WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient air particulate

  1. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  2. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY... criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA...

  3. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  4. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  5. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal.

  6. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection of Environment... STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards... particulate matter data to determine attainment of the 24-hour standards specified in 40 CFR 50.6. For...

  8. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  9. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, R.T.; Cakmak, S; Brook, J. R.; Krewski, D

    1997-01-01

    In order to address the role that the ambient air pollution mix, comprised of gaseous pollutants and various physical and chemical measures of particulate matter, plays in exacerbating cardiorespiratory disease, daily measures of fine and coarse particulate mass, aerosol chemistry (sulfates and acidity), and gaseous pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) were collected in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These time series were...

  10. Pollutants in particulate and gaseous fractions of ambient air interfere with multiple signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jirí; Jálová, Veronika; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, contamination of air has been evaluated primarily by chemical analyses of indicator contaminants and these studies have focused mainly on compounds associated with particulates. Some reports have shown that air contaminants can produce specific biological effects such as toxicity mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or modulation of the endocrine system. This study assessed the dioxin-like toxicity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity and anti-/retinoic activity of both the particulate and gas phase fractions of air in two regions with different types of pollution sources and a background locality situated in an agricultural area of Central Europe. The first region (A) is known to be significantly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and chemical industry. The other region (B) has been polluted by historical releases of PCBs, but the major current sources of contamination are probably combustion sources from local traffic and heating. Samples of both particle and gas fractions produced dioxin-like (AhR-mediated) activity, anti-estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, but none had any effect on retinoid signaling. AhR-mediated activities were observed in all samples and the TEQ values were comparable in both fractions in region A, but significantly greater in the particulate fraction in region B. The greater AhR-mediated activity corresponded to a greater coincident antiestrogenicity of both phases in region B. Our study is the first report of antiestrogenicity and antiandrogenicity in ambient air. Anti-androgenicity was observed in the gas phase of all regions, while in the particulate phase only in one region due to the specific type of pollution in that area. Even though based on concentrations of individual compounds, except for the OCPs, the level of contamination of the two regions was similar, there were strong differences in responses in the bioassays between the two regions. Moreover, AhR-mediated activity and

  11. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  12. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  13. Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter in a Broiler House Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodrigues Amador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter (PM is an important constituent of ambient air. The determination of its concentration and size distribution in different environments is essential because of its ability to penetrate deeply into animal and human respiratory tract. In this study, air sampling was performed in a broiler house to estimate the concentration and size distribution of PM emitted along with its activities. Low-vol impactor (< 10 mm, cyclones (< 2.5 e < 1.0 mm, and Sioutas cascade impactor (> 2.5; 1.0 – 2.5; 0.50 – 1.0; 0.25 – 0.50; < 0.25 mm connected with membrane pumps were used. PM10 showed high concentration (209 - 533 mg m-3. PM2.5 and PM1.0 initially showed relatively low concentration (20.8 and 16.0 mg m-3 respectively with significantly increasing levels (412.9 and 344.8 mg m-3 respectively during the samplings. It was also possible to observe the contribution of fine particles. This was evidenced by the high correlation between PM2.5 and PM1.0 and by the profile of particle distribution in the Sioutas sampler. PM concentration levels are considered excessively high, with great potential to affect animal and human health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.847 

  14. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of selected nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) associated with atmospheric particulate matter has been investigated at an urban site and at a semi-rural site. For this purpose an analysis method based on gas chromatography and tandem ion trap mass spectrometry has...... been developed and applied. The nitro-PAK levels have been compared with levels of other air pollutants including unsubstituted PAHs, inorganic gases and particulate matter, as well as with meteorological parameters. Correlations and concentration ratios suggest that the dominant source of 9...

  15. Particulate matter in ambient air - Assessment of health risks. Partiklar i omgivningsluften - en bedoemning av haelsorisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.

    1986-07-01

    An investigation, based on literature data and research at SML, was made on deposition of particulate matter in lungs. The importance of mouth and nose breathing respectively is illustrated. By nose breathing only substances <10 micrometers reach the lung as compared to mouth breathing where substances >10 micrometers may deposit in the lung. Swedish limit values of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) of 50 micrograms/cubic meter are recommended as a 6 month mean value and 150 micrograms/cubic meter as a day mean value. For the PM/sub 10/ fraction, which is a measure of the mass fraction of particulate matter in the air that is deposited in the lung by mouth breathing, it is not possible to give a corresponding recommendation. Epidemiological data are lacking and the proposed method of measuring the PM/sub 10/ fraction would underestimate the importance of particles larger than 10 micrometers. (O.S.).

  16. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Awan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulates (TSPs in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3 in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.

  17. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  18. Design and laboratory testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler for ambient particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-03-01

    A new type of directional passive air sampler (DPAS) is described for collecting particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The prototype sampler has a non-rotating circular sampling tray that is divided into covered angular channels, whose ends are open to winds from sectors covering the surrounding 360°. Wind-blown PM from different directions enters relevant wind-facing channels, and is retained there in collecting pools containing various sampling media. Information on source direction and type can be obtained by examining the distribution of PM between channels. Wind tunnel tests show that external wind velocities are at least halved over an extended area of the collecting pools, encouraging PM to settle from the air stream. Internal and external wind velocities are well-correlated over an external velocity range of 2.0-10.0 m s⁻¹, which suggests it may be possible to relate collected amounts of PM simply to ambient concentrations and wind velocities. Measurements of internal wind velocities in different channels show that velocities decrease from the upwind channel round to the downwind channel, so that the sampler effectively resolves wind directions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on a computer-generated model of the sampler for a range of external wind velocities; the results of these analyses were consistent with those from the wind tunnel. Further wind tunnel tests were undertaken using different artificial particulates in order to assess the collection performance of the sampler in practice. These tests confirmed that the sampler can resolve the directions of sources, by collecting particulates preferentially in source-facing channels.

  19. Embryotoxicity of organic extracts from airborne particulates in ambient air in the chicken embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kashimoto, T.

    1986-07-01

    A fraction containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), prepared from an organic extract of airborne particulate matter, was separated into nine subfractions by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The embryotoxicity of each of these fractions was investigated and analysis for PAHs by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The ninth subfraction, with coronene as its main component, had the strongest toxic effects on chicken embryos per m/sup 3/ of air. Of the remaining eight subfractions, three had the greatest toxicity: the second fraction with benzofluoranthenes and benzo(e)pyrene as the main components, the fourth fraction having PAH-estimated compounds in small amounts, and the fifth fraction with indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene as the main ingredients had the greatest toxicity. These findings indicate PAHs to be responsible for embryotoxicity but the total amounts were not necessarily proportional to it. For further characterization of toxicity, the effects of each PAH and/or quantification of other embryotoxic compounds possibly present in small amounts should be investigated.

  20. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  1. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution.

  2. Exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution does not influence vascular function or inflammatory pathways in young healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzents Peter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on microvascular function and biomarkers related to inflammation, haemostasis and lipid and protein oxidation. Methods Twenty-nine subjects participated in a randomized, two-factor crossover study with or without biking exercise for 180 minutes and with 24 hour exposure to particle rich (number concentrations, NC: 11600 ± 5600 per cm3, mass concentrations: 13.8 ± 7.4 μg/m3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 μg/m3 for PM10-2.5 and PM2.5, respectively or particle filtered (NC: 555 ± 1053 per cm3 air collected above a busy street. Microvascular function was assessed non-invasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone following arm ischemia. Biomarkers included haemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation factors, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α, lag time to copper-induced oxidation of plasma lipids and protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma. Results No statistically significant differences were observed on microvascular function or the biomarkers after exposure to particle rich or particle filtered air. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to air pollution particles at outdoor concentrations is not associated with detectable systemic inflammation, lipid or protein oxidation, altered haemostasis or microvascular function in young healthy participants.

  3. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Amelija; Ristić Goran; Živković Nenad; Todorović Branimir; Hristov Slađan; Milošević Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution). The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the in...

  4. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyelim [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byeong-Wook [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Bae [Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Soo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Hui-Nam [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ji Hyung, E-mail: jhchung@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  5. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  6. Volatile and particulate organic compounds in the ambient air of a eucalyptus forest in Portugal during the FIELDVOC'94 campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pio, C.A.; Nunes, T.V.; Castro, L.M.; Lopes, D.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    During the FIELDVOC'94 campaign in a eucalyptus forest in Portugal the distributions of momoterpenes compounds and particulate carbon were measured in the ambient air above the forest. Monoterpenes compounds in the eucalyptus forest atmosphere consisted mainly of {beta}-pinene, {alpha}-pinene, 1,8-cineol, limonene and trans-ocimene. For several monoterpenes, such as {beta}-pinene and {alpha}-pinene, atmospheric levels were higher at night than during the day. This was partially attributed to decrease in atmospheric turbulence and transport of emissions from nearby pine forests during the night by the low intensity of easterly winds. {beta}-Pinene, which is emitted by pine trees but not in any noticeable amount by eucalyptus, was used as a tracer. Particulate carbon was measured as organic carbon and black carbon (BC). The measurement of particulate carbon levels was also done during the FIELDVOC'94 campaign at a coastal site, where clean air masses arriving from the Atlantic were sampled. The concentrations of atmospheric particulate carbon were higher in the forest than along the coast. Based upon a mass balance, it was possible to estimate an upper limit to the inclusion of biogenic volatile organic emissions into the organic aerosol component when air masses were transported from the coast inland during sea breezes. A value of as much as 40% of the particulate organic carbon (POC) can be attributed to emissions from vegetation of compounds such as monoterpenes which, after oxidation to less volatile products, are transferred to the particulate phase. (Author)

  7. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  8. A multi-residue method for characterization of endocrine disruptors in gaseous and particulate phases of ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-08-01

    A number of semi-volatile compounds occur in indoor air most of them being considered as potent endocrine disruptors and thus, exerting a possible impact upon health. To assess their concentration levels in indoor air, we developed and validated a method for sampling and multi-residue analysis of 58 compounds including phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in gaseous and particulate phases of air. We validated each step of procedures from extraction until analysis. Matrice spiking were performed at extraction, fractionation and purification stages. The more volatile compounds were analyzed with a gas chromatography system coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or with a tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS/MS). The less volatile compounds were analyzed with a liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). Labeled internal standard method was used ensuring high quantification accuracy. The instrumental detection limits were under 1 pg for all compounds and therefore, a limit of quantification averaging 1 pg m-3 for the gaseous and the particulate phases and a volume of 150 m3, except for phthalates, phenol compounds and BDE-209. Satisfactory recoveries were found except for phenol compounds. That method was successfully applied to several indoor air samples (office, apartment and day nursery) and most of the targeted compounds were quantified, mainly occurring in the gaseous phase. The most abundant were phthalates (up to 918 ng m-3 in total air), followed by PCBs > parabens > BPA > PAHs > PBDEs.

  9. Suspended particulates and trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi City. Paper no. IGEC-1-063

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to assess the quantity of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) and concentration of trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi city. The air quality monitoring was carried out using High Volume Sampler (HVS). The HVS were run for two days with eight hours sampling period. The SPM deposited on EPM 2000 filter paper were analysed for trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectro photometer (Perkin Elmer, Model 2378). The results indicate that the Varanasi city is in serious grip of air pollution due to poor road conditions and heavy traffic load. The suspended particulate matter are found to exceed the permissible limits at most of the locations. Besides SPM, some toxic metals namely Iron, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Zinc and Lead were also studied and sampled at four different road sides covering residential (Sigra), commercial (Kutcherry), Industrial (Industrial Estate) and Sensitive (B.H.U. Campus) areas. The concentration of all the six metals were found in the order of Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr. Area wise maximum trace metal pollution load was observed at Industrial site as compared to other sites, as this area is surrounded by many industries and situated near dense traffic highway. Some preventive measures have also been suggested to reduce air pollution load. (author)

  10. Identification of chemical composition and measurement of V, As, Cr and Fe in Yogyakarta ambient air particulate by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation neutron analysis can be used to identify chemical composition and measure V, As, Cr and Fe contents in Yogyakarta ambient particulate. The air sampling has been done around Yogyakarta city such as: Gg. Narada Gandok around North Ring road (A1 post), Mentri Supeno cross road (A2 post), Purbanegaran GK II (A3 post), Wirobrajan cross road (A4 post), Adisutjipto (A5 post), and in front of Sentul market on JI. Sultan Agung with low volume sampler equipped with AP millipore fiber glass filter. Other places used for air sampling were around PPNY, JI. Babarsari (B1) and Jl. Gejayan (B2) by using high volume sampler equipped with TF A 21133 series filter. The filter was irradiated at Kartini reactor at the average of 1.04 x 1011 n.cm-2.s-1 on January 10, 1995. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air around Yogyakarta respectively was: 81.5 - 264.9 ng/m3 air; 56.7 - 596.4 ng/m3 air; 30.5 - 153.8 ng/m3 air and 22.4 - 108μg/m3 air. The accuracy of the analysis method was checked by comparing the analysis result to the certificate label of the reference material SRM 1633a. The accuracy was: 21.1%; 13.9%; 7.7% and 13.3% for V, As, Cr and Fe. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air particulate around Yogyakarta is still the below permissible level of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987

  11. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  12. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  13. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  14. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2010-01-01

    or intratracheal exposure in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, and DNA repair after 24 h in liver and lung tissue of rats. Rats were exposed to WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in areas with and without many operating wood stoves or carbon black (CB) at the dose......Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...... expression of proinflammatory cytokines, heme oxygenase-1, and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 was observed in the liver following intragastric exposure and in the lung following instillation in particular of LOWS. Exposure to LOWS also increased the proportion of neutrophils in BAL fluid. These results...

  15. Increases in ambient particulate matter air pollution, acute changes in platelet function, and effect modification by aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids: A panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Adan Z; Georas, Steve; Brenna, J Thomas; Hopke, Philip K; Kane, Cathleen; Chalupa, David; Frampton, Mark W; Block, Robert; Rich, David Q

    2016-01-01

    Increased particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations have been associated with platelet activation. It was postulated that elevated air pollutant concentrations would be associated with increases in measures of platelet function and that responses would be blunted when taking aspirin and/or fish oil. Data from a sequential therapy trial (30 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus), with 4 clinic visits (first: no supplements, second: aspirin, third: omega-3 fatty acid supplements, fourth: aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids) per subject, were utilized. Using linear mixed models, adjusted for relative humidity, temperature, visit number, and season, changes in three platelet function measures including (1) aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), (2) aggregation induced by collagen, and (3) thromboxane B2 production were associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean concentrations of ambient PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles (UFP; 10-100 nm), and accumulation mode particles (AMP; 100-500 nm) in the previous 1-96 h. IQR increases in mean UFP and AMP concentrations were associated with significant decreases in platelet response, with the largest being a -0.43 log(pg/ml) decrease in log(thromboxane B2) (95% CI = -0.8, -0.1) associated with each 582-particles/cm(3) increase in AMP, and a -1.7 ohm reduction in collagen-induced aggregation (95% CI = -3.1, -0.3) associated with each 2097-particles/cm(3) increase in UFP in the previous 72 h. This UFP effect on thromboxane B2 was significantly muted in diabetic subjects taking aspirin (-0.01 log[pg/ml]; 95% CI = -0.4, 0.3). The reason for this finding remains unknown, and needs to be investigated in future studies. PMID:27029326

  16. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly.A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates.A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09-1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81).Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  17. Congener specific distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in ambient air particulates (less than PM10 in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs are unintentionally formed during inefficient combustions and as a by-product. Due to their resistance to degradation and their toxic effect on health, PCDD/Fs are listed by the Stockholm Convention as persistent organic pollutants (POPs. Once released into the atmosphere, most of them are adsorbed to air particles and transported away from sources in atmosphere. India signed the Stockholm Convention India agreeing thereby to reduce and eliminate the use of POPs. The German agency for Technical Cooperation helped develop facilities for monitoring POPs at a national level in Delhi. This paper presents the data generated during a training assignment for Central Pollution Control Board officials at the German laboratory. Air borne particulate matter (ambient air standards. The dominant congeners were octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorinated dibenzo- p-furans, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin. The contributions of individual homologs for ΣPCDDs/Fs I-TEQ was in the order of OCDD (31%>HCDF (21%>hexachlorodibenzofurans (13%=OCDF (13%> HCDF (12% and other individual congeners contribute less than 5%. High chlorinated congeners contributed with more than 80% for ΣPCDD/Fs I-TEQ. Rough estimates of tolerable daily intake (TDI shows low health risk of exposure to ΣPCDD/Fs with inhalation of 0.098 pg I-TEQ kg1day1 for adult and 0.152 pg TEQ kg-1day-1 for children, which is much lower than World Health Organization

  18. 75 FR 16459 - Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--First External Review Draft (March 2010),...

  19. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  20. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2008 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  1. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards...

  2. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. D. Hand... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  3. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (ppollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  4. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) promulgated by EPA in 2006, and removes the annual coarse...

  5. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2011-01-01

    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size than PM collected from ambient air. All four types of PM combined increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-20-deoxyguanosine dose-dependently in A549 cells, whereas there was no change in the levels...... sampled from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage...

  6. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  7. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  8. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shaowei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5 and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, von Willebrand factor (vWF, soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin, and total homocysteine (tHcy. Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and

  9. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  10. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy - The Environmental Epidemiology of Arrhythmogenesis in Women’s Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Whitsel, Eric A.; Duan, Yinkang; Lin, Hung-Mo; Quibrera, P. Miguel; Smith, Richard; Peuquet, Donna J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Anderson, Garnet

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between ambient PM2.5 and PM10 and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from EPA air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals from 59 examination sites in 24 US states in 1999-2004. The acute and subacute exposures were estimated as mean, geocoded address-specific PM concentrations on the day of, 0-2 days before, and averaged over 30 days before the ECG (Lag0; Lag1; Lag2; Lag1-30). At the time of standard 12-lead resting ECG, the mean age (SD) of participants was 67.5 (6.9) years (84% non-Hispanic White; 6% current smoker; 15% with coronary heart disease; 5% with ectopy). After the identification of significant effect modifiers, two-stage random-effects models were used to calculate center-pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of arrhythmia per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM concentrations. Among current smokers, Lag0 and Lag1 PM concentrations were significantly associated ventricular ectopy (VE) - the OR (95% CI) for VE among current smokers was 2 (1.32-3.3) and 1.32 (1.07-1.65) at Lag1 PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The interactions between current smoking and acute exposures (Lag0; Lag1; Lag2) were significant in relationship to VE. Acute exposures were not significantly associated with supraventricular ectopy (SVE), or with VE among non-smokers. Subacute (Lag1-30) exposures were not significantly associated with arrhythmia. Acute PM2.5 and PM10 exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM. PMID:18979352

  11. Possible Noncausal Bases for Correlations Between Low Concentrations of Ambient Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Valberg, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of populations living in areas with good air quality have reported correlations between daily average levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality rates. These associations persist at PM levels below current air quality standards and are difficult to reconcile with the toxicology of PM chemical constituents. The unusual level of lethality per unit PM mass predicted by these associations may result from confounding by unmeasured societal, behavioral, or stress...

  12. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  13. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  14. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  15. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  16. Ambient particulate air pollution and acute lower respiratory infections: a systematic review and implications for estimating the global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin; Burnett, Rick; North, Tiffany; Cohen, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) account for nearly one fifth of mortality in young children worldwide and have been associated with exposures to indoor and outdoor sources of combustion-derived air pollution. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant articles on air pollution and ALRI in children. Using a Bayesian approach to meta-analysis, a summary estimate of 1.12 (1.03, 1.30) increased risk in ALRI occurrence per 10 μg/m(3) increase in annual average PM2.5 concentration was derived from the longer-term (subchronic and chronic) effects studies. This analysis strengthens the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the occurrence of ALRI and provides a basis for estimating the global attributable burden of mortality due to ALRI that is not influenced by the wide variation in regional case fatality rates. Most studies, however, have been conducted in settings with relatively low levels of PM2.5. Extrapolating their results to other, more polluted, regions will require a model that is informed by evidence from studies of the effects on ALRI of exposure to PM2.5 from other combustion sources, such as secondhand smoke and household solid fuel use.

  17. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  18. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  19. Ambient Carbon Monoxide and Fine Particulate Matter in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Delivery in Western Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery and preeclampsia are common adverse pregnancy outcomes that have been inconsistently associated with ambient air pollutant exposures. Objectives We aimed to prospectively examine relations between exposures to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and risks of preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Methods We used data from 3,509 western Washington women who delivered infants between 1996 and 2006. We predic...

  20. Integrated assessment and management of ambient particulate matter: International perspective and current research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution mitigation is a necessity in Serbia, due to its high levels of criteria pollutants in ambient environment. Successful implementation of mitigation measures requires access to sufficient information from national research, and well running and efficient local participatory processes. To support air pollution mitigation in the West Balkan region, the WeBIOPATR project started a series of bi-annual conferences in 2007. They bring together an inter-disciplinary research community and local and national administrations from Serbia and its neighborhood, to present research results from Serbia and countries all over the world, and to share knowledge and best practices of mitigation. The conferences promote research that may support integrated assessment of particulate matter, and further refinement of the “Pressures-State-Impact“ (PSI part of the “Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response“ (DPSIR framework. Integrated approach needs to be underpinned by solid disciplinary research covering e.g. air quality monitoring technologies, atmospheric and further ambient composition, atmospheric modeling, biological effects and human health. WeBIOPATR conferences report on recently performed studies of particulate matter in Serbia and abroad. Through the breadth of subjects and audience, they bring together a wide inter-disciplinary and cross-sectoral expertise in support of translation of research to practice. They also allow to present examples of successful mitigation achieved with the help of strong local participatory environmental governance, demonstrating the increasing recognition of the need to involve both public and private actors. This paper gives the main features of a full chain approach and elements of integrated approach to particulate matter research, summarizes the proceedings of the 3rd WeBIOPATR conference, and in addition, reviews the results of particulate matter monitoring and source identification studies in Serbia

  1. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  2. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  3. Data Integration Model for Air Quality: A Hierarchical Approach to the Global Estimation of Exposures to Ambient Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Shaddick, Gavin; Thomas, Matthew L.; Jobling, Amelia; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Burnett, Rick; Chang, Howard; Cohen, Aaron; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dora, Carlos; Gumy, Sophie; Liu, Yang; Martin, Randall; Waller, Lance A.; West, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major risk factor for global health, with both ambient and household air pollution contributing substantial components of the overall global disease burden. One of the key drivers of adverse health effects is fine particulate matter ambient pollution (PM$_{2.5}$) to which an estimated 3 million deaths can be attributed annually. The primary source of information for estimating exposures has been measurements from ground monitoring networks but, although coverage is increasi...

  4. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  5. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  6. Daily variations of size-segregated ambient particulate matter in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected at Peking University from March 2012 to April 2013. Seventeen indoor air samples were also collected over this period. Winter PM concentrations decreased compared with those reported a decade ago, but summer PM concentrations increased over the same time period. Increasing summer PM concentrations likely resulted from a shift in the major source of PM from primary coal burning to vehicle-associated secondary particle formation. A multiple regression model explained 62% of daily PM concentration variations, and wind direction was the most important factor controlling PM concentrations. Severe pollution was often associated with southeasterly winds, while westerly and northwesterly winds brought relatively clean air. Temperature, precipitation and relative humidity also affected PM concentrations. PM concentrations indoors were generally lower than, but significantly correlated with ambient concentrations. Indoor PM concentrations were also affected by wind speed and temperature. - Highlights: • Daily concentrations of five size fraction PMs were measured for a year. • The seasonality and source pattern were different from those reported a decade ago. • Severe pollution epidoses were associated with southeasterly winds. • Indoor PM concentrations were lower than but correlated with those in ambient air. - Size-segregated ambient PM concentrations in Beijing varied depending on wind direction; and PM concentrations indoors were well-correlated with, but lower than those outdoors

  7. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  8. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  9. Ambient and indoor particulate aerosols generated by dairies in the southern High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2009-12-01

    The objectives were to quantify and size ambient aerosolized dust in and around the facilities of 4 southern High Plains dairies of New Mexico and to determine where health of workers might be vulnerable to particulate aerosols, based on aerosol concentrations that exceed national air quality standards. Ambient dust air samples were collected upwind (background) and downwind of 3 dairy location sites (loafing pen boundary, commodity, and compost field). The indoor milking parlor, a fourth site, was monitored immediately upwind and downwind. Aerosolized particulate samples were collected using high-volume sequential reference air samplers, laser aerosol monitors, and cyclone air samplers. The overall (main effects and estimable interactions) statistical general linear model statement for particulate matter (PM(10); particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of up to 10 microm) and PM(2.5) resulted in a greater mean concentration of dust in the winter (PM(10) = 97.4 +/- 4.4 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 32.6 +/- 2.6 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 71.9 +/- 5.0 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 18.1 +/- 1.2 microg/m(3)). The upwind and downwind boundary PM(10) concentrations were significantly higher in the winter (upwind = 64.3 +/- 9.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 119.8 +/- 13.0 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (upwind = 35.2 +/- 7.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 66.8 +/- 11.8 microg/m(3)). The milking parlor PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentration data were significantly higher in the winter (PM(10) = 119.5 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 55.3 +/- 5.8microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 88.6.0 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 21.0 +/- 2.1 microg/m(3)). Personnel should be protected from high aerosol concentrations found at the commodity barn, compost field, and milking parlor during the winter. PMID:19923606

  10. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  11. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  12. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  13. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  14. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  15. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

  16. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  17. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  18. Ambient particulate matter affects cardiac recovery in a Langendorff ischemia model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagate, Karim; Meiring, James J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Wiegand, Herbert; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Borm, Paul J A

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity among subjects with cardiovascular impairment. We hypothesized that exposure of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats to PM impairs the recovery of cardiovascular performance after coronary occlusion and

  19. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  20. ARE CARS OR TREES MORE IMPORTANT TO PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLUTION? WHAT RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS HAVE TO SAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) originates from both human activities and "natural" phenomena. Setting and achieving National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM has to take into account the latter since they are in general less controllable than th...

  1. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis. PMID:27409416

  4. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  5. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  7. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  8. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  9. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  10. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  11. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR... CFR Parts 50 and 58 RIN 2060-AP98 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY... primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone (O 3 ) set in March...

  12. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005; Qualite de l'air: une surveillance accrue des particules, mais des concentrations a reduire d'ici l'an 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, M. [Institut francais de l' environnement, 45 - Orleans (France); Colosio, J. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-09-01

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  13. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine

  14. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  15. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  16. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  17. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  18. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the Northeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonet, M; Bush, T J; Correa, A; Jaakkola, J J

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between term low birth weight (LBW) and ambient air levels of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter up to 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The study population consisted of singleton, term live births (37-44 weeks of gestation) born between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1996 in six northeastern cities of the United States: Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Springfield, Ma...

  19. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  20. Determination of arsenic in air particulates and diesel exhaust particulates by spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. Talebi; M. Abedi

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace arsenic by spectrophotometry. The proposed method is rapid, simple,and inexpensive. This method can be used for sensitive determination of trace arsenic in environmental samples and especially in air particulates. The results obtained by this method as a proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry as a popular reported method for the determination of arsenic and an excellent agreement was found between them. The method was also used for determination of arsenic associated with airborne particulate matter and diesel exhaust particulates.The results showed that considerable amount of arsenic are associated with diesel engine particulates. The variation in concentration of arsenic was also investigated. The atmospheric concentration of arsenic was different in different sampling stations was dependent to the traffic density.

  1. Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter IV: Acute toxicity study in pulmonary hypertensive rats after exposure to model compounds for the secondary aerosol fraction of PM10 - ammonium bisulfate, ferrosulfate and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Boere AJF; Fokkens PHB; Dormans JAMA; Bree L van; Rombout PJA; LEO; LPI

    1999-01-01

    This (4th) report on the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) presents effects of the model compounds for PM in ambient air - ammonium bisulfate, ammonium ferrosulfate and ammonium nitrate - on healthy rats and rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective was bas

  2. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  4. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  5. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pol...

  6. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in ambient particulate matter in an industrial area of northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates concentrations of various heavy metals in ambient particulate matter(PM)and provide evidence for prevention from air pollution.The concentrations of heavy metal components in the PM were determined by inductively coupled plasma/Mass spectrometry(ICP/MS)from September 2000 to August 2002 in a northeast industrial city in China.Concentrations of Cd,Mn,Pb,Ni,Cr and As in the PM were 9.3,461.9,588.7,69.5,205.7 and 57.4 ng/m3 in the industrial area,and 5.7,245.5,305.0,31.4,58.8 and 32.5 ng/m3 in the main road,respectively.Concentrations of these heavy metals except Cd were significantly higher in the industrial area and main road than those in the suburban area(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The change curves of the six heavy metal concentrations show their concentrations increased in the winter and spring,but decreased in the summer and autumn.The results indicate that concentrations of the metals in the PM are relatively high in the indu.strial area and main road.

  7. 78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards... air quality designations for the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards for all areas in... Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' and ``Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient...

  8. Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-α from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. - Highlights: • Six PMs from Beijing were tested for toxicity using A549 and J774A.1 cell lines. • The properties of the PM samples differ significantly. • Dose-dependent inflammatory response and oxidative stress were found. • The release of inflammatory cytokine was significantly correlated to PM properties. • No correlation between ROS and PM properties was identified. - Cellular toxicity of PM2.5 from Beijing depends on their properties

  9. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  10. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  11. Determination of hexavalent chromium in ambient air: A story of method induced Cr(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirez, Kristof; Silversmit, Geert; Bleux, Nico; Adriaensens, Elke; Roekens, Edward; Servaes, Kelly; Vanhoof, Chris; Vincze, Laszlo; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy of the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter remains a challenge from the point of view of minimal Cr species interconversion. Knowledge of this method induced oxidation and reduction is particularly relevant for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter, as the level of observed Cr(III) oxidation (average of 1.7% in this study) can contribute significantly to the monitored range of measured Cr(VI) in PM 10. For Cr concentrations in PM 10 > 10 ng Cr m -3, this method induced oxidation could lead to false positive exceeding of an air quality guideline value of 0.2 ng Cr(VI) m -3 in PM 10. The median daily Cr(VI) concentration in PM 10 measured over a monitoring period of more than 2 months at two locations close to a stainless steel factory amounted to 0.9 ng Cr(VI) m -3 and 0.27 ng Cr(VI) m -3. Average daily Cr(VI)/Cr ratios in PM 10 of 3.5% and 2.6% were measured at these locations. The described monitoring for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient air via alkaline impregnated filters is sensitive (method detection limit of 0.015 ng Cr(VI) m -3) and reproducible (precision of the method ˜25%). The average Cr(VI) recovery of 75% strongly indicates the effects of ambient sampling conditions and ambient particles on the Cr(VI) recoveries. The stability of the Cr(VI) and the Cr(III) spike on 0.12 M NaHCO 3 impregnated filters observed with XANES, indicates that the alkaline extraction of the filter in combination with the sampled air matrix is likely to induce the Cr conversions. The XANES spectra shows further that a Cr-spinel is the predominant component of Cr in ambient air PM 10 at the monitored locations.

  12. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  13. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  14. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  15. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  16. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  17. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  18. Performance testing and classification of air filters and particulate air filters. Leistungspruefung und Klassifikation von Luft- und Schwebstoffiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, W.

    1991-09-01

    Standarized rest methods are available for evaluation of the performance of air filters and particulate air filters. While air filters are tested applying the internationally accepted ASHRAE method, standard particulate air filters, or HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air), may be tested and classified based on different standards. The methods applied, however, are insufficiently accurate with ragard to high-performance particulate air filters, or ULPA filters (ultralow penetration air). Improved, European-standard test methods are currently being developed. The CEN/TC 195 committee is responsible for the European standardization of air filters and particulate air filters. Details are given about the present situation of air and particulate air filter performance testing and classification. (orig.).

  19. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure...... to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December...

  20. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  1. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  2. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  3. High efficiency particulate air filter experience survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures at DOE sites for the years 1977 to 1979 were evaluated. Conclusions inferred from the data follow: HEPA filters have been generally performing the task they were designed for; most changeouts have been made because of filter plugging, preventive maintenance, or precautionary reasons rather than evidence of filter failure; where failures have been experienced, records generally have not been adequate to determine the cause of failure; where cause of failure has been determined, damage attributed to personnel handling and installation has been substantially more prevalent than that from filter environmental exposure. The need for improved personnel training in handling and installation was stressed. Some reduction in filter failure frequency can be achieved by improving the acid and moisture resistance of filters, and providing adequate pretreatment of air prior to HEPA filtration

  4. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 μg/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  5. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  6. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  7. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  8. The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseasesa case-crossover study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular

  9. Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Burnett, R.T.; Bailar, J C; Tamblyn, R.; Ernst, P.; Flegel, K.; J. Brook; Bonvalot, Y; Singh, R.; Valois, M F; Vincent, R

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine pa...

  10. Collaboration in air particulate analysis through sharing of regional resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flora L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-03-01

    The air pollution research program of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute is being pursued in support of the 1999 Clean Air Act. This is being undertaken as part of the RCA/IAEA subproject, 'Air Pollution and Its Trends'. Since the PNRI research reactor (PRR-I) has been on extended shut down for the past 18 years, the PNRI depends solely on X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for elemental characterization of air particulate samples. NAA is a powerful and efficient tool in air particulate characterization and is used in many national programs in the region. Collaboration in air pollution studies through exchange of samples between XRF and NAA groups will widen the range of elements that could be detected by one group. In the RCA/IAEA RAS/4/020, 'Improvement of Research Reactor Operation and Utilization' sharing of research reactor facilities is encouraged. Working out of mechanisms for such sharing will be advantageous to research groups without operational research reactors. This could take the form of exchange of samples or fellowship at a regional host institution. This will allow training of technical staff from countries without research reactors, thus ensuring continuing expertise in NAA even after long periods of reactor shutdown. (author)

  11. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  12. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  13. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    2013-03-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC. We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice. These

  14. Ambient air quality levels in Tehran, Iran, from 1988 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, M.A.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Public Health, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe trends in ambient air quality in Tehran between 1988 and 1993, to determine if these levels exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, and to discuss possible health effects related to exposure for these particular pollutants. Data were acquired from Iran's Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Ministry of Health (MH). These agencies operate five automated ambient air monitoring stations located in areas with heavy traffic. Daily samples of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, total suspended particulate matter (TSM), and hydrocarbons (HC) were collected to provide 24 hour averages for each pollutant. Every three months, mean concentrations were reported to IEPA. Composite samples from all five stations were stored in a databank operated by IEPA. The ambient air quality guidelines were obtained from WHO reports. Statistical analysis was carried out using a regression model, which was designed to fit the air pollution data and take into account missing data. The results showed that there was a statistically significant upward trend in air pollution levels for all of the measured pollutants, except NO{sub 2}, during the years 1988 to 1993. WHO guidelines were routinely and substantially exceeded by all pollutants except TSM. These findings suggest that as the population continues to grow, and increasing numbers of motor vehicles are driven in Tehran, there is concern for the health effects that may result from exposure to these pollutants. (Author)

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  16. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 ...

  17. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  18. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being. PMID:27235903

  19. Ambient urban Baltimore particulate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, D.M.; Breysse, P.N.; Wills-Karp, M. [Childrens Hospital, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Medical Centre, Division of Immunobiology

    2001-10-15

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is hypothesized to play a role in increases in asthma prevalence, although a causal relationship has yet to be established. To investigate the effects of real-world PM exposure on airway reactivity (AHR) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, mice were exposed to a single dose (0.5 mg/ mouse) of ambient PM, coal fly ash, or diesel PM. It was found that ambient PM exposure induced increases in AHR and BAL cellularity, whereas diesel PM induced significant increases in BAL cellularity, but not AHR. On the other hand, coal fly ash exposure did not elicit significant changes in either of these parameters. Ambient PM-induced temporal changes in AHR, BAL cells, and lung cytakine levels over a 2-wk period were then examined. Ambient PM-induced AHR was sustained over 7 d. The increase in AHR was preceded by dramatic increases in BAL eosinophils, whereas a decline in AHR was associated with increases in macrophages. It is concluded that ambient PM can induce asthmalike parameters in mice, suggesting that PM exposure may be an important factor in increases in asthma prevalence.

  20. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  1. Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Previous exposure studies have shown considerable inter-subject variability in personal-ambient associations. This paper investigates exposure factors that may be responsible for inter-subject variability in these personal-ambient associations. The personal and ambient data used in this paper were collected as part of a personal exposure study conducted in Boston, MA, during 1999-2000. This study was one of a group of personal exposure panel studies funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory to address areas of exposure assessment warranting further study, particularly associations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants. Twenty-four-hour integrated personal, home indoor, home outdoor and ambient sulfate, elemental carbon (EC), PM(2.5), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide were measured simultaneously each day. Fifteen homes in the Boston area were measured for 7 days during winter and summer. A previous paper explored the associations between personal-indoor, personal-outdoor, personal-ambient, indoor-outdoor, indoor-ambient and outdoor-ambient PM(2.5), sulfate and EC concentrations. For the current paper, factors that may affect personal exposures were investigated, while controlling for ambient concentrations. The data were analyzed using mixed effects regression models. Overall personal-ambient associations were strong for sulfate during winter (ppersonal-ambient mixed model slope for PM(2.5) during winter but was not significant at p=0.10. Personal exposures to most pollutants, with the exception of NO(2), increased with ventilation and time spent outdoors. An opposite pattern was found for NO(2) likely due to gas stoves. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and to traffic-related pollutants, EC and NO(2), were higher for those individuals living close to a major road. Both personal and indoor sulfate and PM(2.5) concentrations were

  2. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  3. Teale National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  4. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  5. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  6. Quantitative extraction of organic tracer compounds from ambient particulate matter collected on polymer substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinyue; Alexandrova, Olga A; Herckes, Pierre; Allen, Jonathan O

    2009-05-15

    Organic compounds in ambient particulate matter (PM) samples are used as tracers for PM source apportionment. These PM samples are collected using high volume samplers; one such sampler is an impactor in which polyurethane foam (PUF) and polypropylene foam (PPF) are used as the substrates. The polymer substrates have the advantage of limiting particle bounce artifacts during sampling; however these substrates may contain background organic additives. A protocol of two extractions with isopropanol followed by three extractions with dichloromethane (DCM) was developed for both substrate precleaning and analyte extraction. Some residual organic contaminants were present after precleaning; expressed as concentrations in a 24-h ambient PM sample, the residual amounts were 1 microg m(-3) for plasticizers and antioxidants, and 10 ng m(-3) for n-alkanes with carbon number lower than 26. The quantification limit for all other organic tracer compounds was approximately 0.1 ng m(-3) in a 24-h ambient PM sample. Recovery experiments were done using NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) Urban Dust (1649a); the average recoveries for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from PPF and PUF substrates were 117+/-8% and 107+/-11%, respectively. Replicate extractions were also done using the ambient samples collected in Nogales, Arizona. The relative differences between repeat analyses were less than 10% for 47 organic tracer compounds quantified. After the first extraction of ambient samples, less than 7% of organic tracer compounds remained in the extracted substrates. This method can be used to quantify a suite of semi- and non-polar organic tracer compounds suitable for source apportionment studies in 24-h ambient PM samples.

  7. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  8. Electron microprobe identification of fibrous aerosols in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclepore filters were used for sampling fibrous particles in ambient air. The fiber counting and fiber size measurements were done by means of SEM-methods. The number of fibers, distribution of fiber lengths, and diameters were plotted. The specific identification of asbestos fibers was made by electron microprobe analysis. Certain elements such as Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Ca, and Na as well as ratios such as Fe/Si and Mg/Si proved to be approximative identification factors for ambient asbestos. Not only asbestos and glass, also many other inorganic fibrous particles were found in the urban atmosphere as well as in the atmosphere of remote regions. Fibrous gypsum, fibrous ammonium sulfates, fibrous silicates, fibrous mica, and quartz were identified among these particles. Even in remote ambient air, relatively high concentrations of fibrous particles (103-104 m-3) could be measured, although the concentration of asbestos fibers were usually smaller than 102 m-3

  9. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudež, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R; de Maat, Moniek P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with plate...

  10. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  11. Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 μg/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities

  12. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  13. Characterization of fungal spores in ambient particulate matter: A study from the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Attri, Arun K.

    2016-10-01

    Fungal spores as a constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM) is of concern; they not only display the physical traits of a particle, but are also potential allergens and health risk. An investigation over fourteen month was undertaken at a rural site located in the Western Himalayan region, to evaluate the PM associated fungal spores' concentration and diversity. The season-wise change in the fungal spores concentration in the Coarse Particulate Matter (CPM) fraction (aerodynamic diameter > 10 μm) varied from 500 to 3899 spores m-3. Their average concentration over 14 months was 1517 spores m-3. Significant diversity of fungal spores in the CPM samples was observed; 27 individual genera of fungal spores were identified, of which many were known allergens. Presence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal spores was dominant in the samples; ∼20% of the spores were un-characterized. The season-wise variability in fungal spores showed a statistically significant high correlation with CPM load. Maximum number concentration of the spores in CPM was recorded in the summer, while minimum in the winter. The high diversity of spores occurred during monsoon and post monsoon months. The meteorological factors played an important role in the fungal spores' distribution profile. The temporal profile of the spores showed significant correlation with the ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Strong correlation of WS with fungal spores and CPM, and wind back trajectories suggest that re-suspension and wind assisted transport of PM contributes to ambient CPM associated fungal spores.

  14. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  15. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  16. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards...

  18. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Barbara; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. PMID:27428988

  19. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  20. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  1. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Beelen, R; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models......BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed...

  2. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 2.5 was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8–6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM2.5 were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  3. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  4. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cong; FENG Liu

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air. It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate the potential risk of organic compounds.

  5. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. - We emphasize the urgent need to implement erosion and sediment control politics in Santiago, to decrease PM10 concentrations in the city's air, based on the US experience

  6. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  7. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen;

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... and progression from external exposure to tumour formation and some have also been suggested as risk predictors of future cancer, reinforcing causal reasoning. However, methodological issues such as confounding, publication bias and use of surrogate tissues instead of target tissues in studies on these markers...

  8. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  9. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m3) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  10. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  11. Intrinsic hydroxyl radical generation measurements directly from sampled filters as a metric for the oxidative potential of ambient particulate matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellack, Bryan; Yang, Aileen; Cassee, Flemming R.; Janssen, Nicole A H; Schins, Roel P F; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2014-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of ambient particulate matter (PM) represents a promising predictor for particle induced adverse health effects. An intrinsic method to determine ROS generation, adaptable for environmental monitoring is introduced here. The approach is based on

  12. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  13. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 169..., 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AI43 Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY... and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO). Based on its...

  14. In Vitro Toxicity and Epigenotoxicity of Different Types of Ambient Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G; Pathak, Rupak; Lu, Xiaoyan; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Krager, Kimberly; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Demokritou, Philip; Kavouras, Ilias G; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects, including pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Studies indicate that ambient PM originated from different sources may cause distinct biological effects. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential of various types of PM to cause epigenetic alterations in the in vitro system. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed for 24 and 72 h to 5- and 50-μg/ml doses of the water soluble extract of 6 types of PM: soil dust, road dust, agricultural dust, traffic exhausts, biomass burning, and pollen, collected in January-April of 2014 in the area of Little Rock, Arkansas. Cytotoxicity, oxidative potential, epigenetic endpoints, and chromosomal aberrations were addressed. Exposure to 6 types of PM resulted in induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a type-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. Epigenetic alterations were characterized by type-, time-, and dose-dependent decreases of DNA methylation/demethylation machinery, increased DNA methyltransferases enzymatic activity and protein levels, and transcriptional activation and subsequent silencing of transposable elements LINE-1, SINE B1/B2. The most pronounced changes were observed after exposure to soil dust that were also characterized by hypomethylation and reactivation of satellite DNA and structural chromosomal aberrations in the exposed cells. The results of our study indicate that the water-soluble fractions of the various types of PM have differential potential to target the cellular epigenome. PMID:26342214

  15. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  16. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod Susan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegria, Henry [Chemistry Department, California Lutheran University, 60 West Olsen Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States)]. E-mail: halegria@clunet.edu; Bidleman, Terry F. [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Meteorological Service of Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON L0L 1N0 (Canada); Figueroa, Miguel Salvador [Area de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University Autonoma de Chiapas, Carretera a Puerto, Madero Km. 2, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  19. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  20. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4711-3 Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM1...

  1. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  2. Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belis, C. A.; Karagulian, F.; Larsen, B. R.; Hopke, P. K.

    2013-04-01

    A review was conducted of the published literature on source apportionment of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Europe using receptor models (RMs). Consistent records were identified for source contribution estimates of PM mass concentrations for 272 records and of organic carbon (OC) in PM for 60 records. Over the period 2000-2012, a shift was observed in the use of RMs from principal component analysis, enrichment factors, and classical factor analysis to Positive Matrix Factorization while Chemical Mass Balance is still topical. Following a meta-analysis of the published results, six major source categories for PM were defined that comprise almost all individual sources apportioned in Europe: atmospheric formation of secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), traffic, re-suspension of crustal/mineral dust, biomass burning, (industrial) point sources, and sea/road salt. For the OC fraction, the three main source categories were: atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion. The geographical and seasonal variations of these sources are mapped and discussed. A special analysis of PM concentrations that exceed the current European air quality limits indicated SIA and traffic as the most important source categories to target for abatement throughout the year together with biomass burning during the cold season.

  3. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  4. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  5. Association of Ambient Air Pollution with Respiratory Hospitalization in a Government-Designated “Area of Concern”: The Case of Windsor, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Luginaah, Isaac N.; Fung, Karen Y.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Webster, Greg; Wills, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study is part of a larger research program to examine the relationship between ambient air quality and health in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. We assessed the association between air pollution and daily respiratory hospitalization for different age and sex groups from 1995 to 2000. The pollutants included were nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10), coefficient of haze (COH), and total reduced sulfur (TRS). We calculated relativ...

  6. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...

  7. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the...

  8. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and...

  9. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary...

  10. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-01-01

    Background Children may have differing susceptibility to ambient air pollution concentrations depending on various background characteristics of the children. Methods Using emergency department (ED) data linked with birth records from Atlanta, Georgia, we identified ED visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 2–16 years from 1 January 2002 through 30 June 2010 (n=109,758). We stratified by preterm delivery, term low birth weight, maternal race, Medicaid status, maternal education, maternal smoking, delivery method, and history of a bronchiolitis ED visit. Population-weighted daily average concentrations were calculated for 1-hour maximum carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; 8-hour maximum ozone; and 24-hour average particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, using measurements from stationary monitors. Poisson time-series models were used to estimate rate ratios for associations between three-day moving average pollutant concentrations and daily ED visit counts and to investigate effect-measure modification by the stratification factors. Results Associations between pollutant concentrations and asthma exacerbations were larger among children born preterm and among children born to African American mothers. Stratification by race and preterm status together suggested that both factors affected susceptibility. The largest estimated effect size (for an interquartile-range increase in pollution) was observed for ozone among preterm births to African American mothers: rate ratio=1.138 (95% confidence interval=1.077–1.203). In contrast, the rate ration for the ozone association among full-term births to mothers of other races was 1.025 (0.970–1.083). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that children vary in their susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. PMID:25192402

  11. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Deborah L; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Buehler, Stephanie S; La Londe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    breathing ambient air. The studies that used intratracheal instillation have the advantage of delivering a known dose to a specific anatomical location. but arc not analogous to an inhaled dose that is distributed over the surface area of the respiratory tract. Studies. in which laboratory animals or human volunteers inhaled CAPs best represent exposures to the general human population. The in vivo and in vitro studies reviewed provide indications that the probable mechanisms involved in the respiratory and cardiac effects from high metal exposures include: an inflammatory response mediated by formation of ROS, upregulation of genes coding for inflammatory cytokines, altered expression of genes involved in cell signaling pathways and maintenance of metals homeostasis.The fact that doses of metals many orders of magnitude greater than those existing in ambient air were required to produce measurable adverse effects in animals makes it doubtful that metals play any major role in respiratory and cardiovascular effects produced from human exposure to ambient PM. We suggest that future research priorities should focus on testing at more environmentally relevant exposure levels and that any new toxicological studies be written to include dosages in units that can be easily compared to human exposure levels.

  12. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  13. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  14. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  15. 75 FR 51807 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY..., 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods... Method for Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). The Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  16. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  17. Determination of methane in ambient air by multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.; Phillips, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplex gas chromatographic technique for the determination of methane in ambient air over extended periods is reported. A modest gas chromatograph which uses air as the carrier gas was modified by adding a silver oxide sample modulator for multiplex operation. The modulator selectively catalyzes the decomposition of methane in air. The resulting analytical system requires no consumables beyond power. A profile of the methane concentration in this laboratory was obtained for an 8-day period. During this period, methane concentration varied with an approximately daily period from a low of 1.53 + or - 0.60 ppm to a high of 4.63 + or - 0.59 ppm over the entire 8 days. Some of the measured concentrations are higher than those reported elsewhere indicating the presence of some local source or sources for methane. This work has demonstrated the utility of a relatively simple multiplex gas chromatograph for the analysis of environmental samples. The technique should be applicable to other trace components in air through use of other selective modulators.

  18. [Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for preliminary assessment of cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to air pollution with particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Grella, Rodolfo; Lamberti, Monica; Bergamasco, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have linked elevated concentrations of particulate matter to adverse health effects. In particular, has been demonstrated an association between UFPs exposure and occurrence of acute respiratory infections, lung cancer, chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to cognitive decline. In this work, we used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a preliminary assessment of cognitive function in individuals who have lived and carried out work in heavily urbanized areas, where ambient levels of particulate air pollution were frequently above the standard of the law. The results showed the presence of mild-moderate cognitive impairment in 39.4% of the subjects examined compared to the control group.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2014-01-01

    The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the...

  20. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Ithnin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer, Aeroqual, MultiRAE, ICP-MS, NMAM 7303 and gravimetric method. Gilian High Volume Air Sampler was used to measure heavy metal parameters that were conducted for 8 h, Personal Sampling Pump to measure total suspended particulates for 8 h, MultiRAE for H2S and CH4 gas, Aeroqual for CO2 gas, Multilog for CO gas and a Tedlar bag for O2 gas. For biological parameters, settle plate method was used and conducted for 20 min. Veloci CALC and wind probe were used to measure physical parameters. Results: In the ambient air, the mean concentration of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP, lead and cadmium were higher at an exposed location compared to the control with a reading of 0.325±0.29, 0.108±0.050 and 0.06±0.045 ng m-3 respectively. The reason was that the exposed location was a former landfill site and there were several co-founding factors. Mean concentration for chemical parameters were higher at the exposed location and all the chemical parameters were not exceeding the EPA Protocol Gas for Single Component. The mean concentration of oxygen is 20.95±0.005%, carbon dioxide 669.25±84.109 ppm and carbon monoxide 1.8±0.957 ppm. For biological parameters, mean for the colony total count also higher at the exposed location compared to control location where the mean for bacterial was 17.75±4.573cfu while for fungal, the mean is 8.0±2.828 cfu. Indoor air quality results showed that concentration means of CO2 was 877.8±59.40 ppm, CO was 5.0

  1. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: The Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Study subjects relocated between areas with different air pollution contents. • PM{sub 2.5} showed the most consistent inverse associations with pulmonary function. • Cu, Cd, As and Sn were consistently associated with reduced pulmonary function. • Carbonaceous fractions, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Sb were also associated with pulmonary function. • Sources may include traffic, industry, coal burning, and long range transported dust. -- Abstract: The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV{sub 1} associated with various air pollutants and PM{sub 2.5} constituents. Four PM{sub 2.5} constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR AIR AND AIR-PM FLOW IN WALL FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Binjuan; Yuan Shouqi; Seizo Kato; Akira Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed both for the single airflow and air-PM two-phase flow in wall flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) for the first time. The calculation domain is divided into two regions. In the inlet and outlet flow channels, the simulations are performed for the steady and laminar flow; In the porous filtration walls, the calculation model for flow in porous media is used. The Lagrange two-phase flow model is used to calculate the air-PM flow in DPF, for the dispersed phase (PM), its flow tracks are obtained by the integrating of the Lagrange kinetic equation. The calculated velocity, pressure distribution and PM flow tracks in DPF are obtained, which exhibits the main flow characteristics in wall flow DPF and will be help for the optimal design and performance prediction of wall flow DPF.

  3. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  4. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  5. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  6. Temperature-induced volatility of molecular markers in ambient airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are organic compounds used to represent known sources of particulate matter (PM in statistical source apportionment studies. The utility of molecular markers depends on, among other things, their ability to represent PM volatility under realistic atmospheric conditions. We measured the particle-phase concentrations and temperature-induced volatility of commonly-used molecular markers in California's heavily polluted San Joaqin Valley. Concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not reduced by mild (~10 K heating. In contrast, both hopane/sterane and n-alkane concentrations were reduced, especially during the summer sampling events at the urban site. These results suggest that hopanes and steranes have effective saturation concentrations ~1 μg m−3, and therefore can be considered semi-volatile in realistic ambient conditions. The volatility behavior of n-alkanes during the urban summer is consistent with that predicted for absorption by suberic acid (a C8 diacid using a group contribution modelling method. Observations can also be matched by an absorbent whose composition is based on recently-obtained high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer factors (approximately 33% "hydrocarbon-like" and 67% oxygenated organic aerosol. The diminished volatility of the n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes during rural and/or winter experiments could be explained by a more oxygenated absorbing phase along with a non-absorptive partitioning mechanism, such as adsorption to soot. This suggests that the temperature-induced volatility of large hydrocarbons in PM is most important if a relatively non-polar absorbing organic phase exists. While the activity coefficients of most organic aerosol compounds may be close to unity, the assumption of ideality for large hydrocarbons (e.g., hopanes may result in large errors in partitioning calculations.

  7. Size, source and chemical composition as determinants of toxicity attributable to ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank J.; Fussell, Julia C.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture that changes in time and space. It encompasses many different chemical components and physical characteristics, many of which have been cited as potential contributors to toxicity. Each component has multiple sources, and each source generates multiple components. Identifying and quantifying the influences of specific components or source-related mixtures on measures of health-related impacts, especially when particles interact with other co-pollutants, therefore represents one of the most challenging areas of environmental health research. Current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of PM emissions from different sources or of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. Some results do suggest a degree of differential toxicity, namely more consistent associations with traffic-related PM emissions, fine and ultrafine particles, specific metals and elemental carbon and a range of serious health effects, including increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. A carefully targeted programme of contemporary toxicological and epidemiological research, incorporating more refined approaches (e.g. greater speciation data, more refined modelling techniques, accurate exposure assessment and better definition of individual susceptibility) and optimal collaboration amongst multidisciplinary teams, is now needed to advance our understanding of the relative toxicity of particles from various sources, especially the components and reactions products of traffic. This will facilitate targeted abatement policies, more effective pollution control measures and ultimately, a reduction in the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM pollution.

  8. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  10. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  11. Proposed pathophysiologic framework to explain some excess cardiovascular death associated with ambient air particle pollution: Insights for public health translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Wayne E

    2016-12-01

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regulatory environmental protections to actions that can be taken by individuals, public health officials, healthcare professionals, city and regional planners, local and state governmental officials and all those who possess the capacity to improve cardiovascular health within the population. The foundation of the framework rests on the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors acting alone and in concert with long-term exposures to air pollutants to create a conditional susceptibility for clinical vascular events, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction; stroke and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The conceptual framework focuses on the fact that short-term exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with vascular thrombosis (acute coronary syndrome, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) and electrical dysfunction (ventricular arrhythmia); and that individuals having prevalent heart disease are at greatest risk. Moreover, exposure is concomitant with changes in autonomic nervous system balance, systemic inflammation, and prothrombotic/anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic-antifibrinolytic balance. Thus, a comprehensive solution to the problem of premature mortality triggered by air pollutant exposure will require compliance with regulations to control ambient air particle pollution levels, minimize exposures to air pollutants, as well as a concerted effort to decrease the number of people at-risk for serious clinical cardiovascular events triggered by air pollutant exposure by improving the overall state of cardiovascular health in the population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio

  12. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  14. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  15. Association between particulate air pollution and venous thromboembolism: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Cruciani, Mario; Bonfanti, Carlo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading global problem for public health. A number of ambient pollutants have been involved, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM). Although exposure to PM has been linked to a wide array of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, its effect on venous thrombotic disorders is still uncertain. To elucidate this issue, we have performed a systematic review on the existing literature on the association between PM and venous thromboembolism (VTE), using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane electronic databases. Of the 158 reviewed studies, 11 of them (3 case-crossover studies, 2 time-series studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 prospective cohort studies, 2 retrospective studies) involving more than 500,000 events fulfilled the inclusion criteria and results are presented here. Because there was substantial heterogeneity in study design, duration of follow-up, statistical measure of effects, clinical outcomes and threshold, we refrained to perform a quantitative analysis of the available data and carried out only a systematic review. Overall, the literature data suggest a link between PM and VTE, but further trials on larger populations of patients with homogeneous study designs and outcomes are warranted. PMID:26639051

  16. Air pollution and skin diseases: Adverse effects of airborne particulate matter on various skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Cho, Daeho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-05-01

    Environmental air pollution encompasses various particulate matters (PMs). The increased ambient PM from industrialization and urbanization is highly associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide, presenting one of the most severe environmental pollution problems. This article focuses on the correlation between PM and skin diseases, along with related immunological mechanisms. Recent epidemiological studies on the cutaneous impacts of PM showed that PM affects the development and exacerbation of skin diseases. PM induces oxidative stress via production of reactive oxygen species and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-8. In addition, the increased production of ROS such as superoxide and hydroxyl radical by PM exposure increases MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, resulting in the degradation of collagen. These processes lead to the increased inflammatory skin diseases and skin aging. In addition, environmental cigarette smoke, which is well known as an oxidizing agent, is closely related with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Also, ultrafine particles (UFPs) including black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the incidence of skin cancer. Overall, increased PM levels are highly associated with the development of various skin diseases via the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful for treating PM-induced skin diseases. PMID:27018067

  17. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  18. Long term performance of particulate air-filter in an office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Iqbal, Ahsan; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present article is based on initial findings of an ongoing study. The objective of present study is to analyse the long term performance of an air particulate filter with and without ionizer. To study the performance of the air filters, a test rig was built in the Danish Building Research Ins...

  19. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.

  20. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, many studies show that the relationship is deeper and far more complicated than originally thought. PM is a portion of air pollution that is made up of extremely small particles and liquid droplets containing acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. PM is categorized by size and continues to be the fraction of air pollution that is most reliably associated with human disease. PM is thought to contribute to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease by the mechanisms of systemic inflammation, direct and indirect coagulation activation, and direct translocation into systemic circulation. The data demonstrating PM's effect on the cardiovascular system are strong. Populations subjected to long-term exposure to PM have a significantly higher cardiovascular incident and mortality rate. Short-term acute exposures subtly increase the rate of cardiovascular events within days of a pollution spike. The data are not as strong for PM's effects on cerebrovascular disease, though some data and similar mechanisms suggest a lesser result with smaller amplitude. Respiratory diseases are also exacerbated by exposure to PM. PM causes respiratory morbidity and mortality by creating oxidative stress and inflammation that leads to pulmonary anatomic and physiologic remodeling. The literature shows PM causes worsening respiratory symptoms, more frequent medication use, decreased lung function, recurrent health care utilization, and increased mortality. PM exposure has been shown to have a small but significant adverse effect on cardiovascular, respiratory, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular disease. These consistent results are shown by multiple studies with varying populations, protocols, and regions. The data demonstrate a dose

  1. Measuring Concentrations of Particulate 140La in the Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Colin E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Sorom, Rich D.; Van Etten, Don M.

    2016-05-01

    Air sampling systems were deployed to measure the concentration of radioactive material in the air during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device experiments. The air samplers were positioned 100-600 meters downwind of the release point. The filters were collected immediately and analyzed in the field. Quantities for total activity collected on the air filters are reported along with additional information to compute the average or integrated air concentrations.

  2. Measurements of volatile hydrocarbons in ambient air coking plant `Walbrzych`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, R.; Weglarz, A.; Skrok, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The air is a matrix very difficult to handle. In addition, the pollutants are usually present at very low concentrations. Many techniques can be used to collect air samples. The simplest way is to use special containers, but this procedure is expensive and time-consuming. The adsorption of pollutants on adsorbents shows a growing interest, despite the difficulty to choose the appropriate support in order to obtain quantitative yields. To overcome this problem, two or three types of adsorbents may be used in series for collecting a wide range of analytes. In addition, the miniaturization of these techniques (i.e. microtraps and solid-phase microextraction) is also very promising: easy to handle, low cost, no solvent required, detection limits at ppt level when sensitive detectors are used. If we have no money for this modern equipment we must use traditional methods for compounds determination. This paper describes measurements of volatile hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and phenol) in ambient air of coking plant `Walbrzych` Measuring points were at streets: Beethoven 4, Dworcowa 2, Kosteckiego 5 and Zamkowa 1. BTEX were collected on graphitized carbon and phenol on Chromosorb 102. After that samples were extracted by solvents (dichloromethane for BTEX or benzene for phenol). Next step was the analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector without preconcentration. The lower limit of detection was circa 0.01 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for each of the determined compounds. These measurements of hydrocarbons in town of Walbrzych were performed for two years from 1996 to 1998. 2 tabs.

  3. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 μm or less, PM10) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 μm or less, PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (0.1 μm or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  4. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  5. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  6. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  7. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  8. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 29 / Friday... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air...—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales 2... networks must be designed to meet three basic monitoring objectives. These basic objectives are...

  10. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  11. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  12. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  14. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead. This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). The...

  15. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb)....

  16. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  17. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

  18. Sources of ambient fine particulate matter at two community sites in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.; Parker, Edith A.; Kamal, Ali S.; Barres, James A.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    Detroit, Michigan is a non-attainment area of the annual PM 2.5 (particles ⩽2.5 μm in diameter) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and contains a host of local pollution contributors including high diesel traffic from a nearby international border crossing. A source apportionment analysis was conducted using PM 2.5 data collected from 1999 to 2002 by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) project in Detroit, Michigan. CAAA used a community-based participatory research approach to identify and address the environmental triggers for asthma among children residing in southwest and east Detroit. The data used for the study included 24-h measurements of PM 2.5 mass, elemental and organic carbon, and a suite of trace element species, along with hourly measurements of PM 2.5 mass and black carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) was used to quantitatively apportion the sources of ambient PM 2.5 at each of two Detroit community sites. Results showed that southwest Detroit PM 2.5 levels can be apportioned to seven source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, automotive electroplating, and sewage sludge incineration that includes crustal material from runoff. The PMF2 model apportioned the east Detroit PM 2.5 data into five source categories: secondary sulfate/coal combustion, motor vehicles/combustion, refinery/oil combustion, iron-steel manufacturing/waste incineration, and automotive electroplating. For both locations, approximately over 60% of the PM 2.5 mass was attributed to secondary sulfate/coal combustion sources, approximately 30% to vehicular sources, and 1-5% to local industrial sources. The unexplained mass accounted for <2% of the measured PM 2.5 mass. This study illustrates that regional secondary sulfate/coal combustion and local motor vehicle emissions alone are enough for this mid-western US city to be in non

  19. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  20. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  1. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  2. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects. (letter)

  3. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  4. Impact of vehicular strike on particulate matter air quality: results from a natural intervention study in Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Michelle; Pérodin, Joanne; Hada, Jayjeev; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amir

    2013-04-01

    In this natural intervention study, we evaluated the impact of vehicular shutdown during bandhas (general strikes) and meteorological parameters on ambient PM10 concentrations (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 10 μm or less) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Publicly available PM10 data (January 2003-February 2008) collected at six monitoring stations were combined with meteorological and bandh data. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine the effects of bandhas on PM10 concentrations. Lower PM10 concentrations were observed during the monsoon season compared to the winter, across all monitoring stations, with the largest reduction observed for the urban high traffic area (mean ± standard deviation: 290 ± 71 vs 143 ± 36 μg/m(3)). In the high traffic area, there was 36 μg/m(3) decrease in PM10 concentration during the bandh period compared to 2 days preceding the bandh, adjusting for season, rainfall, temperature, and windspeed. The improvements in air quality were short lived: PM10 concentration in the urban high traffic area increased by an average of 26 μg/m(3) within the first 2 days after the bandh. Our results suggest that controlling vehicular traffic can have an immediate impact in improving particulate matter air quality even among the most polluted cities in the world. PMID:23433338

  5. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Y.; A. Uzairu; J.O. Ujoh

    2013-01-01

    This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri), high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout), traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge), Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout), residential area (Kawo New Extension) and a control site (NFA base) in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle ...

  6. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for...

  7. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  8. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release of...

  9. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  10. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  11. Particulate matter and health - From air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the environmental influence in the respiratory health of workers exposed to metal pollutants in their labour activities (metal processing industry). The clinical, respiratory functional and morphological changes were related with blood elemental concentrations in order to evaluate the influence of exposure to inhaled metal airborne particles. In addition, the deposition of particulate matter in the respiratory system was assessed in humans and in an animal model to infer possible mechanisms of interaction of metals with the respiratory tissue. The respiratory affections encountered for the exposure group through clinical, functional and morphological data are related with the number of years of exposure and with high levels of Zn in blood. Methodologies applied have into account the quality of results produced. Interlaboratory checks were carried out using certified reference materials and standard procedures were initiated to assure traceability in chemical analysis of biological matrices using analytical techniques based on X ray spectrometry. (author)

  12. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  13. Investigation of the ambient particulate matter concentration changes and assessing its health impacts in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholampour

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: This research found that the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 73 and 69% more than National Standard; and 8 and 5% more than USEPA Standards respectively. In Tabriz, especially industrial area, the soils of surrounding ground and re-suspension of particles fromcontaminated soils have a significant contribution to particulate emissions.

  14. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  15. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  16. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  18. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... the Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (EPA 452R-08-005... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  19. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  20. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on ...

  1. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  2. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  3. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  4. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  5. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... on this rulemaking, contact Dr. Karl Pepple, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S... Stackhouse, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by phone...

  6. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  7. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  8. Recent developments in the air particulate research capability at the New Zealand ion beam analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Zealand capability in Ion Beam Analysis of air particulate samples has been upgraded in recent years. The main equipment change has been the introduction of the ability to analyse samples taken using the Streaker (PIXE International Corporation) sampling system. This is an automated sampler which allows for great flexibility in monitoring programmes by collecting particulates for up to about 70 sampling periods which can range in collection times from seconds to many hours. The IBA analysis for hydrogen on standard filters and for PIXE multi-elemental analysis of the Streaker filters has also been studied with a view to optimising analytical methods. (author)

  9. Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Yue; Richard T. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examined association between preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growt...

  10. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  11. Impact of Long-term Exposure to Air Particulate Matter on Life Expectancy and Survival Rate of Shanghai Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of long-term air particulate matter exposure on the life expectancy and survival rate of Shanghai residents. Methods Epidemiology - based exposureresponse function was used for the calculation of attributable deaths to air particulate matter in Shanghai, and the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter on life expectancy and survival rate was estimated using the life table of Shanghai residents in 1999. Results It was shown that in 1999, the long-term air particulate matter exposure caused 1.34-1.69 years reduction of life expectancy and a decrease of survival rate for each age group of Shanghai residents. Conclusion The effect of long-term exposure to air particulate matter on life expectancy is substantial in Shanghai.

  12. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  13. The effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of air flow plate standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume flow rate measured by air flow plate is influenced by the ambient conditions during the calibration. A series of numerical examples are conducted for the relationship and the outcomes demonstrated that the calibration is quite sensitive to the atmospheric pressure and the ambient temperature, but insensitive to relative humidity. The experiment model has been applied to calibration results with wide ranging ambient conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the benefits to calibration data of minimizing the effects of ambient conditions.

  14. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  15. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  18. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  20. Particulate Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: A Putative Proallergic Hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution generated from motor vehicle exhaust has become a major cause for scientific and public concern worldwide over recent years. The rapid and marked increase in the motor vehicle traffic and its associated emissions in urban areas have paralleled a sharp increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between people living in close proximity to roads with high traffic density and increased allergic symptoms, reduced lung function and increased sensitization to common aeroallergens. Several laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that pollutants emitted from motor vehicles can induce allergic inflammation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness, which may provide an underlying mechanism for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health have been brought to public attention, it appears that less attention has been given to the potential role of road traffic fumes in the induction of the allergic state. Legislators should consider pollutants emitted from motor vehicle exhausts as a potential pro-allergic hazard, before making important changes in environmental policy.

  1. High efficiency particulate air filter behavior under high humidity airflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loss-of-coolant accident could threaten the integrity of the HEPA filters in the air cleaning systems of a nuclear power reactor with airflows of high humidity, elevated temperature, and greater than design flow rate. It is important that filter reliability be assured during accident situations since a loss of filter integrity could result in a loss of containment. The average failure differential pressure at 1700 m3/h for three commercial filter designs under conditions of high air humidity at 500C were found to lie between 0.7 and 7.6 kPa. The modes and mechanisms of structural failure were determined for wooden frame deep pleat filters, the design with the most potential for improvement. Initial tests of prototype filter units with a glass fiber medium reinforced by fiber glass cloth proved that structural limits could be increased to at least 10 kPa even with significant decreases in the lateral stability of the filter pack. A similar test of a prototype filter equipped with a special arrangement of the separators and a conventional glass fiber medium showed that pack stability could be maintained during fog conditions that cause failure of conventional glass fiber filters within several hours

  2. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  3. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James A; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine the relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993-2004. For each pollutant, we created (1) a daily 1-h maximum; (2) a 24-h average; (3) a commute average; (4) a daytime average; (5) a nighttime average; and (6) a daily 8-h maximum (only for O₃). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day's pollutant metrics. Variability was greatest across O₃ metrics, with the 8-h maximum, 1-h maximum, and daytime metrics yielding strong positive associations and the nighttime O₃ metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O₃). With the exception of daytime metric, all of the CO and NO₂ metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (for example, the use of a daily 8-h maximum O₃ as opposed to a 24-h average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air

  4. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  5. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities : Results from time series data from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsouyanni, K; Touloumi, G; Spix, C; Schwartz, J; Balducci, F; Medina, S; Rossi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Sunyer, J; Bacharova, L; Schouten, JP; Ponka, A; Anderson, HR

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. . Design: Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particu

  6. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  7. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  8. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  9. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-07-01

    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm.

  10. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient......

  11. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... titled, Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient...

  12. The association between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Beijing after the 2008 olympics: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter in Beijing during the two years (2009,2010 after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We used generalized additive model to analyze relationship between daily mortality and air pollution. In single air pollutant model with two-day moving average concentrations of the air pollutants, increase in their interquartile range (IQR associated with percent increase in nonaccidental mortality, 2.55 percent [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.99, 3.11] for CO, 2.54 percent (95% CI: 2.00, 3.08 for NO2 and 1.80 percent (95% CI: 1.21, 2.40 for PM10, respectively; increases in the IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with percent increase in cardiovascular mortality, 2.88 percent (95% CI: 2.10,3.65 for CO, 2.63 percent (95% CI: 1.87, 3.39 for NO2 and 1.72 percent (95% CI: 0.88, 2.55 for PM10, respectively; and increase in IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with respiratory mortality, 2.39 percent (95% CI: 0.68, 4.09 for CO, 1.79 percent (95% CI: 0.11, 3.47 for NO2 and 2.07 percent (95% CI: 0.21, 3.92 for PM10, respectively. We used the principal component analysis to avoid collinearity of varied air pollutants. In addition, the association stratified by sex and age was also examined. Ambient air pollution remained a significant contributor to nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortalities in Beijing during 2009,2010.

  13. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetriou, C.A.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Loft, S.; Møller, P.; Vermeulen, R.; Palli, D.; Chadeau-Hyam, M.; Xun, W.W.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings of thes

  14. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  15. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-08-01

    This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO 2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO 2 concentrations in various sampling sites. The sampler is simple, lightweight, and inexpensive. The experiments are suitable for college students in analytical chemistry and environmental studies.

  16. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  17. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiac Arrhythmia: The APACR Study

    OpenAIRE

    He, Fan; Michele L. Shaffer; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Bixler, Edward; Cascio, Wayne E; Liao, Duanping

    2011-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms underlying the relationship between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Objectives: We examined the effects and time course of exposure to fine PM [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] on cardiac arrhythmia in 105 middle-age community-dwelling healthy nonsmokers in central Pennsylvania. Methods: The 24-hr beat-to-beat electrocardiography data were obtained using a high-resolution Holter system. After visually identif...

  18. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... proposing to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada... unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the following nonattainment...

  19. Vascular Effects of a Subchronic Inhalation Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Air Particles in Atherosclerosis Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the adverse effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular function and disease. The causal physiochemical properties of particles and their mechanisms of action/injury remain unknown. This study examined the vascular effects in 15 wk old ma...

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Evelyn O Talbott; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ≤ 10, 2.5 μm) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMB...

  1. Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A.; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). Objectives: We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. Methods: We used an energy supply–driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. Results: In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. Conclusions: PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed. Citation: Chafe ZA, Brauer M, Klimont Z, Van Dingenen R, Mehta S, Rao S, Riahi K, Dentener F, Smith KR. 2014. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to

  2. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  3. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  4. Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We enrolled a cohort of primary school children with a history of wheeze (n=148) in an 11-month longitudinal study to examine the relationship between ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidity. We obtained daily air pollution (ozone, particulate matter less than 10 μm, and nitrogen dioxide), meteorological, and pollen data. One hundred twenty-five children remained in the final analysis. We used logistic regression models to determine associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There were no associations between ambient ozone concentrations and respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma. There was, however, an association between PM10 concentrations and doctor visits for asthma (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04-1.19) and between NO2 concentration and wet cough (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.003-1.10) in single-pollutant models. The associations remained significant in multipollutant models. There was no consistent evidence that children with wheeze, positive histamine challenge, and doctor diagnosis of asthma reacted differently to air pollution from children with wheeze and doctor diagnosis of asthma and children with wheeze only. There were significant associations between PM10 levels and doctor visits for asthma and an association between NO2 levels and the prevalence of wet cough. We were, however, unable to demonstrate that current levels of ambient air pollution in western Sydney have a coherent range of adverse health effects on children with a history of wheezing

  5. Effects of ambient particulate matter on human breast cancer: is xenogenesis responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, evidence from several studies has revealed that air pollution is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. However, to date, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Considering the high prevalence of air pollution and breast cancer in China, it is necessary to understand how air pollution may affect breast cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 1,832 female patients who had resided in the same cities for at least 10 years prior to their diagnosis. Variables including demographic data as well as clinical and tumor characteristics, including the patient's age at menarche, family history of breast cancer, tumor histopathological type, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER status, progesterone receptor (PR status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 status at the time of diagnosis were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to patients residing in low-pollution areas, patients living in high-pollution areas demonstrated a younger age at menarche (p<0.001, a greater family history of breast cancer (p = 0.034 and more invasive cancers (p = 0.028 with higher tumor grades (p = 0.028 and estrogen receptor (ER-positive status (p = 0.022. Differences in tumor grade were only found in ER-positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings and clinical data indicate that long-term air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of breast cancer by playing the role of a xenoestrogen, and also provides new insight into the association between air pollution and the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, it is urgently necessary to study the association between air pollution and breast cancer to improve the living quality and health of females, and applicable public health strategies may need to be established or modified as soon as possible.

  6. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  7. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qi-fei; CHEN Tong-bin; GAO Ding; HUANG Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5℃ when ambient air temperature changed 13℃. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3℃ when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 ℃. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent(at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate(at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  8. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  9. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  10. Development and evaluation of a novel monitor for online measurement of iron, manganese, and chromium in ambient particulate matter (PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbin; Sowlat, Mohammad H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-09-15

    A prototype atmospheric aerosol monitor was developed for online measurement of three toxicologically relevant redox-active metals (Fe, Mn, and Cr) in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The monitor has the unique ability to quantify these metals in specific chemical oxidation states in addition to both their total and water-soluble fractions in the ambient PM2.5. This information is critical for advancing our understanding of mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity as well as chemical processing of aerosol in the atmosphere. The metal monitor utilizes a high flow rate aerosol-into-liquid collector to collect ambient PM2.5 directly as concentrated aqueous slurry samples. The concentrations of target metals in the collected slurries are subsequently measured in a aerosol-into-liquid collector, micro volume flow cell (MVFC) using spectrophotometry to quantify the light absorption of colored complexes resulting from the reaction between the target metals and added analytical reagents. Our experimental evaluation indicated that, overall, this novel monitor can achieve accurate and reliable measurements over long sampling periods (i.e. at least several weeks). The online measurements for all three target elements were in good agreement (i.e., with slopes of the linear regression lines ranging between 0.90 and 1.07, and R(2) values between 0.76 and 0.95) with time-integrated filter samples collected in parallel and analyzed by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS). Moreover, this metal monitor can provide semi-continuous measurements (i.e., every 2h) for at least 5 consecutive days without obvious shortcomings in its field operation. The online monitor measured total concentrations of Fe that ranged between 4.8 and 65.6ng/m(3), for Mn from below detection limit to 10.0ng/m(3), and for Cr from below detection limit to 6.6ng/m(3), respectively. Our results indicate that the developed metal monitor is a promising technology for online

  11. The development and validation of a methodology for the analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in air particulates (indoor and outdoor)

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, Kathryn, (Thesis)

    1999-01-01

    PAH form a large class of ubiquitous pollutants mainly of anthropogenic origin. Several PAH found in air particulates have been identified as carcinogens and mutagens. Sixteen of these PAH have been listed by the USEPA as priority pollutants. This research is concerned with the development and optimisation of a method for the analysis of these sixteen PAH in air particulates. Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction procedures were investigated to optimise the recoveries from spiked glass fibre filt...

  12. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of...

  13. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is...-001; July 2012), please contact Ms. Karen Wesson, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  15. Real-time Diesel Particulate Matter ambient monitoring in underground mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A real-time Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) monitor has been developed on the base of the successful National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) designed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) unit.The objectives of a recently completed Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) study was to modify the PDM to measure the submicrometre fraction of the aerosol in a real-time monitoring underground instrunent.Mine testing focused on use of the monitor in engineering evaluations of Longwall (LW) moves demonstrated how DPM concentrations from vehicles fluctuate under varying ventilation and operational conditions.The strong influence of mine ventilation systems is reviewed.Correlation between the current SKC DPM measurement system and real-time DPM monitors were conducted and results from eight mines show a correlation between elemental carbon (EC) and the new monitor DPM mass ranging from 0.45 to 0.82 with R2>0.86 in all but two cases.This differences in suspected to be due to variations from mine to mine in aspects such as mine atmospheric contamination,vehicle fleet variations,fuel type,engine maintenance,engine combustion efficiency,engine behavior or interference from other submicrometre aerosol.Real-time monitoring clearly reflects the movement of individual diesel vehicles and allows pin-pointing of high exposure zones such as those encountered where various vehicles engage in intense work in areas of constrained or difficult ventilation.DPM shift average monitoring approaches do not readily allow successful engineering evaluation exercises to determine acceptability of pollution levels.Identification of high DPM concentration zones allows efficient modification of mine ventilation,operator positioning and other work practices to reduce miners' exposures without waiting for laboratory analysis results.

  16. Application of grey weighted related degree to the ambient air quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  18. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  19. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM10. Methods: To examine the association between PM10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m−3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m−3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Average PM10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m−3 increase), and PM10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  20. Increased oxidative burden associated with traffic component of ambient particulate matter at roadside and urban background schools sites in London.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal J Godri

    Full Text Available As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP. Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OP(AA m(-3 and glutathione (OP(GSH m(-3 depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM(1.9-10.2. However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OP(AA µg(-1 showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OP(GSH µg(-1 had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between

  1. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  2. Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four European cities: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerenberg, Peter A; Amelsvoort, Ludo van; Lovik, Martinus; Hetland, Ragna B; Alberg, Torunn; Halatek, Tadeusz; Bloemen, Henk J T; Rydzynski, Konrad; Swaen, Gerard; Schwarze, Per; Dybing, Erik; Cassee, Flemming R

    2006-01-01

    Given that there are widely different prevalence rates of respiratory allergies and asthma between the countries of Europe and that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is substantial in urban environments throughout Europe, an EU project entitled "Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to

  3. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  4. Temperature-induced volatility of molecular markers in ambient airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are organic compounds used to represent known sources of particulate matter (PM in statistical source apportionment studies. The utility of molecular markers depends on, among other things, their ability to represent PM volatility under realistic atmospheric conditions. We measured the particle-phase concentrations and temperature-induced volatility of commonly-used molecular markers in California's heavily polluted San Joaqin Valley. Concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were not reduced by mild (~10 K heating. In contrast, both hopane/sterane and n-alkane concentrations were reduced, especially during the summer sampling events at the urban site. These results suggest that hopanes and steranes have effective saturation concentrations ~1 μg m−3, and therefore can be considered semi-volatile. The volatility of an individual compound depends both on its inherent properties (primarily vapour pressure and the interactions between itself and any potential absorbing phase. The volatility behavior of n-alkanes during the urban summer is consistent with that predicted for absorption by suberic acid (a C8 diacid using a group contribution modelling method. Observations can also be matched by an absorbent whose composition is based on recently-obtained high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer factors (approximately 33% "hydrocarbon-like" and 67% oxygenated organic aerosol. The reduced evaporation of the n-alkanes, hopanes, and steranes with mild heating during rural and/or winter experiments could be explained by a more oxygenated absorbing phase along with a non-absorptive partitioning mechanism, such as adsorption to soot. This suggests that the temperature-induced volatility of large hydrocarbons in PM is most important if a relatively non-polar absorbing organic phase exists. While the activity coefficients of most organic

  5. A preliminary analysis of the inhalable particulate lead in the ambient atmosphere of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, M. S.

    The inhalable particles in the ambient atmosphere in the city of Riyadh have been sampled during the working day (7 a.m.-4 p.m.) over the test period. Samples were taken every 3 h using an Automatic Dichotomous Sampler placed in the College of Engineering, King Saud University at a height of 25 m above the ground. A weather station 3 m above the sampler was used to record (simultaneously) the meteorological data. These data were used to determine the wind rose and the hourly standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction, which, in turn, gives the hourly atmospheric stability class. The particulates in each size range: coarse (2.5-15 μm) and fine (concentration of lead during the working day is about twice the international standards. The concentration decreases during the weekends (Thursday and Friday) due to the reduction in traffic loads, and decreases to a minimum on Fridays when most of industrial activities are stopped. More than 70% of the lead fluxes passed by the sampler are associated with wind from E to S which is the direction of the city center and the industrial site of Riyadh.

  6. Air pollution with particulates and heavy metals in some Syrian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of air pollution in different sites of five Syrian cities (Damascus, Aleppo, Tartous, Homs, and Sweda) was carried out. The concentrations of total suspended particulate less than 10 microns (PM 10) and less than 3 micron (PM3) were measured using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentration, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentrations, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using anodic stripping voltammetry. The result showed that TSP, PM10 and PM3 were higher than WHO standards in several times. Mean lead concentrations ranged between 0.58 and 2.96 μg/m3 and 0.56 and 1.53 μg/m3 in Damascus and Aleppo respectively, while in the other cities these concentrations were less than WHO standards (0.5 - 1 μg/m3). (author)

  7. Correlation of levels of volatile versus carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples from smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, data on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air samples from fish smokehouses (Nordholm et al. 1986) and meat smokehouses (Hansen et al. submitted for publication) were used to analyze the extent to which six different volatile PAH compounds could...... carcinogenic PAH compounds in air samples from smokehouses, whereas fluoranthene and pyrene displayed the highest specificity. However, when the applicability of the six markers was tested on air samples from iron foundries, only naphthalene and pyrene were useful as markers for the carcinogenic compounds...... function as markers for the total concentration of six different carcinogenic particulate PAH compounds. Although a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentration of each of six volatile compounds and the total concentration of carcinogenic PAH compounds, a particularly good...

  8. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  9. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  10. A Case–Crossover Study of Wintertime Ambient Air Pollution and Infant Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, Catherine; Lumley, Thomas; Shepherd, Kristen; Davis, Robert; Larson, Timothy; Ritz, Beate; Kaufman, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association of infant bronchiolitis with acute exposure to ambient air pollutants. Design We employed a time-stratified case–crossover method and based the exposure windows on a priori, biologically based hypotheses. Participants We evaluated effects in 19,901 infants in the South Coast Air Basin of California in 1995–2000 with a hospital discharge record for bronchiolitis in the first year of life (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1). Evaluations/...

  11. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  12. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  13. Physico-chemical characterisation of particulate heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator emissions and their contributions to ambient air quality. Case of Toulon MSWI (South of France); Caracterisation physico-chimique et tracage des emissions particulaires metalliques d'une usine d'incineration d'ordures menageres dans l'air ambiant. Exemple de l'UIOM de Toulon (Var, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, M

    2004-07-15

    The aims of this study are the physico-chemical characterisation, the apportionment and the following of particulate heavy metals from MSWI emissions. Various methods (in situ data treatment, unmixing models and codes, UNMIX or CMB, sequential extractions and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) agree in the following: - identification of the MSWI source in two profiles (Zn - Ca and Ba - Cu - Fe - Zn - Pb - Ca); - estimation of its contribution of up to 25% of the total sources contribution; - showing the seasonal variability in term of profile and contribution of this source; - suggest the potential of emitted elements to enter the food chain; This EXAFS first approach on atmospheric particulate matter shows that zinc and lead are in an atomic environment with calcium, silicon and aluminum. In spite of disputable conclusions, isotopic lead ratios define a 'MSWI' end-member and confirm that the town-center of Toulon is outside the MSWI plume influence. (author)

  14. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O3 and PM2.5. However, SO2 and NO2 showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO2 was observed, but there was no change in O3 and NO2. The decreasing trends observed with SO2 at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends

  15. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is intended...

  16. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... Part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new PM 2.5 equivalent method is an...

  17. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method...

  18. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method...

  19. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method...

  20. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  1. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  2. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  3. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  4. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  5. "Chemical Composition of TSP and PM10 and their Relations with Meteorological Parameters in the Ambient Air of Shariati Hospital District"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kermani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Since particulate matter (total suspended particles and particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm is one of the important pollutants in the ambient air of Tehran, the capital of Iran, organic substances, inorganic substances and lead levels in TSP and PM10, correlation between TSP and PM10 concentrations, ratio among the two fractions and relation between TSP and PM10 concentrations with meteorological parameters (relative humidity and temperature were studied. Twenty-four hour simultaneous sampling of TSP and PM10 has been carried out during the period of 22 December 2001 to 20 April 2002 in the ambient air of Shariati Hospital district. The results showed that inorganic substances were the most abundant component of TSP and PM10 (Approximately 76% and 68%, respectively; 0.21% of total mass for TSP and 0.26% of total mass for PM10 were lead particles; 64% of lead particles had a diameter less than 10 µm; 48% of TSP had a diameter less than 10 µm; while atmosphere relative humidity and temperature were in the range of 50% and 5-10○C respectively, specially on Saturdays in winter and more importantly in inversion conditions, the highest concentrations of TSP and PM10 would be expected.

  6. The contribution of waste water treatment plants to PBDEs in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples were collected at different sites in and around two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in central Italy to determine the concentrations, compositional profiles and contribution to ambient levels of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The investigated WWTPs were selected as they treat industrial wastewater produced by local textile industries along with municipal wastewater. PBDE concentrations within the WWTPs were higher than those measured at reference sites located 4 and 5 km away with BDE-209 dominating the BDE congener composition in all air samples in 2008. Ambient PBDE concentrations measured in and around the WWTPs and estimates of emissions from aeration tanks suggest that WWTPs are sources of PBDEs to ambient air. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlations confirmed this result. The effect of distance from the plant and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. Although the primary fate of PBDEs in WWTPs will be partitioning to sewage sludge, this study suggests that plants can provide a measurable source of these compounds to local ambient air. - Highlights: ► Levels and distribution profiles of PBDEs in the atmosphere surrounding two WWTPs. ► Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surrounding area of two WWTPs in Italy. ► To investigate WWTPs as sources of PBDEs to the atmosphere. ► Samples collected downwind respect to the plant showed BDE-209 as dominant congener. ► The effect of distance and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. - Waste water treatment plants as sources of PBDEs to the ambient air.

  7. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  8. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 50 RIN 2060-AO72 Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was....epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would...

  9. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  10. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Ashworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7 but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5. Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks.

  12. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  13. Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHAO-WEI FU; SHUN-ZHANG YU; LI-NA MU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing. Methods The approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing. Results An increase of each 10 μμg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days. Conclusion The daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing.

  14. Evaluation Of Air Separator For Processing Particulate Chemical Industry Gas Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Ntengwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The evaluations of an air separator for processing chemical engineering particulate gas streams was carried out with a view to investigate the performance for different flow rates and other characteristics. A louver LV air separator was used as a case study. The evaluations indicated that for various set points of characteristics the prediction of operating efficiencies could be made for different variations of louver gap LVG with area ratio AR length of separator at particular angles of LV inclination and the number of LV with flow rates. It was observed that efficiencies ranging from 40 to 60 on one hand were obtained for high values of LVG and gas flow rate. On the other hand efficiencies of 61 to 99 were obtained for lower values of LVG and gas flow rate. It was noted therefore that in order to produce high efficiencies the values of LVG and flow rates have to be low and vice versa. The evaluation indicates also that plant operators can quickly predict from the results the operating efficiency for the desired dimensions and or flow rates of particulate gas streams. The methodology for the determination of operating data can be used in minimum-time frame to optimize the operations of the plant.

  15. Contribution of vegetation and peat fires to particulate air pollution in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoke haze, caused by vegetation and peat fires in Southeast Asia, is of major concern because of its adverse impact on regional air quality. We apply two different methods (a chemical transport model and a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model) to identify the locations of fires contributing to the increased mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in Singapore over the period 2004–09. We find that fires in southern Sumatra account for the greatest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore (42–62%), with fires in central Sumatra and Kalimantan contributing 21–35% and 14–15%, respectively. Furthermore, we find that fires in these regions also increase PM2.5 concentrations in other major cities across Southeast Asia. Our results suggest that acting to reduce fires in southern and central Sumatra (specifically in the eastern parts of the provinces of Jambi, South Sumatra, Lampung and Riau) and southwest Kalimantan (the southern extent of the provinces of West, Central and South Kalimantan) would have the greatest benefit to particulate air quality in Singapore and more widely across Southeast Asia. (letter)

  16. Work place air particulate monitoring of automobile workshops for public health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight pairs of coarse and fine air particulate samples were collected in front of an automotive workshop located at Tasmasipabad on Chaklala Road in Rawalpindi using a Gent sampler and polycarbonate filters. These samples were collected during the period; 7th to 27th of April 2009. The gravimetric data (PM2.5 and PM10) were obtained for these samples and were found to exceed the Pakistani standards. Black carbon (BC) was also determined using reflectance measurements and it was found that BC contributed significantly more to the fine mass than to the coarse fraction; i.e. ∼10 to ∼3 %, respectively. This is not surprising as soot is emitted by combustion processes and is usually found in the fine particulate mass. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique all 28 pairs of filters were analyzed for >30 elements. Major elements, in the coarse mass fraction, include Al, K, Fe, Sr, Na, and Zn implying soil as the major source while BC was found to be a higher contributor of PM2.5. An episode of high PM2.5 was observed on the 18th of April 2009. Back trajectory analysis showed that the air mass originated from the Middle East where a dust storm was in progress over Iraq. (author)

  17. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  18. The Comparative Reactivity Method ─ a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s−1 and up to 50% between 6–8 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s and the urban atmosphere of Mainz

  19. Air flow assisted ionization for remote sampling of ambient mass spectrometry and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiuming; Tang, Fei; Luo, Zhigang; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Xiaohao; Abliz, Zeper

    2011-04-15

    Ambient ionization methods are an important research area in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Under ambient conditions, the gas flow and atmospheric pressure significantly affect the transfer and focusing of ions. The design and implementation of air flow assisted ionization (AFAI) as a novel and effective, remote sampling method for ambient mass spectrometry are described herein. AFAI benefits from a high extracting air flow rate. A systematic investigation of the extracting air flow in the AFAI system has been carried out, and it has been demonstrated not only that it plays a role in the effective capture and remote transport of charged droplets, but also that it promotes desolvation and ion formation, and even prevents ion fragmentation during the ionization process. Moreover, the sensitivity of remote sampling ambient MS analysis was improved significantly by the AFAI method. Highly polar and nonpolar molecules, including dyes, pharmaceutical samples, explosives, drugs of abuse, protein and volatile compounds, have been successfully analyzed using AFAI-MS. The successful application of the technique to residue detection on fingers, large object analysis and remote monitoring in real time indicates its potential for the analysis of a variety of samples, especially large objects. The ability to couple this technique with most commercially available MS instruments with an API interface further enhances its broad applicability.

  20. Genotoxicity of Air Borne Particulates Assessed by Comet and the Salmonella Mutagenicity Test in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Milaat

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine airborne respirable particulates less than 10 micrometer (PM10 are considered one of the top environmental public health concerns, since they contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs which are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air. The objective of this study is to assess the genotoxicity of the ambient PM10 collected at 11 urban sites in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The PM10 extractable organic matter (EOM was examined for its genotoxicity by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE comet assay and the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames test .Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify 16 PAH compounds in four sites. Samples from oil refinery and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites showed significant DNA damage causing comet in 20-44% of the cells with tail moments ranging from 0.5-2.0 compared to samples from petrol driven cars and residential area, with comet in less than 2% of the cells and tail moments of < 0.02.In the Ames test, polluted sites showed indirect mutagenic response and caused 20-56 rev/ m3, mean while residential and reference sites caused 2-15 rev /m3. The genotoxicity of the EOM in both tests directly correlated with the amount of organic particulate and the PAHs concentrations in the air samples. The PAHs concentrations ranged between 0.83 ng/m3 in industrial and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites to 0.18 ng /m3 in the residential area. Benzo(ghipyrene was the major PAH components and at one site it represented 65.4 % of the total PAHs. Samples of the oil refinery site were more genotoxic in the SCGE assay than samples from the heavy diesel vehicles traffic site, despite the fact that both sites contain almost similar amount of PAHs. The opposite was true for the mutagenicity in the Ames test. This could be due to the nature of the EOM in both sites. These findings confirm the genotoxic potency of the PM10 organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed.

  1. Trends in health burden of ambient particulate matter pollution in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sharifi, Farshad; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khajavi, Alireza; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to report the assessment of trends in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution from 1990 to 2010 by sex and age in Iran. We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study, and then we extracted its data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010. The proportion of deaths and the DALYs caused by specific risk factors were assessed by using the comparative risk assessment and calculating the attributed burden of exposure level to each risk factor compared with the theoretical minimum level of risk exposure. Uncertainties in distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes calculation were disseminated into the estimates of the attributable deaths and DALYs. We found that the age-standardized death rate attributed to ambient PM pollution decreased to 27.90 cases per 100,000 populations from 1990 to 2010 [86, 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 76-97 to 62; 95% UI 54-71 per 100,000 populations, respectively]. This was mainly because of greater decrease in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than in the other diseases attributed to PM pollution. Despite a decrease in the total DALYs and mortality rate attributed to PM pollution, the death percent increased by 6.94%, 95% UI 6.06-7.90% from 1990 to 2010. The number of the DALYs and death in age groups of more than 70 years increased in 2010 compared to that in 1990. The median percent change of the DALYs and death for all age groups shows that the DALYs and death increased by 6% (95% UI 8-19%) and 45% (95% UI 30-60%), respectively, in 2010 in comparison to that in 1990. The increase in the DALYs and mortality attributable to PM pollution emphasizes the necessity of the effective interventions for improving air quality, as well as for increasing the public awareness to reduce the exposure of vulnerable age groups to PM pollution.

  2. Trends in health burden of ambient particulate matter pollution in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sharifi, Farshad; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khajavi, Alireza; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to report the assessment of trends in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution from 1990 to 2010 by sex and age in Iran. We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study, and then we extracted its data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010. The proportion of deaths and the DALYs caused by specific risk factors were assessed by using the comparative risk assessment and calculating the attributed burden of exposure level to each risk factor compared with the theoretical minimum level of risk exposure. Uncertainties in distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes calculation were disseminated into the estimates of the attributable deaths and DALYs. We found that the age-standardized death rate attributed to ambient PM pollution decreased to 27.90 cases per 100,000 populations from 1990 to 2010 [86, 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 76-97 to 62; 95% UI 54-71 per 100,000 populations, respectively]. This was mainly because of greater decrease in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than in the other diseases attributed to PM pollution. Despite a decrease in the total DALYs and mortality rate attributed to PM pollution, the death percent increased by 6.94%, 95% UI 6.06-7.90% from 1990 to 2010. The number of the DALYs and death in age groups of more than 70 years increased in 2010 compared to that in 1990. The median percent change of the DALYs and death for all age groups shows that the DALYs and death increased by 6% (95% UI 8-19%) and 45% (95% UI 30-60%), respectively, in 2010 in comparison to that in 1990. The increase in the DALYs and mortality attributable to PM pollution emphasizes the necessity of the effective interventions for improving air quality, as well as for increasing the public awareness to reduce the exposure of vulnerable age groups to PM pollution. PMID:26490896

  3. Effects of Using Wind Guiding Nets to Improve Prevailing Ambient Wind on Direct Air-cooled Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianguo; LIU Da; ZHANG Zhaoying; JU Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Prevailing ambient wind is the main reason that causes inlet flow rate (air mass flow rate) decreasing and air flowing backward to the air-cooled condenser fans upward to the wind, hence a set of wind guiding nets is designed to improve the detrimental effect. Fig. 1 shows four typical units of a 1000MW direct air-cooled condenser (DACC) and a set of wind guiding nets installed under its edge upward to the ambient wind. As shown in Fig. 2, the fan inlet flow rate decreases as the prevailing ambient wind velocity increasing, especially for the first two units upward to the wind.

  4. Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Pedro A; Torreblanca, Monica A; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolas; Silva, Maria P; Astete, Teresa D

    2009-12-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes, with an increase of 100 microg/m3 of PM10, was 1.163 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.057-1.279 for mortality, 1.137 (CI 1.096-1.178) for hospital admissions, and 1.162 for ARI (CI 1.144-1.181). There is evidence in Temuco of positive relationships between ambient particulate levels and mortality, hospital admissions, and ARI for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These results are consistent with those of comparable studies in other similar cities where wood smoke is the most important air pollution problem.

  5. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  6. Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2005-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban region (Heraklion, Greece) and processes that govern their atmospheric fate were studied from November 2000 until February 2002. Sixteen samples were collected, by using an artifact-free sampling device, on a monthly basis and the concentration of PAHs in gas and particulate phase was determined. The most abundant members (gas + particles) were phenanthrene (20.0 {+-} 7.0 ng m{sup -3}), fluoranthene (6.5 {+-} 1.7 ng m{sup -3}), pyrene (6.6 {+-} 2.4 ng m{sup -3}), and chrysene (3.1 {+-} 1.5 ng m{sup -3}). Total concentration (gas + particulate) of PAH ranged from 44.3 to 129.2 ng m{sup -3}, with a mean concentration of 79.3 ng m{sup -3}. Total concentration of PAHs in gas phase ranged from 31.4 to 84.7 ng m{sup -3} with non-observable seasonal variation. Conversely, maximum PAH concentrations in the particulate phase occurred during winter months. Particulate concentration varied from 11.4 to 44.9 ng m{sup -3}, with an average of 25.2 ng m{sup -3}. PAH distribution between gas and particulate phase was in agreement with the sub-cooled vapor pressure. Shift in gas/particle distribution due to difference in ambient temperature elucidated to some extent the seasonal variation of the concentration of PAHs in particles. - Capsule: Ambient PAH partitioning between gas and particle phases vary between compounds and with environmental conditions.

  7. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies. PMID:27450373

  8. The Comparative Reactivity Method – a new tool to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s−1 and the urban atmosphere of Mainz (~10 s−1 Germany, show the promise of the new method and indicate that a significant fraction of OH reactive species in the tropical forests is likely missed by current measurements. Suggestions for improvements to the technique and future applications are discussed.

  9. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. Objectives: We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. Methods: We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration–response function for ozone and an integrated exposure–response model for PM2.5. Results: We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally—675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year—and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). Conclusions: The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution–related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA

  10. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases. PMID:26421944

  11. Gas and Particulate Aircraft Emissions Measurements: Impacts on local air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T.; Northway, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Timko, M.; Wood, E.; Miake-Lye, R.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Anderson, B.

    2007-12-01

    Air travel and freight shipping by air are becoming increasingly important and are expected to continue to expand. The resulting increases in the local concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX), can have negative impacts on regional air quality, human health and can impact climate change. In order to construct valid emission inventories, accurate measurements of aircraft emissions are needed. These measurements must be done both at the engine exit plane (certification) and downwind following the rapid cooling, dilution and initial atmospheric processing of the exhaust plume. We present here results from multiple field experiments which include the Experiment to Characterize Volatile Aerosol and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) and the four Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiments (APEX- 1/Atlanta/2/3) which characterized gas and particle emissions from both stationary or in-use aircraft. Emission indices (EIs) for NOx and VOCs and for particle number concentration, refractory PM (black carbon soot) and volatile PM (primarily sulfate and organic) particles are reported. Measurements were made at the engine exit plane and at several downstream locations (10 and 30 meters) for a number of different engine types and engine thrust settings. A significant fraction of organic particle mass is composed of low volatility oil-related compounds and is not combustion related, potentially emitted by vents or heated surfaces within aircraft engines. Advected plumes measurements from in-use aircraft show that the practice of reduced thrust take-offs has a significant effect on total NOx and soot emitted in the vicinity of the airport. The measurements reported here represent a first observation of this effect and new insights have been gained with respect to the chemical processing of gases and particulates important to the urban airshed.

  12. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule....

  13. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal sampling is needed or if ambient monitoring is sufficient. Careful evaluation of the validity and improvements in precision of an exposure measure reduce error in the measurements and bias in the exposure-effect relationship.

  14. A two-time-period comparison of the effects of ambient air pollution on outpatient visits for acute respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Amber Hughes; Edgerton, Eric S; Wyzga, Ron; Tolsma, Dennis

    2010-02-01

    Concentrations of numerous ambient air pollutants have declined in recent years across the United States. Although it can be expected that reductions in air pollutants are associated with reductions in health effects, it is unclear whether this is actually the case. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the levels of and relationships between air pollutants and acute respiratory outpatient visits for two consecutive time periods totaling 53 mo. Air pollution data were collected at a centrally located monitor in Atlanta, GA, and include 24-hr averages of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and its components; coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10); oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs); 8-hr maximum ozone (O3); and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, several metals and fractions of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were investigated. Daily outpatient visit data were obtained from the electronic data warehouse of the Atlanta-based region of a nonprofit managed care organization. Poisson general linear modeling determined associations between daily levels of acute visits for four diagnosis groups (adult and child asthma, upper and lower respiratory infection) and air pollution measurements. Overall declining trends were observed in air pollutants and acute visits over the study period. Childhood asthma had the greatest number of significant associations with air pollutants, namely zinc and EC. The significant lag time between pollutant measurement and visit occurrence changed from 3-5 days in the first time period to 6-8 days in the later time period, but there was general consistency in several childhood asthma and pollutant associations over both time periods. The greatest evidence for a reduction in pollution being associated with an improvement in health response was for lower respiratory disease

  15. Comparative Health Impact Assessment of Local and Regional Particulate Air Pollutants in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Bertil; Jaervholm, Bengt [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Johansson, Christer; Areskoug, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Persson, Karin [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The ongoing program Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is an initiative from the EU Commission to establish a coordinated effort to reach better air quality in the EU. The focus is on particulate matter as it has been shown to have large impact on human health. CAFE requested that WHO make a review of the latest findings on air pollutants and health to facilitate assessments of the different air pollutants and their health effects. The WHO review project on health aspects of air pollution in Europe confirmed that exposure to particulate matter (PM), despite the lower levels we face today, still poses a significant risk to human health. Using the recommended uniform risk coefficients for health impact assessment of PM, regardless of sources, premature mortality related to long-range transported anthropogenic particles has been estimated to be about 3,500 deaths per year for the Swedish population, corresponding to a reduction in life expectancy of up to about seven months. The influence of local sources is more difficult to estimate due to large uncertainties when linking available risk coefficients to exposure data, but the estimates indicate about 1,800 deaths brought forward each year with a life expectancy reduction of about 2-3 months. However, some sectors of the population are exposed to quite high locally induced concentrations and are likely to suffer excessive reductions in life expectancy. Since the literature increasingly supports assumptions that combustion related particles are associated with higher relative risks, further studies may shift the focus for abatement strategies. CAFE sets out to establish a general cost effective abatement strategy for atmospheric particles. Our results, based on studies of background exposure, show that long-range transported sulfate rich particles dominate the health effects of PM in Sweden. The same results would be found for the whole of Scandinavia and many countries influenced by transboundary air pollution. However

  16. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Bae [The Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changsoo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunmi [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chun [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/ml for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  17. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  18. Seven year particulate matter air quality assessment from surface and satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using seven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT data and ground measurements of particulate matter mass over one site in the Southeastern United States (33.55 N, 86.82 W we present a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of particulate matter air quality. Monthly, seasonal and inter-annual relationships are examined with emphasis on sampling biases, quality indicators in the AOT product and various cloud clearing criteria. Our results indicate that PM2.5 mass concentration over Northern Birmingham has decreased by about 23% in year 2006 when compared to year 2002 and air quality during summer months are poor when compared to winter months. MODIS-Terra AOT data was available only about 50% of the time due to cloud cover and favorable surface conditions. However, the mean difference in monthly mean PM2.5 was less than 2.2 μgm−3 derived using all the data and from only those days when satellite AOT was available indicating that satellite data does not have sampling issues. The correlation between PM2.5 and MODIS AOT increased from 0.52 to 0.62 when hourly PM2.5 data were used instead of daily mean PM2.5 data. Changing box size for satellite data around the ground station during comparisons produced less than ±0.03 difference in mean AOT values for 90% of observations. Application of AOT quality flags reduced the sample size but does not affect AOT-PM2.5 relationship significantly. We recommend using AOT quality flags for daily analysis, whereas long time scale analysis can be performed without using all AOT retrievals to obtain better sampling. Our analysis indicates that satellite data is a useful tool for monitoring particulate matter air quality especially in regions where ground measurements are not available.

  19. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007-2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30-5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42-4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0-15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02-9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03-19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67-22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou.

  20. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007–2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12–3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30–5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42–4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0–15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02–9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03–19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67–22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou.

  1. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  2. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a natural experiment study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Nichols, Catherine; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunping; Liu, Xiaohong; Gao, Suhong; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM10), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM10 and NO2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods We estimated th...

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformat...

  4. Effect of ambient air pressure on debris redeposition during laser ablation of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ambient air pressure on the redeposition of debris, ablated from the zinc borosilicate glass target using 6 ns, 266 nm laser pulses, has been studied for incident fluences of 3-18 J/cm2. Measurements were carried out in air at pressures ranging from 10-750 Torr. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope observations of the target surface were made to analyze the morphology of the redeposited debris. It was found that for higher values of the laser fluence and ambient pressure, the target surface is extremely rough, with large pieces of molten glass and debris fragments deposited near and around the ablation site. The profile of the redeposited debris also shows signs of a strong shock-wave-cleaning effect and possibly a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at higher pressures. Contrary to this, under low-pressure environment the surface of the redeposited debris is cleaner and smoother, with minimal damage around the ablated crater. The measured radius of the debris field was found to be proportional to the inverse cube root of the ambient pressure, consistent with the stagnation distance of the expansion plume when energy balance with the displaced air is considered. In addition to this, the mass of the redeposited debris was estimated from the measured optical thickness of the film and compared to the ablated mass. In the range below 100 Torr, both the mass of the redeposited debris and the percentage of the ablated mass which was redeposited were found to increase with the increasing fluence and the ambient air pressure

  5. Consequences of fluctuations in the ambient air temperature at Lake Tanganyika --- A wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mbungu Tsumbu, Jean-Pierre; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bopili-Mbotia-Lepiba, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the horizontal wind speed and of both the ambient air temperature and the water temperature according to the depth. Our study clearly shows how Lake Tanganyika is thermally stratified, showing four different water layers. The study shows how waters of upper layers tend to have the same temperature as the deepest water during the dry season. The water stratification tends then to disappear completely in the dry season. The study is based on the fact that water rele...

  6. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    OpenAIRE

    SERAP AKDEMIR; SELCUK ARIN

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humi...

  7. The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, Steven T.; Sudo, Kengo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Bergmann, Daniel; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Cionni, Irene; Doherty, Ruth M.; Eyring, Veronika; Josse, Beatrice; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Plummer, David; Righi, Mattia; Stevenson, David S.; Strode, Sarah; Szopa, Sophie; Zengast, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air-pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths year-1), likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from 382 000 (121 000 to 728 000) deaths year-1 in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths year-1 in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. PM2.5 concentrations decrease relative to 2000 in all scenarios, due to projected reductions in emissions, and

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  9. Pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by specific components in ambient particulate matter in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawei; Liu, Gang; Lin, Ziying; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological effect of particulate matter (PM2.5) is involved in including chemical composition and mass concentration, but the precise components and biological action on human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of PM2.5 collected at six urban sites in China, and to investigate how particle composition affects cytotoxicity. We used human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines as model in vitro to expose to PM2.5 from different source, and then reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Furthermore, we estimated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and transition metal and the endotoxin contents. The mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-10 following exposure to PM2.5 was measured by QRT-PCR. We also observed the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using JC-1 staining, and apoptosis of BEAS-2B using flow cytometry. In addition, double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) were assessed using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence. Our results show that high concentrations of PAHs and elemental Ni were strongly associated with high apoptosis rates and high expression of IL-1β, in addition, Fe element was associated with the ROS level, furthermore, Fe and Cr element were associated with DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells. The cytotoxic effects of urban PM2.5 derived from six different cities in China appear dependent on the specific components in each. Our results indicate that air quality standards based on PM2.5 components may be more relevant than concentration-response functions (CRF). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 923-936, 2016. PMID:25533354

  10. Principal component analysis of air particulate data from the industrial area of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Gent air sampler was used to collect 72 pairs of size fractionated coarse and fine (PM/sub 10/ and PM/sub 2.5/) particulate mass samples from the industrial zone (sector I-9) of Islamabad. These samples were analyzed for their elemental composition using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Principal component analysis (PCA), which can be used for source apportionment of quantified elemental data, was used to interpret the data. Graphical representations of loadings were used to explain the data through grouping of the elements from same source. The present work shows well defined elemental fingerprints of suspended soil and road dust, industry, motor vehicle exhaust and tyres, and coal and refuses combustions for the studied locality of Islamabad. (author)

  11. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF WALL-FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER SYSTEM WITH REVERSE PULSE AIR REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunde; Shao Yuping; Zhang Chunrun; Zi XinYun; Jiang Dahai; Deng Chenglin

    2005-01-01

    To simulate steady airflows inside of wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different reverse blowing pipes collocation, a mathematical model of the flow in a DPF is established by an equivalent continuum approach. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical values calculated from the model. Simulation shows that the velocity and the pressure distribution of the filters in the regenerative process are key factors to the filter's regeneration. How to decrease the mal-distribution of the flow in the filter and how to achieve the better regenerative performance at the least cost of air consumption in the regenerative process are the ultimate goals of the study. Calculation and experiments show that the goals can be realized through adjusting the angle of two reverse blowing pipes and their relative location suitably.

  12. Polycyclic organic material (POM) in urban air. Fractionation, chemical analysis and genotoxicity of particulate and vapour phases in an industrial town in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Heikki; Tuominen, Jari; Wickström, Kim; Skyttä, Eija; Tikkanen, Leena; Salomaa, Sisko; Sorsa, Marja; Nurmela, Tuomo; Mattila, Tiina; Pohjola, Veijo

    Polycyclic organic material (POM) was collected by high-volume sampling on filter and on XAD-2 resin from the air of a small industrial town in Finland. Concurrent chemical analysis and the assays for genotoxic activity were performed on the particulate and the vapour phases of ambient air POM and their chemical fractions. Furthermore, correlations between seasonal meteorological parameters and POM concentrations were studied to reveal characteristic POM profiles for various emission sources. The range of total POM concentrations varied from 115 to 380 ng m -3 in late spring and from 17 to 83 ng m -3 in early winter. No direct correlation of ambient POM was seen with the temperature, but rather with the wind direction from various emission sources. Especially the low molecular weight compounds were associated with wind direction from industrial sources. Genotoxic activity, as detected by the Ames Salmonella/microsome test and the SCE assay in CHO cells, was found not only in the paniculate phase samples but also in the vapour phase. The polar fractions of some of the samples showed genotoxic activity, and also direct mutagenicity was observed with both the assay systems; these facts support the significance of compounds other than conventional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the samples.

  13. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  14. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  15. Analytical methods in bioassay-directed investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Christopher H; Hewitt, L Mark

    2007-01-01

    The combination of short-term bioassays and analytical chemical techniques has been successfully used in the identification of a variety of mutagenic compounds in complex mixtures. Much of the early work in the field of bioassay-directed fractionation resulted from the development of a short-term bacterial assay employing Salmonella typhimurium; this assay is commonly known as the Ames assay. Ideally, analytical methods for assessment of mutagenicity of any environmental matrix should exhibit characteristics including high capacity, good selectivity, good analytical resolution, non-destructiveness, and reproducibility. A variety of extraction solvents have been employed in investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate; sequential combination of dichloromethane followed by methanol is most popular. Soxhlet extraction has been the most common extraction method, followed by sonication. Attempts at initial fractionation using different extraction solvents have met with limited success and highlight the need for fractionation schemes applicable to moderately polar and polar mutagenic compounds. Fractionation methods reported in the literature are reviewed according to three general schemas: (i) acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by fractionation using open-column chromatography and/or HPLC; (ii) fractionation based on normal-phase (NP) HPLC using a cyanopropyl or chemically similar stationary phase; and (iii) fractionation by open-column chromatography followed by NP-HPLC. The HPLC methods may be preparative, semi-preparative, or analytical scale. Variations based on acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by a chromatographic separation have also been employed. Other lesser-used approaches involve fractionation based on ion-exchange and thin-layer chromatographies. Although some of the methodologies used in contemporary studies of mutagenicity of air particulate do not represent significant advances in technology over the past 30 years, their simplicity, low

  16. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, dpp3: HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; Edep, - 1.30 V; tdep, 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  17. Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hales, Nick; Burnett, Richard T.; Jerrett, Michael; Mix, Carter; Dockery, Douglas W.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution—a well-recognized environmental risk factor—and exceptional aging have not been investigated. Objectives: We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging. Citation: Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744–1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197 PMID:27138440

  18. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  19. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  20. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  1. Association of ozone and particulate air pollution with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Helsinki, Finland: evidence for two different etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Frank S; Kuisma, Markku; Lanki, Timo; Hussein, Tareq; Boyd, James; Halonen, Jaana I; Pekkanen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been previously associated with exposure to particulate air pollution. However, there is uncertainty about the agents and mechanisms that are involved. We aimed to determine the association of gases and particulates with OHCA, and differences in pollutant effects on OHCAs due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) vs those due to other causes. Helsinki Emergency Medical Services provided data on OHCAs of cardiac origin (OHCA_Cardiac). Hospital and autopsy reports determined whether OHCAs were due to AMI (OHCA_MI) or other cardiac causes (OHCA_Other). Pollutant data was obtained from central ambient monitors. A case-crossover analysis determined odds ratios (ORs) for hourly lagged exposures (Lag 0-3) and daily lagged exposures (Lag 0d-3d), expressed per interquartile range of pollutant level. For OHCA_Cardiac, elevated ORs were found for PM(2.5) (Lag 0, 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.13) and ozone (O(3)) (Lag 2d, 1.18; CI: 1.03-1.35). For OHCA_MI, elevated ORs were found for PM(2.5) (Lag 0, 1.14; CI: 1.03-1.27; Lag 0d, 1.17; CI: 1.03-1.33), accumulation mode particulate (Acc) (Lag 0d, 1.19; CI: 1.04-1.35), NO (Lag 0d, 1.07; CI: 1.01-1.13), and ultrafine particulate (Lag 0d, 1.27; CI: 1.05-1.54). For OHCA_Other, elevated ORs were found only for O(3) (Lag 1d, 1.26; CI: 1.07-1.48; Lag 2d, 1.30; CI: 1.11-1.53). Results from two-pollutant models, with one of the pollutants either PM(2.5) or O(3), suggested that associations were primarily due to effects of PM(2.5) and O(3), rather than other pollutants. The results suggest that air pollution triggers OHCA via two distinct modes: one associated with particulates leading to AMI and one associated with O(3) involving etiologies other than AMI, for example, arrhythmias or respiratory insufficiency.

  2. Environmental pollution studies. Quantitative determination of elements in the air particulate matter by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding to the 2002 PNCA Program for the Utilization of INAA in the Environmental Study, the elemental determination of air particulate matter have been done. Two sampling site were chosen to collect a PMs samples, i.e. Lembang and Bandung that represent the rural and the urban region respectively. The period of sampling was January 2002 to November 2002. Air sample was collect by GANT Stacked air sampler using 47 mm diameter cellulose filter which have a pore size of 0.45 μm and 8 μm for fine and coarse particle respectively. Quantitative elemental determination has been done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis based on a comparative method. The elemental distributions on fine and coarse fraction of air particulate matter have been analyzed for both sampling sites as well as the enrichment factor (EF) for all elements interest. The result shows that the average annual concentrations of fine and coarse PMs in the Lembang sampling site were 7.8 μg.m-3 and 1.6 μg.m-3 respectively. Meanwhile at Bandung sampling site, the PMs are higher than that a Lembang sampling site, i.e. 14.4 μg.m-3 and 22.5 μg.m-3 for fine and coarse PMs respectively. The fine fraction was higher than the coarse fraction at Lembang sampling site, but at Bandung sampling site the fine fraction was lower than the coarse fraction. Fifteen elements of Na, Al, V, Mn, Br, I, Cl, Sc, Co, Fe, Cr, Zn, La, Sb and Sm were analyzed for both sampling site. Among those elements concerned, Na, Al, Br, Cl and Fe were major constituent elements in all fractions that have a concentration more than 40 ng.cm-3. Generally, the concentration of elements determined in the urban sampling site was higher than that in the rural site. Al, V, Mn, Sc, Co and Fe are relatively higher in concentration in coarse fraction of urban site. Br element concentration was not significantly different for both sampling site. The EF values of most elements concerned are generally also higher for the fine fraction than

  3. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    function and Clara cell 16 (CC16) protein release in healthy young subjects. Twenty-nine nonsmokers participated in a randomized, two-factor crossover study with or without biking exercise for 180 min and with 24-h exposure to particle-rich (6169-15,362 particles/cm(3); 7.0-11.6 microg/m(3) PM(2.5); 7...

  4. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...-Related Welfare Effects 1. Climate 2. Ecological Effects a. Plants b. Soil and Nutrient Cycling c... Monitoring System a. Background b. Primary PM 2.5 NAAQS i. Proposed Addition of a Near-Road Component to the... Criteria a. Near-Road Component to the PM 2.5 Monitoring Network b. CSN Network c. Reinsertion of Table...

  5. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  6. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  7. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two

  8. Ambient air quality in industrial harbor area%某港口工业区大气质量监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋守芳; 朱琳; 陈超; 李君; 关维俊; 佟俊旺; 高彦梅; 田喜权; 郑天然; 李克; 鲁亚静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the air quality in an industrial harbor area located in Tangshan city in order to provide fundamental data for carrying out continuous environmental monitoring.Methods According to the construction status and the distributions of pollution sources in the area, steel factory, power plant, crude oil dock, ore dock, coal dock, and control area were chosen as the sampling area.The concentrations of SO2 ,NO2 ,CO ,O3 ,total suspended particulate(TSP) and particulate matter < 10[mμ]m( PM10 ) in the ambient air were determined.The air quality of each area selected and of the whole industrial area were assessed by calculating the integrated air pollution index.Results The concentrations of all air pollutants in each area as well as in the whole industrial area were lower than the maximum acceptable level defined by standards for environmental air quality.Compared with the control area, the concentration of TSP of coal dock was higher with a significant difference(0.416 vs 0.193 mg/m3 ,P <0.05 ).The integrated air pollution indexes for ambient air of steel factory,power plant, crude oil dock, ore dock, and coal dock were 0.486,0.451,0.350,0.314, and 0.475, respectively.Air quality index of each area and the whole industrial area were all lower than 0.49, and the quality of the ambient air was grade Ⅰ, which belonged to clean air.Conclusion The ambient air quality of the industrial harbor area was clean and belonged to grade Ⅰ.%目的 了解河北省唐山市某港口工业区部分投产期间的大气污染状况,为进行连续性环境监测和环境科学研究提供基础资料.方法 采用功能分区布点,在工业区内的钢铁厂、电厂、原油码头、矿石码头、煤炭码头和对照区采集大气样品,测定SO2、NO2、CO、O3总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)和可吸入颗粒物(PM10)等指标,计算各采样点大气质量综合指数.结果 各采样点以及整个工业区空气中各种污染物浓度均未超标;与对照区(0

  9. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  10. 77 FR 73924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). EPA is approving the 2002 base year PM 2.5..., Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting...

  11. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM2.5 and O3. • Estimated associations between PM2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  12. Effects of ambient air pollution on upper and lower respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; van der Zee, S C; Postma, D S; Vonk, J M; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Rijcken, B; Schouten, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have shown acute effects of increased amounts of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children with respiratory disorders. We investigated whether children with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and relatively high serum co

  13. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  14. A metrological approach to improve accuracy and reliability of ammonia measurements in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogány, Andrea; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Cassidy, Nathan; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Hieta, Tuomas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    The environmental impacts of ammonia (NH3) in ambient air have become more evident in the recent decades, leading to intensifying research in this field. A number of novel analytical techniques and monitoring instruments have been developed, and the quality and availability of reference gas mixtures used for the calibration of measuring instruments has also increased significantly. However, recent inter-comparison measurements show significant discrepancies, indicating that the majority of the newly developed devices and reference materials require further thorough validation. There is a clear need for more intensive metrological research focusing on quality assurance, intercomparability and validations. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air) is a three-year project within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), which aims to bring metrological traceability to ambient ammonia measurements in the 0.5–500 nmol mol‑1 amount fraction range. This is addressed by working in three areas: (1) improving accuracy and stability of static and dynamic reference gas mixtures, (2) developing an optical transfer standard and (3) establishing the link between high-accuracy metrological standards and field measurements. In this article we describe the concept, aims and first results of the project.

  15. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  16. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  17. Influence of chemical and physical forms of ambient air acids on airway doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, T.V.

    1989-02-01

    The effects of ambient relative humidity and particle size on acid deposition within the airways have been examined with a computer model. For H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ particles initially at 90% relative humidity in ambient air that are inhaled via the nose or mouth, there is significant deposition of acid in the airways even in the presence of typical values of respiratory NH/sub 3/. When these same particles are found in a fog at 100.015% relative humidity, there is significant deposition of acid in the nasal region during nose breathing but insignificant deposition to the deep lung for either nose or mouth breathing. The factors governing the partitioning of labile acid gases in the gas and liquid phases prior to inhalation are also discussed.

  18. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  19. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  20. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  1. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  2. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X. N.; Xie, Z. Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L. B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  3. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  4. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  5. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq. atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected, with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254, similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH

  6. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  7. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Linden (215) 814-2096, Region IV--Lynorae Benjamin (404) 562-9040, Region V--Andy Chang (312) 886-0258.... 2023, (617) 918-1661. Raymond Werner, Chief, Air Programs New Jersey, New York, Puerto Branch, EPA... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National...

  8. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ..., Region 3--Melissa Linden (215) 814-2096, Region 4--Steve Scofield (404) 562-9034, Region 5--Andy Chang..., Boston, MA 02114- Rhode Island, and Vermont. 2023, (617) 918-1661. Raymond Werner, Chief, Air Programs... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register FEM Federal Equivalent Method FRM Federal Reference...

  9. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  10. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T. [Minerals Management Service, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Navarrete, R. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  11. Monitoring ambient air pollutants and apply Woods' model in the prediction seasonal dry deposition at Chang-Hua (urban) and Kao-Mei (wetland) county, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Ying

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and dry deposition. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) were evaluated using Woods' model at urban and wetland areas for the 2009-2010 period. The results indicated that the mean highest concentrations of metallic elements Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb in TSP were found in Chang-Hua (urban) sampling site. And as for the two characteristic sampling sites, the Woods' model exhibits better dry deposition of particulates of 18 µm particle size than the rest of the other particle sizes at any sampling site in this study. The average calculated/measured flux ratios for two seasons (summer and fall) by using Woods model at 2.5, 10 and 18 µm particles sizes were also studied. The results indicated that the average calculated/measured flux ratios orders for two seasons of various particles sizes were all displayed as Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > particle. And these calculated/measured flux ratios orders were Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > particle and were Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb, during spring and winter seasons, respectively. Finally, in the spring and summer seasons of Gao-Mei (wetland) sampling site, the average calculated/measured flux ratios using Woods' model was found to be 2.5, 10 and 18 µm, showing the order of the calculated/measured flux ratios to be Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Pb > particle. And the calculated/measured flux ratio orders were Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb and were Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > particle > Pb for fall and winter season, respectively.

  12. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x (SCN) x perovskite films can be readily prepare...

  13. Tritium release from a nonevaportable getter-pump cartridge exposed to moist air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tritium released when a commercially available getter-pump cartridge was exposed to moist air at ambient temperatures was measured. The cartridge consisted of Zr-Al powder pressed onto an iron substrate, which is the type of cartridge proposed for use in the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor. While the initial release of tritium was rapid the total activity released was lss than 0.005% of the cartridge loading. Of this amount, at least 80% was released as tritiated water. 8 figures

  14. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor A Utsal; Dobryakov, Yuri G; Vitenberg, Alexander G; Makarova, Svetlana V; Anna Yu Eshchenko; Igor G Zenkevich

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) a...

  15. CRITERIOS PARA UNA AGENDA AMBIENTAL DE AREAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS COSTERAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marcela; López, María José; Testa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Las Áreas Protegidas costeras en la provincia de Buenos Aires tienen dificultades de gestión ambiental y requieren de un ordenamiento vinculado al desarrollo sostenible, donde se reconozcan los vínculos entre los derechos de propiedad, la participación y la acción colectiva en el manejo de los recursos del territorio. Por lo tanto, la institucionalidad del manejo de las reservas provinciales costeras se define en escenarios muy complejos de governanza. Las estrategias de governanza de las Áre...

  16. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  17. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  18. Relationship between ambient air pollution and DNA damage in Polish mothers and newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized regions in Poland are characterized by high ambient pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal burning for industry and home heating. In experimental bioassays, certain PAHs are transplacental carcinogens and developmental toxicants. The amount of PAHs bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in maternal and umbilical white blood cells were measured in 70 mothers and newborns from Krakow, Poland. Modulation of adduct levels by genotypes previously linked to risk of lung cancer, specifically glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). There was a dose-related increase in maternal and newborn adduct levels with ambient pollution at the women's place of residence among subjects who were not employed away from home (p less than or equal to 0.05). Maternal smoking (active and passive) significantly increased maternal (p less than or equal to 0.01) but not newborn adduct levels. Results indicate that PAH-induced DNA damage in mothers and newborns is increased by ambient air pollution

  19. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  20. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C2 and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals

  1. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap, E-mail: ravips@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  2. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O2* species of unknown identity with ground state O2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  3. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs. PMID:27628441

  4. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  5. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  6. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of general phosphate fertilizers factories company on the surrounding environment by determining natural radionuclides and some trace elements in air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides and some trace element levels in air particulates of the areas surrounding the phosphate fertilizers factory in Homs have been determined Mean total air particulates concentration ranged from 31 μg/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen in Autumn period. While trace element concentrations in air particulates were relatively high in air particulates collected from AECS center and other sites situated north east of the factory; about 1.7 ng/m3 in AECS site and 1.7 ng/m3 in Abel for uranium and cadmium, respectively. In addition, radioactivity analysis of air particulates has shown low levels of polonium 210 and lead 210; a value of 2 mBq/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen has not been exceeded. However, air particulate, natural radionuclides and the studied trace elements concentrations in the surrounding areas were within the natural levels. Therefore, air emissions from the factory containing radioactive materials and trace elements are relatively low. This is due to strict control procedures on transport and loading processes of phosphate in addition to the high efficiency of filters used for air emissions from the phosphate fertilizers factory during the study period (2002). (author)

  8. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  9. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  10. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  11. Assessment of reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air as malodor components in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methanethiol (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)) in ambient air was made using an on-line GC system at an odor monitoring station in the city of Ansan, South Korea (August 2005-December 2007). The results were examined to assess the status of RSC pollution, its relative contribution to malodor, and the controlling factors of its occurrence. H 2S (mean of 0.27 ppb) was eminent in terms of both magnitude and occurrence frequency, while others were not with mean values of 0.11 (DMDS), 0.10 (DMS), and 0.07 ppb (CH 3SH). Unlike others, the temporal trends of H 2S were best represented by the combined effects of its source processes and meteorological conditions. The results of correlation analysis indicate strong correlations between RSCs and water-related parameters (e.g., rainfall, dew point, and relative humidity). The role of RSCs as malodor component appears to be pronounced during nighttime, especially in summer. If the relative contribution of RSCs to malodor is assessed by means of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), its impact is relatively low, with an SOI value of 1.22 (weak odor strength). Consequently, a more deliberate approach may be needed to effectively assess odor occurrence patterns in ambient air.

  12. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  13. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  14. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as asorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured. Thesample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up ehition through a silica gelcolumn was optimized. The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows: resinweight was 1.5 g, ultrasonic extraction time 20 min, volume of extraction solvent 100 mi andextraction operation times 2~3. The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to nextstep of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and amixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3 (v/v). The PAHs fractions in the real samplesfrom Changzhou, China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of massspectra, retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of thestandards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as "priority pollutants" of the environment. Theanalysis of the real samples indicates that the carbonized fibrous resin is a good sorbent. Thepretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for P,AHs isproved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs inatmospheric environment.

  15. Ambient air monitoring during the 2011 Las Conchas wildland fire near Los Alamos, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schlemann, Shea A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates; Young, Daniel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-31

    Air monitoring data collected during the Las Conchas fire near the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2011 are presented. Data included are for selected radionuclides and selected metals found in particulate matter. None of these analytes were seen at levels which exceeded any state or federal standards.

  16. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Incident Adult Asthma in a Nationwide Cohort of U.S. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michael T.; Sandler, Dale P; Lisa A DeRoo; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stephanie J. London

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Limited prior data suggest an association between traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma in adults. No published studies assess the effect of long-term exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on adult incident asthma.

  17. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  18. Acute Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Mortality in Europe and North America: Results from the APHENA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, Evangelia; Peng, Roger; Ramsay, Tim; Pipikou, Marina; Touloumi, Giota; Dominici, Francesca; Burnett, Rick; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel; Samet, Jon; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2008-01-01

    Background The APHENA (Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach) study is a collaborative analysis of multicity time-series data on the effect of air pollution on population health, bringing together data from the European APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) and U.S. NMMAPS (National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution Study) projects, along with Canadian data. Objectives The main objective of APHENA was to assess the coherence of the find...

  19. Short-term health effects of particulate air pollution with special reference to the needs of southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsouyanni Klea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollution, especially from particulate matter, is generally accepted to be one of the most important public health problems in Europe and worldwide. The effects caused in the general population are associated with relatively small relative risks, but if the ubiquity of exposure is considered, the attributable number of events is large. Furthermore, there is evidence that the effects in sensitive population subgroups (such as the elderly, those with chronic diseases and children are stronger. Within large European Union funded collaborative projects (such as the Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach-APHEA, effect modification by geographical characteristics has been investigated and it was found that in warmer countries, in locations where particles come from traffic and where the proportion of the elderly is greater, particle toxicity is increased. These characteristics are particularly relevant to Southern European locations. From other projects we know that meteorological, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic factors are effect modifiers of the effects of specific air pollutants. In this presentation we will show the evidence on the short-term health effects of particulate and gaseous air pollutants and emphasize particularly results concerning southern Europe and potential effect modifiers. The gaps in knowledge and the need to study air pollution in Southern European countries more extensively will be demonstrated. To conduct useful research, good quality air pollution and health data are needed.

  20. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  1. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  2. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  3. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  4. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region. PMID:22263420

  5. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    , showed that air pollution-mortality risks were nearly 3 times greater than those reported from earlier analyses. This suggests that chronic health effects associated with intra-urban gradients in exposure to PM2.5 may be even larger between ZCAs within an MSA than the associations between MSAs that have been previously reported. However, in the New York City spatial analysis, where we found very little exposure contrast between ZCAs within the New York region, mortality from all causes, cardiopulmonary disease (CPD), and lung cancer was not elevated. A positive association was seen for PM2.5 exposure and IHD, which provides evidence of a specific association with a cause of death that has high biologic plausibility. These results were robust when analyses controlled (1) the 44 individual-level covariates (from the ACS enrollment questionnaire in 1982; see 44 Individual-Level Covariates sidebar on page 22) and (2) spatial clustering using the random effects Cox model. Effects were mildly lower when unemployment at the ZCA scale was included. To examine whether there is a critical exposure time window that is primarily responsible for the increased mortality associated with ambient air pollution, we constructed individual time-dependent exposure profiles for particulate and gaseous air pollutants (PM2.5 and SO2) for a subset of the ACS CPS-II participants for whom residence histories were available. The relevance of the three exposure time windows we considered was gauged using the magnitude of the relative risk (HR) of mortality as well as the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which measures the goodness of fit of the model to the data. For PM2.5, no one exposure time window stood out as demonstrating the greatest HR; nor was there any clear pattern of a trend in HR going from recent to more distant windows or vice versa. Differences in AIC values among the three exposure time windows were also small. The HRs for mortality associated with exposure to SO2 were highest in

  6. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    in humidity by 10%, by 0.5 μg m -3 per increase in CO 2 indoor concentration by 100 ppm, and a decrease by 2.8 μg m -3 in 5-7th grade classes and by 7.3 μg m -3 in class 8-11 compared to 1-4th class. During the winter period, the associations were stronger regarding class level, reverse regarding humidity (a decrease by 6.4 μg m -3 per increase in 10% humidity) and absent regarding CO 2 indoor concentration. The median PNC measured in 36 classrooms ranged between 2622 and 12,145 particles cm -3 (median: 5660 particles cm -3). The results clearly show that exposure to particulate matter in school is high. The increased PM concentrations in winter and their correlation with high CO 2 concentrations indicate that inadequate ventilation plays a major role in the establishment of poor indoor air quality. Additionally, the increased PM concentration in low level classes and in rooms with high number of pupils suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more pronounced in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. Further investigations are necessary to increase knowledge on predictors of PM concentration, to assess the toxic potential of indoor particles and to develop and test strategies how to ensure improved indoor air quality in schools.

  7. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM2.5) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m−3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  8. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  9. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN for Ambient Air Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87 with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42 with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  10. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  11. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level.

  12. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  13. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  14. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  15. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure: a Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Russell S; Suh Helen H; Coull Brent A; Yeh Gloria Y; Wellenius Gregory A; Mittleman Murray A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollut...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. T Appendix T to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. H Appendix H to Part 50—Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. I Appendix I to Part 50—Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the...

  19. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  20. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on ST segment height: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Rongling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods We investigate the acute effects and the time course of fine particulate pollution (PM2.5 on myocardium ischemic injury as assessed by ST-segment height in a community-based sample of 106 healthy non-smokers. Twenty-four hour beat-to-beat electrocardiogram (ECG data were obtained using a high resolution 12-lead Holter ECG system. After visually identifying and removing all the artifacts and arrhythmic beats, we calculated beat-to-beat ST-height from ten leads (inferior leads II, III, and aVF; anterior leads V3 and V4; septal leads V1 and V2; lateral leads I, V5, and V6,. Individual-level 24-hour real-time PM2.5 concentration was obtained by a continuous personal PM2.5 monitor. We then calculated, on a 30-minute basis, the corresponding time-of-the-day specific average exposure to PM2.5 for each participant. Distributed lag models under a linear mixed-effects models framework were used to assess the regression coefficients between 30-minute PM2.5 and ST-height measures from each lead; i.e., one lag indicates a 30-minute separation between the exposure and outcome. Results The mean (SD age was 56 (7.6 years, with 41% male and 74% white. The mean (SD PM2.5 exposure was 14 (22 μg/m3. All inferior leads (II, III, and aVF and two out of three lateral leads (I and V6, showed a significant association between higher PM2.5 levels and higher ST-height. Most of the adverse effects occurred within two hours after PM2.5 exposure. The multivariable adjusted regression coefficients β (95% CI of the cumulative effect due to a 10 μg/m3 increase in Lag 0-4 PM2.5 on ST-I, II, III, aVF and ST-V6 were 0.29 (0.01-0.56 μV, 0.79 (0.20-1.39 μV, 0.52 (0.01-1.05 μV, 0.65 (0.11-1.19 μV, and 0.58 (0.07-1.09 μV, respectively, with all p

  1. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  2. Air quality over Europe: modeling gaseous and particulate pollutants and the effect of precursor emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tagaris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Air quality over Europe using Models-3 (i.e. CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE modeling system is performed for winter (i.e. January, 2006 and summer (i.e. July, 2006 months with the 2006 TNO gridded anthropogenic emissions database. Higher ozone concentrations are illustrated in southern Europe while higher NO2 concentrations are simulated over western Europe. Elevated SO2 concentrations are simulated over eastern Europe while elevated PM2.5 levels are simulated over eastern and western Europe. Results suggest that NO2 and PM2.5 are underpredicted, SO2 is overpredicted while Max8hrO3 is overpredicted for low concentrations and is underpredicted for the higher ones. Speciated PM2.5 components suggest that NO3 is dominant during winter in western Europe and in a few eastern countries due to the high NO2 concentrations. During summer NO3 is dominant only in regions with elevated NH3 emissions. For the rest of the domain SO4 is dominant. Low OC concentrations are simulated mainly due to the uncertain representation of SOA formation. The difference between observed and predicted concentrations for each country is assessed for the gaseous and particulate pollutants. The simultaneous precursor emissions change applying scaling factors on NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions based on the observed/predicted ratio for each country seems to statistically enhance model performance (in gaseous pollutants the improvement in root mean square is up to 5.6 ppbV, in the index of agreement is up to 0.3 and in the mean absolute error is up to 4.2 ppbV while the related values in PM2.5 are 4.5 μg m−3, 0.2 and 3.5 μg m−3, respectively.

  3. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK. (letter)

  4. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Twigg, M. M.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Braban, C. F.; Lingard, J. J. N.; Ritchie, S.; Beck, R. C.; Móring, A.; Ots, R.; Di Marco, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2016-04-01

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK.

  5. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings. PMID:27569522

  7. Impact of ambient air pollution on gestational age is modified by season in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Doug

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of individual pollutants and the period(s during pregnancy when pollutant levels are likely to have most impact on preterm birth is not clear. We evaluated the effect of prenatal exposure to six common urban air pollutants in the Sydney metropolitan area on preterm birth. Methods We obtained information on all births in metropolitan Sydney between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000. For each birth, exposure to each air pollutant was estimated for the first trimester, the three months preceding birth, the first month after the estimated date of conception and the month prior to delivery. Gestational age was analysed as a categorical variable in logistic regression models. Results There were 123 840 singleton births in Sydney in 1998–2000 and 4.9% were preterm. Preterm birth was significantly associated with maternal age, maternal smoking, male infant, indigenous status and first pregnancy. Air pollutant levels in the month and three months preceding birth had no significant effect on preterm birth after adjusting for maternal and infant covariates. Ozone levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and spring months of conception and sulphur dioxide were associated with increased risks for preterm births. Nitrogen dioxide was associated with a decreased risk of preterm births. Conclusion We found more protective than harmful associations between ambient air pollutants and preterm births with most associations non-significant. In view of these inconsistent associations, it is important to interpret the harmful effects with caution. If our results are confirmed by future studies then it will be imperative to reduce Sydney's already low air pollution levels even further.

  8. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen Hong Tseng; Chien Hou Wu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Kong Hwa Chiu [Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology; Jiunn Guang Lo [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology

    2004-08-01

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling sites. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled. (author)

  9. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM10, PM2.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM10/PM2.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  10. Atmospheric pressure diffuse plasma in ambient air for ITO surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of atmospheric filament-free diffuse plasma in ambient air and oxygen by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) on surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) were studied. The DCSBD plasma treatment resulted in significant reduction of water contact angles (even for 1 s long treatment). The decrease can be explained by the chemical changes on surface. These were studied by XPS which shows considerable decrease in the carbon surface concentration. The detailed analysis of C1s peak indicates the increase of the highest binding energy component of the C1s peak that corresponds to polar bonds with oxygen, which may be also related to decrease of water contact angle. AFM measurement showed no significant effect of plasma on ITO surface morphology.

  11. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  12. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using vertical Bridgman method in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K.; Ohba, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Miyagawa, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to β-Ga2O3 single crystal growth was studied, using the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in ambient air, while measuring the β-Ga2O3 melting temperature and investigating the effects of crucible composition and shape. β-Ga2O3 single crystals 25 mm in diameter were grown in platinum-rhodium alloy crucibles in ambient air, with no adhesion of the crystals to the crucible wall. Single crystal growth without a crystal seed was realized by (100) faceted growth with a growth direction perpendicular to the (100) faceted plane.

  13. Source apportionment profile of the fine air particulate pollution in a sampling site in Quezon City (Philippines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter (PM10) was monitored and collected at a sampling site in Quezon City, Philippines since 1998 for the purpose of source identification and source apportionment. For such to be achieved, parameters like particulate mass, black carbon, and elemental concentration and identification must be determined. These were attained by using gravimetry, reflectometr, and particle-induced x-ray emissions (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), respectively. Source apportionment was attained with the use of Positive Matrix Factorization 2 (PMF2). This resulted to the identification of six air pollution sources. These are vehicular emissions (49%), smoke (14%), secondary S (22%), fine soil (8%) and industry (7%). Data also showed PM10 compliance to the Philippines 1-year guideline value of 60μg m-3 but in excedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 20μg m-3. Furthermore, PM2.5 levels are in exceedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 15μg m-3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10μg m-3. Also worth noting, particulate lead (Pb) levels of the fine fractions observed to follow a decreasing pattern that coincides well with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline in 1998, and the eventual phase-out of the leaded-gasoline in 2001.(author)

  14. Ambient air quality and the frequency of physician visits by preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmišević Smajil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ambient air pollution in the town of Kakanj, mostly of industrial origin, has become a major reason for increased use of health care services by children under the age of six years. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between ambient concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2, suspended particles and nitrogenoxides (NOx, and the frequency/number of visits to health care institutions by children under the age of six years. Material and methods. The investigation was carried out in the period from January to December 2003, in the area of Kakanj and Brnjic. We examined the average number of monthly visits to health care institutions and concentrations of sulphur dioxide, suspended particles and nitrogen oxides in the town of Kakanj. Results. The investigation shows that there is a linear increase of visits to health care institutions in relation to linear increase of concetrations of sulphur dioxide, suspended particles and nitrogen oxides (Oair. .

  15. Air filtration in the free molecular flow regime: a review of high-efficiency particulate air filters based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Air filtration in the free molecular flow (FMF) regime is important and challenging because a higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop are obtained when the fiber diameter is smaller than the gas mean free path in the FMF regime. In previous studies, FMF conditions have been obtained by increasing the gas mean free path through reducing the pressure and increasing the temperature. In the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale diameters, it is possible to filtrate in the FMF regime under normal conditions. This paper reviews recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of air filtration in the FMF regime. Typical structure models of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters based on CNTs are introduced. The pressure drop in air filters operated in the FMF regime is less than that predicted by the conventional air filtration theory. The thinnest HEPA filters fabricated from single-walled CNT films have an extremely low pressure drop. CNT air filters with a gradient nanostructure are shown to give a much better filtration performance in dynamic filtration. CNT air filters with a hierarchical structure and an agglomerated CNT fluidized bed air filter are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for the application of CNTs in air filtration are discussed.

  16. 77 FR 65630 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; The 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide... Fine Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as DC Area or Area) for the 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air...

  17. THE CELLULAR AND GENOMIC RESPONSE OF AN IMMORTALIZED MICROGLIA CELL LINE (BV2) TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes cellular and genomic evidence that microglia exposed to concentrated air pollutants (CAPs). These were CAPs achieved from a previous study in which sub-chronically exposed transgenic animals develop neurodegeneration (Veronesi et al., Inhalation Tox,...

  18. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing. PMID:25074829

  19. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  20. Immunity-Related Protein Expression and Pathological Lung Damage in Mice Poststimulation with Ambient Particulate Matter from Live Bird Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kai; Wu, Bo; Gao, Jing; Cai, Yumei; Yao, Meiling; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the adverse health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from live bird markets and to determine whether biological material in PM accounts for immune-related inflammatory response. Mice were exposed to a single or repeated dose of PM, after which the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and chemokines in the lungs of infected mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological analysis. Results after single and repeated PM stimulation with [Formula: see text] indicated that TLR2 and TLR4 played a dominant role in the inflammatory responses of the lung. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1 increased significantly, which could eventually contribute to lung injury. Moreover, biological components in PM were critical in mediating immune-related inflammatory responses and should therefore not be overlooked.