WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient air monitoring

  1. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  4. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  5. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  6. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m3) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  7. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air...—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 1. Monitoring Objectives and Spatial Scales 2... networks must be designed to meet three basic monitoring objectives. These basic objectives are...

  8. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  9. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  10. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  11. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  12. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is intended...

  13. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... Part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new PM 2.5 equivalent method is an...

  14. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method...

  15. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method...

  16. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the... of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method...

  17. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  18. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  19. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  20. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  1. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  2. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN for Ambient Air Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87 with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42 with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  3. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  4. Ambient air toxics monitoring and impact analysis for a resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air monitoring has been conducted for approximately three years beginning in January of 1988 at four locations surrounding the Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility (GDRRF). The GDRRF began burning refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in early 1989. Two sampling locations operated by Roy F. Weston, Inc. are located in Michigan near the facility, and two sampling locations operated by Environment Canada are located across the Detroit River in Ontario. The groups of compounds sampled include dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, and inorganic acids. The sampling results comprise one of the most comprehensive databases available for assessment of RRF air quality impacts. This paper presents a comparison of the sampling results between two of the four sampling locations. The site locations were chosen to represent background and impacted sites based on dispersion modeling and climatology. The background and impacted site results are statistically compared to determine impacts from the facility. Also, multiple regression and principal components techniques are used to identify source-receptor relations and source signatures

  5. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    OpenAIRE

    I. C. Rumsey; K. A. Cowen; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T J; E. A. Hanft; K. Mishoe; Rogers, C.; R. Proost; G. M. Beachley; Lear, G.; T. Frelink; R. P. Otjes

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (M...

  6. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  9. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  10. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  11. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  12. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3 receptor grid (i.e., simulated receptors at the nine monitoring locations). Comparison of the monitored and simulated PDF for 72-h 1,3-D concentrations indicated that SOFEA slightly over predicts the 1,3-D concentration distribution at all percentiles below the 99th with slight under prediction of the 99-100th percentile values. This suggests that without further refinement, the SOFEA2 model, based upon field validation observations, will result in representative but conservative estimates of lifetime exposure to 1,3-D for bystanders in 1,3-D use areas. PMID:27376915

  13. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  15. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    OpenAIRE

    I. C. Rumsey; K. A. Cowen; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T J; E. A. Hanft; K. Mishoe; Rogers, C.; R. Proost; G. M. Beachley; Lear, G.; T. Frelink; R. P. Otjes

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses...

  16. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  17. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...

  18. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  19. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  20. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring..., Inc., 1600 Washington Blvd., Grants Pass, Or 97526. EQPM-1013-211, ``Environnement S.A. Model MP101M... method is identified as follows: EQNA-1013-210, ``Environnement S.A. Model AS32M cavity attenuated...

  1. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  2. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  3. Long-term monitoring and seasonal analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M; Coutinho, M; Borrego, C

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the analytical results of PAHs concentrations in ambient air obtained in the PM10 and gas-phase, from 2004 to 2014, in Porto, Portugal. As part of a monitoring programme conducted by IDAD - Institute of Environment and Development and supported by the regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of PAH concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto's metropolitan area. During this period a total of 201 samples were collected in two sites classified as suburban. Analytical results showed a clear decreasing trend of total PAHs (∑PAH) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels during the period of study, especially in the first years of monitoring. The average annual concentrations of BaP were, throughout the monitoring period, lower than the target value for the annual average (1 ng m(-3)) defined in the European legislation. PAHs levels showed a strong seasonality, with higher concentrations values during the colder months. The winter/summer ratio of ∑PAH for the eleven years of study was 5, revealing the seasonal variation of PAHs in the studied area. The estimated toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) used to assess the contribution of the carcinogenic potential, confirmed a significant presence of the moderately active carcinogenic BaP and dibenz[ah]anthracene (DahA) in the samples collected in Porto. The ratio values of individual PAHs concentrations were used as diagnostic tool to identify the possible origin of PAH in the ambient air of Porto. Based on diagnostic ratios, it may be concluded that automobile traffic emissions, mainly related to diesel vehicles, were the major contribution of PAH levels in the ambient air, although some others contributions, such as coal and wood combustion, were identified.

  4. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  5. Ambient air monitoring during the 2011 Las Conchas wildland fire near Los Alamos, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schlemann, Shea A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates; Young, Daniel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-31

    Air monitoring data collected during the Las Conchas fire near the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2011 are presented. Data included are for selected radionuclides and selected metals found in particulate matter. None of these analytes were seen at levels which exceeded any state or federal standards.

  6. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  7. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2008 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  8. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  9. Evaluation of innovative air-monitoring technologies for the measurement of ambient concentrations of ozone and its precursors at the 1996 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiles, Donald S.; Rodgers, Michael; Meeker, Charles; Olive, Brent S.; Simpson, Orman A.

    1997-05-01

    An open path Fourier transform IR spectrometer and an ultra- violet differential optical absorption spectrometer were used during the 1996 Atlanta Olympics games to monitor for ambient ozone and its precursors near the Olympic Village. Both systems were operated continuously before, during, and after the increase in Atlanta's population associated with the Summer games. The study utilized the massive changes in population patterns to observe and measure changes in local air quality due to an increased local population. A second goal of the program was to evaluate both open path instruments in continuous field use over a period of several weeks. The evaluation included the following criteria: instrumentation operability, system precision and accuracy, detection capability, and over-all ease of use. Both open path systems selected and measured ambient levels of ozone. A limited number of ozone precursors were detected. The study was sponsored by the Georgia Institute of Technology's Air Quality Laboratory, the US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  11. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA: a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Rumsey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina from 8 September–8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4−, NO3− and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs, with a performance goal of 2, SO42− and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3− could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3− by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3− were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack. Using this and results from a previous study, it is concluded that if the MUs and the filter pack were sampling the same particle size, the MUs would have good agreement in terms of precision and accuracy. The MARGA performed moderately well in measuring HNO3 and NH3, though neither met the linear regression slope goals. However, recommendations for improving the measurement of HNO3 and NH3 are discussed. It is concluded that SO42−, SO2, NO3−, HNO3, NH4+ and NH3 concentrations can be measured with acceptable accuracy and precision when the MARGA is

  12. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ≤ 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack

  13. Monitoring ambient air pollutants and apply Woods' model in the prediction seasonal dry deposition at Chang-Hua (urban) and Kao-Mei (wetland) county, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Ying

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and dry deposition. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb) were evaluated using Woods' model at urban and wetland areas for the 2009-2010 period. The results indicated that the mean highest concentrations of metallic elements Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb in TSP were found in Chang-Hua (urban) sampling site. And as for the two characteristic sampling sites, the Woods' model exhibits better dry deposition of particulates of 18 µm particle size than the rest of the other particle sizes at any sampling site in this study. The average calculated/measured flux ratios for two seasons (summer and fall) by using Woods model at 2.5, 10 and 18 µm particles sizes were also studied. The results indicated that the average calculated/measured flux ratios orders for two seasons of various particles sizes were all displayed as Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > particle. And these calculated/measured flux ratios orders were Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Pb > particle and were Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb, during spring and winter seasons, respectively. Finally, in the spring and summer seasons of Gao-Mei (wetland) sampling site, the average calculated/measured flux ratios using Woods' model was found to be 2.5, 10 and 18 µm, showing the order of the calculated/measured flux ratios to be Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Pb > particle. And the calculated/measured flux ratio orders were Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > particle > Pb and were Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > particle > Pb for fall and winter season, respectively.

  14. In situ monitoring of the ambient air around the chloroprene rubber industrial plant using the Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunyan, RM; Pogosyan, VS; Simonyan, EH; Atoyants, AL; Djigardjian, EM

    1999-01-01

    The city of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, has been one of the heavily polluted cities since the earlier USSR era. A Chloroprene Rubber Industrial Plant has been the major contributor of air pollution in this city. The first attempt has been undertaken to detect the mutagenic effect of the ambient

  15. Mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) devices and their use for pollution exposure monitoring in breath and ambient air-pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Salmond, Jennifer; Dirks, Kim N; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Studies of health effects of air pollution exposure are limited by inability to accurately determine dose and exposure of air pollution in field trials. We explored the feasibility of using a mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) device, housed in a van, to determine ambient air and breath levels of benzene, xylene and toluene following exercise in areas of high motor vehicle traffic. The breath toluene, xylene and benzene concentration of healthy subjects were measured before and after exercising close to a busy road. The concentration of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in ambient air were also analysed in real time. Exercise close to traffic pollution is associated with a two-fold increase in breath VOCs (benzene, xylene and toluene) with levels returning to baseline within 20 min. This effect is not seen when exercising away from traffic pollution sources. Situating the testing device 50 m from the road reduced any confounding due to VOCs in the inspired air prior to the breath testing manoeuvre itself. Real-time field testing for air pollution exposure is possible using a mobile SIFT-MS device. This device is suitable for exploring exposure and dose relationships in a number of large scale field test scenarios.

  16. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  17. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  18. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  20. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  1. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  2. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  3. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  5. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality s

  6. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  7. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR... CFR Parts 50 and 58 RIN 2060-AP98 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY... primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone (O 3 ) set in March...

  8. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on ...

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient air monitoring sites are geographic point locations with monitoring equipment, and possibly meteorological instruments, that monitor outdoor, near ground level criteria pollutant concentrations., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  10. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  11. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  12. 大气监测中DOAS与点式仪器一致性分析%Intercomparison of commercial DOAS system and traditional point monitoring techniques in ambient air monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 孙天乐; 何凌燕; 曾立武; 邓彦阁; 刘芮伶

    2012-01-01

    在监测环境空气中SO2、NO2、O3和TOL(甲苯)等项目时,为进一步探讨DOAS仪器与国内现行的点式仪器之间监测结果的一致性,以及高湿降雨不利气象条件对DOAS仪器监测结果的影响,该文开展了DOAS仪器与传统点式仪器的比对实验.结果表明:DOAS仪器监测SO2、NO2、O3和TOL等项目与点式仪器监测结果之间具有较好的一致性和相关性;深圳高湿降雨天气对DOAS仪器的监测结果无显著影响,与点式仪器的监测结果仍具有较好的一致性和相关性;TOL作为典型的高活性芳香烃类化合物,在环境空气挥发性有机物(VOCs)中占有较高的比例,可以利用TOL监测结果间接评估VOCs的污染趋势.%To evaluate the performance of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system motoring SO2、NO2、O3 and toluene as well as the influence of rainfall to it, a field based intercomparison study of a commercial DOAS instrument and different point-sample monitoring techniques was conducted in Shenzhen in 2011. A good agreement between the DOAS and point-sample monitoring techniques data was found for SO2、NO2、O3 and toluene. In heavy rain case, the observation data from DOAS and point-sample monitoring techniques got a quite good correlation, indicating that the humid rainy weather in Shenzhen had no significant effect on the performance of the DOAS system. As a typical high activity kind of aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene is the major components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air. Thus, toluene measured by DOAS systems can be used to reflect the pollution level of VOCs in atmosphere.

  13. Data Integration Model for Air Quality: A Hierarchical Approach to the Global Estimation of Exposures to Ambient Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Shaddick, Gavin; Thomas, Matthew L.; Jobling, Amelia; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Burnett, Rick; Chang, Howard; Cohen, Aaron; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dora, Carlos; Gumy, Sophie; Liu, Yang; Martin, Randall; Waller, Lance A.; West, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major risk factor for global health, with both ambient and household air pollution contributing substantial components of the overall global disease burden. One of the key drivers of adverse health effects is fine particulate matter ambient pollution (PM$_{2.5}$) to which an estimated 3 million deaths can be attributed annually. The primary source of information for estimating exposures has been measurements from ground monitoring networks but, although coverage is increasi...

  14. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  15. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  16. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  17. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  18. Continuous hazardous element analysis system for ambient and emissions monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.A.; Johnsen, B.E. [Cooper Environmental Services, Beaverton, OR (United States); Hay, K.J. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Watson, W. [Kevex Spectrace, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations to limit emissions of hazardous air pollutants such as antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel and selenium. Much of these emissions originate from incinerators or coal-fired utility boilers. Originally, the EPA wanted to impose multi-element continuous emission monitors (CEM) for hazardous waste incinerators, but is reconsidering this requirement because of a lack of commercially available CEMs. The EPA is also considering requiring coal-fired power plants to monitor mercury emissions with CEMs. As the EPA develops its rules for emission controls, it is evident that the most cost effective way to meet the proposed rules would be to implement a strategy that balances control technologies and burn commitments with CEM. A good strategy would be the combination of newly developed X-ray microanalysis techniques with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods which have been used to measure air particulate elements and process control for over 30 years. A prototype of this X-ray based continuous emissions monitor (XCEM) multi-metals CEM was recently evaluated at a test incinerator. The application of the system to ambient and emissions monitoring of hazardous elements from waste incinerators, copper and lead smelters, and coal-fired power plants was described. Evaluation tests at mixed waste test incinerators were also presented. The first general observations were that the XCEM results were strongly correlated with EPA's reference method 29 results. Some problems regarding the monitoring of mercury still need to be resolved, but in general, the tests clearly demonstrated the quantitative potential of the method and the value of the XCEM's nondestructive analysis capabilities. This, combined with the potential to continuously monitor particulate matter, mercury species and other non-metal species makes this a desirable method for multi-species CEM

  19. 78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards... air quality designations for the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards for all areas in... Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' and ``Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient...

  20. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  1. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  2. Application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy in ambient air monitoring%差分吸收光谱法在环境空气监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李礼; 翟崇治

    2012-01-01

    差分吸收光谱法为一种新兴发展的环境空气监测方法,与其他方法相比具有诸多的技术优势,被逐渐广泛应用于环境空气自动监测。笔者以瑞典OPSIS公司SYSTEM300长光程系统为例,对DOAS的工作原理、数据处理分析方法、仪器结构与参数、校准流程及日常维护等方面进行了介绍和总结。%Differential optical absorptian spectroscopy (DOAS) was a new developed methed of ambient air monitoring. DOAS was gradually being widely used in annbient air automatic monitoring, which has many technical advantages compared with other methods. Taken the ODSIS SYSTEM 300 of Sweden as an example, the measuring principle, data processing and analysis instrument structure and parameters, calibrate operation and daily maintenance of DOAS were introdued and summarized in this paper.

  3. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  4. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  5. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  6. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure...... to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, a...

  8. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality standards, alert authorities and the public to pollution episodes, support validation of model results, support diagnosis using model simulation, support short-term model prognosis and assist in qua...

  9. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  10. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  11. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under...

  12. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards...

  13. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  14. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  15. Application of grey weighted related degree to the ambient air quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.

  16. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  17. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  18. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  19. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  1. Determination of hexavalent chromium in ambient air: A story of method induced Cr(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirez, Kristof; Silversmit, Geert; Bleux, Nico; Adriaensens, Elke; Roekens, Edward; Servaes, Kelly; Vanhoof, Chris; Vincze, Laszlo; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy of the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter remains a challenge from the point of view of minimal Cr species interconversion. Knowledge of this method induced oxidation and reduction is particularly relevant for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter, as the level of observed Cr(III) oxidation (average of 1.7% in this study) can contribute significantly to the monitored range of measured Cr(VI) in PM 10. For Cr concentrations in PM 10 > 10 ng Cr m -3, this method induced oxidation could lead to false positive exceeding of an air quality guideline value of 0.2 ng Cr(VI) m -3 in PM 10. The median daily Cr(VI) concentration in PM 10 measured over a monitoring period of more than 2 months at two locations close to a stainless steel factory amounted to 0.9 ng Cr(VI) m -3 and 0.27 ng Cr(VI) m -3. Average daily Cr(VI)/Cr ratios in PM 10 of 3.5% and 2.6% were measured at these locations. The described monitoring for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient air via alkaline impregnated filters is sensitive (method detection limit of 0.015 ng Cr(VI) m -3) and reproducible (precision of the method ˜25%). The average Cr(VI) recovery of 75% strongly indicates the effects of ambient sampling conditions and ambient particles on the Cr(VI) recoveries. The stability of the Cr(VI) and the Cr(III) spike on 0.12 M NaHCO 3 impregnated filters observed with XANES, indicates that the alkaline extraction of the filter in combination with the sampled air matrix is likely to induce the Cr conversions. The XANES spectra shows further that a Cr-spinel is the predominant component of Cr in ambient air PM 10 at the monitored locations.

  2. AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

  3. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  4. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  5. Electron microprobe identification of fibrous aerosols in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclepore filters were used for sampling fibrous particles in ambient air. The fiber counting and fiber size measurements were done by means of SEM-methods. The number of fibers, distribution of fiber lengths, and diameters were plotted. The specific identification of asbestos fibers was made by electron microprobe analysis. Certain elements such as Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Ca, and Na as well as ratios such as Fe/Si and Mg/Si proved to be approximative identification factors for ambient asbestos. Not only asbestos and glass, also many other inorganic fibrous particles were found in the urban atmosphere as well as in the atmosphere of remote regions. Fibrous gypsum, fibrous ammonium sulfates, fibrous silicates, fibrous mica, and quartz were identified among these particles. Even in remote ambient air, relatively high concentrations of fibrous particles (103-104 m-3) could be measured, although the concentration of asbestos fibers were usually smaller than 102 m-3

  6. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  7. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  8. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  9. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards...

  10. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  11. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. D. Hand... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  12. Application of Two Class Data Auditing System on Ambient Air Automatic Monitoring in Shanghai%市和区县两级环境空气自动监测数据审核系统在上海的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包权

    2015-01-01

    由上海市环境监测中心和软件公司共同开发的市和区县两级环境空气自动监测数据审核系统,主要由区县监测站负责辖区自动监测数据的一级审核,市级监测站承担二级审核的责任。作为环境空气质量保证/质量控制体系的重要一环,新系统的建立极大地提高了上海市环境空气自动监测数据的有效性和数据质量。%The two class data auditing system on ambient air automatic monitoring is developed by Shanghai Environmental Monito-ring Center (SEMC)and software company.The first class auditing of automatic monitoring data is implemented by district monito-ring stations,and the second class is by SEMC.As an important part of QA /QC system on ambient air monitoring,the quality and validity of automatic monitoring data has been greatly enhanced after the establishment of new auditing system in Shanghai.

  13. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  14. Air Radioactivity Monitoring in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Jokic, Vesna Spasic; Djuric, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    It can be concluded that monitoring natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in ground level air provide important information on the content of radionuclides due to their origin, weather and climate conditions (rate of precipitation, washout effects, temperature differences and inverstion, wind direction and intensity, troposphere-to-stratosphere transport and exchange, etc). The local topology, as well as anthropogenic factors such as the effects of traffic and heating plants are highly impo...

  15. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen;

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... and progression from external exposure to tumour formation and some have also been suggested as risk predictors of future cancer, reinforcing causal reasoning. However, methodological issues such as confounding, publication bias and use of surrogate tissues instead of target tissues in studies on these markers...

  16. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  17. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  18. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  19. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  20. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 169..., 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AI43 Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY... and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO). Based on its...

  1. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  2. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  3. Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Burnett, R.T.; Bailar, J C; Tamblyn, R.; Ernst, P.; Flegel, K.; J. Brook; Bonvalot, Y; Singh, R.; Valois, M F; Vincent, R

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine pa...

  4. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  5. Ambient air quality levels in Tehran, Iran, from 1988 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, M.A.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Public Health, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe trends in ambient air quality in Tehran between 1988 and 1993, to determine if these levels exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, and to discuss possible health effects related to exposure for these particular pollutants. Data were acquired from Iran's Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Ministry of Health (MH). These agencies operate five automated ambient air monitoring stations located in areas with heavy traffic. Daily samples of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, total suspended particulate matter (TSM), and hydrocarbons (HC) were collected to provide 24 hour averages for each pollutant. Every three months, mean concentrations were reported to IEPA. Composite samples from all five stations were stored in a databank operated by IEPA. The ambient air quality guidelines were obtained from WHO reports. Statistical analysis was carried out using a regression model, which was designed to fit the air pollution data and take into account missing data. The results showed that there was a statistically significant upward trend in air pollution levels for all of the measured pollutants, except NO{sub 2}, during the years 1988 to 1993. WHO guidelines were routinely and substantially exceeded by all pollutants except TSM. These findings suggest that as the population continues to grow, and increasing numbers of motor vehicles are driven in Tehran, there is concern for the health effects that may result from exposure to these pollutants. (Author)

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegria, Henry [Chemistry Department, California Lutheran University, 60 West Olsen Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States)]. E-mail: halegria@clunet.edu; Bidleman, Terry F. [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Meteorological Service of Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON L0L 1N0 (Canada); Figueroa, Miguel Salvador [Area de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University Autonoma de Chiapas, Carretera a Puerto, Madero Km. 2, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  8. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  9. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4711-3 Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM1...

  10. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely...

  11. Air flow assisted ionization for remote sampling of ambient mass spectrometry and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiuming; Tang, Fei; Luo, Zhigang; Chen, Yi; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Xiaohao; Abliz, Zeper

    2011-04-15

    Ambient ionization methods are an important research area in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Under ambient conditions, the gas flow and atmospheric pressure significantly affect the transfer and focusing of ions. The design and implementation of air flow assisted ionization (AFAI) as a novel and effective, remote sampling method for ambient mass spectrometry are described herein. AFAI benefits from a high extracting air flow rate. A systematic investigation of the extracting air flow in the AFAI system has been carried out, and it has been demonstrated not only that it plays a role in the effective capture and remote transport of charged droplets, but also that it promotes desolvation and ion formation, and even prevents ion fragmentation during the ionization process. Moreover, the sensitivity of remote sampling ambient MS analysis was improved significantly by the AFAI method. Highly polar and nonpolar molecules, including dyes, pharmaceutical samples, explosives, drugs of abuse, protein and volatile compounds, have been successfully analyzed using AFAI-MS. The successful application of the technique to residue detection on fingers, large object analysis and remote monitoring in real time indicates its potential for the analysis of a variety of samples, especially large objects. The ability to couple this technique with most commercially available MS instruments with an API interface further enhances its broad applicability.

  12. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  13. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  14. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  15. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal.

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...

  17. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the...

  18. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and...

  19. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary...

  20. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  1. The Comparative Reactivity Method ─ a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s−1 and up to 50% between 6–8 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s and the urban atmosphere of Mainz

  2. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  3. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  4. The Comparative Reactivity Method – a new tool to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s−1 and the urban atmosphere of Mainz (~10 s−1 Germany, show the promise of the new method and indicate that a significant fraction of OH reactive species in the tropical forests is likely missed by current measurements. Suggestions for improvements to the technique and future applications are discussed.

  5. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  6. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  7. Determination of methane in ambient air by multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.; Phillips, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplex gas chromatographic technique for the determination of methane in ambient air over extended periods is reported. A modest gas chromatograph which uses air as the carrier gas was modified by adding a silver oxide sample modulator for multiplex operation. The modulator selectively catalyzes the decomposition of methane in air. The resulting analytical system requires no consumables beyond power. A profile of the methane concentration in this laboratory was obtained for an 8-day period. During this period, methane concentration varied with an approximately daily period from a low of 1.53 + or - 0.60 ppm to a high of 4.63 + or - 0.59 ppm over the entire 8 days. Some of the measured concentrations are higher than those reported elsewhere indicating the presence of some local source or sources for methane. This work has demonstrated the utility of a relatively simple multiplex gas chromatograph for the analysis of environmental samples. The technique should be applicable to other trace components in air through use of other selective modulators.

  8. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  9. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  10. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2014-01-01

    The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the...

  11. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY... criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA...

  12. Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance, chemiluminescence, and DOAS instruments for ambient ozone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E J; Fehsenfeld, F C; Jobson, B T; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Stutz, J; McClenny, W A

    2006-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of ozone measurements made by monitors that determine ozone concentrations in ambient air by UV absorption. These monitors are typically used to measure ozone for the purpose of establishing local compliance to air-quality standards. The study was predicated by the concern that commercially available UV absorbance O3 monitors may be subject to interference from volatile organic carbon (VOC) species that absorb light at 254 nm. To test for these and other effects, we compared simultaneous O3 measurements made by a commercial UV O3 monitor with an O3-NO chemiluminescence instrument, which is not subject to interference by VOC compounds. The comparisons were carried out in the summers of 1999 and 2000 at urban/industrial sites in Nashville and Houston, and in 2004 aboard a ship in the Gulf of Maine. In the two urban areas, we also compared the 03 measurements from these two methods with O3 measurements made by a long-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS). Our tests indicate that, with well-maintained monitors, there are no significant interferences even in areas with significant ambient concentrations of potentially interfering VOCs. PMID:17007137

  13. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  14. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  15. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  16. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  17. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  18. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD(regsign)) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM(regsign)) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  19. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Shafer; David McGraw; Lynn H. Karr; Greg McCurdy; Tammy L. Kluesner; Karen J. Gray; Jeffrey Tappen

    2010-05-18

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD®) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM®) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  20. A metrological approach to improve accuracy and reliability of ammonia measurements in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogány, Andrea; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Cassidy, Nathan; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Hieta, Tuomas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    The environmental impacts of ammonia (NH3) in ambient air have become more evident in the recent decades, leading to intensifying research in this field. A number of novel analytical techniques and monitoring instruments have been developed, and the quality and availability of reference gas mixtures used for the calibration of measuring instruments has also increased significantly. However, recent inter-comparison measurements show significant discrepancies, indicating that the majority of the newly developed devices and reference materials require further thorough validation. There is a clear need for more intensive metrological research focusing on quality assurance, intercomparability and validations. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air) is a three-year project within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), which aims to bring metrological traceability to ambient ammonia measurements in the 0.5–500 nmol mol‑1 amount fraction range. This is addressed by working in three areas: (1) improving accuracy and stability of static and dynamic reference gas mixtures, (2) developing an optical transfer standard and (3) establishing the link between high-accuracy metrological standards and field measurements. In this article we describe the concept, aims and first results of the project.

  1. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  2. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  3. Measurements of volatile hydrocarbons in ambient air coking plant `Walbrzych`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, R.; Weglarz, A.; Skrok, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The air is a matrix very difficult to handle. In addition, the pollutants are usually present at very low concentrations. Many techniques can be used to collect air samples. The simplest way is to use special containers, but this procedure is expensive and time-consuming. The adsorption of pollutants on adsorbents shows a growing interest, despite the difficulty to choose the appropriate support in order to obtain quantitative yields. To overcome this problem, two or three types of adsorbents may be used in series for collecting a wide range of analytes. In addition, the miniaturization of these techniques (i.e. microtraps and solid-phase microextraction) is also very promising: easy to handle, low cost, no solvent required, detection limits at ppt level when sensitive detectors are used. If we have no money for this modern equipment we must use traditional methods for compounds determination. This paper describes measurements of volatile hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and phenol) in ambient air of coking plant `Walbrzych` Measuring points were at streets: Beethoven 4, Dworcowa 2, Kosteckiego 5 and Zamkowa 1. BTEX were collected on graphitized carbon and phenol on Chromosorb 102. After that samples were extracted by solvents (dichloromethane for BTEX or benzene for phenol). Next step was the analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector without preconcentration. The lower limit of detection was circa 0.01 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for each of the determined compounds. These measurements of hydrocarbons in town of Walbrzych were performed for two years from 1996 to 1998. 2 tabs.

  4. The monitoring and analysis methods of volatile organic compounds in the ambient air%环境中挥发性有机物监测及分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽琴; 李博伟; 黄宇; 何世恒; 薛永刚; 曹军骥

    2016-01-01

    挥发性有机物(VOCs)是一类重要的环境污染物,严重威胁着环境和人类健康。随着VOCs问题的日趋突出,关于VOCs监测技术的研究也越来越多,检测技术逐渐完善。本文对大气中VOCs的监测技术进行了详细的综述,重点介绍了气相色谱-质谱、高效液相色谱等离线检测方法和质子转移反应质谱法在线监测方法。此外,本文分析了各种采样方法及仪器检测技术的优势与不足,旨在为大气VOCs的监测与研究起到一定的指导作用。%Background, aim, scope Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a series of important pollutants which have strong impacts to environment and human health. They are the direct precursors of surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol from photochemical and atmospheric reactions. There is thus an urgent need for accurate and precise measurement of VOCs. This paper reviews and compares those updated VOCs monitoring technologies. Proper parameters and conditions for sample collections and analytical methods for the widely-used off-line and on-line measurements have been discussed and proposed. Materials and methods In this study, we reviewed the achievement on VOCs sampling and analysis based on researches published in the recent decades. Results Off-line monitoring requires collection of airs into a container (e.g., canister) or onto sampling matrix (i.e., absorbent), which could be divided into non-selective and selective collection. For the non-selective air sampling, stainless steel canister and polymer bags (e.g., Tedlar or Telfon) are widely used. Selective air collection allows the target compounds to be enriched onto the absorbent by either active sampling or passive diffusion. Absorbent tube is typical media which is more convenient to be carried and offers a lower cost than the canister or sampling bag methods. In addition, the tubes can be reused at least 100 times before the absorbent to be replaced. Instrumental

  5. Assessment of reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air as malodor components in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methanethiol (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)) in ambient air was made using an on-line GC system at an odor monitoring station in the city of Ansan, South Korea (August 2005-December 2007). The results were examined to assess the status of RSC pollution, its relative contribution to malodor, and the controlling factors of its occurrence. H 2S (mean of 0.27 ppb) was eminent in terms of both magnitude and occurrence frequency, while others were not with mean values of 0.11 (DMDS), 0.10 (DMS), and 0.07 ppb (CH 3SH). Unlike others, the temporal trends of H 2S were best represented by the combined effects of its source processes and meteorological conditions. The results of correlation analysis indicate strong correlations between RSCs and water-related parameters (e.g., rainfall, dew point, and relative humidity). The role of RSCs as malodor component appears to be pronounced during nighttime, especially in summer. If the relative contribution of RSCs to malodor is assessed by means of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), its impact is relatively low, with an SOI value of 1.22 (weak odor strength). Consequently, a more deliberate approach may be needed to effectively assess odor occurrence patterns in ambient air.

  6. A survey of an air monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes

  7. A survey of an air monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes.

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  9. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  10. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 29 / Friday... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  11. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  12. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead. This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). The...

  13. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb)....

  14. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  15. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  16. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  17. Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneelen, F J; van Leeuwen, F E; Oosterink, S; Anzion, R B; van der Loop, F; Bos, R P; van Veen, H G

    1990-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard of a hot rolling mill. The median values of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of smoking and non-smoking controls were 0.51 and 0.17 mumol/mol creatinine, respectively. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene up to 11.2 mumol/mol were found in the urine of the cokeoven workers. At the start of the three day working period after 32 hours off work, the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were four times higher and at the end of the working period 10 times higher compared with control concentrations. Excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene occurred with a half life of 6-35 hours. Both the ambient air monitoring data and the biological monitoring data showed that the topside workers were the heaviest exposed workers. The relation between air monitoring data and biological monitoring data was not strong. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of the internal dose. The combination of exposure and smoking amplify each other and the use of a protective airstream helmet decreases the internal dose. An effect of alcohol consumption and the use of medication on the toxicokinetics of pyrene was not found.

  18. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T. [Minerals Management Service, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Navarrete, R. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  19. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  20. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme.

  1. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Watson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples.

  2. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Y.; A. Uzairu; J.O. Ujoh

    2013-01-01

    This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri), high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout), traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge), Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout), residential area (Kawo New Extension) and a control site (NFA base) in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle ...

  3. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  4. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for...

  5. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  6. The nationwide survey of the level of PCDD/Fs in ambient air in Taiwan between 2002 and 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Tzu-Yi; Yuan-Wu Chen; Ying-Ming Weng [EAL, EPA, TW (China)

    2004-09-15

    Taiwan is a solitary island on the western edge of the Pacific Ocean. Incineration is the major way for waste treatment in Taiwan. EPA of the ROC government has planed to build 30 municipal solid waste incinerators MSWIs. Currently, there are 19 MSWIs in operation with a daily treatment capacity of 21,000 tons. The emission of PCDD/Fs from MSWIs has been of great concern from the public. Therefore, large-scale surveys over the PCDD/Fs in ambient air were focused largely on the vicinity of MSWIs in the last three years2. There were only several small-scale projects for ordinary areas were implemented in northern and southern Taiwan. The EPA started to set up the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network TAQMN in 1990. For now, there are 72 air quality monitoring stations, including 58 ordinary ambient air stations, 5 traffic pattern stations, 4 background pattern stations, 3 industrial pattern stations and 2 national park pattern stations. The priority pollutants being monitored in TAQMN include PM10, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, and hydrocarbons. Besides, it also records several meteorological conditions. These stations were set up after proper evaluation and can well represent the air quality in the vicinity areas. The most recent data for the concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air have shown a trend of deceasing level in many areas, but have not been reported in Taiwan. Therefore, in this study, EAL selected 16 TAQMN monitoring stations as sampling sites and launched this nationwide survey from 2002 to 2003.

  7. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  8. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  9. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  10. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air with combination of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The air samples were collected by active sampling method using Tenax-TA sorbent tubes, and desorbed by thermal desorption. The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and internal standard method was applied to quantify the VOCs. The results of all the 23 VOCs showed good linearities in low level (0. 01-1 ng) and high level (1-100 ng) with all the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0. 99. The method quantification limits were between 0. 000 08-1 µg/m3. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) at three spiked levels of 2, 10 and 50 ng. The recoveries between 77% and 124% were generally obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all cases were lower than 20%, except for chlorobenzene at the low spiked level. The developed method was applied to determine VOCs in ambient air collected at three sites in Shanghai. Several compounds, like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylenes, p-xylenes, styrene, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and hexachlorobutadiene were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the VOCs in ambient air. PMID:27382728

  11. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  12. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... the Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (EPA 452R-08-005... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  13. 75 FR 16459 - Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--First External Review Draft (March 2010),...

  14. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... on this rulemaking, contact Dr. Karl Pepple, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S... Stackhouse, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by phone...

  15. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  16. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  17. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  19. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  20. Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Yue; Richard T. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examined association between preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growt...

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  2. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen Hong Tseng; Chien Hou Wu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Kong Hwa Chiu [Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology; Jiunn Guang Lo [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology

    2004-08-01

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling sites. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled. (author)

  3. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  4. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects. (letter)

  5. The effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of air flow plate standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume flow rate measured by air flow plate is influenced by the ambient conditions during the calibration. A series of numerical examples are conducted for the relationship and the outcomes demonstrated that the calibration is quite sensitive to the atmospheric pressure and the ambient temperature, but insensitive to relative humidity. The experiment model has been applied to calibration results with wide ranging ambient conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the benefits to calibration data of minimizing the effects of ambient conditions.

  6. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  7. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  10. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  12. Air monitoring in radioiodine therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Radioiodine therapy wards, in general the radiation exposure due to air borne activity from patients administered with 925MBq-7.4GBq (25-200mCi) of 131I has to be kept under regulatory limits. The purpose of conducting an air monitoring in our setup was to assess air borne activity levels. If the levels are high then it may lead to increased exposure to the occupational workers and patient's attendants. A total of 22.2GBq (600 mCi) 131I is administered every week to our patients in the isolation ward. After administered of 131I in the dose administration room, patients occupy their respective beds. The isolation beds are provided with attached toilet facility. Six air samples were collected from various regions (high dose room, low dose room, dose administration room, special room, corridor and entrance) in the vacuumized vials (9 ml) using 16 G needle at the breathing zone level. One control sample was also collected from the area with no possible 131I air-contamination. The vials were then counted in the pre-calibrated NaI well counter (known efficiency). The maximum air borne radioiodine concentration was found to be 1.999x10-6 ?Ci/cm3 in the high dose room (which keeps on decreasing with time, being maximum on second day and zero on third and subsequent days). We measured the thyroid counts of the staff and patient's attendants, routinely. The estimated thyroid activity never showed any significant increase in the thyroid uptake of the staff and patient's attendants. In our setup, air monitoring is strictly followed and performed periodically. We conclude that air monitoring program is only one element of the comprehensive radiation protection program and should be a made mandatory practice. (author)

  13. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  14. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  15. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  16. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  17. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient......

  18. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... titled, Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient...

  19. The effect of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of school children: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod Susan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV1 and peak flow and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Results Peak levels of air pollution were associated with small but statistically significant effects on lung function in the asthmatic students, but not healthy students. No significant effect of pollution could be seen either on airway inflammation and oxidative stress either in healthy students or students with asthma. Minor increases in respiratory symptoms were associated with high pollution exposure. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were raised in association with pollution events by comparison with low pollution control days. Conclusion There is no significant effect of ambient wood-smoke particulate air pollution on lung function of healthy school-aged students, but a small effect on respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic students show small effects of peak pollution levels on lung function. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene shows potential as a biomarker of exposure to wood smoke in this population; however measurement of EBC pH and hydrogen peroxide appears not to be useful for assessment of population health effects of air pollution. Some of the data presented in this paper has previously been published in Kingham

  20. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetriou, C.A.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Loft, S.; Møller, P.; Vermeulen, R.; Palli, D.; Chadeau-Hyam, M.; Xun, W.W.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings of thes

  1. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-01-01

    Background Children may have differing susceptibility to ambient air pollution concentrations depending on various background characteristics of the children. Methods Using emergency department (ED) data linked with birth records from Atlanta, Georgia, we identified ED visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 2–16 years from 1 January 2002 through 30 June 2010 (n=109,758). We stratified by preterm delivery, term low birth weight, maternal race, Medicaid status, maternal education, maternal smoking, delivery method, and history of a bronchiolitis ED visit. Population-weighted daily average concentrations were calculated for 1-hour maximum carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; 8-hour maximum ozone; and 24-hour average particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, using measurements from stationary monitors. Poisson time-series models were used to estimate rate ratios for associations between three-day moving average pollutant concentrations and daily ED visit counts and to investigate effect-measure modification by the stratification factors. Results Associations between pollutant concentrations and asthma exacerbations were larger among children born preterm and among children born to African American mothers. Stratification by race and preterm status together suggested that both factors affected susceptibility. The largest estimated effect size (for an interquartile-range increase in pollution) was observed for ozone among preterm births to African American mothers: rate ratio=1.138 (95% confidence interval=1.077–1.203). In contrast, the rate ration for the ozone association among full-term births to mothers of other races was 1.025 (0.970–1.083). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that children vary in their susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. PMID:25192402

  2. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-08-01

    This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO 2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO 2 concentrations in various sampling sites. The sampler is simple, lightweight, and inexpensive. The experiments are suitable for college students in analytical chemistry and environmental studies.

  3. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  4. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  5. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  6. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  7. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  8. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qi-fei; CHEN Tong-bin; GAO Ding; HUANG Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5℃ when ambient air temperature changed 13℃. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3℃ when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 ℃. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent(at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate(at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  9. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.; Manscher, O. H.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. This report presents...... direction, wind speed, tem-perature, relative humidity and global radiation are measured at the roof sites. Additional measurements of CO at street and NO and NO2 at roof sites are performed in campaigns in order to improve the knowledge about the NO, NO2 and O3 problem complex. At the rural site outside...... factor for the formation of NO2 at street level and it remains to be seen to what extent the NO2 concentrations will be reduced at highly polluted places as result of the TWC's. Some of the threshold values for O3 were frequently exceeded. The average O3 concentrations are almost the same at all sites...

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of...

  11. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is...-001; July 2012), please contact Ms. Karen Wesson, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  13. Compliance and technical feasibility of long-term health monitoring with wearable and ambient technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilahti, Juho; Pärkkä, Juha; Antila, Kari; Paavilainen, Paula; Mattila, Elina; Malm, Esko-Juhani; Saarinen, Ari; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    We developed a system consisting of both wearable and ambient technologies designed to monitor personal wellbeing for several months during daily life. The variables monitored included bodyweight, blood pressure, heart-rate variability and air temperature. Two different user groups were studied: there were 17 working-age subjects participating in a vocational rehabilitation programme and 19 elderly people living in an assisted living facility. The working-age subjects collected data for a total of 1406 days; the average participation period was 83 days (range 43-99). The elderly subjects collected data for a total of 1593 days; the average participation period was 84 days (range 19-107). Usage, technical feasibility and usability of the system were also studied. Some technical and practical problems appeared which we had not expected such as thunder storm damage to equipment in homes and scheduling differences between staff and the subjects. The users gave positive feedback in almost all their responses in a questionnaire. The study suggests that the data-collection rate is likely be 70-90% for typical health monitoring data.

  14. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  15. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  16. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  17. 75 FR 51807 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY..., 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods... Method for Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). The Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  18. Monitoring of mining-induced ambient radioactivity. 11th expert meeting on ambient radioactivity monitoring, held on 28/29 March 2000 at Schlema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 11th expert meeting was the first exclusively devoted to aspects of monitoring mining-induced ambient radioactivity, and therefore was held 'on site', in the formerly important uranium mining area of Schlema. The meeting was organised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). (orig./CB)

  19. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  20. Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Murena

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring campaign of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o- m- and p-xylene) was carried out nearby two tunnel portals in the urban area of Naples with the aim to verify air quality in this kind of urban sites. Sampling was carried out using the active adsorption technique. Sampling time was 1 h. Ambient temperature and traffic flow measurements were carried out during each sampling operation. The results indicate that average benzene concentrations at both sites exceed the limit value of 10 μg/Nm3 established by the European Community (EC) (Dir. 2000/69). Concentration levels of other BTEX are relatively high as well. A correlation between BTEX concentration and two wheeler vehicle flow was observed.

  1. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudež, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R; de Maat, Moniek P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with plate...

  2. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  3. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  4. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  5. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  6. A Case–Crossover Study of Wintertime Ambient Air Pollution and Infant Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, Catherine; Lumley, Thomas; Shepherd, Kristen; Davis, Robert; Larson, Timothy; Ritz, Beate; Kaufman, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association of infant bronchiolitis with acute exposure to ambient air pollutants. Design We employed a time-stratified case–crossover method and based the exposure windows on a priori, biologically based hypotheses. Participants We evaluated effects in 19,901 infants in the South Coast Air Basin of California in 1995–2000 with a hospital discharge record for bronchiolitis in the first year of life (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1). Evaluations/...

  7. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions. - There is a large potential of phytotoxic risk on vegetation in Selangor State, Malaysia

  8. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  9. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  10. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  11. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  12. The contribution of waste water treatment plants to PBDEs in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples were collected at different sites in and around two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in central Italy to determine the concentrations, compositional profiles and contribution to ambient levels of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The investigated WWTPs were selected as they treat industrial wastewater produced by local textile industries along with municipal wastewater. PBDE concentrations within the WWTPs were higher than those measured at reference sites located 4 and 5 km away with BDE-209 dominating the BDE congener composition in all air samples in 2008. Ambient PBDE concentrations measured in and around the WWTPs and estimates of emissions from aeration tanks suggest that WWTPs are sources of PBDEs to ambient air. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlations confirmed this result. The effect of distance from the plant and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. Although the primary fate of PBDEs in WWTPs will be partitioning to sewage sludge, this study suggests that plants can provide a measurable source of these compounds to local ambient air. - Highlights: ► Levels and distribution profiles of PBDEs in the atmosphere surrounding two WWTPs. ► Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surrounding area of two WWTPs in Italy. ► To investigate WWTPs as sources of PBDEs to the atmosphere. ► Samples collected downwind respect to the plant showed BDE-209 as dominant congener. ► The effect of distance and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. - Waste water treatment plants as sources of PBDEs to the ambient air.

  13. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  14. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 50 RIN 2060-AO72 Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was....epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/no2so2sec/cr_fr.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you would...

  15. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  16. Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009 Políticas efectivas de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en Argentina: estudio de monitoreo de calidad del aire en 15 ciudades (2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Schoj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. Material and Methods. PM2.5 levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Results. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smokefree cities the mean PM2.5 level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectively (p=.012. In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM2.5 levels decreased dramatically (pObjetivo. Evaluar la polución ambiental del sector gastronómico en Argentina. Material y métodos. Se midieron los niveles de partículas respirables (PM2.5 en una muestra por conveniencia de establecimientos de 15 ciudades con diferente legislación, siguiendo un protocolo del Instituto de Cáncer Roswell Park. Resultados. Se recolectaron 554 muestras. En cinco ciudades libres de humo (CLH la media de PM2.5 durante el día fue baja y menor a la observada durante la noche, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectivamente (p=.012. En las tres ciudades evaluadas antes y después de la legislación, las PM2.5 disminuyeron drásticamente (p<0.001 cada una. Las PM2.5 fueron cinco veces mayores en ciudades sin legislación comparadas con CLH (p<0.001. En ciudades con restricción parcial, no hubo diferencia significativa entre las PM2.5 en el sector fumador y no fumador (p=0.272. Los sectores no fumadores tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más altos comparados con los lugares 100% libres de humo de la misma ciudad (p= 0.017. Conclusiones. La mayoría de las ciudades participantes en este estudio tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más bajos tras la implementación de leyes pro ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco, por lo que representa una herramienta útil para promover legislación 100% libre de humo en Argentina.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  18. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  19. Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHAO-WEI FU; SHUN-ZHANG YU; LI-NA MU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing. Methods The approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing. Results An increase of each 10 μμg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days. Conclusion The daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing.

  20. Automation of the monitoring in real time of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in Cuba; Automatizacion del monitoreo en tiempo real de la tasa de dosis absorbida en aire debido a la radiacion gamma ambiental en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Manzano de Armas, J.F.; Alonso A, D.; Prendes A, M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Caveda R, C.A. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600 (Cuba); Kalberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) (Sweden); Fabelo B, O.; Montalvan E, A. [CIAC, Camaguey (Cuba); Cartas A, H. [CEAC, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Leyva F, J.C. [CISAT (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) like center rector of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), it has strengthened their detection capacity and of answer before a situation of radiological emergency. The measurements of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in the main stations of the Net are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from these posts at one time relatively short. To improve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the facilities of existent monitoring using 4 automatic measurement stations with probes of gamma detection, implementing in this way a measurement system on real time. On the other hand the software were developed: GenironProbeFech, to obtain the data of the probes, DataMail for the shipment of the same ones by electronic mail and GammaRed that receives and processes the data in the rector center. (Author)

  1. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit

  2. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  3. Selection of filter media in alpha air monitors for emergency environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an alpha air monitor which is possible to measure rapidly and sensitively the concentrations of airborne alpha-emitting particles, such as plutonium, for the environmental monitoring at an accident of nuclear reprocessing plant. The monitor is designed to collect airborne alpha-emitting particles by drawing the ambient air through a filter and to detect the activity by alpha spectroscopy. In order to achieve high-sensitive measurements, selection of a suitable filter used in the monitor is considerably important. The most important requirement for the filter is that it has a high surface collection efficiency to obtain the sharpness of the alpha energy spectrum. This makes it easy to distinguish the alpha-ray peak of plutonium from the alpha spectrum of naturally occurring radon decay products in the environment. And the filter is also desired to have low resistance of the air flow so that particles can be collected at a high flowrate. We have made a comparison of the surface collection efficiency and pressure drop for the various filters. Types of the test filters, most of which are commercially available in Japan, were glass fiber, cellulose-glass fiber, membrane and so on. The surface collection efficiency has been evaluated by the following two indices. One was the sharpness of alpha-ray energy peaks of thoron decay products generated in a laboratory and collected in the fibers. The other was the background counts of radon decay products in a plutonium region by measuring alpha-ray energy spectrum of radon decay products collected in the filters by sampling of dust in the atmosphere. It was found that the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane filter with backing had a high surface collection efficiency and low pressure drop. The results of the test are described in detail in this paper. (author)

  4. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  6. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  7. Effects of Using Wind Guiding Nets to Improve Prevailing Ambient Wind on Direct Air-cooled Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianguo; LIU Da; ZHANG Zhaoying; JU Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Prevailing ambient wind is the main reason that causes inlet flow rate (air mass flow rate) decreasing and air flowing backward to the air-cooled condenser fans upward to the wind, hence a set of wind guiding nets is designed to improve the detrimental effect. Fig. 1 shows four typical units of a 1000MW direct air-cooled condenser (DACC) and a set of wind guiding nets installed under its edge upward to the ambient wind. As shown in Fig. 2, the fan inlet flow rate decreases as the prevailing ambient wind velocity increasing, especially for the first two units upward to the wind.

  8. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions Pt. 53, Subpt. A, Table A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 53—Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and...

  9. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  10. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  11. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  12. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James A; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine the relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993-2004. For each pollutant, we created (1) a daily 1-h maximum; (2) a 24-h average; (3) a commute average; (4) a daytime average; (5) a nighttime average; and (6) a daily 8-h maximum (only for O₃). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day's pollutant metrics. Variability was greatest across O₃ metrics, with the 8-h maximum, 1-h maximum, and daytime metrics yielding strong positive associations and the nighttime O₃ metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O₃). With the exception of daytime metric, all of the CO and NO₂ metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (for example, the use of a daily 8-h maximum O₃ as opposed to a 24-h average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air

  13. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  14. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  15. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule....

  16. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  17. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  18. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  19. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra...

  20. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  1. Monitoring southwest Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P; Prieto, Germán A

    2016-05-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth's crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  2. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the Northeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonet, M; Bush, T J; Correa, A; Jaakkola, J J

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between term low birth weight (LBW) and ambient air levels of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter up to 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The study population consisted of singleton, term live births (37-44 weeks of gestation) born between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1996 in six northeastern cities of the United States: Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Springfield, Ma...

  3. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a natural experiment study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Nichols, Catherine; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunping; Liu, Xiaohong; Gao, Suhong; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM10), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM10 and NO2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods We estimated th...

  4. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformat...

  5. Effect of ambient air pressure on debris redeposition during laser ablation of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ambient air pressure on the redeposition of debris, ablated from the zinc borosilicate glass target using 6 ns, 266 nm laser pulses, has been studied for incident fluences of 3-18 J/cm2. Measurements were carried out in air at pressures ranging from 10-750 Torr. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope observations of the target surface were made to analyze the morphology of the redeposited debris. It was found that for higher values of the laser fluence and ambient pressure, the target surface is extremely rough, with large pieces of molten glass and debris fragments deposited near and around the ablation site. The profile of the redeposited debris also shows signs of a strong shock-wave-cleaning effect and possibly a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at higher pressures. Contrary to this, under low-pressure environment the surface of the redeposited debris is cleaner and smoother, with minimal damage around the ablated crater. The measured radius of the debris field was found to be proportional to the inverse cube root of the ambient pressure, consistent with the stagnation distance of the expansion plume when energy balance with the displaced air is considered. In addition to this, the mass of the redeposited debris was estimated from the measured optical thickness of the film and compared to the ablated mass. In the range below 100 Torr, both the mass of the redeposited debris and the percentage of the ablated mass which was redeposited were found to increase with the increasing fluence and the ambient air pressure

  6. Consequences of fluctuations in the ambient air temperature at Lake Tanganyika --- A wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mbungu Tsumbu, Jean-Pierre; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bopili-Mbotia-Lepiba, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the horizontal wind speed and of both the ambient air temperature and the water temperature according to the depth. Our study clearly shows how Lake Tanganyika is thermally stratified, showing four different water layers. The study shows how waters of upper layers tend to have the same temperature as the deepest water during the dry season. The water stratification tends then to disappear completely in the dry season. The study is based on the fact that water rele...

  7. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    OpenAIRE

    SERAP AKDEMIR; SELCUK ARIN

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humi...

  8. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The report deals with the EIMP (Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt). The programme is funded by Danida which is a cooperation project between Norway and Denmark. The programme covers the monitoring of air pollution, coastal water monitoring, and the monitoring of pollution sources and emissions. This report pays the attention to the Norwegian part of the programme executed by NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) which covers the development air quality monitoring network. 14 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  10. Coherent ambient infra-sound recorded by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present summary statistics of coherent infra-sound recorded by the IMS (International Monitoring System) network during 2005-2010, identified by systematic broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing. Our work represents a first attempt at statistically and systematically characterizing coherent ambient infra-sound recorded by the IMS. (authors)

  11. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM10. Methods: To examine the association between PM10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m−3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m−3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Average PM10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m−3 increase), and PM10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  12. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  13. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  14. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  15. Statement of work for the assessment of ambient environmental monitoring programs for the installations operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a review of the ambient environmental monitoring programs at the five Department of Energy installations for compliance and consistency with DOE and Energy Systems policies and strategies, DOE Orders, environmental laws and regulations, and the current best monitoring practices. The scope of the assessment shall include the ambient air, water, groundwater, biological, and radiological environmental monitoring performed near plant perimeter fences, in receiving streams, and at off-site locations. The scope of this task does not include assessing the on-site point source emission monitoring associated with specific stack sampling locations. It does not include specific National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) water monitoring and biological monitoring locations, nor does it include on-site groundwater monitoring locations. The scope of the assessment shall include the ambient air monitoring programs at each site and off-site; the surface water monitoring programs; and the off-site programs associated with the sampling of fish, wildlife, milk, groundwater, soil, vegetation, and stream sediments. Both radiological and nonradiological parameters should be reviewed and evaluated. The current monitoring locations should be evaluated to ensure that they are the appropriate locations to provide usable and defensible data. The current monitoring location to be evaluated at each site are shown in the tables included in this SOW. Also, the current parameters and sampling frequencies must be evaluated for adequacy. The tables outline the current ambient monitoring programs at each installation. 32 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Longterm monitoring of ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, B.; Burmeister, S.; Moeller, T.; Scharrenberg, E. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Briese, J. [Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Burda, O.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Marquardt, J.; Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The complex radiation field at flight altitudes results mainly from the interaction of energetic charged particles with atmospheric molecules and atoms and consists of secondary neutrons, protons, gamma rays, electrons, positrons and muons. Due to the continuous interactions of primary and secondary particles within the atmosphere, the intensity of each component depends on the height. Since the Earth's magnetic field acts as rigidity filter for the charged primary particles, the flux of the primary particles into the atmosphere and the resulting intensity of secondary particles depend on the geomagnetic latitude being highest over the geomagnetic poles. The main primary component consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), mainly protons and alpha particles, whose flux is modulated in the heliosphere. Beside this slowly varying galactic component, solar energetic particle events may temporarily increase the intensity of this radiation field. In the frame of the Radiation Monitoring on Board Aircraft (RAMONA) collaboration, three NAVIgation and DOSimetry (NAVIDOS) systems were installed in 2008 and 2009 on board of three Lufthansa Airbus A340 aircraft. They have been maintained since then by the consortium. Two of the NAVIDOS units rely on the DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs), one is based on a LIULIN detector. This unique setup is ideally suited to investigate variations in the radiation field at different flight altitudes and geomagnetic positions and has been used to measure the radiation exposure during the recent extended solar minimum and thereafter. With increasing solar activity in 2010 the measured dose rates have been decreasing. Since these variations depend on the location of the aircraft, a detailed data analysis is required and presented.

  17. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  18. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.; Marsteen, L.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the third mission to Egypt and includes meetings and site visit reports. Air quality sites in Alexandria are described and comments are given to earlier selected sites in Cairo

  19. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  20. Effects of ambient air pollution on upper and lower respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; van der Zee, S C; Postma, D S; Vonk, J M; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Rijcken, B; Schouten, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have shown acute effects of increased amounts of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children with respiratory disorders. We investigated whether children with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and relatively high serum co

  1. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  2. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  3. A high sensitivity spectrometer with tunable diode laser for ambient methane monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifeng Kan; Wenqing Liu; Yujun Zhang; Jianguo Liu; Min Wang; Dong Chen; Jiuying Chen; Yiben Cui

    2007-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been widely employed in atmospheric trace gases detection. In the measurement of these trace gases, harmonic detection combined with a multi-pass white cell could remarkably enhance the detection sensitivity. In this paper, a portable TDLAS system built specifically for long time monitoring methane in the atmosphere is introduced. The detection limit is below 100 ppb that is enough for the monitoring of ambient methane, and the long time monitoring results obtained in Beijing are given, which is well coincident with that of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  4. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  5. Radiation contamination air monitoring basing on NATO normalization documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and actions connected with conducting of the air radiation monitoring have been described in the article. The staff and tasks of special military troops for air sampling as well as commonly used methods for air sampling have been presented and discussed

  6. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  7. Plant monitoring of air quality around waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, C.J. van; Dueck, T.A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Niger). Dept. of Crop and Production Ecology

    2002-07-01

    Since the early 1990's, three new waste incineration plants have come into operation in agricultural regions in The Netherlands. Multi-year standardised biomonitoring programmes around these incinerators were set up to determine the absence of adverse effects on quality of crop produce due to the incineration of waste. Depending on time of year, plants of kale (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were cultivated for use as accumulators of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Trends in fluoride contents were followed by sampling field-grown pasture grass. Cow milk was sampled to determine the concentrations of dioxins. Plants of gladiola (Gladiolus gandavensis) were used for the assessment of visible injury by ambient fluoride in one programme only. The results of many years of biomonitoring showed that the emissions of the waste incinerators did not affect the quality of crop produce and cow milk. Concentrations of the various components in these products were generally similar to background levels and did not exceed standards for maximum allowable concentrations. On one occasion, concentrations of PAHs in spinach were clearly enhanced due to the use of wood-preserving compounds at a barn close to the monitoring site. This incident reveals that our biomonitoring projects are an appropriate tool to detect changes in air quality. (orig.)

  8. Polymer Electrolyte-Based Ambient Temperature Oxygen Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    An ambient temperature oxygen microsensor, based on a Nafion polymer electrolyte, has been developed and was microfabricated using thin-film technologies. A challenge in the operation of Nafion-based sensor systems is that the conductivity of Nafion film depends on the humidity in the film. Nafion film loses conductivity when the moisture content in the film is too low, which can affect sensor operation. The advancement here is the identification of a method to retain the operation of the Nafion films in lower humidity environments. Certain salts can hold water molecules in the Nafion film structure at room temperature. By mixing salts with the Nafion solution, water molecules can be homogeneously distributed in the Nafion film increasing the film s hydration to prevent Nafion film from being dried out in low-humidity environment. The presence of organics provides extra sites in the Nafion film to promote proton (H+) mobility and thus improving Nafion film conductivity and sensor performance. The fabrication of ambient temperature oxygen microsensors includes depositing basic electrodes using noble metals, and metal oxides layer on one of the electrode as a reference electrode. The use of noble metals for electrodes is due to their strong catalytic properties for oxygen reduction. A conducting polymer Nafion, doped with water-retaining components and extra sites facilitating proton movement, was used as the electrolyte material, making the design adequate for low humidity environment applications. The Nafion solution was coated on the electrodes and air-dried. The sensor operates at room temperature in potentiometric mode, which measures voltage differences between working and reference electrodes in different gases. Repeat able responses to 21-percent oxygen in nitrogen were achieved using nitrogen as a baseline gas. Detection of oxygen from 7 to 21 percent has also been demonstrated. The room-temperature oxygen micro sensor developed has extremely low power

  9. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  10. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  11. Influence of chemical and physical forms of ambient air acids on airway doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, T.V.

    1989-02-01

    The effects of ambient relative humidity and particle size on acid deposition within the airways have been examined with a computer model. For H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ particles initially at 90% relative humidity in ambient air that are inhaled via the nose or mouth, there is significant deposition of acid in the airways even in the presence of typical values of respiratory NH/sub 3/. When these same particles are found in a fog at 100.015% relative humidity, there is significant deposition of acid in the nasal region during nose breathing but insignificant deposition to the deep lung for either nose or mouth breathing. The factors governing the partitioning of labile acid gases in the gas and liquid phases prior to inhalation are also discussed.

  12. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  13. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-01

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information. PMID:27505037

  14. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  15. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X. N.; Xie, Z. Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L. B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  16. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  17. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  18. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq. atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected, with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254, similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH

  19. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  20. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Linden (215) 814-2096, Region IV--Lynorae Benjamin (404) 562-9040, Region V--Andy Chang (312) 886-0258.... 2023, (617) 918-1661. Raymond Werner, Chief, Air Programs New Jersey, New York, Puerto Branch, EPA... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National...

  1. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ..., Region 3--Melissa Linden (215) 814-2096, Region 4--Steve Scofield (404) 562-9034, Region 5--Andy Chang..., Boston, MA 02114- Rhode Island, and Vermont. 2023, (617) 918-1661. Raymond Werner, Chief, Air Programs... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register FEM Federal Equivalent Method FRM Federal Reference...

  2. Seasonal variation of 7Be and 3H in Korean ambient air and rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seasonal variation of the 7Be activities in air was monitored by a continuous sampling with a high volume air dust sampler. And also, 7Be and 3H activities in precipitation were determined. The activity level of 7Be in air was ranged from 1.94 to 47.2 Bq/m3. And 7Be in the precipitation was separated using cation exchange resin and the monthly average activity level was ranged from 0.29 to 4.77 Bq/L. 3H was analyzed using electrolytic enrichment method and activity ranged from 0.27 to 2.22 Bq/L. (author)

  3. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x (SCN) x perovskite films can be readily prepare...

  4. Tritium release from a nonevaportable getter-pump cartridge exposed to moist air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tritium released when a commercially available getter-pump cartridge was exposed to moist air at ambient temperatures was measured. The cartridge consisted of Zr-Al powder pressed onto an iron substrate, which is the type of cartridge proposed for use in the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor. While the initial release of tritium was rapid the total activity released was lss than 0.005% of the cartridge loading. Of this amount, at least 80% was released as tritiated water. 8 figures

  5. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor A Utsal; Dobryakov, Yuri G; Vitenberg, Alexander G; Makarova, Svetlana V; Anna Yu Eshchenko; Igor G Zenkevich

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) a...

  6. CRITERIOS PARA UNA AGENDA AMBIENTAL DE AREAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS COSTERAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marcela; López, María José; Testa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Las Áreas Protegidas costeras en la provincia de Buenos Aires tienen dificultades de gestión ambiental y requieren de un ordenamiento vinculado al desarrollo sostenible, donde se reconozcan los vínculos entre los derechos de propiedad, la participación y la acción colectiva en el manejo de los recursos del territorio. Por lo tanto, la institucionalidad del manejo de las reservas provinciales costeras se define en escenarios muy complejos de governanza. Las estrategias de governanza de las Áre...

  7. Relationship between ambient air pollution and DNA damage in Polish mothers and newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized regions in Poland are characterized by high ambient pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal burning for industry and home heating. In experimental bioassays, certain PAHs are transplacental carcinogens and developmental toxicants. The amount of PAHs bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in maternal and umbilical white blood cells were measured in 70 mothers and newborns from Krakow, Poland. Modulation of adduct levels by genotypes previously linked to risk of lung cancer, specifically glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). There was a dose-related increase in maternal and newborn adduct levels with ambient pollution at the women's place of residence among subjects who were not employed away from home (p less than or equal to 0.05). Maternal smoking (active and passive) significantly increased maternal (p less than or equal to 0.01) but not newborn adduct levels. Results indicate that PAH-induced DNA damage in mothers and newborns is increased by ambient air pollution

  8. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  9. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C2 and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals

  10. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap, E-mail: ravips@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  11. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection of Environment... STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards... particulate matter data to determine attainment of the 24-hour standards specified in 40 CFR 50.6. For...

  13. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O2* species of unknown identity with ground state O2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  14. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  15. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  16. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  17. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  18. Measurements of Nitric-Oxide Nitrogen-Dioxide and Nitric Acid in Ambient and Captive Air by Second Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshio

    A Tropospheric Air Monitoring System (TAMS) was designed and constructed to measure trace gases in ambient air. The second harmonic component of the modulated light from a tunable diode laser due to an absorption line was measured to determine the mixing ratio of a trace gas in the sample. The technique of second harmonic detection increased the signal-to-noise ratio so that a species with mixing ratios in the sub-ppbv range could be detected. Second harmonic signals of an absorption line was calculated at different pressures (line shapes) and different modulation amplitudes to understand the optimum conditions for trace gas measurements. Also examined were the properties of the second harmonic signals due to etalon fringes, wavelength dependence of the laser power, tails of other absorption lines and interferences by these factors. The reduction of random noise by second harmonic detection was also investigated. The TAMS was intercalibrated with a chemiluminescence instrument of the University of Michigan. The system was transported to Los Angeles in fall of 1981 to join a captive air measurement programme. Both the captive and ambient air in Los Angeles was monitored for a one month period. The agreement with the University of Michigan was excellent for NO and satisfactory for NO(,2) and HNO(,3). The results of the intercalibrations and measurements are described.

  19. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  20. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  1. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  2. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  3. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  4. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  6. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as asorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured. Thesample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up ehition through a silica gelcolumn was optimized. The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows: resinweight was 1.5 g, ultrasonic extraction time 20 min, volume of extraction solvent 100 mi andextraction operation times 2~3. The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to nextstep of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and amixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3 (v/v). The PAHs fractions in the real samplesfrom Changzhou, China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of massspectra, retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of thestandards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as "priority pollutants" of the environment. Theanalysis of the real samples indicates that the carbonized fibrous resin is a good sorbent. Thepretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for P,AHs isproved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs inatmospheric environment.

  7. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  8. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  9. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  10. Optical Monitor for Major Air Constituents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The well-being of the crew on manned missions depends critical on the composition of the habitat air. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are the most important...

  11. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  12. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Ithnin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer, Aeroqual, MultiRAE, ICP-MS, NMAM 7303 and gravimetric method. Gilian High Volume Air Sampler was used to measure heavy metal parameters that were conducted for 8 h, Personal Sampling Pump to measure total suspended particulates for 8 h, MultiRAE for H2S and CH4 gas, Aeroqual for CO2 gas, Multilog for CO gas and a Tedlar bag for O2 gas. For biological parameters, settle plate method was used and conducted for 20 min. Veloci CALC and wind probe were used to measure physical parameters. Results: In the ambient air, the mean concentration of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP, lead and cadmium were higher at an exposed location compared to the control with a reading of 0.325±0.29, 0.108±0.050 and 0.06±0.045 ng m-3 respectively. The reason was that the exposed location was a former landfill site and there were several co-founding factors. Mean concentration for chemical parameters were higher at the exposed location and all the chemical parameters were not exceeding the EPA Protocol Gas for Single Component. The mean concentration of oxygen is 20.95±0.005%, carbon dioxide 669.25±84.109 ppm and carbon monoxide 1.8±0.957 ppm. For biological parameters, mean for the colony total count also higher at the exposed location compared to control location where the mean for bacterial was 17.75±4.573cfu while for fungal, the mean is 8.0±2.828 cfu. Indoor air quality results showed that concentration means of CO2 was 877.8±59.40 ppm, CO was 5.0

  13. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 4 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1997-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the fourth mission to Egypt, including planning of the second phase meetings and site visits. Additional air quality sites in Cairo have been described. A project group meeting and a visit to Egypt Meteorological Service have been reported

  14. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  15. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  16. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  17. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  18. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O3 and PM2.5. However, SO2 and NO2 showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO2 was observed, but there was no change in O3 and NO2. The decreasing trends observed with SO2 at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends

  19. The monitoring and fatigue behavior of CFCCs at ambient temperature and 1000{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Metallographically polished flexure bars of Nicalon/SiC and Nicalon/alumina composites were subjected to monotonic and cycle-fatigue loadings, with loading either parallel or normal to the fabric plies. The fabric orientation did not significantly affect the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/SiC composite at ambient temperature. However, the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/alumina composite was significantly affected by the fabric orientation at ambient temperature in air and at 1000{degrees}C in argon atmosphere. In addition, there was a significant degradation in the fatigue performance of the alumina matrix composite at the elevated temperature, owing to creep in the material and degradation in the fiber strength.

  20. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  1. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pol...

  2. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  3. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  4. Development of a thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of haloanisoles and halophenols in wineries' ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ruiz-García, J; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2013-08-30

    An analytical method for the detection and quantification of haloanisoles and their corresponding halophenols in wineries' ambient air was developed. The target analytes were haloanisoles and halophenols, reported by previous scientific literature as responsible for wine taint. A calibrated pump and active tubes filled with Tenax GR™ were used for sampling. These tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The adsorption efficiencies of five commercial sampling tubes filled with different materials were evaluated. The efficiencies of the selected adsorbent were close to 100% for all sampled compounds. Desorption, chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were accurately optimized allowing very low limits of quantification and wide linear ranges. The limits of quantification in ambient air ranged from 0.8pgtube(-1) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, to 28pgtube(-1) for pentachlorophenol. These results are of great importance because human sensory threshold for haloanisoles is very low. The chromatographic method was also validated and the instrumental precision and trueness were established, a maximum RSD of 9% and a mean recovery of 91-106% were obtained. The proposed method involves an easy and sensitive technique for the early detection of haloanisoles and their precursor halophenols in ambient air avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities. PMID:23891369

  5. A two-time-period comparison of the effects of ambient air pollution on outpatient visits for acute respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Amber Hughes; Edgerton, Eric S; Wyzga, Ron; Tolsma, Dennis

    2010-02-01

    Concentrations of numerous ambient air pollutants have declined in recent years across the United States. Although it can be expected that reductions in air pollutants are associated with reductions in health effects, it is unclear whether this is actually the case. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the levels of and relationships between air pollutants and acute respiratory outpatient visits for two consecutive time periods totaling 53 mo. Air pollution data were collected at a centrally located monitor in Atlanta, GA, and include 24-hr averages of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and its components; coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10); oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs); 8-hr maximum ozone (O3); and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, several metals and fractions of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were investigated. Daily outpatient visit data were obtained from the electronic data warehouse of the Atlanta-based region of a nonprofit managed care organization. Poisson general linear modeling determined associations between daily levels of acute visits for four diagnosis groups (adult and child asthma, upper and lower respiratory infection) and air pollution measurements. Overall declining trends were observed in air pollutants and acute visits over the study period. Childhood asthma had the greatest number of significant associations with air pollutants, namely zinc and EC. The significant lag time between pollutant measurement and visit occurrence changed from 3-5 days in the first time period to 6-8 days in the later time period, but there was general consistency in several childhood asthma and pollutant associations over both time periods. The greatest evidence for a reduction in pollution being associated with an improvement in health response was for lower respiratory disease

  6. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  7. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  8. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  9. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure: a Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Russell S; Suh Helen H; Coull Brent A; Yeh Gloria Y; Wellenius Gregory A; Mittleman Murray A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollut...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. T Appendix T to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. H Appendix H to Part 50—Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. I Appendix I to Part 50—Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the...

  13. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  14. 4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (Italy) by ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.

  15. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  16. Impact of ambient air pollution on gestational age is modified by season in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Doug

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of individual pollutants and the period(s during pregnancy when pollutant levels are likely to have most impact on preterm birth is not clear. We evaluated the effect of prenatal exposure to six common urban air pollutants in the Sydney metropolitan area on preterm birth. Methods We obtained information on all births in metropolitan Sydney between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000. For each birth, exposure to each air pollutant was estimated for the first trimester, the three months preceding birth, the first month after the estimated date of conception and the month prior to delivery. Gestational age was analysed as a categorical variable in logistic regression models. Results There were 123 840 singleton births in Sydney in 1998–2000 and 4.9% were preterm. Preterm birth was significantly associated with maternal age, maternal smoking, male infant, indigenous status and first pregnancy. Air pollutant levels in the month and three months preceding birth had no significant effect on preterm birth after adjusting for maternal and infant covariates. Ozone levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and spring months of conception and sulphur dioxide were associated with increased risks for preterm births. Nitrogen dioxide was associated with a decreased risk of preterm births. Conclusion We found more protective than harmful associations between ambient air pollutants and preterm births with most associations non-significant. In view of these inconsistent associations, it is important to interpret the harmful effects with caution. If our results are confirmed by future studies then it will be imperative to reduce Sydney's already low air pollution levels even further.

  17. Ambient changes in tracer concentrations from a multilevel monitoring system in Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.; Rose, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in 2008, a 4-year tracer study was conducted to evaluate ambient changes in groundwater concentrations of a 1,3,6-naphthalene trisulfonate tracer that was added to drill water. Samples were collected under open borehole conditions and after installing a multilevel groundwater monitoring system completed with 11 discrete monitoring zones within dense and fractured basalt and sediment layers in the eastern Snake River aquifer. The study was done in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to test whether ambient fracture flow conditions were sufficient to remove the effects of injected drill water prior to sample collection. Results from thief samples indicated that the tracer was present in minor concentrations 28 days after coring, but was not present 6 months after coring or 7 days after reaming the borehole. Results from sampling the multilevel monitoring system indicated that small concentrations of the tracer remained in 5 of 10 zones during some period after installation. All concentrations were several orders of magnitude lower than the initial concentrations in the drill water. The ports that had remnant concentrations of the tracer were either located near sediment layers or were located in dense basalt, which suggests limited groundwater flow near these ports. The ports completed in well-fractured and vesicular basalt had no detectable concentrations.

  18. Estimating domestic wood burning emissions in Nordic countries using ambient air observations, receptor and dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Karl, M.; Laupsa, H.; Johansson, C.; Pohjola, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 in Nordic countries during winter is wood burning from domestic heating. In Norway alone it is estimated that 80% of PM2.5 is emitted through this source. Though direct measurements of wood burning emissions are possible under controlled conditions, emission inventories for domestic heating are difficult to calculate. Emissions vary from stove to stove as well as wood type, wood condition and burning habits. The consumption rate of wood burning is also strongly dependent on meteorological as well as societal conditions. As a result the uncertainty in wood burning emission inventories used in dispersion modelling is considered to be quite high. As an alternative method for estimating the emissions resulting from wood burning for domestic heating this paper combines ambient air measurements, chemical analysis of filter samples, receptor models, dispersion models, and simple inverse modelling methods to infer emission strengths. The methodology is applied in three Nordic cities, notably Oslo (Norway), Helsinki (Finland) and Lycksele (Sweden). In these cities daily filter samples over several months have been collected. The filter samples have been chemically analysed for a range of elemental and specific markers including OC/EC and Levoglucosan. The chemical analysis has been used as input for a range of receptor models, including UNMIX, PMF, PMF-2 and COPREM. From these calculations the source contributions at the measurement sites, with particular emphasis on wood burning, have been estimated. Though the receptor models have a common basis their application method varies, and as a result the number of identifiable sources and their contributions may differ. For the application here the contribution of wood burning was not found to vary significantly, irrespective of the model or user. It was also found that Levoglucosan as a wood burning tracer was essential for the identification of the wood burning sources. Source

  19. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  20. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM10, PM2.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM10/PM2.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  1. Atmospheric pressure diffuse plasma in ambient air for ITO surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of atmospheric filament-free diffuse plasma in ambient air and oxygen by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) on surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) were studied. The DCSBD plasma treatment resulted in significant reduction of water contact angles (even for 1 s long treatment). The decrease can be explained by the chemical changes on surface. These were studied by XPS which shows considerable decrease in the carbon surface concentration. The detailed analysis of C1s peak indicates the increase of the highest binding energy component of the C1s peak that corresponds to polar bonds with oxygen, which may be also related to decrease of water contact angle. AFM measurement showed no significant effect of plasma on ITO surface morphology.

  2. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  3. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  4. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  5. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  6. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marius DEACONU; Cretu, Mihaiella

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a v...

  7. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using vertical Bridgman method in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K.; Ohba, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Miyagawa, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to β-Ga2O3 single crystal growth was studied, using the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in ambient air, while measuring the β-Ga2O3 melting temperature and investigating the effects of crucible composition and shape. β-Ga2O3 single crystals 25 mm in diameter were grown in platinum-rhodium alloy crucibles in ambient air, with no adhesion of the crystals to the crucible wall. Single crystal growth without a crystal seed was realized by (100) faceted growth with a growth direction perpendicular to the (100) faceted plane.

  8. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  9. Ambient air quality and the frequency of physician visits by preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmišević Smajil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ambient air pollution in the town of Kakanj, mostly of industrial origin, has become a major reason for increased use of health care services by children under the age of six years. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between ambient concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2, suspended particles and nitrogenoxides (NOx, and the frequency/number of visits to health care institutions by children under the age of six years. Material and methods. The investigation was carried out in the period from January to December 2003, in the area of Kakanj and Brnjic. We examined the average number of monthly visits to health care institutions and concentrations of sulphur dioxide, suspended particles and nitrogen oxides in the town of Kakanj. Results. The investigation shows that there is a linear increase of visits to health care institutions in relation to linear increase of concetrations of sulphur dioxide, suspended particles and nitrogen oxides (Oair. .

  10. Un monitor de estado de servidores en un ambiente TCP/IP

    OpenAIRE

    Persico, Andrea; Flores, Sonia; Printista, Alicia Marcela

    2003-01-01

    La perfomance de las redes de computadoras se presenta como un tópico atractivo, cuyo análisis es una tarea de gran interés en la actualidad. En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de un monitor de estado de servidores en una red de computadoras, trabajando en un ambiente TCP/IP con el objetivo de obtener información la cual describe la condición en que se encuentran los servidores a través de distintas métricas tales como memoria disponible, utilización de CPU, balance de carga, etc.

  11. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  12. Fatigue monitoring and analysis of orthotropic steel deck considering traffic volume and ambient temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; YongSheng; DING; YouLiang

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue has gradually become a serious issue for orthotropic steel deck used for long-span bridges. Two fatigue effects, namely number of stress cycles and equivalent stress amplitude, were introduced as investigated parameters in this paper. Investigation was focused on their relationships with traffic volume and ambient temperature by using 7-months fatigue monitoring data of an actual bridge. A fatigue analytical model considering temperature-induced changes in material property of asphalt pavement was established for verifying these relationships. The analysis results revealed that the number of stress cycles and equivalent stress amplitude showed a linear correlation with the traffic volume and ambient temperature, respectively, and that the rib-to-deck welded joint was much more sensitive to the traffic volume and ambient temperature than the rib-to-rib welded joint. The applicability of the code-recommended model for fatigue vehicle loading was also discussed, which revealed that the deterministic vehicle loading model requires improvement to account for significant randomness of the actual traffic conditions.

  13. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 2. Air genotoxic potency screening assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of passive air sampling to be employed in the evaluation of direct genotoxicity of ambient air samples was assessed. Genotoxic effects of the total extracts from the polyurethane foam filters exposed for 28 days during a regional passive air sampling campaign were investigated. Twenty sampling sites were selected in Brno city on the area of approximately 20 x 20 km in October and November 2004. Brno is the second largest city of the Czech Republic, highly industrialized with approximately 370,000 of permanent inhabitants. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were determined in all samples. Fraction of each extract was also assayed in the bacterial genotoxicity test using Escherichia coli sulA::lacZ. Complete dose-response relationships of the air extracts were determined. The statistical analysis showed significant correlation between observed biological effects and PAHs concentrations in samples. - Extracts from passive air samples can be used to assess genotoxic potency

  14. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  15. Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salem, S. M.; Khan, A R

    2008-01-01

    Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3), NO, NOx, SO2, CO, H2S and NH3) of two Kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, Fahaheel and Al-Riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1) the exceedances of the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA) air quality limits, (2) primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3) diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4) the "weekend effect"on O3 levels. High O3 levels, above the threshold lim...

  16. Summary Day 1: Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Querol, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Presentación resumen de las ponencias del primer día de las Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring. Estas jornadas tuvieron lugar en Barcelona del 25 al 26 de abril de 2012.

  17. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  18. Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter in a Broiler House Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodrigues Amador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter (PM is an important constituent of ambient air. The determination of its concentration and size distribution in different environments is essential because of its ability to penetrate deeply into animal and human respiratory tract. In this study, air sampling was performed in a broiler house to estimate the concentration and size distribution of PM emitted along with its activities. Low-vol impactor (< 10 mm, cyclones (< 2.5 e < 1.0 mm, and Sioutas cascade impactor (> 2.5; 1.0 – 2.5; 0.50 – 1.0; 0.25 – 0.50; < 0.25 mm connected with membrane pumps were used. PM10 showed high concentration (209 - 533 mg m-3. PM2.5 and PM1.0 initially showed relatively low concentration (20.8 and 16.0 mg m-3 respectively with significantly increasing levels (412.9 and 344.8 mg m-3 respectively during the samplings. It was also possible to observe the contribution of fine particles. This was evidenced by the high correlation between PM2.5 and PM1.0 and by the profile of particle distribution in the Sioutas sampler. PM concentration levels are considered excessively high, with great potential to affect animal and human health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.847 

  19. Low-level NOx removal in ambient air by pulsed corona technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, F. J. C. M.; Hoeben, W. F. L. M.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.

    2013-07-01

    Although removal of NOx by (pulsed) corona discharges has been thoroughly investigated for high concentrations of NOx in flue gas, removal of low levels in ambient air proves to be a difficult task. (Sub) ppm NOx levels exist in traffic tunnels due to accumulation of exhaust gases. The application of pulsed corona technology for purification of traffic tunnel air is studied during a series of lab and field experiments. An industrial pilot scale wire-cylinder type corona reactor has been utilized. Lab tests have been carried out using a diesel generator as NOx source. NOx conversion levels have been determined by applying two Recordum Airpointers (chemiluminescence-based detection). The detector appeared to be cross-sensitive for HNO3 and high levels of O3. NOx removal rates of 60-80% were obtained for inlet levels of 2-10 ppm. The SIE value of 10 ppm NOx removal is 7 J l-1. The corona discharges produce ppm level NOx at high energy densities. This intrinsic NOx production limits removal of inlet levels due to equilibrium between production and oxidation.

  20. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  1. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Erik T; Dulay, Maria T; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-21

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  2. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  3. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  4. Influence of ambient air exposure on surface chemistry and electronic properties of thin copper phthalocyanine sensing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzadziel, L. [Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Krzywiecki, M., E-mail: mkrzywiecki@polsl.p [Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Peisert, H.; Chasse, T. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tuebingen, Auf de Morgenstelle 8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Szuber, J. [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-01-31

    In this paper we present photoemission studies of the influence of 12-hour exposure to the ambient air on the chemical and electronic properties of thin 16-nm copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) sensing layers deposited on n- and p-type silicon Si(111) substrates covered with the native oxide. The surface chemistry and electronic parameters of organic thin film including surface band bending, work function, electron affinity and their variations upon the exposure have been monitored with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy techniques. We found that after the exposure, the surface chemistry of CuPc remained unaffected, however the work function and surface band bending increased by 0.55 eV and 0.45 eV for the layers on n-Si and by 0.25 eV and 0.30 eV for those on p-Si. Additionally, we detected a slight surface dipole at CuPc on n-Si manifested by a small shift in electron affinity of 0.10 eV. In order to explain these changes we developed a model basing on the interaction of ionic species with the phthalocyanine surface.

  5. Impact of Emissions from Power Stations on the Ambient Air Quality of Selected Urban Areas in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader N.A. Azmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kuwait, two main power stations, one comprising of seven-300MW steam generators at Doha and other with eight-300MW steam generators at Subyia cover the major power requirement of Kuwait city. These stations used different types of fuel oil as the prime source of energy that has different sulpher contents (S%. Comprehensive emission inventories for year the 2001 were used to execute Source Complex model for Short-term Dispersion (ISCST4.5 to predict ambient ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx at selected receptors. A yearlong meteorological data were used in conjunction with the dispersion model to compute SO2 and NOx levels in and around the power stations. For validation of the model, computed results were compared with the measured daily average values at a fixed Kuwait EPA air quality monitoring station located at the roof of polyclinic in Rabia residential area. Contributions of each power station to the highest predicted values were assessed. Significance of the fifty highest hourly, daily and annual ground level concentration values under existing meteorological conditions was analyzed. The results for year 2001 revealed that daily and annual mean predicted SO2 concentrations had exceedance about 5.7% and 0.16% respectively of the total area under investigation. Based on these results, mitigation strategies would be proposed to abate high pollution levels caused by these power stations.

  6. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Shannon P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Debra C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coronado, Melissa A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dewart, Jean M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fuehne, David P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, Milan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lujan, Joan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacDonell, Carolyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  7. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  8. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  9. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

  10. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  11. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient vibration testing (AVT measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefore, in this paper, the health monitoring method of concrete dams based on the AVT is studied. The kernel principle analysis (KPCA based method is adopted to eliminate the effect of environmental variables and monitor the health of dam under varying environments. By taking full advantage of the AVT data obtained from vibration observation system of dam, the identification capabilities and the warning capabilities of structural damage can be improved. With the simulated AVT data of the numerical model of a concrete gravity dam and the measured AVT data of a practical engineering, the performance of the dam health monitoring method proposed in this paper is verified.

  12. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    and plants. The new EU Directives introduce revised standards for NO2, SO2, particles (PM10) and Pb. They are implemented through the first "daughter" Directive to the Air Quality Framework Directive. It was adopted by the EU council in April 1999. The new limit values shall be in force from January 2001 (18....... Further EU standards are prepared for O3, Benzene and the heavy metals Ni, As and Cd. The measured NO2 concentrations were about a factor of two lower than the limit value, while they are close to the values in the new EU Directive. The trend for NO2 indicates the latest years a weak decrease...... the measured concentrations in Denmark. The measured concentrations for Ni, As and Cd are well below the expected new limit values. The traffic is no longer then main source for Pb, but other heavy metals as Cr and Cu, are mainly traffic related in urban areas. The main source is probably dust from brake pads...

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  14. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  15. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A Utsal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10 at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter – 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol. In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxybenzoic acid (depside. However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO should be reconsidered as preferably an oxidative decarboxylation with formation of carbon dioxide, CO2. Direct head-space analysis of the gaseous components formed during quercetin oxidation in aqueous solution at ambient temperature indicates that the ratio of carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide in the gas phase after acidification of the reaction media is ca. 96:4 %. Oxidation under these mild conditions is typical for other flavonols having OH groups at C3 (e.g., kaempferol, but it is completely suppressed if this hydroxyl group is substituted by a glycoside fragment (as in rutin, or a methyl substituent. An alternative oxidation mechanism involving the direct cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in the diketo-tautomer of quercetin is proposed.

  16. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  17. Autonomous remote gas sensor network platforms with applications in landfill, wastewater and ambient air quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Eoghan; Nardi Pinto, Camila; Collins, Fiachra; Fay, Cormac; Fregonezi Paludetti, Lizandra; Zanoni Nubiato, Keni; Xavier Costa, Ernane; Morgado, Marcelo; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are produced by anaerobes on decaying matter. This gas production is present in landfill sites and in anaerobic lagoons in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Monitoring gas production is important as CO2 can collect in low lying areas and asphyxiates, CH4 is flammable in the 5%-15% v/v gas/air region. Both CO2 and CH4 are greenhouse gases, CH4 having 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. At landfill site perimeters, CO2 and CH4 must not exceed ...

  18. Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they

  19. Iatrogenic Complications in Five Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Ambient Air: Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N. Manser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing use of carbon dioxide for endoscopies during the last years, ambient air is still used. The amount of air depends on several factors such as examination time, presumable diameter of the endoscope channel and of course active use of air by the operator. Although endoscopic complications due to ambient air in the gastrointestinal (GI tract are a rare observation and mostly described in the colon, we report five cases in the upper GI tract due to insufflating large amounts of air through the endoscopes. All 5 patients needed an emergency upper endoscopy for acute presumed upper GI bleeding. In two cases both esophageal variceal bleeding and ulcer bleeding were detected; the fifth case presented with a bleeding due to gastric cancer. Due to insufflation of inadequate amounts of air through the endoscope channel, all patients deteriorated in circulation and ventilation. Two rumenocenteses and consecutively three laparotomies had to be performed in three patients. In the other two, gastroscopies had to be stopped for an emergency computed tomography. All critical incidents were believed to be a consequence of a long-lasting examination with use of too much air. Therefore in emergency situations, endoscopies should be performed with either submersion, low air flow pumps or even better by the use of carbon dioxide.

  20. Evaluation of ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany from 1990 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertmann, Regina; Tesseraux, Irene; Schümann, Michael; Neus, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    All available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration data in ambient air obtained over the past 10 years in Germany were evaluated to clarify whether it is justified to use benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker compound for the total PAH exposure. The data basis comprises annual mean concentrations from 1990 to 1998 supplied by the emission protection authorities of the federal states with additional information on the region, year and site of measurement. The data are very heterogeneous with respect to sample size, the number of individual PAHs analyzed, place of origin and year. Nine of 25 individual compounds with sufficient sample size (74German reunion and time characterize the distributive patterns, e.g., from 1991 to 1997, a significant decrease in BaP could be determined based on the data from North Rhine-Westphalia (1991, N=51, median 1.6 ng/m(3); 1997, N=45, median 0.7 ng/m(3); Pambient air.

  1. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  2. Instrumentation for continuous on-line monitoring of non-methane organic carbon in air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); McAllister, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nonmethane organic carbons (NMOC) is a measure of total organic carbon except that from methane. EPA standard method 25 was developed in the mid 1970`s as a means of quantifying NMOC emission from stationary source such as incinerators and paint industry. This method which involves obtaining a grab sample, and transporting it to the lab for analysis is not suitable for continuous monitoring. Moreover, this GC based method is prone to interferences from moisture and high concentrations of CO{sub 2}. In this paper we discuss the development of a novel columnless instrument that can be used for continuous on-line monitoring of NMOC in emission sources as well as in ambient air. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  4. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  5. Pollutants in particulate and gaseous fractions of ambient air interfere with multiple signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jirí; Jálová, Veronika; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, contamination of air has been evaluated primarily by chemical analyses of indicator contaminants and these studies have focused mainly on compounds associated with particulates. Some reports have shown that air contaminants can produce specific biological effects such as toxicity mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or modulation of the endocrine system. This study assessed the dioxin-like toxicity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity and anti-/retinoic activity of both the particulate and gas phase fractions of air in two regions with different types of pollution sources and a background locality situated in an agricultural area of Central Europe. The first region (A) is known to be significantly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and chemical industry. The other region (B) has been polluted by historical releases of PCBs, but the major current sources of contamination are probably combustion sources from local traffic and heating. Samples of both particle and gas fractions produced dioxin-like (AhR-mediated) activity, anti-estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, but none had any effect on retinoid signaling. AhR-mediated activities were observed in all samples and the TEQ values were comparable in both fractions in region A, but significantly greater in the particulate fraction in region B. The greater AhR-mediated activity corresponded to a greater coincident antiestrogenicity of both phases in region B. Our study is the first report of antiestrogenicity and antiandrogenicity in ambient air. Anti-androgenicity was observed in the gas phase of all regions, while in the particulate phase only in one region due to the specific type of pollution in that area. Even though based on concentrations of individual compounds, except for the OCPs, the level of contamination of the two regions was similar, there were strong differences in responses in the bioassays between the two regions. Moreover, AhR-mediated activity and

  6. Study on an air quality evaluation model for Beijing City under haze-fog pollution based on new ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-28

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive evaluation model based on an entropy weighting method and nearest neighbor method was developed. The entropy weighting method was used to determine the weights of indicators, and the nearest neighbor method was utilized to evaluate the air quality levels. Then the comprehensive evaluation model was applied into the practical evaluation problems of air quality in Beijing to analyze the haze-fog pollution. Two simulation experiments were implemented in this study. One experiment included the indicator of PM2.5 and was carried out based on the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012); the other experiment excluded PM2.5 and was carried out based on the old Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-1996). Their results were compared, and the simulation results showed that PM2.5 was an important indicator for air quality and the evaluation results of the new Air Quality Standards were more scientific than the old ones. The haze-fog pollution situation in Beijing City was also analyzed based on these results, and the corresponding management measures were suggested.

  7. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode or/and with gas amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Peskov, V.

    2008-02-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are attractive due to their simplicity and low cost and are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and so on. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification which potentially offers the highest possible sensitivity in applications like alpha particle detection or high energy X-ray photon or electron detection. To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of one (pulse ionization chamber). This detector was readout by a custom made wide -band charge sensitive amplifier able to deal with slow induced signals generated by slow motion of negative and positive ions. The multiwire detector was able to detect alpha particles with an efficiency close to 22%. The second type of an alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 104). This detector can also operate in a cascaded mode or being combined with other detectors, for example with MICROMEGAS. This detector was readout by a conventional charge -sensitive amplifier and was able to detect alpha particles with 100% efficiency. This detector could also detect X-ray photons or fast electrons. A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as a comparison with commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible applications of these new detectors is alpha particle background monitors which, due to their low cost can find wide application not only in houses, but

  8. Monitoring and analysis of an absorption air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Vinaspre, M.; Bourouis, M.; Coronas, A. [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia, A.; Soto, V.; Pinazo, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, high-energy consumption due to air-conditioning has led to a growing interest in the efficient use of energy in buildings. Although simulation programs have always been the main tools for analyzing energy in buildings, the reliability of their results is often compromised by a lack of certainty to reflect real conditions. The aim of this work is to monitorize and analyze the thermal behavior of an absorption-based air-conditioning installation of a university building in Tarragona, Spain. The existing monitoring system of the installation has been improved by implementing additional sensors and flow meters. The data has been stored during summer 2002 and used to assess the energy balance of the air-conditioning installation and the operational regime of the absorption chiller. [Author].

  9. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (author)

  10. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  11. Waste to energy plant-air pollution monitoring and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can't eat it. We can't wear it. We are running out of places to bury it. We can't export it. We can't stop making it. Garbage seems to be, by volume at least, our biggest national product. These facts are driving more and more industries and municipalities to construct waste to energy plants. Following the adage that when you get lemons, make lemonade, municipalities have been burning their garbage to produce steam and electricity. Communities, fearful that what they have produced may be toxic to them when burned, have enacted stringent air pollution control and monitoring regulations. The federal government has enacted regulations under the Clean Air Act 43 CFR Part 60 which regulate the emission limits monitoring and reporting requirements of waste energy plants. The most important of these regulations was enacted on December 16, 1987 and June 26, 1987, regulating particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions. This paper reports that these regulations also tie in to various other EPA regulations and requirements. The most important of these to air pollution monitoring is Appendix F, Quality Assurance. However, these regulations are only minimum requirements -- individual states further strengthen their bite by requiring lower emissions limits and the monitoring of additional parameters such as H2S, HCl, NH2, CO, CO2 and moisture. These monitoring limits and reporting requirements are currently being negotiated on a case by case basis in most instances

  12. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  13. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  14. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsant, Guénolé; Larose, Eric; Brönnimann, Cornelia; Jongmans, Denis; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Given that clay-rich landslides may become mobilized, leading to rapid mass movements (earthflows and debris flows), they pose critical problems in risk management worldwide. The most widely proposed mechanism leading to such flow-like movements is the increase in water pore pressure in the sliding mass, generating partial or complete liquefaction. This solid-to-liquid transition results in a dramatic reduction of mechanical rigidity in the liquefied zones, which could be detected by monitoring shear wave velocity variations. With this purpose in mind, the ambient seismic noise correlation technique has been applied to measure the variation in the seismic surface wave velocity in the Pont Bourquin landslide (Swiss Alps). This small but active composite earthslide-earthflow was equipped with continuously recording seismic sensors during spring and summer 2010. An earthslide of a few thousand cubic meters was triggered in mid-August 2010, after a rainy period. This article shows that the seismic velocity of the sliding material, measured from daily noise correlograms, decreased continuously and rapidly for several days prior to the catastrophic event. From a spectral analysis of the velocity decrease, it was possible to determine the location of the change at the base of the sliding layer. These results demonstrate that ambient seismic noise can be used to detect rigidity variations before failure and could potentially be used to predict landslides.

  15. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  16. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Sîrbu, Alina; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Bossche, Joris Van den

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights int...

  17. Sable Island air monitoring program report: 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sable Island is an island situated in the Atlantic which receives pollutant flows from the Great Lakes and the United States Eastern Seaboard. The Sable Island air monitoring station was set up by the Environmental Studies Research Funds and its partners to monitor the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). This paper presents the results of the first 4 years of operation of the station. It was found that concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone exceeded desirable levels on several occasions while concentrations of NOx, SO2 and H2S recorded were much below maximum acceptable levels. In addition it was found that the episodes of elevated pollutant levels were due to transboundary flows from onshore. The Sable Island air monitoring project showed good results in its first 4 years of operation and the project partners are considering extending the program.

  18. Proposed pathophysiologic framework to explain some excess cardiovascular death associated with ambient air particle pollution: Insights for public health translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Wayne E

    2016-12-01

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regulatory environmental protections to actions that can be taken by individuals, public health officials, healthcare professionals, city and regional planners, local and state governmental officials and all those who possess the capacity to improve cardiovascular health within the population. The foundation of the framework rests on the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors acting alone and in concert with long-term exposures to air pollutants to create a conditional susceptibility for clinical vascular events, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction; stroke and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The conceptual framework focuses on the fact that short-term exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with vascular thrombosis (acute coronary syndrome, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) and electrical dysfunction (ventricular arrhythmia); and that individuals having prevalent heart disease are at greatest risk. Moreover, exposure is concomitant with changes in autonomic nervous system balance, systemic inflammation, and prothrombotic/anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic-antifibrinolytic balance. Thus, a comprehensive solution to the problem of premature mortality triggered by air pollutant exposure will require compliance with regulations to control ambient air particle pollution levels, minimize exposures to air pollutants, as well as a concerted effort to decrease the number of people at-risk for serious clinical cardiovascular events triggered by air pollutant exposure by improving the overall state of cardiovascular health in the population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio

  19. Tribological behavior of micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsem, D. H.; van der Hulst, R.; Stach, E. A.; Dugger, M. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2009-02-01

    As tribological properties are critical factors in the reliability of microelectromechanical systems, it is important to understand the physical processes and parameters governing wear and friction in silicon structural films. Dynamic friction, wear volumes and wear morphology have been studied for polysilicon devices from the Sandia SUMMiT VTM process actuated in ambient air at μN loads. A total of seven devices were tested. Roughly half of the devices showed a peak in the friction coefficient at three times the initial value with failure after 105 cycles. The other half of the devices behaved similarly initially; however, following the friction coefficient peak they displayed a lower steady-state friction regime with no failure for millions of cycles. Additionally, the nanoscale wear coefficient and roughness increased in the first ~105 cycles and then slowly decayed over several million cycles. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed amorphous oxygen-rich debris. These measurements show that after a short adhesive wear regime, abrasive wear is the governing mechanism with failures attributed to differences in the local nanoscale surface morphology. Changing the relative humidity, sliding speed and load was found to influence the friction coefficient, but re-oxidation of worn polysilicon surfaces was only found to have an effect after periods of inactivity.

  20. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  1. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  2. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  3. MSNoise: a Python Package for Monitoring Seismic Velocity Changes using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Brenguier, Florent

    2014-05-01

    We present MSNoise, a complete software suite to compute relative seismic velocity changes under a seismic network, using ambient seismic noise. The whole is written in Python, from the monitoring of data archives, to the production of high quality figures. All steps have been optimized to only compute the necessary steps and to use 'job'-based processing. All steps can be changed by matching the in/outs. MSNoise exposes an API for communication with the data archive and the database. We present a validation of the software on a dataset acquired during the UnderVolc project on the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano, La Réunion Island, France, for which precursory relative changes of seismic velocity are visible for three eruptions betwee 2009 and 2011. MSNoise is available on http://www.msnoise.org

  4. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all experience expansion and contraction. Because of the different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients between these materials, hygro-thermal stresses are introduced into the unit cell during operation. In addition, the non-uniform current and reactant flow distributions in the cell result in non-uniform temperature and moisture content of the cell which could in turn, potentially causing localized increases in the stress magnitudes, and this leads to mechanical damage, which can appear as through-the-thickness flaws or pinholes in the membrane, or delaminating between the polymer membrane and gas diffusion layers. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of these damage mechanisms in the membranes and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operation conditions. A three-dimensional, multi–phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a planar ambient air-breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed and used to study the effects of ambient conditions on the temperature distribution, displacement, deformation, and stresses inside the cell. The behaviour of the fuel cell during operation has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of mechanical, hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. The results show

  5. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  6. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  7. In situ monitoring of urban air in Córdoba, Argentina using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    During the last decades, a significant deterioration of ambient air quality has been observed in Argentina. However, the availability of air pollution monitoring stations is still limited to only few cities. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity of ambient levels of air pollution in Córdoba using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay. The experiment was performed from October, 2004 to April 2005. Pots with Tradescantia pallida were placed in three sites: Córdoba city center, characterized by important avenues with high traffic activity (cars, taxis, and public transport vehicles); the university campus, along a side road with heavy traffic of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles, buses and trucks; and a residential area, with no significant local sources of air pollution. Twenty young T. pallida inflorescences were collected from each sampling site in November, February and April. Micronuclei frequencies were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Simultaneously, the environmental levels of total suspended particles (24 h mean) were determined for each site. A significant difference in micronuclei frequency was observed among sites ( p=0.036). Post-hoc analysis revealed that the residential area exhibited a lower micronuclei frequency than the university and city center areas. In conclusion, we found that the gradients of ambient air pollution of Córdoba are associated with changes in the spontaneous micronuclei frequency of Tradescantia pollen mother cells. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring with higher plants may be useful for characterizing air pollution in areas without instrumental monitoring techniques, or for exploring the distribution of air contaminants at a microscale.

  8. Ambient air quality in industrial harbor area%某港口工业区大气质量监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋守芳; 朱琳; 陈超; 李君; 关维俊; 佟俊旺; 高彦梅; 田喜权; 郑天然; 李克; 鲁亚静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the air quality in an industrial harbor area located in Tangshan city in order to provide fundamental data for carrying out continuous environmental monitoring.Methods According to the construction status and the distributions of pollution sources in the area, steel factory, power plant, crude oil dock, ore dock, coal dock, and control area were chosen as the sampling area.The concentrations of SO2 ,NO2 ,CO ,O3 ,total suspended particulate(TSP) and particulate matter < 10[mμ]m( PM10 ) in the ambient air were determined.The air quality of each area selected and of the whole industrial area were assessed by calculating the integrated air pollution index.Results The concentrations of all air pollutants in each area as well as in the whole industrial area were lower than the maximum acceptable level defined by standards for environmental air quality.Compared with the control area, the concentration of TSP of coal dock was higher with a significant difference(0.416 vs 0.193 mg/m3 ,P <0.05 ).The integrated air pollution indexes for ambient air of steel factory,power plant, crude oil dock, ore dock, and coal dock were 0.486,0.451,0.350,0.314, and 0.475, respectively.Air quality index of each area and the whole industrial area were all lower than 0.49, and the quality of the ambient air was grade Ⅰ, which belonged to clean air.Conclusion The ambient air quality of the industrial harbor area was clean and belonged to grade Ⅰ.%目的 了解河北省唐山市某港口工业区部分投产期间的大气污染状况,为进行连续性环境监测和环境科学研究提供基础资料.方法 采用功能分区布点,在工业区内的钢铁厂、电厂、原油码头、矿石码头、煤炭码头和对照区采集大气样品,测定SO2、NO2、CO、O3总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)和可吸入颗粒物(PM10)等指标,计算各采样点大气质量综合指数.结果 各采样点以及整个工业区空气中各种污染物浓度均未超标;与对照区(0

  9. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanweer Khan

    Full Text Available The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut.

  10. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particles sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  11. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans: a model to monitor bacterial air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclairoir Poc Cécile

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low environmental air quality is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and this question is now emerging as a main concern of governmental authorities. Airborne pollution results from the combination of chemicals, fine particles, and micro-organisms quantitatively or qualitatively dangerous for health or for the environment. Increasing regulations and limitations for outdoor air quality have been decreed in regards to chemicals and particles contrary to micro-organisms. Indeed, pertinent and reliable tests to evaluate this biohazard are scarce. In this work, our purpose was to evaluate the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test, a model considered as an equivalent to the mouse acute toxicity test in pharmaceutical industry, in order to monitor air bacterial quality. Findings The present study investigates the bacterial population in dust clouds generated during crop ship loading in harbor installations (Rouen harbor, Normandy, France. With a biocollector, airborne bacteria were impacted onto the surface of agar medium. After incubation, a replicate of the colonies on a fresh agar medium was done using a velvet. All the replicated colonies were pooled creating the "Total Air Sample". Meanwhile, all the colonies on the original plate were isolated. Among which, five representative bacterial strains were chosen. The virulence of these representatives was compared to that of the "Total Air Sample" using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test. The survival kinetic of nematodes fed with the "Total Air Sample" is consistent with the kinetics obtained using the five different representatives strains. Conclusions Bacterial air quality can now be monitored in a one shot test using the Caenorhaditis elegans killing test.

  13. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  14. Preliminary draft: comprehensive air-monitoring plan report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-15

    The topography of the CAMP Study Area, climate, and air pollution meteorology are described. The population analysis indicated limited growth during the next 10 years in the CAMP Study Area. Analysis of emission sources (current and projected) included a presentation of the types of emissions and their impact on the Study Area population (receptors). The general conclusion was drawn that of the non-condensible gases emitted, and considered pollutants, hydrogen sulfide was the only one for which monitoring would be recommended. Recommendations for type, placement, performance criteria, and the timing of establishment and terminating monitoring equipment were determined.

  15. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S.; Schneider, T. [Centre d`Etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P.; Maximilien, R. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A. [Centre Rhone-Alpes d`Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Allahabadi, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Fathabadi, Zeynab Abaszadeh; Raisi, Zahra; Rezai, Mehrab; Aval, Mohsen Yazdani

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs-zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)-was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cdheavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them. PMID:27053049

  17. Modeling, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the unsteady cooling of a solid body in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Salazar, Abraham [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Rebollo, Daniel [Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The scope of the present article is two-fold. Firstly, to conduct an experiment to provide the temperature-time history of the cooling of a hot ball bearing in quiescent ambient air. Secondly, to predict the temporal variation of the bearing under the hypothesis of natural convection, radiation or natural convection coexists with radiation for a non-vanishing total hemispherical emissivity of the surface of the bearing. Numerical solutions of the three governing nonlinear lumped heat equations were carried out with a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) algorithm accounting for automatic step size control. The experimental data was obtained with chrome steel ball bearings of diameter 0.953 cm (7/16 in) heated in an electric oven to a pre-set temperature. The heated bearing was exposed later to ambient air at atmospheric temperature and pressure. (orig.)

  18. Modeling, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the unsteady cooling of a solid body in quiescent ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Antonio; Salazar, Abraham; Rebollo, Daniel

    The scope of the present article is two-fold. Firstly, to conduct an experiment to provide the temperature-time history of the cooling of a hot ball bearing in quiescent ambient air. Secondly, to predict the temporal variation of the bearing under the hypothesis of natural convection, radiation or natural convection coexists with radiation for a non-vanishing total hemispherical emissivity of the surface of the bearing. Numerical solutions of the three governing nonlinear lumped heat equations were carried out with a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) algorithm accounting for automatic step size control. The experimental data was obtained with chrome steel ball bearings of diameter 0.953 cm (7/16 in) heated in an electric oven to a pre-set temperature. The heated bearing was exposed later to ambient air at atmospheric temperature and pressure.

  19. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Awan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulates (TSPs in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3 in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.

  20. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  1. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  2. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, R.T.; Cakmak, S; Brook, J. R.; Krewski, D

    1997-01-01

    In order to address the role that the ambient air pollution mix, comprised of gaseous pollutants and various physical and chemical measures of particulate matter, plays in exacerbating cardiorespiratory disease, daily measures of fine and coarse particulate mass, aerosol chemistry (sulfates and acidity), and gaseous pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) were collected in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These time series were...

  3. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 ...

  4. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  5. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ambient Air in an Oxidation Flow Reactor at GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; de Sa, Suzane S.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Hu, Weiwei; Seco, Roger; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Brito, Joel; Wurm, Florian; Artaxo, Paulo; Yee, Lindsay; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabrial; Goldstein, Allen; Newburn, Matt K.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Martin, Scot T.; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    During GoAmazon2014/5, ambient air was exposed to controlled concentrations of OH or O3 in situ using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). Oxidation ranged from hours-several weeks of aging. Oxidized air was sampled by several instruments (e.g., HR-AMS, ACSM, PTR-TOF-MS, SMPS, CCN) at both the T3 site (IOP1: Feb 1-Mar 31, 2014, and IOP2: Aug 15-Oct 15, 2014) and T2 site (between IOPs and into 2nd IOP). The oxidation of ambient air in the OFR led to substantial and variable secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from any SOA-precursor gases, known and unknown, that entered the OFR. In general, more SOA was produced during the nighttime than daytime, suggesting that SOA-precursor gases were found in relatively higher concentrations at night. Similarly, more SOA was formed in the dry season (IOP2) than wet season (IOP1). The maximum amount of SOA produced during nighttime from OH oxidation ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 on some nights to greater than 10 μg/m3 on other nights. O3 oxidation of ambient air also led to SOA formation, although several times less than from OH oxidation. The amount of SOA formation sometimes, but not always, correlated with measured gas-phase biogenic and/or anthropogenic SOA precursors (e.g., SV-TAG sesquiterpenes, PTR-TOFMS aromatics, isoprene, and monoterpenes). The SOA mass formed in the OFR from OH oxidation was up to an order of magnitude larger than could be explained from aerosol yields of measured primary VOCs. This along with measurements from previous campaigns suggests that most SOA was formed from intermediate S/IVOC sources (e.g., VOC oxidation products, evaporated POA, or direct emissions). To verify the SOA yields of VOCs under OFR experimental conditions, atmospherically-relevant concentrations of several VOCs were added individually into ambient air in the OFR and oxidized by OH or O3. SOA yields in the OFR were similar to published chamber yields. Preliminary PMF factor analysis showed production of secondary factors in

  6. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Yao; Honglei Guo; Gaozhi Xiao; Nezih Mrad

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SH...

  7. Influence of ambient air on the flowing afterglow of an atmospheric pressure Ar/O2 radiofrequency plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Duluard, C Y; Hubert, J; Reniers, F

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ambient air on the flowing afterglow of an atmospheric pressure Ar/O2 radiofrequency plasma has been investigated experimentally. Spatially resolved mass spectrometry and laser induced fluorescence on OH radicals were used to estimate the intrusion of air in between the plasma torch and the substrate as a function of the torch-to-substrate separation distance. No air is detected, within the limits of measurement uncertainties, for separation distances smaller than 5 mm. For larger distances, the effect of ambient air can no longer be neglected, and radial gradients in the concentrations of species appear. The Ar 4p population, determined through absolute optical emission spectroscopy, is seen to decrease with separation distance, whereas a rise in emission from the N2(C--B) system is measured. The observed decay in Ar 4p and N2(C) populations for separation distances greater than 9mm is partly assigned to the increasing collisional quenching rate by N2 and O2 molecules from the entrained air....

  8. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2005 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO2. (au)

  9. Air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellermann, T.; Palmgren, F.; Waehlin, P.; Berkowicz, R. Brandt. j.

    2005-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2004 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO{sup 2} and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sup 2}. The measurement has been supplemented with dispersion models for a number of streets in Copenhagen and Aalborg. (au)

  10. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization

  11. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Nordstroem, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Jansen, S.; Massling, A.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2013-10-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring network. The aim is to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to understand the governing processes that determine the level of air pollution in Denmark. In 2012 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. In addition model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. At one street station (H.C. Andersens Boulevard) in Copenhagen NO{sub 2} was found in concentrations above EU limit values while NO{sub 2} levels in Odense, Aarhus and Aalborg were below the limit value. Model calculations indicate exceedances of NO{sub 2} limit values at several streets in Copenhagen. Annual averages of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were below limit values at all stations. The concentrations for most pollutants have been decreasing during the last decades. (Author)

  12. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Nordstroem, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2012-10-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring network. The aim is to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to understand the governing processes that determine the level of air pollution in Denmark. In 2011 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. In addition model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. At one street station (H.C. Andersens Boulevard) in Copenhagen NO{sub 2} was found in concentrations above EU limit values while NO{sub 2} levels in Odense, Aarhus and Aalborg were below the limit value. Model calculations indicate exceedances of NO{sub 2} limit values at several streets in Copenhagen. Annual averages of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were below limit values at all stations. However, concentrations levels in Copenhagen exceeded the daily limit value for PM{sub 10}. Winter salting of roads was one of the main reasons for this exceedance. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing during the last decades, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (Author)

  13. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  14. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jirí; Hamplová, Lenka; Urbanová, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  15. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klanova, J.; Kohoutek, J.; Hamplova, L.; Urbanova, P.; Holoubek, I. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-11-15

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  16. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  17. Suspended particulates and trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi City. Paper no. IGEC-1-063

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to assess the quantity of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) and concentration of trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi city. The air quality monitoring was carried out using High Volume Sampler (HVS). The HVS were run for two days with eight hours sampling period. The SPM deposited on EPM 2000 filter paper were analysed for trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectro photometer (Perkin Elmer, Model 2378). The results indicate that the Varanasi city is in serious grip of air pollution due to poor road conditions and heavy traffic load. The suspended particulate matter are found to exceed the permissible limits at most of the locations. Besides SPM, some toxic metals namely Iron, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Zinc and Lead were also studied and sampled at four different road sides covering residential (Sigra), commercial (Kutcherry), Industrial (Industrial Estate) and Sensitive (B.H.U. Campus) areas. The concentration of all the six metals were found in the order of Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr. Area wise maximum trace metal pollution load was observed at Industrial site as compared to other sites, as this area is surrounded by many industries and situated near dense traffic highway. Some preventive measures have also been suggested to reduce air pollution load. (author)

  18. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  19. Monitoring seismic velocity changes caused by the 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake using continuous ambient noise records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Christos; Daskalakis, Emmanouil; Tsogka, Chrysoula

    2016-04-01

    The 24 May 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (6.9 Mw), an event on the Northern Aegean Trough (NAT), ruptured on two different fault segments with a total ruptured length of ~100 km. For the second delayed segment, rupture propagated eastward from the hypocenter for ˜65 km with a supershear velocity (5.5 km/s). Low-aftershock seismicity on the supershear segment implies a simple and linear fault geometry there. An effort to monitor temporal seismic velocity changes across the ruptured area of the Northern Aegean earthquake is underway. In recent years, neighboring seismic broadband stations near active faults have been successfully used to detect such changes. The crosscorrelation functions (CCF) of ambient noise records between stations yields the corresponding traveltimes for those inter-station paths. Moreover, the auto-correlation functions (ACF) at each station produce the seismic responce for a coincident source and receiver position. Possible temporal changes of the measured traveltimes from CCFs and ACFs correspond to seismic velocity changes. Initially, we investigate the characteristics and sources of the ambient seismic noise as recorded at permanent seismic stations installed around NAT at the surrounding islands and in mainland Greece and Turkey. The microseismic noise levels show a clear seasonal variation at all stations. The noise levels across the double frequency band (DF; period range 4-8 s) reflect the local sea-weather conditions within a range of a few hundred kilometers. Three years of continuous seismic records framing the main shock have been analysed from ~15 stations within a radius of 100 km from the epicentre. We observe a clear decrease of seismic velocities most likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. The spatial variation of this velocity drop is imaged from all inter-station paths that correspond to CCF measurements and for station sites that correspond to ACF measurements. Thus, we explore a possible correlation between co

  20. Air quality monitoring at toxic waste sites: A Hanford perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality monitoring is being conducted as part of remedial investigation activities at waste sites in the 1100-EM-1 Operating Unit at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Sampling is being conducted for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (including pesticides and PCBs), metals, and asbestos. The monitoring program is being conducted in three phases: before, during, and after intrusive remedial investigation activities. At each waste site, battery-powered monitoring equipment is positioned at one location upwind of the site (to measure background concentrations of pollutants) and typically at two locations downwind of the site. Control samples are used to identify sample contamination that may occur during handling or analysis. All samples are analyzed using methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results from the first phase of sampling have been assessed and are being used to upgrade sampling and laboratory analysis procedures. 5 refs

  1. Operational Use of the Air Quality Monitor on ISS and Potential for Air Quality Monitoring Onboard Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Jones, Jared; Wallace, William; Mudgett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The air quality monitor (AQM) began operations on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2013 and was validated for operational use in January 2014. The AQM is a gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer that currently monitors 22 target compounds in the ISS atmosphere. Data are collected twice per week, although data collection can be more frequent in contingency situations. In its second year, the AQM has provided data to decision-makers on several ISS contaminant related issues in both air and water. AQM has been used in strictly air incidents, such as a potential ammonia leak, and to investigate air contaminants affecting the water processing (excess ethanol). In the latter case data from water monitors and AQM were compared to understand the issue with the water processor. Additionally, the AQM has been moved to different ISS modules to determine whether air is sufficiently mixed between modules so that a central LAB module location is representative of the entire ISS atmosphere. Historic data on the ISS atmosphere in different modules from archival samples (ground lab analysis) suggest that the atmosphere is usually homogenous. This presentation will briefly describe the technical aspects of the AQM operations and summarize the validation results. The main focus of the presentation will be to discuss the results from the AQM survey of the ISS modules and to show how the AQM data has contributed to an understanding of environmental issues that have arisen on ISS. Presentation of a potential ammonia leak (indicated by an alarm) in 2015 will illustrate the use and value of the AQM in such situations.

  2. Monitoring of Air Polution by Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gopal Upadhyaya,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Air Quality Index is a simple and generalized way to describe the air quality in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and now in India. Indian Air Quality Index (IND-AQI is mainly a health related index with the descriptor words: “Good (0- 100”, “Moderate (101-200 ”, “Poor (201-300”, “Very Poor (301-400”, “Severe (401-500”. State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA is responsible for measuring the level of air pollution in China . In China the AQI is based on the level of 5 atmospheric pollutants, namely sulferdioxide(SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, suspended particulates (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, and ozone (O3 measured at the monitoring stations throughout each city (USEPA et al. 1998. An individual score is assigned to the level of each pollutant and the final AQI is the Highest of those scores. Air quality measurement are commonly reported in terms of micrograms per cubic meter (μgm/m3 or parts per million (ppm (http://en.wikipedia.org. The Conventional method used Linear Interpolation for calculating AQI . We applied a real time Fuzzy Logic System with Simulink to calculate AQI. This method gives satisfactory result and it is efficient to work under continuous working mode .

  3. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005; Qualite de l'air: une surveillance accrue des particules, mais des concentrations a reduire d'ici l'an 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, M. [Institut francais de l' environnement, 45 - Orleans (France); Colosio, J. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-09-01

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  4. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  5. Comparison of continuous air monitor utilization: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Whicker, J.J.; Voss, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Metallurgy Research (CMR) building has been upgrading to different continuous air monitors (CAMs) over the past several years. During the transition, both the newer and older CAMs were positioned in the rooms for field testing and comparison. On December 19, 1996, an accidental release of plutonium aerosol occurred into a laboratory in the CMR building. The event occurred while the room was unoccupied, and no personnel were exposed from this incident. There were two fixed air samplers (FASs) and three CAMs operating in the room at the time the release occurred, including two of the recently installed Canberra Alpha Sentry CAMs and one older Eberline CAM. The apparent cause of the release was a procedure carried out in the basement involving the replacement of the HEPA filter in the ventilation exhaust of a slot-box in the laboratory. For a short period, the ventilation was disconnected from the slot-box in this room, but not from the chemical hood exhaust on the opposite side of the laboratory. Therefore, a condition was created where backflow could occur out of the slot-box and into the room. Eventually all three CAMs in the room alarmed, and the situation was successfully monitored and brought under control by health physics personnel. Data on CAM performance were logged, and Pu activity collected on CAM and FAS filters were measured. A comparison of the new and old continuous air monitoring programs was performed and many interesting lessons on CAM performance and CAM utilization were learned. Overall, this comparison showed the advantages of remote monitoring, timely spectral information, and concentration measurements resolved in time and space.

  6. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale. - Passive air sampling techniques can indicate seasonal and spatial variations in the ambient concentrations of persistent organic compounds near point sources

  7. The Regional Impacts of Cooking and Heating Emissions on Ambient Air Quality and Disease Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Carter, Ellison; Kumar, Rajesh; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Frostad, Joseph; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Baumgartner, Jill; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution is a major risk factor globally and particularly in Asia. A large portion of air pollutants result from residential combustion of solid biomass and coal fuel for cooking and heating. This study presents a regional modeling sensitivity analysis to estimate the impact of residential emissions from cooking and heating activities on the burden of disease at a provincial level in China. Model surface PM2.5 fields are shown to compare well when evaluated against surface air quality measurements. Scenarios run without residential sector and residential heating emissions are used in conjunction with the Global Burden of Disease 2013 framework to calculate the proportion of deaths and disability adjusted life years attributable to PM2.5 exposure from residential emissions. Overall, we estimate that 341 000 (306 000-370 000; 95% confidence interval) premature deaths in China are attributable to residential combustion emissions, approximately a third of the deaths attributable to all ambient PM2.5 pollution, with 159 000 (142 000-172 000) and 182 000 (163 000-197 000) premature deaths from heating and cooking emissions, respectively. Our findings emphasize the need to mitigate emissions from both residential heating and cooking sources to reduce the health impacts of ambient air pollution in China. PMID:27479733

  8. Study on radiological monitoring results of the ambient environment around Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the monitoring results for radionuclides concentration in the environmental medias before and after Qinshan NPP operation. We measured radionuclide concentration in vegetation, food, atmosphere, soil and littoral area soil samples. After operation the 137Cs, 90Sr and 3H mean values in water are 0.6, 4.9 mBq/L and 1.7 Bq/L respectively, the 137Cs mean values in soil and littoral area soil are 3.5 and 2.7 Bq/kg, the 137Cs mean values in rice, green cabbage, meat, mullet, milk, tea samples are 0.033, 0.039, 0.081, 0.069, 0.018, 0.62 Bq/kg, the 90Sr mean value in rice, green cabbage, tea are 0.081, 0.315, 4.1 Bq/kg, gross in fallout is 0.9Bq/m2 ·d. Comparison with pre-operation, the radioactivity of 137Cs, 90Sr, 3H, and the gross in ambient environmental medias from 1992 to 2001 have no significant difference, so far there are some fluctuation within the range of background

  9. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Working (AAW is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers’ comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  10. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  11. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  12. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  13. Trends of nitrogen oxides in ambient air in nine European cities between 1999 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Susann; Le Tertre, Alain; Atkinson, Richard W.; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco; Zeka, Ariana; Haluza, Daniela; Analitis, Antonis; Katsouyanni, Klea; Bouland, Catherine; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia; Goodman, Patrick G.

    2015-09-01

    Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has been credited with a general downward trend in NOx (NO2+NO) concentrations in Europe since the 1990's. However, recent studies suggest that traffic (roadside) (TR) NO2 concentrations have not decreased as expected, and in some cases increased, most likely due to the use of oxidation catalysts and particle filters in diesel vehicles (EURO III, IV, V, VI). In this study we describe the time trends in NOx, NO2 and NO concentrations in 9 European cities comparing TR and urban background (UB) monitoring locations. In each city, we collected hourly city-specific NOx, NO, and NO2 data from one TR and one UB monitoring site for each year. We describe hourly, weekly, seasonal and inter-annual patterns for periods corresponding to the implementation dates of various EURO vehicle emission standards regulating NOx emissions. The diurnal patterns in all 9 cities strongly reflected morning and evening traffic. In addition, lower weekend concentrations were observed. The NOx concentrations from the TR sites remain unchanged in the majority of the cities over the study period. When stratified by 3 time periods according to the implementation of the EURO standards, an increasing NO2/NOx ratio in 7/9 cities with time was noted. However, over the same time period the NO/NO2 ratio decreased in 8/9 cities. A permanent inversion of the NO/NO2 ratio was observed to occur in 2003 in 5/9 cities. Our analyses of temporal and diurnal patterns of NOx in European cities show reductions in concentrations consistent with reductions in primary emissions likely arising from the implementation of successive EURO standards. The generally constant or increasing NO2 concentrations in the majority of the cities assessed over the study period underline the need of further regulative measures to meet the air quality standards and consequently to minimise adverse effects on human health. The ongoing collection and analysis of pollution concentrations across

  14. Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs.

  15. Krypton separation from ambient air for application in collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek; Strohaber, James; Nava, Ricardo; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Thonnard, Norbert; Schuessler, Hans A

    2012-07-01

    A portable apparatus for the separation of krypton from environmental air samples was tested. The apparatus is based on the cryogenic trapping of gases at liquid nitrogen temperature followed by controlled releases at higher temperatures. The setup consists of a liquid nitrogen trap for the removal of H(2)O and CO(2), followed by charcoal-filled coils that sequentially collect and release krypton and other gases providing four stages of gas chromatography to achieve separation and purification of krypton from mainly N(2), O(2), and Ar. Residual reactive gases remaining after the final stage of chromatography are removed with a hot Ti sponge getter. A thermal conductivity detector is used to monitor the characteristic elution times of the various components of condensed gases in the traps during step-wise warming of the traps from liquid nitrogen temperatures to 0 °C, and then to 100 °C. This allows optimizing the switching times of the valves between the stages of gas chromatography so that mainly krypton is selected and loaded to the next stage while exhausting the other gases using a He carrier. A krypton separation efficiency of ~80 % was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. PMID:22549732

  16. Association between ambient air pollution, meteorological conditions and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult citizens of the town of Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smederevo is the only town in Serbia with a steel factory, whose exhausts contribute to air pollution. Therefore, the city conducts continuous monitoring of air quality. In recent years, high levels of particulate matter (PM, including coarse (PM10 and fine (PM2.5 particles in the air have frequently been recorded. The aim of this study was to assess association between exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults and air pollution or meteorological conditions. Methods. The study was conducted in the secondary care General Hospital in Smederevo covering approximately 81, 000 inhabitants living in the area of about 7 km around the automatic station for air quality monitoring from which the verified data were collected. Data on patients were obtained from medical records. The correlation between the incidence of diseases exacerbation and the number of days with exceedance of air pollutants limit level per month, as well as meteorological conditions, was tested with parametric Pearson bivariate correlation test in program SPSS. Results. The study population consisted of adults registered as asthma or COPD suffering patients (n = 1,624 with 570 episodes of remarkable exacerbations (moderate or severe of the disease in 2011. Asthma exacerbation was significantly more frequent in women than in men. The number of days with high levels of PM2.5 per month was statistically significantly associated with the total number of exacerbation (moderate and severe of both asthma and COPD episodes among the female patients. There was also a statistically significant association between the number of days with PM2.5 exceedance and the number of moderate exacerbations in the subgroups of nonsmokers and obese patients. A significant correlation of the number of days with the exceedance of PM10 limit level was shown only for the subgroup of obese, non-smoking patients with moderate exacerbation. A significant negative

  17. Response of continuous air monitors in simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous air monitors (CAM) are widely used in nuclear industry for checking airborne activity in radioactive areas. Mathematical equations related to response of CAM's in assessing airborne activities are derived and presented in this paper. A case study is carried out for a model with necessary inputs. Assumed model is similar to areas in nuclear power plants. Graphical simulation results are used to analyze the conditions and its radiological significance. The response predictions can also be used to calculate alarm set points that correspond to appropriate limits on the concentration of airborne radioactivity in the sampled air. Equations can be modified further to find the response for different scenarios. Using these we can predict the escape rate of activity from the system even in minute levels. (author)

  18. Quality screening for air quality monitoring data in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter data obtained from the national air quality monitoring network in China has become an essential and critical data source for many current and forthcoming studies as well as the formulation and implementation of air pollution regulatory policies on particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). However, the quality control of this data is dubitable and can affect many future studies and policies. This study identifies and elucidates two significant quality control issues with the data. They are PM2.5 levels exceeding concurrent co-located PM10 levels and the registration of same concentrations for consecutive hours at some stations. Future studies utilizing particulate matter data need to acknowledge and address these issues to ensure accurate and reliable results.

  19. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMBIENT DOSE EQUIVALENT AND ABSORBED DOSE IN AIR IN THE CASE OF LARGE-SCALE CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY RADIOACTIVE CESIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aims of the study was an experimental determination of the conversion coefficient from ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10, to absorbed dose rate in air, D, in the case of radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident. More than 800 measurements of gamma-dose rates in air were performed at the typical locations (one-storey residential house, street, yard, kitchen-garden, ploughed field, undisturbed grassland, forest of rural settlements and their surroundings in the heavily contaminated areas of the Bryansk region, Russia in the period of 1996–2010. Five commercially available models of portable gamma-ray dosimeters were employed in the investigation. All tested dosimeters were included into the State register of approved measuring instruments of Russia. In all dosimeters, scintillation detectors are used as detection elements. A photon spectrometry technique is applied in the dosimeters to determine gamma dose rate in air. The dosimeters are calibrated in terms of exposure rate, X, absorbed dose rate in air, D, and ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10. A very good agreement was found between different dosimeters calibrated in the same units; the reading ratios were close to 1 and the correlation coefficients (Pearson’s or Spearman’s were higher than 0.99. The Н*(10/D ratio values were location-specific ranging from 1.23 Sv/Gy for undisturbed grasslands and forests to 1.47 Sv/Gy for wooden houses and asphalted streets. A statistically significant negative correlation (Spearman’s coefficient = -0.833; P<0.01; n=9 was found between the Н*(10/D ratio and the average energy of gamma-rays determined with a NaI(Tl-based gamma-ray monitor. For the whole area of a settlement and its surroundings, the average ratio of Н*(10 to D was calculated as 1.33 Sv/Gy. The overall conversion coefficient from ambient dose equivalent rate, Н*(10, to external effective dose rate, Ė, for adults was estimated

  20. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.