less-saturated approach to estimate earthquake magnitudes. The EEW system will initially give a lower-bound of the magnitude in a time window with a few seconds and then update magnitude with less saturation by extending the time window. Here we compared two kinds of time windows for measuring amplitudes. One is P-wave time window (PTW) after P-wave arrival; the other is whole-wave time window after P-wave arrival (WTW), which may include both P and S wave. One to ten second time windows for both PTW and WTW are considered to measure the peak ground displacement from the vertical component of the waveforms. Linear regression analysis are run at each time step (1- to 10-s time interval) to find the empirical relationships among peak ground displacement, hypocentral distances, and magnitudes using the earthquake records from 1993 to 2012 in Taiwan with magnitude greater than 5.5 and focal depth less than 30 km. The result shows that considering WTW to estimate magnitudes has smaller standard deviation than PTW. The

  5. Discussion on the Relationship between Different Earthquake Magnitude Scales and the Effect of Seismic Station Sites on Magnitude Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongzhi; Diao Guiling; Zhao Mingchun; Wang Qincai; Zhang Xiao; Huang Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the earthquake catalog reported by the Chinese digital seismic network in recent years, we select the earthquakes with both surface wave magnitude and local magnitude and fit them into a relationship between the two magnitudes. The systematic difference is found from the formula which has been used for 30 years. Because of a large dynamic range and wide frequency range of the current digital observation system, in addition to a larger number of stations and earthquakes being used compared to before, the relation obtained in this paper seems more reliable. Our calculation shows that there is no significant difference before and after magnitude conversion so we suggest the abandonment of magnitude conversion. The site response of a station consists of amplification at different frequencies. The amplification is equal to about 1 and changes little with frequency at stations located on basement rock, and it is greater than 1 at low frequency ranges and less than 1 at high frequency ranges at stations located on sediment layers. The difference between magnitudes from single station located on sediment layer and the average magnitude from the whole network increases from negative to positive with period. It seems that there is no fixed station correction factor and the station correction method does not work to improve the accuracy and magnitude estimates.

  6. The Instructional Dependency of SNARC Effects Reveals Flexibility of the Space-Magnitude Association of Nonsymbolic and Symbolic Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; Chun, Joohyung; Cho, Soohyun

    2016-05-01

    The Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect refers to the phenomenon that small versus large numbers are responded to faster in the left versus right side of space, respectively. Using a pairwise comparison task, Shaki et al. found that task instruction influences the pattern of SNARC effects of certain types of magnitudes which are less rigid in their space-magnitude association .The present study examined the generalizability of this instruction effect using pairwise comparison of nonsymbolic and symbolic stimuli within a wide range of magnitudes. We contrasted performance between trials in which subjects were instructed to select the stimulus representing the smaller versus larger magnitude within each pair. We found an instruction-dependent pattern of SNARC effects for both nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitudes. Specifically, we observed a SNARC effect for the "Select Smaller" instruction, but a reverse SNARC effect for the "Select Larger" instruction. Considered together with previous studies, our findings suggest that nonsymbolic magnitudes and relatively large symbolic magnitudes have greater flexibility in their space-magnitude association.

  7. Ecoideologias associadas aos movimentos ambientais: contribuições para o campo da educação ambiental Eco-ideologies associated to environmentalism: contributions to environmental education field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gazal Rocha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes abordagens de desenvolvimento levantam múltiplas possibilidades de interpenetração dos campos natural e social, mediado pela subjetividade humana. Assim sendo, a caracterização de ecoideologias, freqüentemente associadas aos movimentos ecológicos, pode nos fornecer subsídios importantes para a análise de questões ambientais. Na tentativa de discutir os aspectos relacionais dos estudos taxionômicos que vigoram atualmente, consideraremos a origem e as interpenetrações de determinados campos - ou ecoideologias - como forma de compreender o processo de organização dos movimentos ambientalistas nacionais. A partir dos anos 90, fica patente a influência dos movimentos ambientalistas no cenário mundial, especialmente nos campos da política e da economia, o que gera situações de impacto em valores culturais e institucionais. Ainda que a maior parte dos problemas ambientais persista, o estudo das tipificações desses movimentos nos auxilia a avaliar seu potencial transformador, expondo dimensões e conflitos capazes de organizar novas identidades culturais. Tais considerações, longe de serem apresentadas como de caráter hegemônico, buscam contribuir para uma crítica ecológica mais consistente.Different approaches on development raise multiple possibilities of interaction of the natural and social fields, intermediated by the human subjectivity. Therefore, the characterization of eco-ideologies, often associated to ecologic movements, may supply us with important data for the analysis of the environmental issues. In attempting to discuss the relational aspects of the taxonomic studies effective at present, we considered both the origin and the interaction of certain fields - or eco-ideologies - as a way of comprehending the organizational process of the national environmentalist movements. From the 90's, the influence of the environmentalist movements in the worldwide scenario is clear, most specially in the political

  8. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit – Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O’Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  9. Quantifying Heartbeat Dynamics by Magnitude and Sign Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    We review a recently developed approach for analyzing time series with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that time series with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We apply our approach to series of time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis method we find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications. Further, we study the heartbeat magnitude and sign series during different sleep stages — light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. For the heartbeat sign time series we find short-range anticorrelations, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during light sleep and even weaker during REM sleep. In contrast, for the heartbeat magnitude time series we find long-range positive correlations, which are strong during REM sleep and weaker during light sleep. Thus, the sign and the magnitude series provide information which is also useful for distinguishing between different sleep stages.

  10. Does residual force enhancement increase with increasing stretch magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisey, Brandon; Leonard, Tim R; Herzog, Walter

    2009-07-22

    It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch magnitudes within the physiological range. Six cat soleus muscles were actively stretched with magnitudes varying from 3 to 24 mm at three different parts of the force-length relationship to test the hypothesis that force enhancement increases with increasing stretch magnitude, independent of muscle length. Residual force enhancement increased consistently with stretch amplitudes on the descending limb of the force-length relationship up to a threshold value, after which it reached a plateau. Force enhancement did not increase with stretch amplitude on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. Passive force enhancement was observed for all test conditions, and paralleled the behavior of the residual force enhancement. Force enhancement increased with stretch magnitude when stretching occurred at lengths where there was natural passive force within the muscle. These results suggest that force enhancement does not increase unconditionally with increasing stretch magnitude, as is generally accepted, and that increasing force enhancement with stretch appears to be tightly linked to that part of the force-length relationship where there is naturally occurring passive force.

  11. Derivation of Johnson-Cousins Magnitudes from DSLR Camera Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G, and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB, GB, and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ, VJ, and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal, VJcal, and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are (BJ - BJcal) = 0.064 mag, (VJ - VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and (RC - RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  12. Regression between earthquake magnitudes having errors with known variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications on the regression between earthquake magnitudes assume that both magnitudes are affected by error and that only the ratio of error variances is known. If X and Y represent observed magnitudes, and x and y represent the corresponding theoretical values, the problem is to find the a and b of the best-fit line y = a x + b. This problem has a closed solution only for homoscedastic errors (their variances are all equal for each of the two variables). The published solution was derived using a method that cannot provide a sum of squares of residuals. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the goodness of fit for different pairs of magnitudes. Furthermore, the method does not provide expressions for the x and y. The least-squares method introduced here does not have these drawbacks. The two methods of solution result in the same equations for a and b. General properties of a discussed in the literature but not proved, or proved for particular cases, are derived here. A comparison of different expressions for the variances of a and b is provided. The paper also considers the statistical aspects of the ongoing debate regarding the prediction of y given X. Analysis of actual data from the literature shows that a new approach produces an average improvement of less than 0.1 magnitude units over the standard approach when applied to Mw vs. mb and Mw vs. MS regressions. This improvement is minor, within the typical error of Mw. Moreover, a test subset of 100 predicted magnitudes shows that the new approach results in magnitudes closer to the theoretically true magnitudes for only 65 % of them. For the remaining 35 %, the standard approach produces closer values. Therefore, the new approach does not always give the most accurate magnitude estimates.

  13. Discrimination between nuclear explosions and earthquakes based on consideration of tectonic ambient shear stress values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of fracture mechanics earthquake rupture model, the relations between source parameters and t0, the value of tectonic ambient shear stress in the place where the earthquake occurs, have been derived. Thus, we can calculate a large number of values of tectonic ambient shear stress or values of background stress in the place where the earthquake occurs. If nuclear explosions are treated as earthquakes in the calculation, we find that t0 values of nuclear explosions have about 20 MPa, which is obviously higher than average t0 values of earthquakes with the same magnitude. This result can be used to discriminate nuclear explosions from earthquakes.

  14. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Sandra T; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  15. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  16. OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type earthquakes and tsunamis may be more common than previously believed.

  17. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing Ambient on Photoluminescence of ZnO Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Yan; MA Xiang-Yang; JIN Lu; YANG De-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) ambient on photoluminescence (PL) of sputtered ZnO films are investigated.The RTA at 800℃ under either oxygen (O2) or argon (Ar) ambient can remarkably enhance the PL of the ZnO films due to the improved crystallinities of the ZnO films.It is somewhat unexpected that the ZnO film which received the RTA under O2 ambient exhibits weaker near-band-edge (NBE) PL than that which received the RTA under Ar ambient.It is supposed that a certain amount of negatively charged oxygen species exist on the surface of the ZnO film that received the RTA under O2 ambient,leading to a build-in electric field.This in turn reduces the recombination probability of photo-generated electrons and holes,resulting in the suppressed NBE PL.

  18. APL-UW Deep Water Propagation: Philippine Sea Signal Physics and North Pacific Ambient Noise and NPANL Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    APL-UW Deep Water Propagation: Philippine Sea Signal Physics and North Pacific Ambient Noise and NPANL Support Rex K. Andrew Principal...signals evolve during propagation through a dynamically-varying deep ocean, and how the oceanic ambient noise field varies throughout deep ocean...specifically the Philippine Sea. The second objective is to continue an 18-year long experiment utilizing the North Pacific Ambient Noise Laboratory to

  19. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  20. The use of audiovisual techniques in participative diagnosis: the experience of the Polvo Fields; O uso do audiovisual no diagnostico participativo: a experiencia do projeto de educacao ambiental no Campo de Polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Juliana; Pitanga, Luisa [Abaete Estudos Socioambientais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borensztein, Fernando [Devon Energy do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian environmental law requires oil companies' commitment to implement environmental programs, among which the environmental education project. This type of project should be understood by the companies as an opportunity for the development of socio environmental responsibility policies towards the affected populations. In order for the environmental education project to be effective as a means of awareness and social transformation, it is required to increase public's participation from the process of knowledge creation on the communities environmental problems to the disclose of the produced contents. This work refers to the use of the audiovisual as an instrument for the mobilization and consciousness for the construction of participative diagnostics, from the experience of the Environmental Education Project of the Polvo field, accomplished in ten municipal districts of the Campos Basin region. Inspired on an original methodology, the project promoted environmental cinema workshops that resulted in 30 documentaries directed by the local population and 10 environmental forums in which were developed local audiovisual environmental agendas. (author)

  1. Predicateμ-Calculus for Mobile Ambients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min Lin

    2005-01-01

    Ambient logics have been proposed to describe properties for mobile agents which may evolve over time as well as space. This paper takes a predicate-based approach to extending an ambient logic with recursion, yielding a predicate t-calculus in which fixpoint formulas are formed using predicate variables. An algorithm is developed for model checking finite-control mobile ambients against formulas of the logic, providing the first decidability result for model checking a spatial logic with recursion.

  2. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  3. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  4. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  5. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Equations for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin streams with drainage basins containing various amounts of existing or projected urban development were developed by flood-frequency and multiple-regression analyses.

  6. magnitude and pattern of injury in jimma university

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... CONCLUSION: The magnitude of injury in the hospital was considerably high. Age and ... 1Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Department of ..... conducted in Canadian hospitals reported more.

  7. Numerical and physical magnitudes are mapped into time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Meir, Shachar; Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated mapping of numerical and physical magnitudes with temporal order. Pairs of digits were presented sequentially for a size comparison task. An advantage for numbers presented in ascending order was found when participants were comparing the numbers' physical and numerical magnitudes. The effect was more robust for comparisons of physical size, as it was found using both select larger and select smaller instructions, while for numerical comparisons it was found only for select larger instructions. Varying both the digits' numerical and physical sizes resulted in a size congruity effect, indicating automatic processing of the irrelevant magnitude dimension. Temporal order and the congruency between numerical and physical magnitudes affected comparisons in an additive manner, thus suggesting that they affect different stages of the comparison process.

  8. Validity of electrical stimulus magnitude matching in chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ann L; Westermark, Sofia; Merrick, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of the PainMatcher in chronic pain. DESIGN: Comparison of parallel pain estimates from visual analogue scales with electrical stimulus magnitude matching. PATIENTS: Thirty-one patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Twice a day ongoing pain was rated...... on a standard 100-mm visual analogue scale, and thereafter magnitude matching was performed using a PainMatcher. The sensory threshold to electrical stimulation was tested twice on separate occasions. RESULTS: In 438 observations visual analogue scale ranged from 3 to 95 (median 41) mm, and Pain......Matcher magnitudes from 2.67 to 27.67 (median 6.67; mean 7.78) steps. There was little correlation between visual analogue scale and magnitude data (r = 0.29; p

  9. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  10. Systematic effects from an ambient-temperature, continuously rotating half-wave plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, T.; Kusaka, A.; Appel, J. W.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K.; Ho, S. P.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L. A.; Parker, L. P.; Raghunathan, S.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, K.

    2016-09-01

    We present an evaluation of systematic effects associated with a continuously rotating, ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) based on two seasons of data from the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) experiment located in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The ABS experiment is a microwave telescope sensitive at 145 GHz. Here we present our in-field evaluation of celestial (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plus galactic foreground) temperature-to-polarization leakage. We decompose the leakage into scalar, dipole, and quadrupole leakage terms. We report a scalar leakage of ˜0.01%, consistent with model expectations and an order of magnitude smaller than other CMB experiments have been reported. No significant dipole or quadrupole terms are detected; we constrain each to be ABS survey and focal-plane layout before any data correction such as so-called deprojection. This demonstrates that ABS achieves significant beam systematic error mitigation from its HWP and shows the promise of continuously rotating HWPs for future experiments.

  11. Systematic effects from an ambient-temperature, continuously-rotating half-wave plate

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Choi, S K; Crowley, K; Jarosik, N; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2016-01-01

    We present an evaluation of systematic effects associated with a continuously-rotating, ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) based on two seasons of data from the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) experiment located in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The ABS experiment is a microwave telescope sensitive at 145 GHz. The HWP allows for rejection of unpolarized atmospheric fluctuations and ground pickup, as well as clear separation of celestial polarization from intensity. In a previous paper, we demonstrated 30 dB rejection of atmospheric fluctuations on timescales of 500 s. Here we present our in-field evaluation of celestial (CMB plus galactic foreground) temperature-to-polarization leakage. We decompose the leakage into scalar, dipole, and quadrupole leakage terms. We report a scalar leakage of ~0.01%, consistent with model expectations and an order of magnitude smaller than other CMB experiments have reported. No significant dipole or quadruple terms are detected; we constrain each to be < 0.06% (95% confide...

  12. New ambient pressure photoemission endstation at Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2

    KAUST Repository

    Grass, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the application of ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (APPES) has been recognized as an important in situ tool to study environmental and materials science, energy related science, and many other fields. Several APPES endstations are currently under planning or development at the USA and international light sources, which will lead to a rapid expansion of this technique. The present work describes the design and performance of a new APPES instrument at the Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This new instrument, Scienta R4000 HiPP, is a result of collaboration between Advanced Light Source and its industrial partner VG-Scienta. The R4000 HiPP provides superior electron transmission as well as spectromicroscopy modes with 16 μm spatial resolution in one dimension and angle-resolved modes with simulated 0.5° angular resolution at 24° acceptance. Under maximum transmission mode, the electron detection efficiency is more than an order of magnitude better than the previous endstation at beamline 9.3.2. Herein we describe the design and performance of the system, which has been utilized to record spectra above 2 mbar. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  13. I love my baffling, backward, counterintuitive, overly complicated magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    All professions have their jargon. But astronomy goes the extra parsec. Here's an example. Vega, one of the brighter stars in the night sky, has an apparent magnitude (i.e., an apparent brightness) of approximately zero. Polaris, the North Star, has an apparent magnitude of about +2. Despite this, Vega appears brighter than Polaris, and not by two, but by a factor of about six times.

  14. Some explicit expressions for the probability distribution of force magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2008-08-01

    Recently, empirical investigations have suggested that the components of contact forces follow the exponential distribution. However, explicit expressions for the probability distribution of the corresponding force magnitude have not been known and only approximations have been used in the literature. In this note, for the first time, I provide explicit expressions for the probability distribution of the force magnitude. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases are considered.

  15. Factores determinantes de la contaminación ambiental y del uso de los recursos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Georg Binder

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los factores determinantes de la utilización contaminante del medio ambiente y del uso de los recursos naturales encontramos: el crecimiento demográfico, el desarrollo económico (crecimiento económico, cambio de la estructura económica, progreso técnico, etc. y la concentración espacial de la población y su actividad económica. A causa de la interdependencia entre los factores determinantes de la utilización del medio ambiente, no se puede decir que el crecimiento económico en los países en desarrollo siempre aumente el uso de los recursos naturales y tenga un impacto negativo sobre la calidad del medio ambiente. La afirmación según la cual todo crecimiento económico implica impactos negativos sobre el medio ambiente, se basa en supuestos poco realistas. La magnitud de la economía es solamente uno de los factores que determinan la utilización del medio ambiente. La pregunta decisiva es si los factores determinantes que, tendencialmente, causan una disminución de la utilización del medio ambiente por unidad del producto interno bruto, puedan compensar con creces los impactos negativos del crecimiento económico.

  16. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture.

  17. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development.

  18. Numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children with MID on a symbolic (digits) and a non-symbolic (dot-arrays) comparison task with the performance of two control groups of typically developing children: one group matched on chronological age and one group matched on mathematical ability level. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their typically developing chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, while their performance did not substantially differ from the ability-matched control group. These findings suggest that the development of numerical magnitude representation in children with MID is marked by a delay. This performance pattern was observed for both symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, although difficulties on the former task were more prominent. Interventions in children with MID should therefore foster both the development of magnitude representations and the connections between symbols and the magnitudes they represent.

  19. Rol del tribunal ambiental administrativo: proteccion y prevencion en materia ambiental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas, Heilin; Garcia, Ma. Graciela

    2008-01-01

    A traves de este articulo, se pretende difundir la existencia de un organo llamado "Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo" que tutela la legislacion ambiental y los recursos naturales donde todo ciudadano...

  20. Probable Maximum Earthquake Magnitudes for the Cascadia Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Magistrale, H.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of maximum earthquake magnitude (mx) is widely used in seismic hazard and risk analysis. However, absolute mx lacks a precise definition and cannot be determined from a finite earthquake history. The surprising magnitudes of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes showed that most methods for estimating mx underestimate the true maximum if it exists. Thus, we introduced the alternate concept of mp(T), probable maximum magnitude within a time interval T. The mp(T) can be solved using theoretical magnitude-frequency distributions such as Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) distribution. The two TGR parameters, β-value (which equals 2/3 b-value in the GR distribution) and corner magnitude (mc), can be obtained by applying maximum likelihood method to earthquake catalogs with additional constraint from tectonic moment rate. Here, we integrate the paleoseismic data in the Cascadia subduction zone to estimate mp. The Cascadia subduction zone has been seismically quiescent since at least 1900. Fortunately, turbidite studies have unearthed a 10,000 year record of great earthquakes along the subduction zone. We thoroughly investigate the earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution of the region by combining instrumental and paleoseismic data, and using the tectonic moment rate information. To use the paleoseismic data, we first estimate event magnitudes, which we achieve by using the time interval between events, rupture extent of the events, and turbidite thickness. We estimate three sets of TGR parameters: for the first two sets, we consider a geographically large Cascadia region that includes the subduction zone, and the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates; for the third set, we consider a narrow geographic region straddling the subduction zone. In the first set, the β-value is derived using the GCMT catalog. In the second and third sets, the β-value is derived using both the GCMT and paleoseismic data. Next, we calculate the corresponding mc

  1. Comparison between earthquake magnitudes determined by China seismograph network and US seismograph networks (Ⅰ): Body wave magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui-feng; CHEN Yun-tai; Peter Bormann; REN Xiao; HOU Jian-min; ZOU Li-ye; YANG Hui

    2005-01-01

    By using orthogonal regression method, a systematic comparison is made between body wave magnitudes determined by Institute of Geophysics of China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA) and National Earthquake Information Center of US Geological Survey (USGS/NEIC) on the basis of observation data from China and US seismograph networks between 1983 and 2004. The result of orthogonal regression shows no systematic error between body wave magnitude mb determined by IGCEA and mb (NEIC). Provided that mb (NEIC) is taken as the benchmark, body wave magnitude determined by IGCEA is greater by 0.2~0.1 than the magnitude determined by NEIC for M=3.5~4.5 earthquakes; for M=5.0~5.5 earthquakes, there is no difference; and for M≥6.0 earthquakes, it is smaller by no more than 0.2. This is consistent with the result of comparison by IDC (International Data Center).

  2. Albedo and estimates of net radiation for green beans under polyethylene cover and field conditions Albedo e estimativas do saldo de radiação em feijão-vagem sob cobertura de plástico e ambiente externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonaldo de Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the albedo (r and estimates of net radiation and global solar irradiance for green beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivated in greenhouse with cover of polyethylene and field conditions, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil (22º 54' S; 48º 27' W; 850 m. The solar global irradiance (Rg and solar reflected radiation (Rr were used to estimate the albedo through the ratio between Rr and Rg. The diurnal curves of albedo were obtained for days with clear sky and partially cloudy conditions, for different phenological stages of the crop. The albedo ranged with the solar elevation, the environment and the phenological stages. The cloudiness range have almost no influence on the albedo diurnal amount. The estimation of radiation were made by linear regression, using the global solar irradiance (Rg and net short-waves radiation (Rc as independent variables. All estimates of radiation showed better adjustment for specific phenological periods compared to the entire crop growing cycle. The net radiation in the greenhouse has been estimated by the global solar irradiance measured at field conditions.Este trabalho objetivou determinar o albedo (r no espectro solar e estimar o saldo de radiação, em ambientes cultivados com feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação com cobertura de polietileno, em Botucatu, SP, (22º 54' S; 48º 27' W; 850 m. A irradiância solar global (Rg e a radiação solar refletida (Rr foram utilizadas na determinação do albedo através da razão entre Rr e Rg. Curvas diurnas de r foram traçadas para dias com céu parcialmente nublado e claro, em fases fenológicas da cultura. Os valores do albedo diurno, obtidos através dos totais de radiações, foram utilizados para analisar a variação desse índice durante o ciclo da cultura, nos dois ambientes. O albedo variou com a elevação solar, o ambiente e as fases fenológicas da cultura. A variação de nebulosidade

  3. Magnitude and phase reciprocity calibration of ultrasonic piezoelectric disk in air

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Kenneth K; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A modified conventional three-transducer reciprocity calibration method is used to measure the magnitude and phase responses of the transmitting voltage response and the free-field open-circuit receiving voltage sensitivity of ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers radiating in air at 1 atm. The transducers used in this work are 20 x 2 mm circular piezoelectric ceramic disks with their first and second radial modes at approximately 100 and 250 kHz, respectively. The transducer characterization is supported and aided by finite element simulations of the measurement system and the measured frequency responses. Preliminary results indicate that the magnitude and phase responses of the transmitting voltage response and the free-field open-circuit receiving voltage sensitivity can be measured with fair accuracy in a limited frequency band around the first radial mode of the piezoelectric ceramic disk. Further work is needed to demonstrate and quantify the accuracy actually obtained using the three-transducer recipro...

  4. Zero Magnitude Effect for the Productivity of Triggered Tsunami Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is applied to tsunami events to explain previously observed temporal clustering of tsunami sources. Tsunami events are defined by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) tsunami database. For the ETAS analysis, the earthquake magnitude associated with each tsunami event in the NGDC database is replaced by the primary magnitude listed in the Centennial catalog up until 1976 and in the Global CMT catalog from 1976 through 2010. Tsunamis with a submarine landslide or volcanic component are included if they are accompanied by an earthquake, which is most often the case. Tsunami size is used as a mark for determining a tsunami-generating event, according to a minimum completeness level. The tsunami catalog is estimated to be complete for tsunami sizes greater than 1 m since 1900 and greater than 0.1 m since 1960. Of the five parameters in the temporal ETAS model (Ogata, 1988), the parameter that scales the magnitude dependence in the productivity of triggered events is the one that is most different from ETAS parameters derived from similar earthquake catalogs. Maximum likelihood estimates of this magnitude effect parameter is essentially zero, within 95% confidence, for both the 0.1 m and 1.0 m tsunami completeness levels. To explain this result, parameter estimates are determined for the Global CMT catalog under three tsunamigenic conditions: (1) M≥7 and focal depth ≤50 km, (2) submarine location, and (3) dominant component of dip slip. Successive subcatalogs are formed from the Global CMT catalog according to each of these conditions. The high magnitude threshold for tsunamigenesis alone (subcatalog 1) does not explain the zero magnitude effect. The zero magnitude effect also does not appear to be caused the smaller number of tsunamigenic events analyzed in comparison to earthquake catalogs with a similar magnitude threshold. ETAS parameter estimates from the subcatalog (3) with all three tsunamigenic conditions

  5. Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

    2013-12-01

    Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected

  6. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  7. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  8. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  9. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  10. Ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati

    OpenAIRE

    Cori, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Il 14 dicembre scorso si ? svolto a Roma il seminario "Studi su ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati: prospettive di sviluppo metodologico e applicativo" organizzato dall'istituto di fisiologia clinica del CNR e dal Dipartimento ambiente e connessa prevenzione primaria dell'Istituto Superiore di sanit?

  11. Laboratory study of collisionless coupling between explosive debris plasma and magnetized ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Lee, B. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.

    2017-08-01

    The explosive expansion of a localized plasma cloud into a relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a variety of astrophysical and space phenomena. In these rarified environments, collisionless electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the expanding "debris" plasma to the surrounding ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms, compliment in situ measurements of space phenomena, and provide validation of previous computational and theoretical work, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device and the Raptor laser facility at the University of California, Los Angeles to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and a magnetic flux probe. Doppler shifts detected in a He1+ ion spectral line indicate that the ambient ions initially accelerate transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field. A qualitative analysis in the framework of a "hybrid" plasma model (kinetic ions and inertia-less fluid electrons) demonstrates that the ambient ion trajectories are consistent with the large-scale laminar electric field expected to develop due to the expanding debris. In particular, the transverse ambient ion motion provides direct evidence of Larmor coupling, a collisionless momentum exchange mechanism that has received extensive theoretical and numerical investigation. In order to quantitatively evaluate the observed Doppler shifts, a custom simulation utilizing a detailed model of the laser-produced debris plasma evolution calculates the laminar electric field and computes the initial response of a distribution of ambient test ions. A synthetic Doppler

  12. Deconstruyendo el resultado contable convencional para diseñar un resultado contable ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Déniz Mayor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se discute la dificultad de delimitar con precisión los flujos de gastos e ingresos relacionados con la gestión ambiental corporativa, utilizando como hilo argumental el diseno˜ de un modelo algebraico de resultado contable que haga visible las partidas más significativas en esta materia. Las principales conclusiones se centran en la necesidad de vincular los gastos e ingresos ambientales a objetivos específicos a fin de poder evaluar el desempeno˜ ambiental de la empresa y el riesgo de adoptar decisiones ambientalmente ineficientes para mejorar la imagen pública gracias a este estado contable. Entre las principales limitaciones del modelo propuesto se encuentran el problema de la vinculación homogeneizada de las magnitudes contables a los objetivos de protección ambiental y la exclusión de las externalidades ambientales.

  13. Aftermath of 3/11: earthquakes and involuntary attentional orienting to sudden ambient sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Ueda, Mari; Takeda, Yuji; Sugimoto, Fumie; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 and the following long-term earthquake swarm, many people living in the earthquake-affected areas have developed mental stress, even though clinically-diagnosable symptoms may not be apparent. Concurrently, many unusual reports have emerged in which persons complain of abnormally increased sensitivity to sudden ambient sounds during their daily lives (e.g., the sound of the washing machine on spin cycle). By recording event-related potentials to various sudden ambient sounds from young adults living in the affected areas, we found that the level of earthquake-induced mental stress, as indexed by the hyperarousal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, was positively related to the magnitude of P3a to sudden ambient sounds. These results reveal a strong relationship between mental stress and enhanced involuntary attentional orienting in a large majority of trauma-exposed people without diagnosable symptoms.

  14. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  15. Effect of Spinal Manipulation Thrust Magnitude on Trunk Mechanical Thresholds of Lateral Thalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by manual therapists (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy) results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Methods Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in three directions (dorsal-ventral, 45°caudalward, and 45°cranialward) prior to and immediately following the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100ms HVLA-SM at three thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight; (BW)). Results There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% BW manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (p=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. PMID:24928636

  16. Effect of spinal manipulation thrust magnitude on trunk mechanical activation thresholds of lateral thalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William R; Pickar, Joel G; Sozio, Randall S; Long, Cynthia R

    2014-06-01

    High-velocity low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by doctors who use manual therapy (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy), results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields, which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk, were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in 3 directions (dorsal-ventral, 45° caudalward, and 45° cranialward) before and immediately after the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100-millisecond HVLA-SM at 3 thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight). There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% body weight manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (P=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that, at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust Computation of Error Vector Magnitude for Wireless Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The modulation accuracy described by an error vector magnitude is a critical parameter in modern communication systems — defined originally as a performance metric for transmitters but now also used in receiver design and for more general signal analysis. The modulation accuracy is a measure of how...... far a test signal is from a reference signal at the symbol values when some parameters in a reconstruction model are optimized for best agreement. This paper provides an approach to computation of error vector magnitude as described in several standards from measured or simulated data. It is shown...... that the error vector magnitude optimization problem is generally non-convex. Robust estimation of the initial conditions for the optimizer is suggested, which is particularly important for a non-convex problem. A Bender decomposition approach is used to separate convex and non-convex parts of the problem...

  18. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Costela, Francisco M; McCamy, Michael B; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Sonderegger, Andreas; Groner, Rudolf; Macknik, Stephen; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has investigated the influence of task difficulty on microsaccade production during the performance of non-visual tasks. Thus, the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades, isolated from sensory modality, remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades during the performance of a non-visual, mental arithmetic task with two levels of complexity. We found that microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. We propose that changes in microsaccade rates and magnitudes with task difficulty are mediated by the effects of varying attentional inputs on the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

  19. Newmark design spectra considering earthquake magnitudes and site categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Newmark design spectra have been implemented in many building codes, especially in building codes for critical structures. Previous studies show that Newmark design spectra exhibit lower amplitudes at high frequencies and larger amplitudes at low frequencies in comparison with spectra developed by statistical methods. To resolve this problem, this study considers three suites of ground motions recorded at three types of sites. Using these ground motions, influences of the shear-wave velocity, earthquake magnitudes, source-to-site distances on the ratios of ground motion parameters are studied, and spectrum amplification factors are statistically calculated. Spectral bounds for combinations of three site categories and two cases of earthquake magnitudes are estimated. Site design spectrum coefficients for the three site categories considering earthquake magnitudes are established. The problems of Newmark design spectra could be resolved by using the site design spectrum coefficients to modify the spectral values of Newmark design spectra in the acceleration sensitive, velocity sensitive, and displacement sensitive regions.

  20. 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Nihan, Céline; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  1. 4th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenborg, Kasper; Rodríguez, Juan; Tapia, Dante; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  2. 3rd International symposium on ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Dante I; Novais, Paulo; ISAmI 2012; Ambient Intelligence : Software and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  3. 8th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Julián, Vicente; Villarrubia, Gabriel; Marreiros, Goreti; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, in which computers are used as proactive tools to assist people with their day-to-day activities, making their lives more comfortable. Another main goal of AmI originates from the human/computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means of user-friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly, as can be witnessed by the emerging natural-language-based and gesture-based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing, and their embeddedness in our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and take place without people actually noticing it. The only things people should notice in connection with AmI are more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a n...

  4. 7th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan; Novais, Paulo; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Yoe, Hyun; Ramírez, Andres; Villarrubia, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inherent...

  5. 5th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the Fifth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, which was held in Catania, Italy, in September 2014 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciting advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  6. Ambient-pressure thermodynamic measurements on UGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Frederic; Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik; Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Meingast, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik; Flouquet, Jacques; Huxley, Andrew [SPSMS-DRFMC, CEA-Grenoble (France); Lashley, Jason [Materials Science Division and Technology Division, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Fisher, Robert A.; Phillips, Norman E. [Materials Science Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The pairing interaction leading to the formation of the Cooper pairs remains unidentified in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}. Nevertheless, there is strong experimental evidence that superconductivity is not mediated by the magnetic fluctuations that drive T{sub Curie}(p) to zero; it rather appears closely related to another phase boundary T{sub x}(p) that occurs at lower pressure. Theoretical works suggested that this additional phase boundary could arise either from a coupling between SDW and CDW orderings or from a peak in the electronic density of states. Although the existence of this anomaly is experimentally incontestable between 0.6 and 1.2 GPa, the situation at ambient pressure remains ambiguous. We discuss the aforementioned scenarios in the light of recent high-resolution thermal expansion and calorimetric measurements realized under high magnetic fields at ambient pressure.

  7. Ambient-pressure thermodynamic measurements on UGe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, F.; Meingast, C.; von Loehneysen, H.; Flouquet, J.; Huxley, A.; Lashley, J.; Fisher, R. A.; Phillips, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    The pairing interaction leading to the formation of the Cooper pairs remains unidentified in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2. Nevertheless, there is strong experimental evidence that superconductivity is not mediated by the magnetic fluctuations that drive TCurie (p) to zero; it rather appears closely related to another phase boundary Tx (p) that occurs at lower pressure. Theoretical works suggested that this additional phase boundary could arise either from a coupling between SDW and CDW orderings or from a peak in the electronic density of states. Although the existence of this anomaly is experimentally incontestable between 0.6 and 1.2 GPa, the situation at ambient pressure remains ambiguous. We discuss the aforementioned scenarios in the light of recent high-resolution thermal expansion and calorimetric measurements realized under high magnetic fields at ambient pressure.

  8. Aftershock Hazard Magnitude, Time, and Location Probability Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Pao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study combines branching aftershock sequence (BASS and modified _ law to develop a predictive model for forecasting the magnitude, time, and location of aftershocks of magnitude Mw ≥ 5.00 in large earthquakes. The developed model is presented and applied to the 17:47 20 September 1999 Mw 7.45 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan, 09:32 5 November 2009 (UTC Nantou Mw 6.19, 00:18 4 March 2010 (UTC Jiashian Mw 6.49 earthquake sequences, Taiwan, and 05:46 11 March 2011 (UTC Tohoku Mw 9.00 earthquake, Japan. The estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA results are remarkably similar to calculations from the recorded magnitudes in both trend and level. This study proposes an empirical equation to improve the aftershock occurrence forecast time. The forecast time results were greatly improved. The magnitude of aftershocks generally decreases with time. It was found that the aftershock forecast probability of Mw ≥ 5.00 is high in the first six days after the main shock. The results will be of interest to seismic mitigation specialists. Spatial and temporal seismicity parameters to the aftershock sequence investigation into the 17:47 20 September 1999 (UTC Mw 7.45 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan found that immediately after the earthquake the area closest to the epicenter had a lower b value. This pattern suggests that at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the area closest to the epicenter remained prone to large magnitude aftershocks and strong shaking. With time, however, the b value increased, indicating a reduced likelihood for large magnitude aftershocks.

  9. Magnitude comparison with different types of rational numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Grounds, Margaret A; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-02-01

    An important issue in understanding mathematical cognition involves the similarities and differences between the magnitude representations associated with various types of rational numbers. For single-digit integers, evidence indicates that magnitudes are represented as analog values on a mental number line, such that magnitude comparisons are made more quickly and accurately as the numerical distance between numbers increases (the distance effect). Evidence concerning a distance effect for compositional numbers (e.g., multidigit whole numbers, fractions and decimals) is mixed. We compared the patterns of response times and errors for college students in magnitude comparison tasks across closely matched sets of rational numbers (e.g., 22/37, 0.595, 595). In Experiment 1, a distance effect was found for both fractions and decimals, but response times were dramatically slower for fractions than for decimals. Experiments 2 and 3 compared performance across fractions, decimals, and 3-digit integers. Response patterns for decimals and integers were extremely similar but, as in Experiment 1, magnitude comparisons based on fractions were dramatically slower, even when the decimals varied in precision (i.e., number of place digits) and could not be compared in the same way as multidigit integers (Experiment 3). Our findings indicate that comparisons of all three types of numbers exhibit a distance effect, but that processing often involves strategic focus on components of numbers. Fractions impose an especially high processing burden due to their bipartite (a/b) structure. In contrast to the other number types, the magnitude values associated with fractions appear to be less precise, and more dependent on explicit calculation.

  10. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P nuclear magnitudes H_N = V(1,0,0). The catalog includes all the nuclear magnitudes reported after 1950 until August 1998 that appear in the International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  11. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  12. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  13. GENES, POBLACIONES, AMBIENTES Y NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noem\\u00ED Acreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura genética de 32 poblaciones de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay en función de las frecuencias génicas de ocho sistemas de grupos eritocitarios. Los sistemas incluidos son: ABO, MN, Ss, DI, P, Cc, Dd y Ee. En el caso de Bolivia, Paraguay y el Chaco Argentino, los datos fueron obtenidos de la bibliografía. La relación entre las poblaciones y diferentes criterios de agrupación (Ambiente, País, Grupo Lingüístico y Altitud fueron evaluadas por medio de Análisis Discriminante. Se consideró el porcentaje de casos correctamente clasificados como medida de la relación entre el conjunto de variables analizadas y el criterio de agrupación. Se encontró que tanto las categorías geoestructurales como lingüísticas establecidas tienen mayor relación con la estructura genética de las poblaciones incluidas en el análisis que las fronteras nacionales, por lo que se concluye que el aislamiento reproductivo entre poblaciones, necesario para la diferenciación, se produce por diferencias culturales o del territorio de ocupación antes que por las fronteras políticas establecidas.

  14. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  15. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  16. Ambient intelligence systems for personalized sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  17. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  18. The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 15. ambient geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-13

    CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS - Director 13 Jung 375 Defense Nuclear Agency 1UMBFoF , _ Washington, D.C. 20305 P2L_ IV (if i dcerent from Controlling...of magnetic cos~k) COSTO t dipole moment • Po° PHIO East longitude of magnetic dipole moment M MU0 Magnetic dipole moment• x ANGS North latitude of

  19. Large Aperture Array Measurements of the Vertical Ambient Noise Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Ingard , 1968]. The array system is composed of 4 component parts: uplink wire, array, keviar strength member and weights. The system mechanical parameters...34, Scripps Institution of Oceanog- raphy, La Jolla, CA, Nov. 1975. Morse, P, M. and K. U. Ingard , Theoretical Acoustics, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, p

  20. Impact of ambient humidity on child health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. RESULTS: Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. CONCLUSIONS: With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed.

  1. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  2. Comparison between earthquake magnitudes determined by China seismograph network and US seismograph network (Ⅱ):Surface wave magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By using orthogonal regression method, a systematic comparison is made between surface wave magnitudes determined by Institute of Geophysics of China Earthquake Administration (IGCEA) and National Earthquake Information Center of US Geological Survey (USGS/NEIC) on the basis of observation data collected by the two institutions between 1983 and 2004. A formula is obtained which reveals the relationship between surface wave magnitudes determined by China seismograph network and US seismograph network. The result shows that, as different calculation formulae and observational instruments are used, surface wave magnitude determined by IGCEA is generally greater by 0.2 than that determined by NEIC: for M=3.5~4.5 earthquakes, it is greater by 0.3;for M=5.0~6.5 earthquakes, it is greater by 0.2;and for M≥7.0 earthquakes, it is greater by no more than 0.1.

  3. Relating perturbation magnitude to temporal gene expression in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfrender Michael E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most transcriptional activity is a result of environmental variability. This cause (environment and effect (gene expression relationship is essential to survival in any changing environment. The specific relationship between environmental perturbation and gene expression – and stability of the response – has yet to be measured in detail. We describe a method to quantitatively relate perturbation magnitude to response at the level of gene expression. We test our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism and osmotic stress as an environmental stress. Results Patterns of gene expression were measured in response to increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.2 M for sixty genes impacted by osmotic shock. Expression of these genes was quantified over five time points using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction. Magnitudes of cumulative response for specific pathways, and the set of all genes, were obtained by combining the temporal response envelopes for genes exhibiting significant changes in expression with time. A linear relationship between perturbation magnitude and response was observed for the range of concentrations studied. Conclusion This study develops a quantitative approach to describe the stability of gene response and pathways to environmental perturbation and illustrates the utility of this approach. The approach should be applicable to quantitatively evaluate the response of organisms via the magnitude of response and stability of the transcriptome to environmental change.

  4. The Magnitude Distribution of Earthquakes Near Southern California Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Lindh , 1985; Jackson and Kagan, 2006]. We do not consider time dependence in this study, but focus instead on the magnitude distribution for this fault...90032-7. Bakun, W. H., and A. G. Lindh (1985), The Parkfield, California, earth- quake prediction experiment, Science, 229(4714), 619–624, doi:10.1126

  5. Magnitude estimation with noisy integrators linked by an adaptive reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eThurley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect. Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims towards answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes.

  6. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  7. Extremal Regions Detection Guided by Maxima of Gradient Magnitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faraji, Mehdi; Shambezadeh, Jamshid; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    boundaries we introduce Maxima of Gradient Magnitudes (MGMs) which are shown to be points that are mostly around the boundaries of the regions. Having found the MGMs, the method obtains a Global Criterion (GC) for each level of the input image which is used to find Extremum Levels (ELs). The found ELs...

  8. DIGITAL FILTER PROCESS DURING THE DISCRETE MAGNITUDE DATA GATHERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚天忠; 邹丽新; 胡冶

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the reason that causes the error during the discrete magnitude data gathering.A method,dealing with data by means of second-order low-pass digital filter,is brought out,which will improve both the smooth degree and the reponse of the data into a quite good state.

  9. Asteroid magnitudes, UBV colors, and IRAS albedos and diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper lists absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for known asteroids numbered through 3318. The values presented are those used in reducing asteroid IR flux data obtained with the IRAS. U-B colors are given for 938 asteroids, and B-V colors are given for 945 asteroids. The IRAS albedos and diameters are tabulated for 1790 asteroids.

  10. Milli-Magnitude Time-Resolved Photometry with BEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Rauer, H.; Erikson, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative test of different photometry algorithms. The test has been made in order to optimize the number of stars for which light curves with milli-magnitude precision can be achieved in observations made by the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST), a small wide-angle telescope...

  11. Milli-Magnitude Time-Resolved Photometry with BEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Rauer, H.; Erikson, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative test of different photometry algorithms. The test has been made in order to optimize the number of stars for which light curves with milli-magnitude precision can be achieved in observations made by the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST), a small wide-angle telescope...

  12. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  13. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between one third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted...

  14. Neural representations of magnitude for natural and rational numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J; Monti, Martin M

    2016-11-01

    Humans have developed multiple symbolic representations for numbers, including natural numbers (positive integers) as well as rational numbers (both fractions and decimals). Despite a considerable body of behavioral and neuroimaging research, it is currently unknown whether different notations map onto a single, fully abstract, magnitude code, or whether separate representations exist for specific number types (e.g., natural versus rational) or number representations (e.g., base-10 versus fractions). We address this question by comparing brain metabolic response during a magnitude comparison task involving (on different trials) integers, decimals, and fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the strength and pattern of activation for fractions differed systematically, within the intraparietal sulcus, from that of both decimals and integers, while the latter two number representations appeared virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that the two major notations formats for rational numbers, fractions and decimals, evoke distinct neural representations of magnitude, with decimals representations being more closely linked to those of integers than to those of magnitude-equivalent fractions. Our findings thus suggest that number representation (base-10 versus fractions) is an important organizational principle for the neural substrate underlying mathematical cognition.

  15. Passive seismic monitoring at the ketzin CCS site -Magnitude estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Steeghs, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to allow quantification of the strength of local micro-seismic events recorded at the CCS pilot site in Ketzin in terms of local magnitude, earthquake data recorded by standardized seismometers were used. Earthquakes were selected that occurred in Poland and Czech Republic and that were det

  16. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  17. Bayesian Predictive Distribution for the Magnitude of the Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershock sequences, which follow large earthquakes, last hundreds of days and are characterized by well defined frequency-magnitude and spatio-temporal distributions. The largest aftershocks in a sequence constitute significant hazard and can inflict additional damage to infrastructure. Therefore, the estimation of the magnitude of possible largest aftershocks in a sequence is of high importance. In this work, we propose a statistical model based on Bayesian analysis and extreme value statistics to describe the distribution of magnitudes of the largest aftershocks in a sequence. We derive an analytical expression for a Bayesian predictive distribution function for the magnitude of the largest expected aftershock and compute the corresponding confidence intervals. We assume that the occurrence of aftershocks can be modeled, to a good approximation, by a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a temporal event rate given by the modified Omori law. We also assume that the frequency-magnitude statistics of aftershocks can be approximated by Gutenberg-Richter scaling. We apply our analysis to 19 prominent aftershock sequences, which occurred in the last 30 years, in order to compute the Bayesian predictive distributions and the corresponding confidence intervals. In the analysis, we use the information of the early aftershocks in the sequences (in the first 1, 10, and 30 days after the main shock) to estimate retrospectively the confidence intervals for the magnitude of the expected largest aftershocks. We demonstrate by analysing 19 past sequences that in many cases we are able to constrain the magnitudes of the largest aftershocks. For example, this includes the analysis of the Darfield (Christchurch) aftershock sequence. The proposed analysis can be used for the earthquake hazard assessment and forecasting associated with the occurrence of large aftershocks. The improvement in instrumental data associated with early aftershocks can greatly enhance the analysis and

  18. Field-Induced CDW Phases in a Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic Conductor, HMTSF-TCNQ Under Pressure of 1 GPa in Magnetic Field of 31 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.; Kang, W.; Masuda, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Graf, D.; Kiswandhi, A.; Choi, E. S.; Brooks, J. S.; Sasaki, T.; Yokogawa, K.; Yoshino, H.; Kato, R.

    2013-03-01

    HMTSF-TCNQ is a quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor which undergoes CDW(charge density wave) transition at 30 K at ambient pressure, where HMTSF-TCNQ is hexamethylenetetraselena fulvalene-tetracyano quino dimethane. This CDW is suppressed by the pressure of 1 GPa. At this pressure, we found field-induced successive hysteretic transitions in magnetoresistance. This reminds us of the successive field-induced SDW (spin density wave) phases in TMTSF2X salts. However, the field range of interest is 2-3 times higher than that of TMTSF2X salts. Therefore, we need really high field to examine these properties. It is very likely that the field induced phases are of field induced CDW (FICDW), where quantum Hall effect and many interesting phenomena are expected like in the case of FISDW. Together with the magnetoresistance study up to the field of 31 Tesla and at temperatures down to 0.4 K in various magnetic field angles respective to the crystal axes, we examined the angular dependence of magnetoresistance oscillations(AMRO). It turned out that AMRO demonstrates clearly the occurrence of field-induced phase rather than the magneto-resistance by field sweep. Since the Hall resistance, R xy in the field-induced phases showed stepwise plateau structure against the field sweep, and its strength was in the order of magnitude of h/ e 2 per molecular sheet, the Hall effect is very suggestive of quantum Hall effect.

  19. Earthquake Early Warning with Seismogeodesy: Detection, Location, and Magnitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is critical to reducing injuries and casualties in case of a large magnitude earthquake. The system must rely on near-source data to minimize the time between event onset and issuance of a warning. Early warning systems typically use seismic instruments (seismometers and accelerometers), but these instruments experience difficulty maintaining reliable data in the near-source region and undergo magnitude saturation for large events. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) instruments capture the long period motions and have been shown to produce robust estimates of the true size of the earthquake source. However, GNSS is often overlooked in this context in part because it is not precise enough to record the first seismic wave arrivals (P-wave detection), an important consideration for issuing an early warning. GNSS instruments are becoming integrated into early warning, but are not yet fully exploited. Our approach involves the combination of direct measurements from collocated GNSS and accelerometer stations to estimate broadband coseismic displacement and velocity waveforms [Bock et al., 2011], a method known as seismogeodesy. We present the prototype seismogeodetic early warning system developed at Scripps and demonstrate that the seismogeodetic dataset can be used for P-wave detection, hypocenter location, and shaking onset determination. We discuss uncertainties in each of these estimates and include discussion of the sensitivity of our estimates as a function of the azimuthal distribution of monitoring stations. The seismogeodetic combination has previously been shown to be immune to magnitude saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. Rapid magnitude estimation is an important product in earthquake early warning, and is the critical metric in current tsunami hazard warnings. Using the seismogeodetic approach, we refine earthquake magnitude scaling using P-wave amplitudes (Pd) and peak ground displacements (PGD) for a

  20. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  1. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  2. MUVA: a MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivac, Robert; Klem, Sune Øllgaard; Olsen, Sophus Béneé

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents MUVA (MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device), a prototype for a storytelling light- and sound-based ambient device. The aim of this device is to encourage social interaction and expand the emotional closeness in families with children where at least one parent has irregular...... work schedule. MUVA differs from the other ambient devices, because it is targeted to children, and it adopts a visceral design approach in order to be appealing to its users. It is a raindrop-shaped lamp, which features audio playing, while its light color is affected by the audio playing. MUVA can...

  3. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days-6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ˜ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ˜ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ˜ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to

  4. Influence of Ambient Humidity on the Voltage Response of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zicai; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Kruusamäe, Karl; Chang, Longfei; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-03-31

    Electrical potential based on ion migration exists not only in natural systems but also in ionic polymer materials. In order to investigate the influence of ambient humidity on voltage response, classical Au-Nafion IPMC was chosen as the reference sample. Voltage response under a bending deformation was measured in two ways: first, continuous measurement of voltage response in the process of absorption and desorption of water to study the tendency of voltage variation at all water states; second, measurements at multiple fixed ambient humidity levels to characterize the process of voltage response quantitatively. Ambient humidity influences the voltage response mainly by varying water content in ionic polymer. Under a step bending, the amplitude of initial voltage peak first increases and then decreases as the ambient humidity and the inherent water content decrease. This tendency is explained semiquantitatively by mass storage capacity related to the stretchable state of the Nafion polymer network. Following the initial peak, the voltage shows a slow decay to a steady state, which is first characterized in this paper. The relative voltage decay during the steady state always decreases as the ambient humidity is lowered. It is ascribed to progressive increase of the ratio between the water molecules in the cation hydration shell to the free water. Under sinusoidal mechanical bending excitation in the range of 0.1-10 Hz, the voltage magnitude increases with frequency at high ambient humidity but decreases with frequency at low ambient humidity. The relationship is mainly controlled by the voltage decay effect and the response speed.

  5. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original definition of magnitude scales, which does not apply a priori mechanism corrections to measured amplitudes, also since reliable fault-plane solutions are hardly

  6. Behavior of induced microseismic events with large magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Nozaki, H.; Niitsuma, H.; Wyborn, D.; Baria, R.

    2006-12-01

    Hydraulic stimulation of geothermal and oil/gas reservoir is one of the conventional techniques used for enhancing the productivity from reservoirs. In most cases, the stimulation process induces microseismic events. Based on the activity, location, magnitude and source mechanism of such events, the 3D localization and characterization of the reservoir can be carried out with practical resolution. Typically, microseismic events from a reservoir have moment magnitudes of less than zero, and most of them are detectable only by downhole sensors with high sensitivity. However, it is known that some of these events have higher magnitudes and can be felt at the surface. These large events can be hazardous from an environmental point of view, while resulting in enhanced permeability in the reservoir at the same time. The authors have analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution, and source mechanism of such microseismic events having large magnitudes (big events) observed during the hydraulic stimulations at Australian hot fractured rock (HFR) site in the Cooper Basin (Asanuma et al., SEG Exp. Abst., 2004) and also at the European hot dry rock (HDR) site in Soultz, France (Asanuma et al., Trans. GRC, 2004). A comparison between the origin time of these big events and the hydraulic records showed that many of the big events occurred after the shut-ins at both the sites. Besides, during pumping, most of these events did not show a clear correlation to the wellhead pressure and the rate of pumping. In most cases, the source mechanism of the big events were consistent with the shear slip of a preexisting fracture. We have also found that some of the big events at the Australian site brought very clear extension of the seismic cloud into zones that were seismically silent before, suggesting that some kind of hydraulic barrier was overcome by these big events. The observational data also showed that the microseismic events at those sites originated mainly from a slip of asperities

  7. Nonverbal and Bodily Interaction in Ambient Entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Bos, Pieter; Esposito, Anna; Bratanic, Maja; Keller, Eric; Marinaro, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In future Ambient Intelligence environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its virtual, sometimes visualized agents (virtual humans). These environments support the human inhabitants or visitors in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through their sensors. In

  8. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  9. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  10. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos Advertising and environment: some aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ribeiro de Almeida Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no tratamento de temas ambientais.This article deals with the increasing role advertising has played on the social construction of the environmental debate. Though studies on media and environment are generally focused on newspaper and television content, in the past decades advertising has become a main issue for many researchers. The article outlines the importance of consumption as a key concept in modern world and its effects on the field of environmental studies. The discussion that follows analyses some aspects of the growing specialization of environmental issues advertising.

  11. Efeito de níveis de água, coberturas do solo e condições ambientais na temperatura do solo e no cultivo de morangueiro em ambiente protegido e a céu aberto Effect of water levels, soil covers and enviroment in maximum soil temperature in strawberry crop in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. de M. Pires

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura do solo é um importante parâmetro no cultivo do morangueiro, pois interfere no desenvolvimento vegetativo, na sanidade e na produção. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de água, coberturas de canteiro em campo aberto e em ambiente protegido, na temperatura máxima do solo no cultivo do morangueiro. Foram realizados dois experimentos: um em cultivo protegido e outro a campo aberto, em Atibaia - SP, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (coberturas do solo e níveis de irrigação, em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. As coberturas de solo utilizadas foram filmes de polietileno preto e transparente. A irrigação localizada foi aplicada por gotejo sempre que o potencial de água no solo atingisse -0,010 (N1, -0,035 (N2 e -0,070 (N3 MPa, em tensiômetros instalados a 10 cm de profundidade. A temperatura do solo foi avaliada por termógrafos, sendo os sensores instalados a 5 cm de profundidade. Houve influência do ambiente de cultivo, da cobertura do solo e dos níveis de irrigação na temperatura máxima do solo. A temperatura do solo sob diferentes coberturas dependeu não somente das características físicas do plástico, como também da forma de instalação no canteiro. A temperatura máxima do solo aumentou com a diminuição do potencial da água no solo, no momento da irrigação.The soil temperature is an important parameter in strawberry crop, because, it interferes in vegetative development, plant health conditions and yield. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water levels, soil covers in field conditions and greenhouse in maximum soil temperature in strawberry crop. Two experiments were accomplished, one in greenhouse and other in field conditions, at Atibaia - SP, Brazil. The experimental design was a factorial 2 x 3 (soil covers and water levels, with 5 repetitions. The soil covers were clear and black plastics. The trickle irrigation was applied

  12. 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking using ambient illumination context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nur Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3-Dimensional (3D video adaptation decision taking is an open field in which not many researchers have carried out investigations yet compared to 3D video display, coding, etc. Moreover, utilizing ambient illumination as an environmental context for 3D video adaptation decision taking has particularly not been studied in literature to date. In this paper, a user perception model, which is based on determining perception characteristics of a user for a 3D video content viewed under a particular ambient illumination condition, is proposed. Using the proposed model, a 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking technique is developed to determine the adapted bit rate for the 3D video content to maintain 3D video quality perception by considering the ambient illumination condition changes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of exploiting the changes in ambient illumination level to use network resources more efficiently without sacrificing the 3D video quality perception.

  13. The Evolution of L and T Dwarfs in Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D

    2008-01-01

    We present new evolution sequences for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs and giant planets and use them to explore a variety of influences on the evolution of these objects. We compare our results with previous work and discuss the causes of the differences and argue for the importance of the surface boundary condition provided by atmosphere models including clouds. The L- to T-type ultracool dwarf transition can be accommodated within the Ackerman & Marley (2001) cloud model by varying the cloud sedimentation parameter. We develop a simple model for the evolution across the L/T transition. By combining the evolution calculation and our atmosphere models, we generate colors and magnitudes of synthetic populations of ultracool dwarfs in the field and in galactic clusters. We focus on near infrared color- magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and on the nature of the ``second parameter'' that is responsible for the scatter of colors along the Teff sequence. Variations in metallicity and cloud parameters, unresolved bin...

  14. Colour-magnitude diagrams of transiting Exoplanets - II. A larger sample from photometric distances

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Smalley, Barry; Gillon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Colour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each others. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary systems. Parallaxes for seven systems confirm our methodology. Combining those measurements with fluxes obtained while planets were occulted by their host stars, we compose colour-magnitude diagrams in the near and mid-infrared. When possible, planets are plotted alongside very low-mass stars and field brown dwarfs, who often share similar sizes and equilibrium temperatures. They offer a natural, empirical, comparison sample. We also include directly imaged exoplanets and the expected loci of pure blackbodies. Irradiated planets do not match blackbodies; their emission spectra are not featureless. For a given luminosity, hot Jupiters' daysides show a larger variety in colour than brown dwarfs do and display an increasing diversity in colour with decreasing intrinsic luminosity. The presence of an extra absorben...

  15. ambientes mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Escribano-Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel global, dos tendencias opuestas gobiernan el uso de la tierra: la intensificación y el abandono. Esta última supone una oportunidad para larecuperación de los ecosistemas, una necesidad urgente dada la actual crisis ambiental. La comunidad de dispersores frugívoros es determinantepara recuperar la estructura y complejidad de la vegetación en campos abandonados, ya que éstos suelen estar desprovistos de propágulos.Recientes estudios han resaltado la especial relevancia de los mamíferos frugívoros en el proceso de dispersión de semillas en ambientesdegradados como los campos abandonados. Esto es debido a una serie de rasgos morfológicos y de comportamiento que caracterizan a losfrugívoros mamíferos y que les hace ser dispersores especialmente efectivos. Generalmente los mamíferos frugívoros tienen un mayor tamañocorporal, mayores áreas de campeo y distancias de dispersión, frecuente uso de hábitats abiertos, movilizando así más semillas hasta los camposabandonados que otros grupos de frugívoros (e.g. aves. Una vez que una semilla ha sido depositada tiene que superar las sucesivas etapas hastael establecimiento (depredación post-dispersiva, germinación, supervivencia y crecimiento. Los mamíferos frugívoros favorecen todo este procesoen mayor medida que otros dispersores. A nivel interespecífico pueden dispersar mayor diversidad de especies al estar generalmente menoslimitados por el tamaño de fruto, y a nivel intra-especifico no seleccionan semillas de pequeño tamaño. Además, suelen depositar las semillas enmicrohábitats que resultan especialmente adecuados para el reclutamiento. En consecuencia, los mamíferos son un elemento clave en los ensamblesde frugívoros que propician la regeneración de los campos abandonados y su función ecológica debe ser considerada en la restauración y manejode hábitats degradados.Palabras clave: áreas degradadas; bosque remanente; cambio de los usos del suelo; dispersi

  16. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Blasco; Álvaro Marco; Roberto Casas; Diego Cirujano; Richard Picking

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  17. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  18. How are number words mapped to approximate magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    How do we map number words to the magnitudes they represent? While much is known about the developmental trajectory of number word learning, the acquisition of the counting routine, and the academic correlates of estimation ability, previous studies have yet to describe the mechanisms that link number words to nonverbal representations of number. We investigated two mechanisms: associative mapping and structure mapping. Four dot array estimation tasks found that adults' ability to match a number word to one of two discriminably different sets declined as a function of set size and that participants' estimates of relatively large, but not small, set sizes were influenced by misleading feedback during an estimation task. We propose that subjects employ structure mappings for linking relatively large number words to set sizes, but rely chiefly on item-by-item associative mappings for smaller sets. These results indicate that both inference and association play important roles in mapping number words to approximate magnitudes.

  19. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  20. Sensori-motor spatial training of number magnitude representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ursula; Moeller, Korbinian; Bientzle, Martina; Cress, Ulrike; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2011-02-01

    An adequately developed spatial representation of number magnitude is associated with children's general arithmetic achievement. Therefore, a new spatial-numerical training program for kindergarten children was developed in which presentation and response were associated with a congruent spatial numerical representation. In particular, children responded by a full-body spatial movement on a digital dance mat in a magnitude comparison task. This spatial-numerical training was more effective than a non-spatial control training in enhancing children's performance on a number line estimation task and a subtest of a standardized mathematical achievement battery (TEDI-MATH). A mediation analysis suggested that these improvements were driven by an improvement of children's mental number line representation and not only by unspecific factors such as attention or motivation. These results suggest a benefit of spatial numerical associations. Rather than being a merely associated covariate, they work as an independently manipulated variable which is functional for numerical development.

  1. Resistance to change as a function of concurrent reinforcer magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J C; Pickering, L D; McLean, A P

    1996-12-01

    Six pigeons responded on two keys in each of three signalled multiple-schedule components, and resistance to disruption of responding on one (target) key by extinction and by response-independent food presented during inter-component blackouts was studied. Alternative reinforcement of different magnitudes was contingent on pecking a non-target key in two components, and in the third only the target response was reinforced. Resistance to change varied with the overall quantity of reinforcement in the component, regardless of whether reinforcers were contingent on the target or non-target response, but did not differ across the two key locations. These results using different magnitudes of reinforcement confirm previous findings using rate of reinforcement as the variable, and suggest that resistance to change is dependent on stimulus-reinforcer rather than response-reinforcer contingencies.

  2. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  3. Estimation of continuous object distributions from limited Fourier magnitude measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Charles L.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    From finite complex spectral data one can construct a continuous object with a given support that is consistent with the data. Given Fourier magnitude data only, one can choose the phases arbitrarily in the above construction. The energy in the extrapolated spectrum is phase-dependent and provides a cost function to be used in phase retrieval. The minimization process is performed iteratively, using an algorithm that can be viewed as a combination of Gerchberg-Papoulis and Fienup error reduction.

  4. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul; Khan Golam Mostafa; Nitya Nanda Baruri; Jakia Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July t...

  5. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul; Khan Golam Mostafa; Nitya Nanda Baruri; Jakia Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To es timate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors . Methods Five hundred children aged 5- 16 years from a boys' school and a girls' school in Khulna City, Ban gladesh, were randomly selected for the study c...

  6. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M.; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Vanden Berk, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ~2600-3300 Å after removing optical light, and u ≈ 3000-4000 Å) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ≈2000-2400 Å). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 Å. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ~1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  7. Modeling the Color Magnitude Relation for Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Noelia; Castelli, Analia Smith; Bassino, Lilia P

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the colour-magnitude relation (CMR) observed in cluster galaxies by using a combination of a cosmological N-body simulation of a cluster of galaxies and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The departure of galaxies in the bright end of the CMR with respect to the trend denoted by less luminous galaxies could be explained by the influence of minor mergers

  8. Understanding the timing and magnitude of advertising spending patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsenberg, Maarten; van Heerde, Harald J.; Dekimpe, Marnik; Jan-Benedict E M Steenkamp; Nijs, Vincent R.

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that advertising is one of the most used marketing tools, little is known about what is driving (i) the timing and (ii) the magnitude of advertising actions. Building on normative theory, the authors develop a parsimonious model that captures this dual investment process. They explain advertising spending patterns as observed in the market, and investigate the impact of company, competitive, and category-related factors on these decisions, thereby introducing the nove...

  9. Age influences magnitude but not duration of response to levodopa.

    OpenAIRE

    Durso, R; Isaac, K; Perry, L; Saint-Hilaire, M; Feldman, R G

    1993-01-01

    Following an all-night fast, 45 patients with Parkinson's disease were examined using certain motor items present in the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. All were given a single tablet of carbidopa 25 mg and levodopa 250 mg and re-examined 90 minutes later. In addition to this evaluation, 23 of these patients underwent further scoring over a 4-hour period. A significant negative correlation was found between age and one important aspect of drug-derived benefit: magnitude of response. ...

  10. Spatial patterns of landslide dimension: A tool for magnitude mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Filippo; Tofani, Veronica; Lagomarsino, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of mass movements, which may be expressed by their dimension in terms of area or volume, is an important component of intensity together with velocity. In the case of slow-moving deep-seated landslides, the expected magnitude is the prevalent parameter for defining intensity when assessed as a spatially distributed variable in a given area. In particular, the frequency-volume statistics of past landslides may be used to understand and predict the magnitude of new landslides and reactivations. In this paper we study the spatial properties of volume frequency distributions in the Arno river basin (Central Italy, about 9100 km2). The overall landslide inventory taken into account (around 27,500 events) shows a power-law scaling of volumes for values greater than a cutoff value of about 2 × 104 m3. We explore the variability of the power-law exponent in the geographic space by setting up local subsets of the inventory based on neighbourhoods with radii between 5 and 50 km. We found that the power-law exponent α varies according to geographic position and that the exponent itself can be treated as a random space variable with autocorrelation properties both at local and regional scale. We use this finding to devise a simple method to map the magnitude frequency distribution in space and to create maps of exceeding probability of landslide volume for risk analysis. We also study the causes of spatial variation of α by analysing the dependence of power-law properties on geological and geomorphological factors, and we find that structural settings and valley density exert a strong influence on mass movement dimensions.

  11. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    light in the under-researched field of ambient advertising and can offer a theoretical basis for future empirical research on the effectiveness of this promotional tool.

  12. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  13. The Absolute Magnitude Distribution of Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power-laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, $\\alpha_{\\textrm{1}}=1.5_{-0.2}^{+0.4}$, and break magnitude, $H_{\\textrm{B}}=6.9_{-0.2}^{+0.1}$ (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, $\\alpha_{\\textrm{1}}=0.87_{-0.2}^{+0.07}$, and break magnitude $H_{\\textrm{B}}=7.7_{-0.5}^{+1.0}$. Both populations share similar faint end slopes of $\\alpha_2\\sim0.2$. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are $\\sim0.01$ and $\\sim3\\times10^{-4} \\mbox{ M$_{\\bigoplus}$}$. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has $\\alpha_\\textrm{1}=1.0\\pm0.2$, $\\alpha_\\textrm{2}=0.36\\pm0.01$, and $H_{\\textrm{B}}=8.3$. The KS test reveals that...

  14. Relating Perturbation Magnitude to Temporal Gene Expression in Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, Stephen J.; Parnell, John J.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Hashsham, Syed

    2009-03-19

    A method to quantitatively relate stress to response at the level of gene expression is described using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Stress was defined as the magnitude of perturbation and strain was defined as the magnitude of cumulative response in terms of gene expression. Expression patterns of sixty genes previously reported to be significantly impacted by osmotic shock or belonging to the high-osmotic glycerol, glycerolipid metabolism, and glycolysis pathways were determined following perturbations of increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.4 M). Expression of these genes was quantified temporally using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. The magnitude of cumulative response was obtained by calculating the total moment of area of the temporal response envelope for all the 60 genes, either together or for the set of genes related to each pathway. A non-linear relationship between stress and response was observed for the range of stress studied. This study examines a quantitative approach to quantify the strain at the level of gene expression to relate stress to strain in biological systems. The approach should be generally applicable to quantitatively evaluate the response of organisms to environmental change.

  15. Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to weeks, changing photospheric magnetic activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle shows variations of comparable magnitude with irradiances peaking near solar maximum. Secular variations are more difficult to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Historical reconstructions of the Sun's irradiance based on indicators of solar-surface magnetic activity, such as sunspots, faculae, and cosmogenic isotope records, suggest solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitudes of these variations have high uncertainties due to the indirect historical records on which they rely. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities. In this manuscript I summarize the Sun's variability magnitudes over different temporal regimes and discuss the irradiance record's relevance for solar and climate studies as well as for detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  16. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  17. The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, W P S

    2000-01-01

    The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves in the J, H and K-bands are derived. Six of the events, including five established ``Branch-normal'' supernovae show similar coeval magnitudes. Two of these, SNe 1989B and 1998bu, were observed near maximum infrared light. This occurs about 5 days {\\it before} maximum blue light. Absolute peak magnitudes of about -19.0, -18.7 and -18.8 in J, H & K respectively were obtained. The two spectroscopically peculiar supernovae in the sample, SNe 1986G and 1991T, also show atypical IR behaviour. The light curves of the six s...

  18. Magnitude Uncertainties Impact Seismic Rate Estimates, Forecasts and Predictability Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M J

    2007-01-01

    The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) aims to prospectively test time-dependent earthquake probability forecasts on their consistency with observations. To compete, time-dependent seismicity models are calibrated on earthquake catalog data. But catalogs contain much observational uncertainty. We study the impact of magnitude uncertainties on rate estimates in clustering models, on their forecasts and on their evaluation by CSEP's consistency tests. First, we quantify magnitude uncertainties. We find that magnitude uncertainty is more heavy-tailed than a Gaussian, such as a double-sided exponential distribution, with scale parameter nu_c=0.1 - 0.3. Second, we study the impact of such noise on the forecasts of a simple clustering model which captures the main ingredients of popular short term models. We prove that the deviations of noisy forecasts from an exact forecast are power law distributed in the tail with exponent alpha=1/(a*nu_c), where a is the exponent of the productivity...

  19. The Road to Convergence in Earthquake Frequency-Magnitude Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, M.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation is a fundamental empirical law of seismology, but its form remains uncertain for rare extreme events. Convergence trends can be diagnostic of the nature of an underlying distribution and its sampling even before convergence has occurred. We examine the evolution of an information criteria metric applied to earthquake magnitude time series, in order to test whether the Gutenberg-Richter law can be rejecting in various earthquake catalogues. This would imply that the catalogue is starting to sample roll-off in the tail though it cannot yet identify the form of the roll-off. We compare bootstrapped synthetic Gutenberg-Richter and synthetic modified Gutenberg-Richter catalogues with the convergence trends observed in real earthquake data e.g. the global CMT catalogue, Southern California and mining/geothermal data. Whilst convergence in the tail remains some way off, we show that the temporal evolution of model likelihoods and parameters for the frequency-magnitude distribution of the global Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue is inconsistent with an unbounded GR relation, despite it being the preferred model at the current time. Bell, A. F., M. Naylor, and I. G. Main (2013), Convergence of the frequency-size distribution of global earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2585-2589, doi:10.1002/grl.50416.

  20. Magnitude and valence of outcomes as determinants of causal judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este proyecto es examinar si el modelo de bloqueo predice la atribución de juicios causales al variar la valencia y la magnitud de las consecuencias. El arreglo experimental consiste en la presentación de reportes sobre los efectos positivos y negativos que producen diferentes sustancias al ser consumidas solas o en conjunto con otras. Los participantes del primer grupo estuvieron expuestos a consecuencias de alta magnitud y los del segundo grupo, a consecuencias de baja magnitud. Se evaluó si la atribución de causalidad es consistente con las predicciones del efecto bloqueo mediante dos tipos de pregunta: una pregunta acerca si la sustancia X produce o no el efecto, y una pregunta sobre la probabilidad de que X produzca el efecto. Se examinaron las diferencias en los juicios causales cuando las atribuciones son producto del razonamiento lógico o intuitivo. Si bien no se observó evidencia del efecto bloqueo, se obtuvieron efectos de interacción entre los factores valencia y condición experimental (sustancias bloqueo y control. Se discuten los hallazgos en términos de las diferencias entre el aprendizaje asociativo en humanos y animales no humanos, y en términos de las implicaciones sobre las diferencias teóricas entre el condicionamiento evaluativo y el condicionamiento predictivo.

  1. Correlating precursory declines in groundwater radon with earthquake magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T

    2014-01-01

    Both studies at the Antung hot spring in eastern Taiwan and at the Paihe spring in southern Taiwan confirm that groundwater radon can be a consistent tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake when observed in a low-porosity fractured aquifer surrounded by a ductile formation. Recurrent anomalous declines in groundwater radon were observed at the Antung D1 monitoring well in eastern Taiwan prior to the five earthquakes of magnitude (Mw ): 6.8, 6.1, 5.9, 5.4, and 5.0 that occurred on December 10, 2003; April 1, 2006; April 15, 2006; February 17, 2008; and July 12, 2011, respectively. For earthquakes occurring on the longitudinal valley fault in eastern Taiwan, the observed radon minima decrease as the earthquake magnitude increases. The above correlation has been proven to be useful for early warning local large earthquakes. In southern Taiwan, radon anomalous declines prior to the 2010 Mw 6.3 Jiasian, 2012 Mw 5.9 Wutai, and 2012 ML 5.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes were also recorded at the Paihe spring. For earthquakes occurring on different faults in southern Taiwan, the correlation between the observed radon minima and the earthquake magnitude is not yet possible. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Relaxometry imaging of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Amit; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    We present a novel technique to image superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via their fluctuating magnetic fields. The detection is based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond, which allows optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements on its electron spin structure. In combination with an atomic-force-microscope, this atomic-sized color center maps ambient magnetic fields in a wide frequency range from DC up to several GHz, while retaining a high spatial resolution in the sub-nanometer range. We demonstrate imaging of single 10 nm sized magnetite nanoparticles using this spin noise detection technique. By fitting simulations (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) to the data, we are able to infer additional information on such a particle and its dynamics, like the attempt frequency and the anisotropy constant. This is of high interest to the proposed application of magnetite nanoparticles as an alternative MRI contrast agent or to the field of particle-aided tumor hyperthermia.

  3. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  4. Empresas e meio ambiente: contribuições da legislação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Ferreira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p334A relação empresa-meio ambiente tem sido, ao longo da história, bastante conflitante. Entretanto, o fortalecimento do debate ambiental, pressões políticas, sociais e econômicas estão, cada vez mais, desencadeando uma mudança na conduta ambiental das empresas. Nesse contexto, o direito ambiental surge como um forte aliado para o alcance de uma nova conduta ambiental empresarial, através de seu papel inicial como regulador, até sua atuação como instrumento no processo de gestão ambiental da empresa. Desse modo, o presente artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão a respeito da importância da legislação ambiental para a evolução da inserção da variável ambiental, nas estratégias das organizações, ressaltando a conformidade legal como um pressuposto básico a ser atendido pelas empresas, independentemente do tipo de estratégias que estas utilizem no caminho pela busca de uma gestão ambiental efetiva.

  5. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  6. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  7. Automated Determination of Magnitude and Source Extent of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dun

    2017-04-01

    Rapid determination of earthquake magnitude is of importance for estimating shaking damages, and tsunami hazards. However, due to the complexity of source process, accurately estimating magnitude for great earthquakes in minutes after origin time is still a challenge. Mw is an accurate estimate for large earthquakes. However, calculating Mw requires the whole wave trains including P, S, and surface phases, which takes tens of minutes to reach stations at tele-seismic distances. To speed up the calculation, methods using W phase and body wave are developed for fast estimating earthquake sizes. Besides these methods that involve Green's Functions and inversions, there are other approaches that use empirically simulated relations to estimate earthquake magnitudes, usually for large earthquakes. The nature of simple implementation and straightforward calculation made these approaches widely applied at many institutions such as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, the Japan Meteorological Agency, and the USGS. Here we developed an approach that was originated from Hara [2007], estimating magnitude by considering P-wave displacement and source duration. We introduced a back-projection technique [Wang et al., 2016] instead to estimate source duration using array data from a high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net). The introduction of back-projection improves the method in two ways. Firstly, the source duration could be accurately determined by seismic array. Secondly, the results can be more rapidly calculated, and data derived from farther stations are not required. We purpose to develop an automated system for determining fast and reliable source information of large shallow seismic events based on real time data of a dense regional array and global data, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30°- 85° from the array center. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of magnitudes and rupture extensions of large earthquakes in 6 to 13 min (plus

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: R magnitudes in four ESO fields (Infante+, 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, L.; Slezak, E.; Quintana, H.

    1996-04-01

    The tables present a R-band CCD photometric sequence of stars for calibrating ESO/SERC(R) survey plates in the region of the Shapley supercluster of galaxies. The observations were carried out on 1993 Ferbruary 17 to 22 at the 0.6m telescope of the University of Toronto at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, using a 513x516pix CCD with a resolution of 0.46''. (16 data files).

  9. Ambient neutrons of natural origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. Neutron flux in the energy range of 0.02 eV - 10 MeV is registered with two sets of proportional ^{3}He tubes placed into cylindrical paraffin thermalizers: an {bf outdoor detector }of 250 cm² area and {bf indoor detector }of 70 cm² area located on the second floor of a concrete building. The counter efficiency for thermal neutrons is 80%. The characteristics of the observed flux variation are quite different from those inherent to the neutrons of the cosmic ray origin. {bf Four types of the outdoor flux variations }are observed: 1) {bf seasonal }with a maxima in wet seasons; 2) {bf diurnal }with maximum at about 6 h local time and an amplitude up to several dozens; 3) {bf abrupt transient} ( 1 min) increases with magnitudes up to two orders higher than the mean daily flux; 4) short (several days) {bf quasi-periodic enhancements }with amplitudes up to several times higher than the mean daily flux. A large variation of the outdoor flux and its phase synchronism with that of the radon decay products means with a high probability their common origin. An apparent source of the neutrons observed is nuclear reactions of decay α-particles with the ground matter. In this case the dynamics of the outdoor flux variations of the first two types is controlled by those of the meteorological parameters in the locality. The third type events correlate with lightning strokes in the vicinity (<200 m) of the detector. The more rare fourth type correlate neither with geomagnetic disturbances nor with meteorological phenomena and are probably a result of natural radon release from the Earth's crust triggered by minor seismological activity. The indoor flux is quite stable with a possible weak maximum at16 h not exceeding 0.1.

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  11. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  12. La protección internacional del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 14 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-18. Tema 14. La protección internacional del medio ambiente: 1.- El Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente: caracteres específicos. 2.- Principios fundamentales del Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente. 3.- Medio ambiente y Desarrollo: el Desarrollo Sostenible.

  13. Understanding high magnitude flood risk: evidence from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, N.

    2009-04-01

    The average length of gauged river flow records in the UK is ~25 years, which presents a problem in determining flood risk for high-magnitude flood events. Severe floods have been recorded in many UK catchments during the past 10 years, increasing the uncertainty in conventional flood risk estimates based on river flow records. Current uncertainty in flood risk has implications for society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and water resource managers (flood/drought risk). An alternative approach is required which can improve current understanding of the flood frequency/magnitude relationship. Historical documentary accounts are now recognised as a valuable resource when considering the flood frequency/magnitude relationship, but little consideration has been given to the temporal and spatial distribution of these records. Building on previous research based on British rivers (urban centre): Ouse (York), Trent (Nottingham), Tay (Perth), Severn (Shrewsbury), Dee (Chester), Great Ouse (Cambridge), Sussex Ouse (Lewes), Thames (Oxford), Tweed (Kelso) and Tyne (Hexham), this work considers the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flooding. The selected sites provide a network covering many of the largest river catchments in Britain, based on urban centres with long detailed documentary flood histories. The chronologies offer an opportunity to assess long-term patterns of flooding, indirectly determining periods of climatic variability and potentially increased geomorphic activity. This research represents the first coherent large scale analysis undertaken of historical multi-catchment flood chronologies, providing an unparalleled network of sites, permitting analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flood patterns on a national scale.

  14. Estimating station noise thresholds for seismic magnitude bias elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila

    2014-05-01

    To eliminate the upward bias of seismic magnitude caused by censoring of signal hidden by noise, noise level at each station in a network must be estimated. Where noise levels are not measured directly, the method of Kelly and Lacoss (1969) has been used to infer them from bulletin data (Lilwall and Douglas 1984). To verify this estimate of noise level, noise thresholds of International Monitoring System (IMS) stations inferred from the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Kelly and Lacoss method for 2005-2013 are compared with direct measurements on (i) noise preceding first arrivals in filtered (0.8-4.5 Hz) IMS seismic data, and (ii) noise preceding the expected time of arrival of signals from events, where signal was not actually seen (values gathered by the IDC for maximum-likelihood magnitude calculation). For most stations the direct pre-signal noise measurements are ~0.25 units of log A/T lower than the Kelly&Lacoss thresholds; because the IDC automatic system declares a detection only when the short-term-average-to-long-term-average ratio threshold, which varies with station and frequency band between ~3-6, is exceeded. The noise values at expected times of non-observed signal arrival are ~0.15 units lower than the Kelly and Lacoss thresholds. Exceptions are caused by faulty channels being used for the direct noise or body-wave magnitude (mb) measurements or, for station ARCES and possibly FINES, SPITS and HFS, the wider filter used for signal amplitude than for signal detection admitting noise that swamped the signal. Abrupt changes in thresholds might show mis-documented sensor sensitivity changes at individual stations.

  15. A simple method of correcting magnitudes for the errors introduced by atmospheric refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kruszewski, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the errors due to atmospheric refraction are present in the magnitudes determined with the Difference Images Analysis method. In case of single, unblended stars the size of the effect agrees with the theoretical prediction. But when the blending is strong, what is quite common in a dense field, then the effect of atmospheric refraction can be strongly amplified to the extend that some cases of apparently variable stars with largest amplitudes of variations are solely due to refraction. We present a simple method of correcting for this kind of errors.

  16. Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, L; Holtzman, J D

    1978-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine to what extent retinal image smearing during saccades provides information about the eye movement magnitude to the perceptual system. The technique involved obtaining measures of perceived movement when the total visual field was displaced in conjunction with saccadic eye movements. Trials with normal retinal smear were compared with trials on which smearing was greatly reduced or eliminated. The results are interpreted as showing that the absence of normal retinal smear during a saccade increases the uncertainty in the information available to the perceptual system and that this uncertainty results in a tendency to perceive smaller than veridical amounts of movement.

  17. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    measurement precision (i.e. earthquake location), while considering this extremely complex boundary condition. To solve this problem I have developed a high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe. The model is based on land-use data derived from satellite imagery by the EU-project CORINE in a resolution of 100x100m. The the CORINE data consists of several land-use classes, which, besides others, contain: industrial areas, mines, urban fabric, agricultural areas, permanent corps, forests and open spaces. Additionally, open GIS data for highways, and major and minor roads and railway lines were included from the OpenStreetMap project (www.openstreetmap.org). This data was divided into three classes that represent good, intermediate and bad ambient conditions of the corresponding land-use class based on expert judgment. To account for noise propagation away from its source a smoothing operator was applied to individual land-use noise-fields. Finally, the noise-fields were stacked to obtain an European map of ambient noise conditions. A calibration of this map with data of existing seismic stations Europe allowed me to estimate the expected noise level in actual ground motion units for the three ambient noise condition classes of the map. The result is a high-resolution ambient seismic noise map, that allows the network designer to make educated predictions on the expected noise level for arbitrary location in Europe. The ambient noise model was successfully tested in several network optimization projects in Switzerland and surrounding countries and will hopefully be a valuable contribution to improving the data quality of microseismic monitoring networks in Europe.

  18. Study on High-Speed Magnitude Approximation for Complex Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建春; 杨万海; 许少英

    2003-01-01

    High-speed magnitude approximation algorithms for complex vectors are discussed intensively. The performance and the convergence speed of these approximation algorithms are analyzed. For the polygon fitting algorithms, the approximation formula under the least mean square error criterion is derived. For the iterative algorithms, a modified CORDIC (coordinate rotation digital computer) algorithm is developed. This modified CORDIC algorithm is proved to be with a maximum relative error about one half that of the original CORDIC algorithm. Finally, the effects of the finite register length on these algorithms are also concerned, which shows that 9 to 12-bit coefficients are sufficient for practical applications.

  19. An inverse method to interpret colour-magnitude diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Vergely, J L; Egret, D; Bienaymé, O; Vergely, Jean-Luc; Koeppen, Joachim; Egret, Daniel; Bienayme, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    An inverse method is developed to determine the star formation history, the age-metallicity relation, and the IMF slope from a colour-magnitude diagram. The method is applied to the Hipparcos HR diagram. We found that the thin disk of our Galaxy shows a peak of stellar formation 1.6 Gyr ago. The stars close to the Sun have a solar metallicity and a mean IMF index equal to 3.2. However, the model and the evolutionary tracks do not correctly reproduce the horizontal giant branch.

  20. Evaluation of the magnitude of EBT Gafchromic film polarization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, M J; Cheung, T; Yu, P K N

    2009-03-01

    Gafchromic EBT film, has become a main dosimetric tools for quantitative evaluation of radiation doses in radiation therapy application. One aspect of variability using EBT Gafchromic film is the magnitude of the orientation effect when analysing the film in landscape or portrait mode. This work has utilized a > 99% plane polarized light source and a non-polarized diffuse light source to investigate the absolute magnitude of EBT Gafchromic films polarization or orientation effects. Results have shown that using a non-polarized light source produces a negligible orientation effect for EBT Gafchromic film and thus the angle of orientation is not important. However, the film exhibits a significant variation in transmitted optical density with angle of orientation to polarized light producing more than 100% increase, or over a doubling of measured OD for films irradiated with x-rays up to dose levels of 5 Gy. The maximum optical density was found to be in a plane at an angle of 14 degrees +/- 7 degrees (2 SD) when the polarizing sheet is turned clockwise with respect to the film. As the magnitude of the orientation effect follows a sinusoidal shape it becomes more critical for alignment accuracy of the film with respect to the polarizing direction in the anticlockwise direction as this will place the alignment of the polarizing axes on the steeper gradient section of the sinusoidal pattern. An average change of 4.5% per 5 degrees is seen for an anticlockwise polarizer rotation where as the effect is 1.2% per 5 degrees for an clockwise polarizer rotation. This may have consequences to the positional accuracy of placement of the EBT Gafchromic film on a scanner as even a 1 degree alignment error can cause an approximate 1% error in analysis. The magnitude of the orientation effect is therefore dependant on the degree of polarization of the scanning light source and can range from negligible (diffuse LED light source) through to more than 100% or doubling of OD variation

  1. Roughness analysis for textured surfaces over several orders of magnitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsäläinen, Laura, E-mail: laura.vepsalainen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Stenberg, Petri, E-mail: petri.stenberg@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pääkkönen, Pertti, E-mail: pertti.paakkonen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kuittinen, Markku, E-mail: markku.kuittinen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Suvanto, Mika, E-mail: mika.suvanto@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-11-01

    Multiscale structured surfaces have roughness distributions at various spatial frequencies that affect surface properties of materials. A recently developed filtered power spectral density (FPSD) method for surface roughness characterization was generalized to comprise structures from micro- to nanoscale. Furthermore, a uniform analysis method for micro- and nanoscale characterization over five orders of magnitudes was found by combining optical profilometry data, at the microscale level and atomic force microscopy data, at the nanoscale level. The FPSD method was also combined with structure simulation for multiscales, thus the roughness distributions can be designed and studied without the fabrication of structures. Furthermore, the FPSD simulation offers a design tool for structure–property correlations.

  2. Signal Estimation from Short-Time Spectral Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    magnitude time-scale modification noise reduction 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide II necessary and Idtitfy by block number) see other side DO...splendidly. This not only required her pstince and understanding, but also her aid in drafting many of the figures in this theis. .4. TABLE OF CONTENTS...ypeof :st~i~o (0M€ nx()( vih 8 tez~o -30- The sip ambiguity in this equation can be resolved since Conditions 3.1 specify the sip of the first non-zero

  3. On the magnitude and frequency of Karakoram Glacier surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Quincey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The return periods of Karakoram glacier surges are almost entirely unknown. Here, we present evidence of an historic surge of the Khurdopin Glacier that began in the mid-1970s and peaked in 1979. Measured surface displacements reached > 5 km yr–1, two orders of magnitude faster than during quiescence and twice as large as any previously recorded velocity in the region. The Khurdopin Glacier next surged in the late-1990s, equating to a return period of 20 yr. Surge activity in the region needs to be better understood if accurate mass balance assessments of Hindu-Kush–Karakoram–Himalaya glaciers are to be made.

  4. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  5. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  6. Redistribution and magnitude of stresses around horse shoe and circular excavations opened in anisotropic rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mambou Ngueyep Luc Leroy; Ndop Joseph; Ndjaka Jean-Marie Bienvenu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper numerical analysis of underground structures, taking account the transverse isotropy system of rocks, was done using CAST 3M code by varying the shape of excavation and the coefficient of earth pressure k. Numerical results reveal that the anisotropy behavior, the shape of hole and the coefficient of earth pressure k have significant influence to the mining induced stress field and rock deformations which directly control the stability of underground excavation design. The magnitude of horizontal stress obtained for the horse shoe shape excavation (25.2 MPa for k=1; 52.7 MPa for k=2) is lower than the magnitude obtained for circular hole (26.4 MPa for k=1; 59.5 MPa for k=2). Therefore, we have concluded that the horse shoe shape offers the best stability and the best design for engineer. The anisotropy system presented by rock mass can also influence the redistribution of stresses around hole opened. Numerical results have revealed that the magnitude of redistribution of horizontal stresses obtained for transverse isotropic rock (12.1 MPa for k=0.5; 25.2 MPa for k=1 and 52.7 MPa for k=2) is less than those obtained in the case of isotropic rock (27.6 MPa for k=1;48.6 MPa for k=2 and 90.81 MPa for k=2). The more the rock has the anisotropic behavior, the more the mass of rock around the tunnel is stable.

  7. Practical methods for using vegetation patterns to estimate avalanche frequency and magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, S.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Practitioners working in avalanche terrain may never witness an extreme event, but understanding extreme events is important for categorizing avalanches that occur within a given season. Historical records of avalanche incidents and direct observations are the most reliable evidence of avalanche activity, but patterns in vegetation can be used to further quantify and map the frequency and magnitude of past events. We surveyed published literature to synthesize approaches for using vegetation sampling to characterize avalanche terrain, and developed examples to identify the benefits and caveats of using different practical field methods to estimate avalanche frequency and magnitude. Powerful avalanches can deposit massive piles of snow, rocks, and woody debris in runout zones. Large avalanches (relative to the path) can cut fresh trimlines, widening their tracks by uprooting, stripping, and breaking trees. Discs and cores can be collected from downed trees to detect signals of past avalanche disturbance recorded in woody plant tissue. Signals of disturbance events recorded in tree rings can include direct impact scars from the moving snow and wind blast, development of reaction wood in response to tilting, and abrupt variation in the relative width of annual growth rings. The relative ages of trees in avalanche paths and the surrounding landscape can be an indicator of the area impacted by past avalanches. Repeat photography can also be useful to track changes in vegetation over time. For Colorado, and perhaps elsewhere, several vegetation ecology methods can be used in combination to accurately characterize local avalanche frequency and magnitude.

  8. Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Rachel E.; Neu, Alexander; Epstein, Scott A.; MacMillan, Amanda; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2014-06-17

    The size and thickness of organic aerosol particles collected by impaction in five field campaigns were compared to those of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) was used to measure the total carbon absorbance (TCA) by individual particles as a function of their projection areas on the substrate. Because they flatten less upon impaction, particles with higher viscosity and surface tension can be identified by a steeper slope on a plot of TCA vs. size. The slopes of the ambient data are statistically similar indicating a small range of average viscosities and surface tensions across five field campaigns. Steeper slopes were observed for the plots corresponding to ambient particles, while smaller slopes were indicative of the laboratory generated SOA. This comparison indicates that ambient organic particles have higher viscosities and surface tensions than those typically generated in laboratory SOA studies.

  9. Educação ambiental: acções de educação ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, Sandra; Carapeto, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Académico - Licenciaturas Este vídeo mostra os conceitos de educação ambiental e sensibilização ambiental e ilustra as fases de um projeto de educação ambiental e de uma ação de educação ambiental.

  10. Educação ambiental: acções de educação ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, Sandra; Carapeto, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Académico - Licenciaturas Este vídeo mostra os conceitos de educação ambiental e sensibilização ambiental e ilustra as fases de um projeto de educação ambiental e de uma ação de educação ambiental.

  11. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  12. Dependence of the aftershock flow on the main shock magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Zavyalov, A. D.; Zotov, O. D.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we predicted and then observed in practice the property of aftershocks which consists in the statistically regular clustering of events in time during the first hours after the main shock. The characteristic quasi-period of clustering is three hours. This property is associated with the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter, whereas the quasi-period is mainly determined by the time delay of the round-the-world seismic echo. The quasi-period varies from case to case. In the attempt to find the cause of this variability, we have statistically explored the probable dependence of quasi-period on the magnitude of the main shock. In this paper, we present the corresponding result of analyzing global seismicity from the USGS/NEIC earthquake catalog. We succeeded in finding a significant reduction in the quasiperiod of the strong earthquakes clustering with growth in the magnitude of the main shock. We suggest the interpretation of this regularity from the standpoint of the phenomenological theory of explosive instability. It is noted that the phenomenon of explosive instability is fairly common in the geophysical media. The examples of explosive instability in the radiation belt and magnetospheric tail are presented. The search for the parallels in the evolution of explosive instability in the lithosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth will enrich both the physics of the earthquakes and physics of the magnetospheric pulsations.

  13. Optimal temperature range for determining magnetocaloric magnitudes from heat capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Blázquez, J. S.; Law, J. Y.; Franco, V.; Conde, A.

    2016-12-01

    The determination of the magnetocaloric magnitudes (specific magnetic entropy change, Δs M, and adiabatic temperature change, ΔT ad) from heat capacity (c H) measurements requires measurements performed at very low temperatures (~0 K) or data extrapolation when the low temperature range is unavailable. In this work we analyze the influence on the calculated Δs M and ΔT ad of the usually employed linear extrapolation of c H from the initial measured temperature down to 0 K. Numerical simulations have been performed using the Brillouin equation of state, the Debye model and the Fermi electron statistics to reproduce the magnetic, lattice and electronic subsystems, respectively. It is demonstrated that it is not necessary to reach experimentally temperatures very close to 0 K due to the existence of certain starting temperatures of the experiments, the same for Δs M and ΔT ad, that minimize the error of the results. A procedure is proposed to obtain the experimental magnitudes of Δs M and ΔT ad with a minimum error from c H data limited in temperature. It has been successfully applied to a GdZn alloy and results are compared to those derived from magnetization measurements.

  14. The magnitude-redshift relation in a realistic inhomogeneous universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hada, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    The light rays from a source are subject to a local inhomogeneous geometry generated by inhomogeneous matter distribution as well as the existence of collapsed objects. In this paper we investigate the effect of inhomogeneities and the existence of collapsed objects on the propagation of light rays and evaluate changes in the magnitude-redshift relation from the standard relationship found in a homogeneous FRW universe. We give the expression of the correlation function and the variance for the perturbation of apparent magnitude, and calculate it numerically by using the non-linear matter power spectrum. We use the lognormal probability distribution function for the density contrast and spherical collapse model to truncate the power spectrum in order to estimate the blocking effect by collapsed objects. We find that the uncertainties in $\\Omega_m$ is $\\sim 0.02$, and that of $w$ is $\\sim 0.04$. We also discuss a possible method to extract these effects from real data which contains intrinsic ambiguities assoc...

  15. High-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Sangster, Heather

    2017-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.

  16. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kwan Tun Lee; Jen-Kuo Huang

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude andwatershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfallrunoffdynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peakdischarge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was firstdemonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation ofthe watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak dischargeand time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intentionof deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast,the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensitywithout relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity.Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainagearea was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate thatthe scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting toa small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively greatdrainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scalingrelationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  17. A Study of LFE Magnitudes in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive suite of ~250 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing spatially distinct tremor sources on or near the plate boundary in northern Cascadia from northern Vancouver Island to southern Washington. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing a total of over 200,000 independent detections spanning a selection of episodic-tremor-and-slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. On the basis of empirical evidence and analytical arguments, these templates can be considered as band-limited, empirical Green's functions excited from shallow-thrust point sources to station locations corresponding to a collection of temporary and permanent network sites. The high fidelity of template match-filtered detections enables precise alignment of individual LFE time series and analysis of LFE amplitudes. Upon correction for geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve for station-channel amplification factors and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a given ETS episode. We will present a spatio-temporal analysis of LFE magnitudes including their variability across different ETS events, their dependence in along-dip location, and their expression in different rupture modes, i.e. main front versus rapid tremor reversals of Houston [2011] versus small scale reversals of Rubin and Armbruster [2013].

  18. Magnitude-dependent response of osteoblasts regulated by compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-qing; Geng, Yuan-ming; Liu, Ping; Huang, Xiang-yu; Li, Shu-yi; Liu, Chun-dong; Zhou, Zheng; Xu, Ping-ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of magnitude in adaptive response of osteoblasts exposed to compressive stress. Murine primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to compressive stress (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm2) in 3D culture. Cell viability was evaluated, and expression levels of Runx2, Alp, Ocn, Rankl, and Opg were examined. ALP activity in osteoblasts and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 cells co-cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells were assayed. Results showed that compressive stress within 5.0 g/cm2 did not influence cell viability. Both osteoblastic and osteoblast-regulated osteoclastic differentiation were enhanced at 2 g/cm2. An increase in stress above 2 g/cm2 did not enhance osteoblastic differentiation further but significantly inhibited osteoblast-regualted osteoclastic differentiation. This study suggested that compressive stress regulates osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation through osteoblasts in a magnitude-dependent manner. PMID:28317941

  19. Millennial scale variability in high magnitude flooding across Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, N.

    2014-09-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers - flood/drought risk). Here we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods) or/and larger floods. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood rich period is not exceptional.

  20. The Absolute Magnitude of RRc Variables From Statistical Parallax

    CERN Document Server

    Kollmeier, Juna A; Burns, Christopher R; Gould, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Sneden, Christopher; Crane, Jeffrey D; Dong, Subo; Madore, Barry F; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, Jose L; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D; Villanueva, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 247 RRc selected from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) for which high-quality light curves, photometry and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey (CARRS). We find that M_(V,RRc) = 0.52 +/- 0.11 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M_(V,RRab) = 0.75 +/- 0.13 and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M_(V, RRc) = 0.27 +/- 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo to be (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (10.9,34.9,7.2) km/s in the radial, rotational and vertical directions with dispersions (sigma_(W_pi), sigma_(W_theta), sigma_(W_z)) = (154.7, 103.6, 93.8) km/s. For the disk, we find (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (8.5, 213...