WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient air monitoring

  1. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  2. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  3. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m3) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  4. Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality in India - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Devendra Dohare; Vijayant Panday

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem all over the world which causes terrific loss to human health and other living being. Sulphur Dioxide(SO2),Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2),Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10), Ozone(O3), Lead (Pb), Carbon Monoxide(CO), Benzene(C6H6) and Nickel(Ni) are some of the parameters which have significant impact on environmental pollution. Purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the monitoring of ambient air pollution in India and compare the sam...

  5. METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM. PARTICULATE MATTER AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING REPORT, JANUARY THROUGH DECEMBER 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental field studies in the Yucca Mountain site characterization activities have included monitoring ambient levels of particulate matter since April 1989. The monitoring and reporting work was performed by the Management and Operating Environmental Field Programs Division. The parameters monitored, methods used in the monitoring, and the sampling schedule complied with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations and monitoring guidance. The inhalable particulate matter results have been reported to the State of Nevada since July 1991 to comply with State of Nevada air quality permit requirements. Three previous project reports presented the results obtained through 1995 (Environmental Field Programs Division 1992a; 1992b; 1996). This report presents the results obtained during 1996. Results of this monitoring program continue to identify that particulate matter remains well below applicable ambient air quality standards. The maximum inhalable particulate matter result was 60 micrograms per standard cubic meter; this result is less than one-half of the applicable 24-hour National (and Nevada) Ambient Air Quality Standard of 150 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The annual inhalable particulate matter averages for the period were approximately one-fifth of the applicable annual standard of 50 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The 1996 results were similar to results from 1989 to 1995

  6. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  7. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  8. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient Monitoring sites locations (includes O3, PM, and met sites), Published in 2007, NC DENR / Div. of Air Quality / Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as 'Ambient Monitoring...

  10. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326- 54341). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  11. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  12. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  13. Testing of the automatic dust concentration monitor FH62I for continuous monitoring of suspended particulates in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of solid dust aerosol with a simple device and the method of calibration are described. The instrument (using a KR-85 β-source) is suitable for operation in monitoring stations for real-time surveillance of suspended particulates in ambient air. (orig./HP)

  14. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  15. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Masson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability

  16. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  17. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  18. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN for Ambient Air Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87 with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42 with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  19. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  20. Monitoring and analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in ambient air / by Marina Nkhalong Ketsise

    OpenAIRE

    Ketsise, Marina Nkhalong

    2006-01-01

    The growing concern for environmental pollution indicates the importance of correctly predicting the fate of pollutants in ambient air. This study was conducted to predict the ambient levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the greater Sasolburg area and to better understand the distribution and the sources of PAH's in ambient air. PAH's are chemical compounds which consist of two or more fused benzene rings and made entirely from carbon and hydrogen. PAH's are...

  1. Air/superfund national technical guidance study series. Volume 4. Guidance for ambient air monitoring at superfund sites (revised). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of an EPA-sponsored study to develop guidance for designing and conducting ambient air monitoring at Superfund sites. By law, all exposure pathways - including the air pathway - must be evaluated for every Superfund site; therefore, some level of ambient air monitoring usually is necessary at each site. The document offers technical guidance for use by a diverse audience, including EPA Air and Superfund Regional and Headquarters staff, State Air and Superfund staff, federal and state remedial and removal contractors, and potentially responsible parties. The manual is written to serve the needs of individuals with various levels of scientific training and experience in selecting and using ambient air monitoring methods in support of air pathway assessments

  2. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10. The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  3. Ambient air toxics monitoring and impact analysis for a resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air monitoring has been conducted for approximately three years beginning in January of 1988 at four locations surrounding the Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility (GDRRF). The GDRRF began burning refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in early 1989. Two sampling locations operated by Roy F. Weston, Inc. are located in Michigan near the facility, and two sampling locations operated by Environment Canada are located across the Detroit River in Ontario. The groups of compounds sampled include dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, and inorganic acids. The sampling results comprise one of the most comprehensive databases available for assessment of RRF air quality impacts. This paper presents a comparison of the sampling results between two of the four sampling locations. The site locations were chosen to represent background and impacted sites based on dispersion modeling and climatology. The background and impacted site results are statistically compared to determine impacts from the facility. Also, multiple regression and principal components techniques are used to identify source-receptor relations and source signatures

  4. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be approved as part of the annual monitoring network plan required in 40 CFR 58.10. 1 Daily or with... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with...

  5. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Masson; Ricardo Piedrahita; Michael Hannigan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors pro...

  6. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new PM 2.5 equivalent method is an automated...-195, ``Grimm Technologies, Inc. Model EDM 180 PM 2.5 Monitor,'' light scattering continuous ambient... the Grimm Technologies, Inc. Model EDM 180 Operation and Instruction Manual. The optional...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPROVE samplers were developed for use in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments... during air pollution episodes (see § 51.152 of this chapter) the measurement method must be: 5.1.1Either... pollution episode concentration of PM10, 5.1.2.2Which has a sample period appropriate for short-term...

  12. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  13. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  14. Ambient air monitoring with Auto-gas chromatography running in trigger mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Yousheng; Hazlett, Pamela D; Matherne, Valerie

    2007-07-16

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOC), either as ozone precursors or air toxics in the air, are commonly monitored by triggered canister method or continuous ozone precursor analyzer (commonly known as Auto-gas chromatography (GC)) method. In the triggered canister method, a canister sample is collected when a total non-methane organic compound (TNMOC) concentration exceeds a pre-determined trigger level. The canister sample is then analyzed in a lab in a later time. In the Auto-GC method, an online GC runs in a "continuous" mode with a sampling and analysis cycle of 1 h. Within the cycle hour, samples are collected only during the first 40 min. A new approach of Auto-GC running in trigger mode is developed in this study. This new approach uses Auto-GC but operates it in a trigger mode similar to the triggered canister sampling method. Compared to the triggered canister sample method, this system provides near real-time speciated VOC data, which are critical for responding to a high VOC concentration episode. Although the canister system generally costs less, its cost advantage may diminish if trigger events are frequent and the monitoring duration is long. Compared to continuous Auto-GC, triggered GC has its niche--it is better for capturing transient plumes with a small footprint. The continuous GC either misses a transient plume if the plume does not arrive at the sampling site during the sampling cycle or flattens the plume concentration peak by dilution with non-plume air sample. Field experience with this system for fenceline VOC monitoring is presented. The sampling and calibration strategy for trigger mode operation is described. The chromatograph retention time drift issues are discussed. The system performance is evaluated, including the method detection limit, precision and accuracy. The trigger mode configuration for VOC fenceline or near source monitoring in this work proved effective for local and transient plume identification. PMID:17616253

  15. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3 receptor grid (i.e., simulated receptors at the nine monitoring locations). Comparison of the monitored and simulated PDF for 72-h 1,3-D concentrations indicated that SOFEA slightly over predicts the 1,3-D concentration distribution at all percentiles below the 99th with slight under prediction of the 99-100th percentile values. This suggests that without further refinement, the SOFEA2 model, based upon field validation observations, will result in representative but conservative estimates of lifetime exposure to 1,3-D for bystanders in 1,3-D use areas. PMID:27376915

  16. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  18. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  19. Establishment of ambient air quality trends using historical monitoring data from Edmonton and Fort McKay, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were assessed using data collected over an 8 year period from monitoring stations in Edmonton and Fort McKay, Alberta. In particular, the study evaluated the short term trends in the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5) in Edmonton, as well as the NO2, O3, PM2.5, and total hydrocarbons in Fort McKay. In order to evaluate the ambient air trends, this study examined the changes in concentrations of these pollutants between the 50 - 90 percentiles of concentration distributions for a calendar year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study and fitted using simple linear regression. Hypothesis tests were performed to determine if the slopes of the best-fit lines were greater or less than zero. There was no indication of a statistically significant short-term trend for NO2 and O3 for the city of Edmonton. However, statistically pronounced decreasing trends were noted for CO and PM2.5. There was no indication of statistically significant trend for any of the pollutants examined at Fort McKay over the study period. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends. However, the results suggest that air quality has remained unchanged during the last 6 to 8 years, despite increased economic development in Edmonton and continued oil sands development in Fort McKay

  20. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...

  1. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  2. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new PM 10 equivalent... monitor operated for 24 hours at a flow rate of 16.67 LPM between 5 and 40 C using 47 mm PTFE...

  3. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... stabilizer and software version 1.04.16 or later, in accordance with the OPSIS SM200 Dust Monitor Operation... and Atmospheric Sciences Division (MD-D205-03), National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Email: Vanderpool.Robert@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  5. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  6. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  7. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  8. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  9. Evaluation of innovative air-monitoring technologies for the measurement of ambient concentrations of ozone and its precursors at the 1996 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiles, Donald S.; Rodgers, Michael; Meeker, Charles; Olive, Brent S.; Simpson, Orman A.

    1997-05-01

    An open path Fourier transform IR spectrometer and an ultra- violet differential optical absorption spectrometer were used during the 1996 Atlanta Olympics games to monitor for ambient ozone and its precursors near the Olympic Village. Both systems were operated continuously before, during, and after the increase in Atlanta's population associated with the Summer games. The study utilized the massive changes in population patterns to observe and measure changes in local air quality due to an increased local population. A second goal of the program was to evaluate both open path instruments in continuous field use over a period of several weeks. The evaluation included the following criteria: instrumentation operability, system precision and accuracy, detection capability, and over-all ease of use. Both open path systems selected and measured ambient levels of ozone. A limited number of ozone precursors were detected. The study was sponsored by the Georgia Institute of Technology's Air Quality Laboratory, the US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...

  11. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  12. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  13. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  14. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA: a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Rumsey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina from 8 September–8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4−, NO3− and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs, with a performance goal of 2, SO42− and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3− could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3− by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3− were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack. Using this and results from a previous study, it is concluded that if the MUs and the filter pack were sampling the same particle size, the MUs would have good agreement in terms of precision and accuracy. The MARGA performed moderately well in measuring HNO3 and NH3, though neither met the linear regression slope goals. However, recommendations for improving the measurement of HNO3 and NH3 are discussed. It is concluded that SO42−, SO2, NO3−, HNO3, NH4+ and NH3 concentrations can be measured with acceptable accuracy and precision when the MARGA is

  15. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  16. In situ monitoring of the ambient air around the chloroprene rubber industrial plant using the Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunyan, RM; Pogosyan, VS; Simonyan, EH; Atoyants, AL; Djigardjian, EM

    1999-01-01

    The city of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, has been one of the heavily polluted cities since the earlier USSR era. A Chloroprene Rubber Industrial Plant has been the major contributor of air pollution in this city. The first attempt has been undertaken to detect the mutagenic effect of the ambient

  17. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  19. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Fusheng Wang; Guofeng Xiao; Kai Wu; Shixuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API) shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012), which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous stan...

  20. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  1. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  2. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  3. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  4. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT FOR THE SECRETARIA DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE CIUDAD DE MEXICO, DF, MEXICO RED AUTOMATICA DE MONITOREO ATMOSFERICO (RAMA) AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted this evaluation of the air monitoring network, known as RAM (Red Automatica de Monitoreo Atmosferico) at the request of the Mexico City Secretariat of the Environment on October 16-27, 2000. This evaluation...

  6. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  7. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  8. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  9. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality s

  10. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  11. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on ...

  12. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  13. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  14. 大气监测中DOAS与点式仪器一致性分析%Intercomparison of commercial DOAS system and traditional point monitoring techniques in ambient air monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 孙天乐; 何凌燕; 曾立武; 邓彦阁; 刘芮伶

    2012-01-01

    在监测环境空气中SO2、NO2、O3和TOL(甲苯)等项目时,为进一步探讨DOAS仪器与国内现行的点式仪器之间监测结果的一致性,以及高湿降雨不利气象条件对DOAS仪器监测结果的影响,该文开展了DOAS仪器与传统点式仪器的比对实验.结果表明:DOAS仪器监测SO2、NO2、O3和TOL等项目与点式仪器监测结果之间具有较好的一致性和相关性;深圳高湿降雨天气对DOAS仪器的监测结果无显著影响,与点式仪器的监测结果仍具有较好的一致性和相关性;TOL作为典型的高活性芳香烃类化合物,在环境空气挥发性有机物(VOCs)中占有较高的比例,可以利用TOL监测结果间接评估VOCs的污染趋势.%To evaluate the performance of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system motoring SO2、NO2、O3 and toluene as well as the influence of rainfall to it, a field based intercomparison study of a commercial DOAS instrument and different point-sample monitoring techniques was conducted in Shenzhen in 2011. A good agreement between the DOAS and point-sample monitoring techniques data was found for SO2、NO2、O3 and toluene. In heavy rain case, the observation data from DOAS and point-sample monitoring techniques got a quite good correlation, indicating that the humid rainy weather in Shenzhen had no significant effect on the performance of the DOAS system. As a typical high activity kind of aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene is the major components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air. Thus, toluene measured by DOAS systems can be used to reflect the pollution level of VOCs in atmosphere.

  15. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  16. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  17. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  18. Ambient concentrations of radionuclides in air at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this component of the study was to obtain data on the radioactive content of dust resuspended under natural (ambient) conditions at various sites around Maralinga and at Emu. Ambient concentrations in air of radionuclides and the toxic chemical beryllium have been monitored by use of both high and low volume samplers over several years during calm conditions and during dust storms. Data are presented for the contaminated sites which indicate that airborne concentrations of plutonium are low most of the time (10-4 Bq/m3). Annual average ambient activity concentrations of plutonium at the most heavily contaminated sampling sites were ca. 10-3 Bq/m3 at a height of 1.1 m above ground level. The highest concentrations measured were ca. 2 x 10-2 bq/m3 averaged over a few days. The results indicate that the radiological risk due to naturally resuspended dust is dominated by a rare event, such as the occasional dust storms that resuspends considerable activity. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs., ills

  19. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  1. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  2. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality standards, alert authorities and the public to pollution episodes, support validation of model results, support diagnosis using model simulation, support short-term model prognosis and assist in qua...

  3. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  4. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, a...

  5. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  6. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  7. Application of grey weighted related degree to the ambient air quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.

  8. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  9. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  10. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  11. Spectroscopic Characterization of a Radio-Frequency Argon Plasma Jet Discharge in Ambient Air

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Patrick; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This study includes a detailed experimental investigation of the spatial and temporal spectroscopic emission of an argon plasma jet discharge. The study is carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. The optical emission spectroscopy of neutral atomic spectral lines and molecular bands, over a range of plasma process parameters, is investigated. Wavelength-resolved argon optical emission profiles are used to monitor the electron energy distribution functio...

  12. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  13. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Determination of hexavalent chromium in ambient air: A story of method induced Cr(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirez, Kristof; Silversmit, Geert; Bleux, Nico; Adriaensens, Elke; Roekens, Edward; Servaes, Kelly; Vanhoof, Chris; Vincze, Laszlo; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy of the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter remains a challenge from the point of view of minimal Cr species interconversion. Knowledge of this method induced oxidation and reduction is particularly relevant for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter, as the level of observed Cr(III) oxidation (average of 1.7% in this study) can contribute significantly to the monitored range of measured Cr(VI) in PM 10. For Cr concentrations in PM 10 > 10 ng Cr m -3, this method induced oxidation could lead to false positive exceeding of an air quality guideline value of 0.2 ng Cr(VI) m -3 in PM 10. The median daily Cr(VI) concentration in PM 10 measured over a monitoring period of more than 2 months at two locations close to a stainless steel factory amounted to 0.9 ng Cr(VI) m -3 and 0.27 ng Cr(VI) m -3. Average daily Cr(VI)/Cr ratios in PM 10 of 3.5% and 2.6% were measured at these locations. The described monitoring for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient air via alkaline impregnated filters is sensitive (method detection limit of 0.015 ng Cr(VI) m -3) and reproducible (precision of the method ˜25%). The average Cr(VI) recovery of 75% strongly indicates the effects of ambient sampling conditions and ambient particles on the Cr(VI) recoveries. The stability of the Cr(VI) and the Cr(III) spike on 0.12 M NaHCO 3 impregnated filters observed with XANES, indicates that the alkaline extraction of the filter in combination with the sampled air matrix is likely to induce the Cr conversions. The XANES spectra shows further that a Cr-spinel is the predominant component of Cr in ambient air PM 10 at the monitored locations.

  15. AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

  16. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    .5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on...... ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the...

  17. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  18. Electron microprobe identification of fibrous aerosols in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclepore filters were used for sampling fibrous particles in ambient air. The fiber counting and fiber size measurements were done by means of SEM-methods. The number of fibers, distribution of fiber lengths, and diameters were plotted. The specific identification of asbestos fibers was made by electron microprobe analysis. Certain elements such as Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Ca, and Na as well as ratios such as Fe/Si and Mg/Si proved to be approximative identification factors for ambient asbestos. Not only asbestos and glass, also many other inorganic fibrous particles were found in the urban atmosphere as well as in the atmosphere of remote regions. Fibrous gypsum, fibrous ammonium sulfates, fibrous silicates, fibrous mica, and quartz were identified among these particles. Even in remote ambient air, relatively high concentrations of fibrous particles (103-104 m-3) could be measured, although the concentration of asbestos fibers were usually smaller than 102 m-3

  19. Tritium-in-air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for continuously monitoring air for the presence of tritiated water vapor is described comprising contacting a predetermined mass flow of an air sample with a predetermined flow of a liquid miscible with tritiated water to transfer any tritiated water vapor in the air sample to the liquid; stripping radioactive noble gases from the liquid with a stream of gas; and analyzing the liquid for beta radiation to determine the presence of tritium. In the preferred embodiment of the apparatus an air-liquid contactor, a gas-liquid separator and a stripper are combined into a single unit with a common outlet for the contacted air and stripping gas. 6 claims, 2 figures

  20. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  1. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  2. AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh. Kumar; Sarabpreet Singh

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the power plant strongly depends on ambient air temperature (AAT).Mass flow rate (kg/s)of air decreases in summer with increasing AAT for the same volumetric flow rate (m3/s), which results in reduced power output of turbine and increased heat rate.This paper analyzes the effects of the AAT on various parameters of power plant viz., mass flow rate of air, fuel consumption, steam, power output of turbine, efficiency and heat rate of gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cy...

  3. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  4. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  5. Standards for air monitoring calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a joint program to test the applicability of a performance-type testing standard. Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N42.17a was, because of difficulty in application, divided into three parts: (a) portable instruments, (b) air monitors, and (c) extended range. This new testing program used the criteria listed in parts a, b, and c to determine whether they could be used as the basis of an instrument qualification testing program. The results of the test were then provided to the standards committee, and appropriate changes were made in the standard. The detailed results of this testing program will be documented in the future. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the current draft of the air monitoring standard, general test procedures, results of some of the tests, and the means by which the testing program could be implemented in the United States

  6. Air Radioactivity Monitoring in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Jokic, Vesna Spasic; Djuric, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    It can be concluded that monitoring natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in ground level air provide important information on the content of radionuclides due to their origin, weather and climate conditions (rate of precipitation, washout effects, temperature differences and inverstion, wind direction and intensity, troposphere-to-stratosphere transport and exchange, etc). The local topology, as well as anthropogenic factors such as the effects of traffic and heating plants are highly impo...

  7. Observation of microwave volume plasma ignition in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed microwave (MW) plasma was maintained in a waveguide with an ignition pin. Images of the MW discharge were recorded during ignition in ambient air with millisecond time resolution and correlated with measurements of absorbed MW power. This work is focused on the quantification of ignition stability and observation of the plasma structure. Additionally, a time- and space-integrated emission spectrum in the range 220–770 nm is presented. (paper)

  8. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  9. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  10. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  11. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  12. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53, and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur... Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of sulfur as measured by sulfur...

  13. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  14. Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Burnett, R.T.; Bailar, J C; Tamblyn, R.; Ernst, P.; Flegel, K.; J. Brook; Bonvalot, Y; Singh, R.; Valois, M F; Vincent, R

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine pa...

  15. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... required to consider traffic volumes, fleet mix, roadway design, traffic congestion patterns, local terrain... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... Committee (CASAC) to provide advice on EPA's draft Near-Road NO 2 Monitoring Technical Assistance...

  16. Assessment of ambient air quality in coal mine waste areas - a case study in Fuxin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Siang, Y.J.; Wang, H.; Li, D.L. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    An extension of the matter-element method was applied to estimate ambient air quality in Haizhou opencast colliery in Fuxin coal mine. Air pollutants data such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total suspended particulates, particulate matter and dustfall were collected at four different air-quality monitoring stations located in four districts around the Fuxin colliery. Results show that total suspended particulates, particulate matter <10 {mu}m, dustfall and sulphur dioxide were the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were also detected at the Fuxin colliery. Air pollution came mainly from industrial emissions, mining activities and abandoned gangue stockpiles (mine tailings). Compared to those applied to other mathematical assessment methods, it was demonstrated that the extension of the matter-element model was quite appropriate for air quality assessment.

  17. Ambient air quality levels in Tehran, Iran, from 1988 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, M.A.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Public Health, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe trends in ambient air quality in Tehran between 1988 and 1993, to determine if these levels exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, and to discuss possible health effects related to exposure for these particular pollutants. Data were acquired from Iran's Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Ministry of Health (MH). These agencies operate five automated ambient air monitoring stations located in areas with heavy traffic. Daily samples of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, total suspended particulate matter (TSM), and hydrocarbons (HC) were collected to provide 24 hour averages for each pollutant. Every three months, mean concentrations were reported to IEPA. Composite samples from all five stations were stored in a databank operated by IEPA. The ambient air quality guidelines were obtained from WHO reports. Statistical analysis was carried out using a regression model, which was designed to fit the air pollution data and take into account missing data. The results showed that there was a statistically significant upward trend in air pollution levels for all of the measured pollutants, except NO{sub 2}, during the years 1988 to 1993. WHO guidelines were routinely and substantially exceeded by all pollutants except TSM. These findings suggest that as the population continues to grow, and increasing numbers of motor vehicles are driven in Tehran, there is concern for the health effects that may result from exposure to these pollutants. (Author)

  18. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  19. STATUS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN BELLARY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. ZAREENA BANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey of air quality was carried out at important junctions in Bellary city to study the ambient air quality using high volume sampler at respirable heights of the variety of known air pollutants, suspended particulate matter(SPM, respirable particulate matter(RPM, sulphur dioxide(SO2, oxides of nitrogen(NOx, were given much importance during the study. Sampling stations were established at 8 different places in the city. It was found that the level of suspended particulate matter(SPM & respirable particulate matter(RPM, exceeds the ambient air quality standard of central pollution control board and that of sulphur dioxide(SO2 and oxides of nitrogen(NOx were well within the limits. The factors which were considered responsible for such high levels of certain pollutants in the city includes traffic congestion, increased human activities, mining activities and high rise buildings existing parallel to each other. The remedial measure suggested including banning old technology vehicles, upgrading two stroke engines to four stroke engines, using catalytic, planting more trees along the roadsides and proper traffic regulation.

  20. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  1. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air monitoring. 835.403 Section 835.403 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.403 Air monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely...

  2. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  3. Development of Ambient Air Quality Population-Weighted Metrics for Use in Time-Series Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2008-01-01

    A robust methodology is developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter components, from monitors located in the twenty-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the 1999 through 2004 time period were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models...

  4. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  5. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  6. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  7. The Comparative Reactivity Method ─ a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s−1 and up to 50% between 6–8 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s and the urban atmosphere of Mainz

  8. Particulate composition characteristics under different ambient air quality conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Lisa Tzu-Chi; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2011-07-01

    Particulate compositions including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble ionic species, and elemental compositions were investigated during the period from 2004 to 2006 in southern Taiwan. The correlation between the pollutant standard index (PSI) of ambient air quality and the various particle compositions was also addressed in this study. PSI revealed a correlation with fine (r = 0.74) and coarse (r = 0.80) particulate matter (PM). PSI manifested a significant correlation with the amount of analyzed ionic species (r approximately 0.80) in coarse and fine particles and a moderate correlation with carbon content (r = 0.63) in fine particles; however, it showed no correlation with elemental content. Although the ambient air quality ranged from good to moderate, the ionic species including chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4(2-)), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) increased significantly (1.5-3.7 times for Daliao and 1.8-6.9 times for Tzouying) in coarse PM. For fine particles, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and potassium (K+) also increased significantly (1.3-2.4 times for Daliao and 2.8-9.6 times for Tzouying) when the air quality went from good to moderate. For meteorological parameters, temperature evidenced a slightly negative correlation with PM concentration and PSI value, which implied a high PM concentration in the low-temperature condition. This reflects the high frequency of PM episodes in winter and spring in southern Taiwan. In addition, the mixing height increase from 980 to 1450 m corresponds to the air quality condition changing from unhealthy to good. PMID:21850835

  9. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  10. The Comparative Reactivity Method – a new tool to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s−1 and the urban atmosphere of Mainz (~10 s−1 Germany, show the promise of the new method and indicate that a significant fraction of OH reactive species in the tropical forests is likely missed by current measurements. Suggestions for improvements to the technique and future applications are discussed.

  11. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  12. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air... the Federal Register (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16. The primary (health-based) Pb NAAQS... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  13. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... ppm NAAQS set in 1997, but is set at a more protective level. \\2\\ See 73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008. For... 6, 2010. (See 75 FR 2938; January 19, 2010.) Because of the significant uncertainty the ozone...

  14. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  15. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  16. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2014-01-01

    The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the...

  17. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry deposition and air sampling were undertaken, simultaneously, in the ambient air of an urban site and a petrochemical-industry (PCI) plant by using several dry deposition plates and PS-1 samplers from January to May 1994 in southern Taiwan. The dry deposition plate with a smooth surface was always pointed into the wind. Twenty-one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MSD). The dry deposition flux of total-PAHs in urban and PCI sites averaged 166 and 211 microg/m2·d, respectively. In general, the PAH dry deposition flux increased with increases in the PAH concentration in the ambient air. The PAH pattern of dry deposition flux in both urban and PCI sites were similar to the pattern measured by the filter of the PS-1 sampler and completely different from the PAH pattern in the gas phase. The higher molecular weight PAHs have higher dry deposition velocities. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs primarily associated with the particle phase are deposited mostly by gravitational settling, while the gas phase PAHs were between 0.001 and 0.010 cm/s, only the lower molecular-weight PAHs--Nap and AcPy--had a significant fraction of dry deposition flux contributed by the gas phase. All the remaining higher molecular-weight PAHs had more than 94.5% of their dry deposition flux resulting from the particle phase. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs have a greater fraction in the particle phase and the dry deposition velocities of particulates are much higher than those of the gas phase

  18. Catalytic oxidation of tritium in air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium/air oxidation kinetic data are derived from ambient-temperature measurements carried out with three precious-metal catalysts. Each catalyst consists of a high-surface-area substrate in pelletized form, onto which precious metal has been dispersed. The metal/substrate combinations investigated are platinum/alumina, palladium/kaolin, and palladium/zeolite. Electron-microprobe scans reveal that the dispersed metal is deposited in each case near the outer surface of the pellet, with metal concentration decreasing exponentially from the pellet surface. Kinetic oxidation measurements are made in a unique apparatus consisting of a large Lucite enclosure with an air atmosphere processed by a recirculating cleanup system. Dual-ionization chambers with an intermediate adsorption bed permit measurement of tritium gas and tritiated water vapor. Rate coefficients are determined from concentration decay following a spike injection of tritium into the enclosure. The catalytic reaction is first-order in tritium concentration in the range 10 to 105 μCi/m3. Addition of hydrogen carrier gas is unnecessary. Each of the dispersed-metal catalysts is extremely active in promoting tritium oxidation in comparison with self-catalyzed atmospheric conversion; equivalent first-order rate constants are higher by roughly 9 orders of magnitude. The platinum-based catalyst is more effective than the palladium catalysts on a surface-area basis by about a factor of 3. Catalytic activity for all three catalysts declines with time of exposure to air after activation, following a power-law decay with an exponent of -1/2. A model for optimization of the catalyst reactivation cycle is proposed, revealing that the optimum catalyst volume scales with flow rate to the 2/3 power. Ambient-temperature tritium oxidation is cost-effective for small- to intermediate-scale cleanup systems. A heated catalyst is desirable for large-scale systems

  19. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  20. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of a radio-frequency argon plasma jet discharge in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, P. J.; Milosavljević, V.

    2015-06-01

    This study includes a detailed experimental investigation of the spatial and temporal spectroscopic emission of an argon plasma jet discharge. The study is carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. The optical emission spectroscopy of neutral atomic spectral lines and molecular bands, over a range of plasma process parameters, is investigated. Wavelength-resolved argon optical emission profiles are used to monitor the electron energy distribution function and the density of argon metastable atoms. The experimental data indicates that the argon flow rate, in a confined open-air plasma discharge, limits the impact of molecular oxygen in the creation of oxygen radicals. The absolute calibrated emission spectra facilitate the possibility of standardization of the so-called plasma dose.

  2. The ALSC upstate New York ambient trace metals monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of the monitoring program is to obtain a long-term and general rural background of ambient trace-metal concentrations in upstate New York. The resulting data will provide a baseline that may be used to track any future trends in atmospheric metallic loadings in that region. In this study, the ambient trace-metal concentrations at five rural sites will be monitored for 2 yr. Automatic dichotomous samplers with a PM10 inlet are being used to collect fine particles and coarse particles. During the 2-yr study, 7,300 samples will be collected. Of these, 1,498 fine-particle samples and 150 coarse-particle samples will be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The remainder of the samples will be archived. Equipment has been installed at the sites, and sampling has continued since October 1, 1991. In addition to ambient particle collection, wet deposition samples are being collected weekly for a 2-yr period at the Moss Lake site. Similarly, samples will be collected at Lake Champlain starting in the spring of 1992. Portions of these samples will be freeze-dried and analyzed by INAA. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry will be used to analyze some of the samples to verify these results for certain elements. In addition, the samples will be analyzed for SO4-2 and NO3-

  3. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  4. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  5. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  6. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD(regsign)) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM(regsign)) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  7. Air Entrainment in Dynamic Wetting: Knudsen Effects and the Influence of Ambient Air Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Sprittles, James E

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on coating flows and liquid drop impact both demonstrate that wetting failures caused by air entrainment can be suppressed by reducing the ambient gas pressure. Here, it is shown that non-equilibrium effects in the gas can account for this behaviour, with ambient pressure reductions increasing the gas' mean free path and hence the Knudsen number $Kn$. These effects first manifest themselves through Maxwell slip at the gas' boundaries so that for sufficiently small $Kn$ they can be incorporated into a continuum model for dynamic wetting flows. The resulting mathematical model contains flow structures on the nano-, micro- and milli-metre scales and is implemented into a computational platform developed specifically for such multiscale phenomena. The coating flow geometry is used to show that for a fixed gas-liquid-solid system (a) the increased Maxwell slip at reduced pressures can substantially delay air entrainment, i.e. increase the `maximum speed of wetting', (b) unbounded maximum speeds ...

  8. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  9. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  10. The monitoring and analysis methods of volatile organic compounds in the ambient air%环境中挥发性有机物监测及分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽琴; 李博伟; 黄宇; 何世恒; 薛永刚; 曹军骥

    2016-01-01

    挥发性有机物(VOCs)是一类重要的环境污染物,严重威胁着环境和人类健康。随着VOCs问题的日趋突出,关于VOCs监测技术的研究也越来越多,检测技术逐渐完善。本文对大气中VOCs的监测技术进行了详细的综述,重点介绍了气相色谱-质谱、高效液相色谱等离线检测方法和质子转移反应质谱法在线监测方法。此外,本文分析了各种采样方法及仪器检测技术的优势与不足,旨在为大气VOCs的监测与研究起到一定的指导作用。%Background, aim, scope Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a series of important pollutants which have strong impacts to environment and human health. They are the direct precursors of surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol from photochemical and atmospheric reactions. There is thus an urgent need for accurate and precise measurement of VOCs. This paper reviews and compares those updated VOCs monitoring technologies. Proper parameters and conditions for sample collections and analytical methods for the widely-used off-line and on-line measurements have been discussed and proposed. Materials and methods In this study, we reviewed the achievement on VOCs sampling and analysis based on researches published in the recent decades. Results Off-line monitoring requires collection of airs into a container (e.g., canister) or onto sampling matrix (i.e., absorbent), which could be divided into non-selective and selective collection. For the non-selective air sampling, stainless steel canister and polymer bags (e.g., Tedlar or Telfon) are widely used. Selective air collection allows the target compounds to be enriched onto the absorbent by either active sampling or passive diffusion. Absorbent tube is typical media which is more convenient to be carried and offers a lower cost than the canister or sampling bag methods. In addition, the tubes can be reused at least 100 times before the absorbent to be replaced. Instrumental

  11. A survey of an air monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes.

  12. A survey of an air monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes

  13. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  14. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  15. Measurement of major ambient air pollution components at sub-urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base line study for the measurement of major ambient air pollution components such as O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub x/,PM10, methane, non-methane along with the meteorological parameters was carried out by air pollution Monitoring Mobile Laboratory at an urban back ground site of Karachi. The average concentration of O/sub 3/ was found to be between 4.62 and 20.36 ppb, SO/sub 2/ 0.73 and 4.69 ppb, CO 0.14 and 0.77 ppm. NO 0.92 and 2.73 ppb, NO/sub x/ 3.1 and 7.5 ppb, PM10 142 and 251 mu g m/sup -3/, methane 1.09 and 2.7 ppm, non-methane hydrocarbon 0.41 and 0.96 ppm. (author)

  16. Development of ambient air quality population-weighted metrics for use in time-series health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-05-01

    A robust methodology was developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter (PM) components, from monitors located in the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the time period of 1999-2004 were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to Census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models, and population-weighted. Error associated with applying this procedure with fewer than the maximum number of observations was also calculated. In addition to providing more representative measures of ambient air pollution for the health study population than provided by a central monitor alone and dampening effects of measurement error and local source impacts, results were used to evaluate spatial variability and to identify air pollutants for which ambient concentrations are poorly characterized. The decrease in correlation of daily monitor observations with daily population-weighted average values with increasing distance of the monitor from the urban center was much greater for primary pollutants than for secondary pollutants. Of the criteria pollutant gases, sulfur dioxide observations were least representative because of the failure of ambient networks to capture the spatial variability of this pollutant for which concentrations are dominated by point source impacts. Daily fluctuations in PM of particles less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) mass were less well characterized than PM of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass because of a smaller number of PM10 monitors with daily observations. Of the PM2.5 components, the carbon fractions were less well spatially characterized than sulfate and nitrate both because of primary emissions of elemental and organic carbon and because of differences in measurement techniques used to assess

  17. Ambient air quality standards and guidelines in some countries. Ilmanlaadun ohjearvot ja normit muissa maissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroueh, U.M.; Laukkarinen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) initiated in 1973 the WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme, the result of which is a series of criteria documents concerning most significant air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants and ozone). The objective of the programme was to provide national authorities guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection of public health. Most national standards are based on the WHO guidelines when health effects are concerned. One important aspect when evaluating standards and guidelines applied in different countries, is the capability of the authorities to monitor and manage the quality of ambient air. In some standards whole the assessment system (monitoring stations, sampling frequency, instrumentation, data evaluation etc.) is precisely specified whereas others define only the measuring methods. For the present only European Communities have attempted to harmonize both air quality regulations and the assessment system throughout the territory of member states. The most significant member states have issued also air quality standards of their own differing from EC values, and according to some international experts the effects of EC limit values are minor so far.

  18. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  19. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  20. Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Ion Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Hang; Lackner, Klaus S; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-14

    Water confined in nanoscopic pores is essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Herein, we report a recently discovered unconventional, reversible chemical reaction driven by water quantities in nanopores. The reduction of the number of water molecules present in the pore space promotes the hydrolysis of CO3 (2-) to HCO3 (-) and OH(-) . This phenomenon led to a nano-structured CO2 sorbent that binds CO2 spontaneously in ambient air when the surrounding is dry, while releasing it when exposed to moisture. The underlying mechanism is elucidated theoretically by computational modeling and verified by experiments. The free energy of CO3 (2-) hydrolysis in nanopores reduces with a decrease of water availability. This promotes the formation of OH(-) , which has a high affinity to CO2 . The effect is not limited to carbonate/bicarbonate, but is extendable to a series of ions. Humidity-driven sorption opens a new approach to gas separation technology. PMID:26914978

  1. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T. [Minerals Management Service, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Navarrete, R. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  2. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  3. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Watson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples.

  4. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  5. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonchul Baek; Atiq, Mahin K.; Hyung Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption...

  6. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Y.; A. Uzairu; J.O. Ujoh

    2013-01-01

    This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri), high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout), traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge), Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout), residential area (Kawo New Extension) and a control site (NFA base) in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle ...

  7. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  8. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  9. Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards

  10. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air with combination of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The air samples were collected by active sampling method using Tenax-TA sorbent tubes, and desorbed by thermal desorption. The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and internal standard method was applied to quantify the VOCs. The results of all the 23 VOCs showed good linearities in low level (0. 01-1 ng) and high level (1-100 ng) with all the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0. 99. The method quantification limits were between 0. 000 08-1 µg/m3. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) at three spiked levels of 2, 10 and 50 ng. The recoveries between 77% and 124% were generally obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all cases were lower than 20%, except for chlorobenzene at the low spiked level. The developed method was applied to determine VOCs in ambient air collected at three sites in Shanghai. Several compounds, like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylenes, p-xylenes, styrene, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and hexachlorobutadiene were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the VOCs in ambient air. PMID:27382728

  11. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  12. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  13. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... the Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (EPA 452R-08-005... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  14. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards:...

  15. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution... on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality...

  16. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  17. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to particulate matter: relationships between personal and ambient air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebelt, S T; Petkau, A J; Vedal, S; Fisher, T V; Brauer, M

    2000-07-01

    Mot time-series studies of particulate air pollution and acute health outcomes assess exposure of the study population using fixed-site outdoor measurements. To address the issue of exposure misclassification, we evaluate the relationship between ambient particle concentrations and personal exposures of a population expected to be at risk of particle health effects. Sampling was conducted within the Vancouver metropolitan area during April-September 1998. Sixteen subjects (non-smoking, ages 54-86) with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) wore personal PM2.5 monitors for seven 24-hr periods, randomly spaced approximately 1.5 weeks apart. Time-activity logs and dwelling characteristics data were also obtained for each subject. Daily 24-hr ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured at five fixed sites spaced throughout the study region. SO4(2-), which is found almost exclusively in the fine particle fraction and which does not have major indoor sources, was measured in all PM2.5 samples as an indicator of accumulation mode particulate matter of ambient origin. The mean personal and ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 18 micrograms/m3 and 11 micrograms/m3, respectively. In analyses relating personal and ambient measurements, ambient concentrations were expressed either as an average of the values obtained from five ambient monitoring sites for each day of personal sampling, or as the concentration obtained at the ambient site closest to each subject's home. The mean personal to ambient concentration ratio of all samples was 1.75 (range = 0.24 to 10.60) for PM2.5, and 0.75 (range = 0.09 to 1.42) for SO4(2-). Regression analyses were conducted for each subject separately and on pooled data. The median correlation (Pearson's r) between personal and average ambient PM2.5 concentrations was 0.48 (range = -0.68 to 0.83). Using SO4(2-) as the exposure metric, the median r between personal and average ambient concentrations was 0.96 (range

  18. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  19. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  20. SARA (Spectroscopic Ambient Radiation Detection) Spectroscopic Monitoring Systems for Online Environmental Radiation Monitoring Edition 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the wake of a nuclear incident, it is essential that you can react promptly and provide a completely reliable assessment of the radiological situation. First and foremost, it is vital that your radiation early warning system can automatically detect any man-made isotopes in the environment and identify any changes in the composition of the ambient radiation. Before appropriate countermeasures can be implemented, it is crucial that authorities have accurate information about the type of contamination and its dispersion. TechniData's spectroscopic online monitoring system will improve your existing monitoring systems, provide important information about the composition of ambient radiation during an incident, and therefore help you to make the right decisions

  1. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Air quality monitoring Edson and Hinton area September 1999 to June 2000 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Edson and Hinton areas of Alberta were the subject of a mobile, ambient air quality monitoring survey. The monitoring involved four surveys of a week each, over four seasons, for one year. This area had been selected for monitoring to meet three major objectives: the determination of concentrations of air pollutants representative of the monitored locations in the survey area, to establish a comparison of air pollutant levels to data from other locations in the province of Alberta, and to provide a comparison of air pollutant levels to Alberta's air quality guidelines. These surveys formed an integral part of the air quality monitoring program of Alberta Environment. Using the Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML), personnel from Alberta Environment appear on location unannounced. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, total reduced sulphur and ammonia are the substances measured and monitored. Eighteen sites in the Edson and Hinton area were selected, as well as downwind of industrial facilities in the Edson area, and air quality was monitored using the mobile lab for twenty days. To allow comparison to the air quality guidelines, monitoring was conducted for a minimum of one hour at each location. As a result, approximately 152 hours of air quality monitoring information was obtained, providing data in the vicinity of both populated and industrial areas. The periods comprised September 13-16, 1999 (Fall), February 7-9, 2000 (Winter), April 18-19, 25-27, 2000 (Spring), and June 4-5, 13-16, 2000 (Summer). The results were provided in this report. Most results were below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. refs., 16 tabs., 18 figs

  3. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  4. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  5. Annual report of the ambient air quality measurements in Austria 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the result of the ambient air quality measurements conducted according to the air quality act (Austrian Federal Law Gazette I 115/97) in Austria in 2000. This act defines ambient air quality limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide, benzene, lead in air, deposition (total mass including lead and cadmium) and a target value for ozone. The report also comprises results of explorative measurements of PM10 and PM2,5. Only one exceedance of the limit value for sulphur dioxide (0,20 mg/m3 as half hour mean value, not to be exceeded more than three times a day; 0,50 mg/m3 as half hour mean value) was observed. The exceedance was caused by air pollution transport from Slovenia. The limit values for nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulates were exceeded quite frequently in 2000. For nitrogen dioxide, mainly traffic stations were affected. Exceedances of the limit value (0,20 mg/m3 as half hour mean value) were observed both during winter episodes with unfavourable conditions for dispersion, as well as in spring/summer at a heavily frequented road during episodes with high ozone levels, causing rapid oxidation of NO to NO2. Exceedances of the limit value for total suspended particulates (0,15 mg/m3 as daily mean value) were predominately recorded in urban areas in the vicinity of heavily frequented streets, especially in southern alpine basins and valleys with unfavourable dispersion conditions. The highest pollution was recorded at a heavily frequented crossroad in Graz. For carbon monoxide (eight hour mean value of 10 mg/m3), benzene ( 10 μg/m3 as annual mean value) and lead (1 μg/m3, as annual mean value), no exceedances were recorded. The pollution levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide show a strong decrease during the last decade, whereas for nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter no clear trend can be identified. The target value of ozone is exceeded at all of the

  6. Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Yue; Richard T. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examined association between preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growt...

  7. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  8. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen Hong Tseng; Chien Hou Wu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Kong Hwa Chiu [Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology; Jiunn Guang Lo [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology

    2004-08-01

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling sites. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled. (author)

  9. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among persons with congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a mortality time series study to investigate the association between daily mortality for congestive heart failure (CHF), and dail concentrations of particles and gaseous pollutants in the ambient air o Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984-1993. In addition, using data fro the universal Quebec Health Insurance Plan, we identified individuals ≥6 years of age who, one year before death, had a diagnosis of CHF. Fixed-sit air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of pollutants We regressed the logarithm of daily counts of mortality on the daily mean levels of each pollutant, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and other gaseous and particle pollutants. Using cause of deat information, we did not find any associations between daily mortality for CH and any air pollutants. The analyses of CHF defined from the medical record showed positive associations with coefficient of haze, the extinction coefficient, SO2, and NO2. For example, the mean percent increase in dail mortality for an increase in the coefficient of haze across the interquartile range was 4.32% (95% CI: 0.95-7.80%) and for NO2 it was 4.08% (95% CI 0.59-7.68%). These effects were generally higher in the warm season

  10. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  11. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects. (letter)

  12. The effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of air flow plate standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume flow rate measured by air flow plate is influenced by the ambient conditions during the calibration. A series of numerical examples are conducted for the relationship and the outcomes demonstrated that the calibration is quite sensitive to the atmospheric pressure and the ambient temperature, but insensitive to relative humidity. The experiment model has been applied to calibration results with wide ranging ambient conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the benefits to calibration data of minimizing the effects of ambient conditions.

  13. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  14. Evaluation of methods for monitoring air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Janoszka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of different branches of industry and a growing fossil fuels mining results in a considerable emission of by-products. Major air pollutants are: CO, CO₂, SO₂, SO₃, H₂S, nitrogen oxides, as well as compounds of an organic origin. The main aspects of this paper is to review and evaluate methods used for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in the air. Different instrumental techniques were discussed, electrochemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric (wet and dry, to select the method most suitable for monitoring low levels of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold. Based on the literature review the method for H₂S determination in the air, involving absorption in aqueous zinc acetate and reaction with N,N-dimethylo-p-phenylodiamine and FeCl₃, has been selected and preliminary verified. The adopted method allows for routine measurements of low concentration of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold in workplaces and ambient air. Med Pr 2013;64(3:449–454

  15. Air monitoring in radioiodine therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Radioiodine therapy wards, in general the radiation exposure due to air borne activity from patients administered with 925MBq-7.4GBq (25-200mCi) of 131I has to be kept under regulatory limits. The purpose of conducting an air monitoring in our setup was to assess air borne activity levels. If the levels are high then it may lead to increased exposure to the occupational workers and patient's attendants. A total of 22.2GBq (600 mCi) 131I is administered every week to our patients in the isolation ward. After administered of 131I in the dose administration room, patients occupy their respective beds. The isolation beds are provided with attached toilet facility. Six air samples were collected from various regions (high dose room, low dose room, dose administration room, special room, corridor and entrance) in the vacuumized vials (9 ml) using 16 G needle at the breathing zone level. One control sample was also collected from the area with no possible 131I air-contamination. The vials were then counted in the pre-calibrated NaI well counter (known efficiency). The maximum air borne radioiodine concentration was found to be 1.999x10-6 ?Ci/cm3 in the high dose room (which keeps on decreasing with time, being maximum on second day and zero on third and subsequent days). We measured the thyroid counts of the staff and patient's attendants, routinely. The estimated thyroid activity never showed any significant increase in the thyroid uptake of the staff and patient's attendants. In our setup, air monitoring is strictly followed and performed periodically. We conclude that air monitoring program is only one element of the comprehensive radiation protection program and should be a made mandatory practice. (author)

  16. The monitoring of air radioactivity in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, H.; Rulík, P.; Bečková, V.; Hölgye, Z.; Schlesingerová, E.; Světlík, Ivo; Škrkal, J.

    Bratislava: Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene, 2008, s. 111-114. ISBN 978-80-89384-01-3. [Days of Radiation Protection /30./. Liptovský Ján, Low Tatras (SK), 10.11.2008-14.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radionuclides * monitoring * Prague Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality

  17. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Vara Prasad Y

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for sensing concentration of gases like CO2, NO2, CO and O2 are calibrated using appropriate calibration technologies. These pre-calibrated gas sensors are then integrated with the wireless sensor motes for field deployment at the campus and the Hyderabad city using multi hop data aggregation algorithm. A light weight middleware and a web interface to view the live pollution data in the form of numbers and charts from the test beds was developed and made available from anywhere on the internet. Other parameters like temperature and humidity were also sensed along with gas concentrations to enable data analysis through data fusion techniques. Experimentation carried out using the developed wireless air pollution monitoring system under different physical conditions show that the system collects reliable source of real time fine-grain pollution data.

  18. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  19. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  20. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  1. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient......

  2. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... titled, Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient...

  3. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  4. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  5. Method for Fusing Observational Data and Chemical Transport Model Simulations To Estimate Spatiotemporally Resolved Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Mariel D; Zhai, Xinxin; Holmes, Heather A; Chang, Howard H; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Tolbert, Paige E; Russell, Armistead G; Mulholland, James A

    2016-04-01

    Investigations of ambient air pollution health effects rely on complete and accurate spatiotemporal air pollutant estimates. Three methods are developed for fusing ambient monitor measurements and 12 km resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ) simulations to estimate daily air pollutant concentrations across Georgia. Temporal variance is determined by observations in one method, with the annual mean CMAQ field providing spatial structure. A second method involves scaling daily CMAQ simulated fields using mean observations to reduce bias. Finally, a weighted average of these results based on prediction of temporal variance provides optimized daily estimates for each 12 × 12 km grid. These methods were applied to daily metrics of 12 pollutants (CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and five PM2.5 components) over the state of Georgia for a seven-year period (2002-2008). Cross-validation demonstrates a wide range in optimized model performance across pollutants, with SO2 predicted most poorly due to limitations in coal combustion plume monitoring and modeling. For the other pollutants studied, 54-88% of the spatiotemporal variance (Pearson R(2) from cross-validation) was captured, with ozone and PM2.5 predicted best. The optimized fusion approach developed provides daily spatial field estimates of air pollutant concentrations and uncertainties that are consistent with observations, emissions, and meteorology. PMID:26923334

  6. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  7. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  9. Interpretation of PAMZ air quality data and assessment of the PAMZ air quality monitoring program January 2000 to December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1999, passive monitors have been in use to support the Air Quality Monitoring Program begun that year. It currently includes 33 passive stations throughout the zone, which measure nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone. There are also four continuous monitoring stations, two stations operated by Parkland Airshed Management Zone (PAMZ) (Caroline and portable), one operated by Alberta Environment at Red Deer, as well as one station operated by West Central Airshed Society at Hightower Ridge. In 2000 and 2001, the portable station was operated at seven locations within the zone. There were four objectives to this study: (1) provide a summary of the PAMZ air quality monitoring data for the period January 2000 to December 2001, (2) provide an interpretation of that data with regard to emission sources and PAMZ's high priority issues, (3) provide an assessment of the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program performance with respect to the primary objective of the program, and (4) make recommendations on improving or expanding the Air Quality Program. It was found that the ambient concentrations of the different compounds and parameters were below the guidelines established by the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAAQG) and Canada-wide Standards, with some exceptions which were listed. Ozone concentrations proved to be higher in the Foothills, rather than in an east-west pattern, and lower in the vicinity of transportation corridors (Highway 2). Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were also high in the transportation corridor. The eastern half of the zone was exposed to higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide due to the more dense population and the presence of industries and major highways. Most of the terms of reference of the Technical Working Group appear to be met by the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program. Some recommendations were included in the report, such as the addition of a fifth continuous Air Quality Monitoring station that is portable

  10. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  11. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  12. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  13. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdeep Singh3; Atahar Perwez

    2015-01-01

    Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had b...

  14. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  15. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qi-fei; CHEN Tong-bin; GAO Ding; HUANG Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5℃ when ambient air temperature changed 13℃. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3℃ when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 ℃. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent(at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate(at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  16. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC ambient air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  17. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 ...

  18. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W.; Coull, Brent A.; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  20. The monitoring of air radioactivity in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere have been monitored for over 21 years in the Czech Republic, at present at 10 sampling sites equipped with aerosol samplers with throughput from 150 to 900 m3/h. The sites are a part of the national Radiation Monitoring Network. The aerosol samplers work continuously mostly with one-week sampling periods in normal circumstances. Four laboratories measure the activities of radionuclides on filters by semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. The whole system of air activity measurements in Prague is equipped with highly advanced instrumentation. In normal situation it is able to determine radionuclides with very high sensitivity; the minimum detectable activity concentrations in Bq/m3 are about 2x10-7 for 137Cs and 22Na; around 5x10-8 and 3x10-10 for 90Sr and plutonium isotopes, respectively. In 2007 mean activity concentrations of monitored radionuclides at Prague monitoring site in Bq/m3 were: 85Kr 1.6x10+0, 14C 5.3x10-2, 137Cs 6.8x10-7, 7Be 4.3x10-3, 210Pb 5.3x10-4, 40K 1.8x10-5, 22Na 3.5x10-7, 90Sr 5-7x10-8, 238Pu 1-2x10-10, 239,240Pu 1.7x10-9. Selected results of air monitoring are continuously published on the web site of SURO (www.suro.cz) and summarised in the Annual Reports on Radiation Situation in the Czech Republic. Data are also provided for mutual exchange with international organisations. The laboratory of SURO is a member of 'RO5 Group' - an informal group of European experts specialized in monitoring aerosols in the atmosphere, who are able without any delay, through e-mails, to inform each other about current activity concentration levels. Long-term regularly monitored radionuclides in air can serve as tracers in study of behaviour of air masses and aerosols and thus to contribute to better understanding of the processes in the atmosphere. (authors)

  1. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  2. Experimental analysis of the thermal entrainment factor of air curtains in vertical open display cabinets for different ambient air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical open refrigerated display cabinets suffer alterations of their thermal performance and energy efficiency due to variations of ambient air conditions. The air curtain provides an aerothermodynamics insulation effect that can be evaluated by the thermal entrainment factor calculation as an engineering approximation or by the calculus of all sensible and latent thermal loads. This study presents the variation of heat transfer rate and thermal entrainment factor obtained through experimental tests carried out for different ambient air conditions, varying air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and its direction relatively to the display cabinet frontal opening. The thermal entrainment factor are analysed and compared with the total sensible and latent heats results for the experimental tests. From an engineering point of view, it is concluded that thermal entrainment factor cannot be used indiscriminately, although its use is suitable to design better cabinet under the same climate class condition.

  3. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  4. Simple and accurate quantification of BTEX in ambient air by SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Kenessov, Bulat; Koziel, Jacek A; Carlsen, Lars; Bektassov, Marat; Demyanenko, Olga P

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) comprise one of the most ubiquitous and hazardous groups of ambient air pollutants of concern. Application of standard analytical methods for quantification of BTEX is limited by the complexity of sampling and sample preparation equipment, and budget requirements. Methods based on SPME represent simpler alternative, but still require complex calibration procedures. The objective of this research was to develop a simpler, low-budget, and accurate method for quantification of BTEX in ambient air based on SPME and GC-MS. Standard 20-mL headspace vials were used for field air sampling and calibration. To avoid challenges with obtaining and working with 'zero' air, slope factors of external standard calibration were determined using standard addition and inherently polluted lab air. For polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, differences between the slope factors of calibration plots obtained using lab and outdoor air were below 14%. PDMS fiber provided higher precision during calibration while the use of Carboxen/PDMS fiber resulted in lower detection limits for benzene and toluene. To provide sufficient accuracy, the use of 20mL vials requires triplicate sampling and analysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of 108 ambient air samples from Almaty, Kazakhstan. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were 53, 57, 11 and 14µgm(-3), respectively. The developed method can be modified for further quantification of a wider range of volatile organic compounds in air. In addition, the new method is amenable to automation. PMID:27154647

  5. Contribution ratios of natural radionuclides to ambient dose rate in air after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important that the contribution ratio of natural radioactivity to ambient dose rate in air is clarified after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In this study, ambient dose rates in air were observed at 34 places in eastern Japan and the contribution ratios were clarified. The mean contribution ratio of the natural radionuclides was 71 % (range 0-100 %). In most places, the natural radionuclides made a larger contribution to the ambient dose rate in air. (author)

  6. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  7. Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, E.M. [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in most of the German states. The measurements were carried out under different seasonal conditions and at locations with differing air quality. Benzo(a)pyrene was widely used as an indicator substance for heating systems and industrial firing systems. Coronene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene were used as indicator substances for motor traffic.

  8. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... 1997 (62 FR 38856) by setting the primary standard at a level of 0.08 ppm, based on the annual fourth... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR..., and form, respectively, of the primary O 3 standard (73 FR 16472- 16475). For these reasons,...

  9. Monitoring of mining-induced ambient radioactivity. 11th expert meeting on ambient radioactivity monitoring, held on 28/29 March 2000 at Schlema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 11th expert meeting was the first exclusively devoted to aspects of monitoring mining-induced ambient radioactivity, and therefore was held 'on site', in the formerly important uranium mining area of Schlema. The meeting was organised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). (orig./CB)

  10. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  11. Nocturnal stomatal conductance and ambient air quality standards for ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Minnick, Tamera J.

    Vegetation response to ozone depends on ozone conductance into leaves and the defensive action inside the leaf. Ozone parameters currently used for air quality standards do not incorporate conductance or defensive components. Nighttime flux has often been ignored in ozone metrics relating to plant response, since ozone concentration and conductance are considered to be minimal at night. However, ozone concentration can remain relatively high at night, particularly in mountainous areas. Although conductance is lower at night than during the day for most plants, nocturnal conductance can result in considerable ozone flux into plants. Further, plants can be more susceptible to ozone exposure at night than during the daytime, a result of lower plant defenses at night. Any ozone metric used to relate air quality to plant response should use a 24 h ozone exposure period to include the nighttime exposures. It should also incorporate plant defensive mechanisms or their surrogate.

  12. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudež, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R; de Maat, Moniek P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with plate...

  13. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  14. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  15. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Exposures to Diesel Particulate Matter Utilizing Ambient Air Monitoring and Urinary Biomarkers Among Pedestrian Commuters who Cross the U.S.-Mexico Border at San Ysidro, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Vanessa Eileen

    Background: Walk-in-line pedestrians crossing the U.S.-Mexico border northbound at the San Ysidro, CA Port of Entry ("Border Commuters") may be at an increased risk of experiencing elevated traffic-related air pollution, including diesel exhaust (DE). DE exposure has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular and respiratory problems, including as lung cancer. Pedestrian crossers wait in line for extended periods and stand within 10 feet of highly concentrated traffic, particularly to diesel buses. Understanding the magnitude of traffic-related exposures is important for this vulnerable population. It was hypothesized that subjects who reside in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and cross the border as a pedestrian will experience higher exposure to traffic-related pollutants than those who live and work in South San Diego, CA, USA and do not cross the border. Methods: Ninety-one participants were enrolled for this study; 80% were "Border Commuters" and 20% were "Non-Border Commuters". "Non-Border Commuters" served as the comparison group and were defined as residents who lived in or near and worked or went to school in San Ysidro, CA but did not cross the border. Questionnaires, time activity diaries, and urine samples were collected from all participants. Of the "Border Commuters", 56 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - samples were collected. There were 22 at-home indoor and 14 at-home outdoor 1-NP samples collected. Additionally, area samples collected at the border included 35 days of 1-NP, black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFP). Of the "Non-Border Commuters", 15 personal 24-hour PM2.5 and 1-NP samples were collected. Additonally, 3 at-home indoor and outdoor 24-hour 1-NP samples were collected. Results: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was nearly 2-fold higher among "Border Commuters" compared to "Non

  17. Czech air quality monitoring and receptor modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ongoing air quality monitoring program in the Czech Republic has provided nearly continuous data for the concentrations of aerosols and gas-phase pollutants since its inception in February 1992. In addition to PM-2.5 concentrations, the concentrations of sulfate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, trace elements (Al-Pb), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also measured. Fine particulate matter (PM-2.5) was composed mainly of organic carbon and sulfate with smaller amounts of trace metals. Coarse particle mass concentrations were typically between 10 and 30% of PM-2.5 concentrations. The chemical composition of emissions from power plants, residential space heating, local factories, and motor vehicles was also characterized. The ambient monitoring and source characterization data were then used in receptor modeling calculations, the results of which indicate that residential space heating and power plant emissions accounted for most of fine particle mass concentrations observed during winter air pollution episodes. Motor vehicles, incinerators, and windblown dust contributed to the balance of the fine particle mass. Peak 24-h average TSP and SO2 concentrations (1100 and 800μg/m3, respectively) obtained at the main monitoring site at Teplice in northern Bohemia during a severe air pollution episode in 1993 were within a factor of 2 of smoke and SO2 concentrations (1800 and 1600 μg/m3) measured in London during the smog episode of December 5-9, 1952. That pollution episode was thought to have contributed to a substantial increase in mortality. 24 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  18. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  19. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  20. A fast responding continuous tritium-in-air monitor with multi stream sampling for area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast responding Tritium-in-Air monitor with multi stream sampling up to a maximum of 8 lines has been developed and field tested for continuous area monitoring in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and other tritium handling facilities. The instrument has built in electronic compensation for external gamma and gaseous radionuclide 133Xe (FPNG). The monitor is based on plastic scintillator detector prepared from 5μm thick scintillator film of surface area (each side) of about 250 cm2. Four such films of each weighing 150 mg are packed in a flow cell of 6.3 cm3 volume, made of stainless steel body and Teflon window. The flow cell is coupled face to face to a matched pair of photomultipliers. Measurement is made in coincidence mode of counting. The complete monitor consists of electronic counting system, the detector probe assembly, a diaphragm type of air sampling pump, a particulate filter trap and a rotometer for controlling the air flow rate. For multi stream sampling an external solenoid driver cum isolation unit has been integrated with the system. The efficiency for Tritium vapour for direct passage of sample air through the detector is ∼22%. The instrument records 0.2 cps under normal gamma background of 0.1 - 0.2 μSv/hr, without shielding. With the detector fully shielded (∼ 10 cm thick lead), the instrument does not register significant increase in the background counts with 200 μSv/hr ambient gamma field. Under conditions of gaseous radionuclide interference such as 133Xe (26 MBq/m3 concentrations) the MDA rises to ∼1 DAC for a counting time of 300 s. The MDA under ideal conditions is found to be 0.2 DAC for Tritium vapour. The sensitivity of the system is 0.4 CPS per DAC. The instrument response time is 10 minutes. (author)

  1. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  2. Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmia in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are cardiac rhythm disorders that comprise an important public health problem. Few prior studies have examined the association between ambient air pollution and arrhythmias in general populations in mainland China. Methods We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the short-term association between air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and outpatient visit...

  3. A Case–Crossover Study of Wintertime Ambient Air Pollution and Infant Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, Catherine; Lumley, Thomas; Shepherd, Kristen; Davis, Robert; Larson, Timothy; Ritz, Beate; Kaufman, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association of infant bronchiolitis with acute exposure to ambient air pollutants. Design We employed a time-stratified case–crossover method and based the exposure windows on a priori, biologically based hypotheses. Participants We evaluated effects in 19,901 infants in the South Coast Air Basin of California in 1995–2000 with a hospital discharge record for bronchiolitis in the first year of life (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1). Evaluations/...

  4. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  5. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions. - There is a large potential of phytotoxic risk on vegetation in Selangor State, Malaysia

  6. Time series analysis of ambient air concentrations in Alexandria and Nile delta region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collected from the Air Monitoring Network of Alexandria and Delta (EEAA/EIMP-program), were analyzed. Emphasis is given to indicator pollutants PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO. Two sites have been selected in Alexandria (IGSR and Shohada) and three sites in Delta region (Kafr Elzyat, Mansoura and Mahalla) for analysis of three years from 2000-2002. Box -Jenkins modeling has been used mainly for forecasting and assessing relative importance of various parameters or pollutants. Results showed that, the autoregressive (AR) order for all series ranged from 0-2 except NO2 at Mansoura site. Also the moving average order ranged from 0-2 except CO at IGSR site. Nitrogen dioxide and Ozone at IGSR site have the same ARIMA model which is (0, 1, and 2). Cross correlation analysis has revealed important information on the dynamics, chemistry and interpretation of ambient pollution. Cross-correlation functions of SO2 and PM10 at IGSR sites suggest that, sulfur dioxide has been adsorbed on the surface of particulates which has an alkaline nature. This enhances the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate, which results in low levels of SO2 in spite of the presence of sources

  7. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  8. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

  9. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  10. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186). In the 1971 decision, the... criteria and standards for CO (50 FR 37484). In that review, EPA updated the scientific criteria upon...

  11. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  12. Oxidation of ST55, LH15 and Arema steels at high temperatures in ambient air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jaroslav; Million, Bořivoj; Adamaszek, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2004), s. 242-250. ISSN 0023-432X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : high temperatures * oxidation steels * ambient air Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2004

  13. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  14. Annual report on the ambient air quality measurement in Austria 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the ambient air quality situation (measurements) conducted according to the Air Quality Act and the Ozone Act in Austria during 2004 is presented. The situation was assessed mainly in relation to Austrian limit and target values of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (this is measured using two different indicators: total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10), carbon monoxide, benzene and lead. The PM10 limit value - 35 days with average concentrations above 50 μg/m3 - was exceeded at 27 sites. The highest exceedances were measured at traffic related sites in large cities, in particular the city of Graz, in Vienna, at industrial sites (e.g. Linz). Main sources for primary particulate matter are road traffic, domestic heating (in particular wood burning), industrial emissions, construction activities and off-road sources. For nitrogen dioxide, the short term limit value was exceeded at few traffic related sites, mainly - but not only - in larger towns. The limit value for the protection of vegetation of 30 μg/m3 NOx was exceeded at one site in Tyrol (Kramsach). Limit values for sulfur dioxide were exceeded at three sites. Neither the limit values for carbon monoxide, lead and benzene nor the alert thresholds for nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide were exceeded in this year. Deposition of total particulates limit value was exceeded at a few sites, lead and cadmium in two industrial sites. Low ozone levels were measured at most monitoring sites, the information threshold of 180 μg/m3 ozone as one hour mean was exceeded at 21 sites on all together 9 days and the alert threshold of 240 μg/m3 as one hour mean was not exceeded. 45 figs., 57 tabs. (nevyjel)

  15. The contribution of waste water treatment plants to PBDEs in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples were collected at different sites in and around two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in central Italy to determine the concentrations, compositional profiles and contribution to ambient levels of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The investigated WWTPs were selected as they treat industrial wastewater produced by local textile industries along with municipal wastewater. PBDE concentrations within the WWTPs were higher than those measured at reference sites located 4 and 5 km away with BDE-209 dominating the BDE congener composition in all air samples in 2008. Ambient PBDE concentrations measured in and around the WWTPs and estimates of emissions from aeration tanks suggest that WWTPs are sources of PBDEs to ambient air. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlations confirmed this result. The effect of distance from the plant and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. Although the primary fate of PBDEs in WWTPs will be partitioning to sewage sludge, this study suggests that plants can provide a measurable source of these compounds to local ambient air. - Highlights: ► Levels and distribution profiles of PBDEs in the atmosphere surrounding two WWTPs. ► Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surrounding area of two WWTPs in Italy. ► To investigate WWTPs as sources of PBDEs to the atmosphere. ► Samples collected downwind respect to the plant showed BDE-209 as dominant congener. ► The effect of distance and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. - Waste water treatment plants as sources of PBDEs to the ambient air.

  16. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  17. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  18. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  19. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  20. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 8-hour primary and secondary....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  2. Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009 Políticas efectivas de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en Argentina: estudio de monitoreo de calidad del aire en 15 ciudades (2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Schoj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. Material and Methods. PM2.5 levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Results. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smokefree cities the mean PM2.5 level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectively (p=.012. In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM2.5 levels decreased dramatically (pObjetivo. Evaluar la polución ambiental del sector gastronómico en Argentina. Material y métodos. Se midieron los niveles de partículas respirables (PM2.5 en una muestra por conveniencia de establecimientos de 15 ciudades con diferente legislación, siguiendo un protocolo del Instituto de Cáncer Roswell Park. Resultados. Se recolectaron 554 muestras. En cinco ciudades libres de humo (CLH la media de PM2.5 durante el día fue baja y menor a la observada durante la noche, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectivamente (p=.012. En las tres ciudades evaluadas antes y después de la legislación, las PM2.5 disminuyeron drásticamente (p<0.001 cada una. Las PM2.5 fueron cinco veces mayores en ciudades sin legislación comparadas con CLH (p<0.001. En ciudades con restricción parcial, no hubo diferencia significativa entre las PM2.5 en el sector fumador y no fumador (p=0.272. Los sectores no fumadores tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más altos comparados con los lugares 100% libres de humo de la misma ciudad (p= 0.017. Conclusiones. La mayoría de las ciudades participantes en este estudio tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más bajos tras la implementación de leyes pro ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco, por lo que representa una herramienta útil para promover legislación 100% libre de humo en Argentina.

  3. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  4. Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHAO-WEI FU; SHUN-ZHANG YU; LI-NA MU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing. Methods The approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing. Results An increase of each 10 μμg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days. Conclusion The daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing.

  5. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung...... effect on the concentration of CC16 in plasma and urine or on the static and dynamic volumes or ventilation distribution of the lungs. The study thus demonstrates increased permeability of the alveolar blood-gas barrier following moderate exercise, whereas exposure to ambient levels of urban air.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood...

  6. Ambient radioactivity monitoring II: Food chains, drinking water, animal feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The StrlSchVG (German act on preventive radiation protection) sets the legal framework for radioactive contamination monitoring away from nuclear facilities. The routine and the enhanced measuring programmes incorporate details of monitoring tasks, including the systems and stations established according to the AVV-IMIS (General Administrative Order on IMIS). Monitoring activities are performed according to standard measuring directives and methods developed by the head offices and published as a loose-leaf collection on behalf of the BMU (Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety). The monitoring results are published in annual reports of the BMU compiled by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Radiation Protection Office) in cooperation with the head offices. (orig.)

  7. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit

  8. Automation of the monitoring in real time of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in Cuba; Automatizacion del monitoreo en tiempo real de la tasa de dosis absorbida en aire debido a la radiacion gamma ambiental en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Manzano de Armas, J.F.; Alonso A, D.; Prendes A, M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Caveda R, C.A. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600 (Cuba); Kalberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) (Sweden); Fabelo B, O.; Montalvan E, A. [CIAC, Camaguey (Cuba); Cartas A, H. [CEAC, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Leyva F, J.C. [CISAT (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) like center rector of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), it has strengthened their detection capacity and of answer before a situation of radiological emergency. The measurements of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in the main stations of the Net are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from these posts at one time relatively short. To improve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the facilities of existent monitoring using 4 automatic measurement stations with probes of gamma detection, implementing in this way a measurement system on real time. On the other hand the software were developed: GenironProbeFech, to obtain the data of the probes, DataMail for the shipment of the same ones by electronic mail and GammaRed that receives and processes the data in the rector center. (Author)

  9. Selection of filter media in alpha air monitors for emergency environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an alpha air monitor which is possible to measure rapidly and sensitively the concentrations of airborne alpha-emitting particles, such as plutonium, for the environmental monitoring at an accident of nuclear reprocessing plant. The monitor is designed to collect airborne alpha-emitting particles by drawing the ambient air through a filter and to detect the activity by alpha spectroscopy. In order to achieve high-sensitive measurements, selection of a suitable filter used in the monitor is considerably important. The most important requirement for the filter is that it has a high surface collection efficiency to obtain the sharpness of the alpha energy spectrum. This makes it easy to distinguish the alpha-ray peak of plutonium from the alpha spectrum of naturally occurring radon decay products in the environment. And the filter is also desired to have low resistance of the air flow so that particles can be collected at a high flowrate. We have made a comparison of the surface collection efficiency and pressure drop for the various filters. Types of the test filters, most of which are commercially available in Japan, were glass fiber, cellulose-glass fiber, membrane and so on. The surface collection efficiency has been evaluated by the following two indices. One was the sharpness of alpha-ray energy peaks of thoron decay products generated in a laboratory and collected in the fibers. The other was the background counts of radon decay products in a plutonium region by measuring alpha-ray energy spectrum of radon decay products collected in the filters by sampling of dust in the atmosphere. It was found that the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane filter with backing had a high surface collection efficiency and low pressure drop. The results of the test are described in detail in this paper. (author)

  10. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  11. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions Pt. 53, Subpt. A, Table A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 53—Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and...

  12. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  13. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  14. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  15. Atomic oxygen in a cold argon plasma jet: TALIF spectroscopy in ambient air with modelling and measurements of ambient species diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By investigating the atomic oxygen density in its effluent, two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy measurements are for the first time performed in a cold argon/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The measurements are carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. We propose a novel absorption technique in the VUV spectral range, where emission originating from within the discharge is used as light source to determine the inflow of atmospheric oxygen into the effluent. Furthermore, we propose a modelling solution for the on-axis density of inflowing ambient air based on the stationary convection–diffusion equation. (paper)

  16. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  17. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  18. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  19. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  20. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  1. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  2. Radioactive aerosol air contamination monitor (MAFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAFF is a highly sensitive monitor designed to measure and signal accidental air contamination at values well below those generally detectable, allowing for high-amplitude variations due to radon daughter products. It consists of a standard electronic rack, which has been designed for use under highly varied conditions: detection of α, β, X radiation, number of independent channels (from 1 to 4), internal or external sunction pump, internal or external threshold processing, on-line computer or self-contained operation. Air is drawn in continuously through a stationary filter paper by a single pump. Each channel includes a scintillation detector and photomultiplier, and delivers an output signal proportional to the activity of the radionuclides trapped by the filter. The single-channel version is equipped with an oversize scintillator and photomultiplier with very high sensitivity. The electronic equipment consists of plug-in units which are selected according to each configuration. The control and display section includes a large number of safety systems which guarantee high equipment operating reliability. The MAFF is currently used in several reactors and hot laboratories

  3. Ambient noise based monitoring of Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pomponi; Christoph Sens-Schönfelder

    2012-01-01

    Exploiting the capability of the seismic noise correlation method to detect small velocity changes in the medium ( i.e. about 0.1%) we show that before the eruption of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano in October 2010 a clear variation (i.e. reduction) of this parameter is observed. Therefore its continuous monitoring could represent an important step ahead for our ability to forecast an eruption. This has been demonstrated previously. Moreover, through a simple inversion scheme based on a delta ...

  4. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in b...

  5. Estimating the effects of ambient conditions on the performance of UVGI air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Josephine; Bahnfleth, William; Freihaut, James [Indoor Environment Center, Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) uses UVC radiation produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps to control biological air contaminants. Ambient air velocity and temperature have a strong effect on lamp output by influencing the lamp surface cold spot temperature. In-duct UVGI systems are particularly susceptible to ambient effects due to the range of velocity and temperature conditions they may experience. An analytical model of the effect of ambient conditions on lamp surface temperature was developed for three common lamp types in cross flow from a convective-radiative energy balance assuming constant surface temperature. For one lamp type, a single tube standard output lamp, UVC output and cold spot temperature data were obtained under typical in-duct operating conditions. Over an ambient temperature range of 10-32.2 C and an air velocity range of 0-3.25 m/s, measured cold spot temperature varied from 12.7 to 41.9 C and measured lamp output varied by 68% of maximum. Surface temperatures predicted by the heat transfer model were 6-17 C higher than corresponding measured cold spot temperatures, but were found to correlate well with cold spot temperature via a two-variable linear regression. When corrected using this relationship, the simple model predicted the cold spot temperature within 1 C and lamp UVC output within {+-}5%. To illustrate its practical use, the calibrated lamp model was employed in a simulation of the control of a contaminant in a single-zone ventilation system by an in-duct UVGI device. In this example, failure to account for the impact of ambient condition effects resulted in under-prediction of average space concentration by approximately 20% relative to a constant output system operating at maximum UVC output. (author)

  6. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient..., known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR 49 (1999... a notice on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39254) which invited the public to comment on EPA's...

  7. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  8. Consequences of fluctuations in the ambient air temperature at Lake Tanganyika --- A wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mbungu Tsumbu, Jean-Pierre; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bopili-Mbotia-Lepiba, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the horizontal wind speed and of both the ambient air temperature and the water temperature according to the depth. Our study clearly shows how Lake Tanganyika is thermally stratified, showing four different water layers. The study shows how waters of upper layers tend to have the same temperature as the deepest water during the dry season. The water stratification tends then to disappear completely in the dry season. The study is based on the fact that water rele...

  9. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the Northeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonet, M; Bush, T J; Correa, A; Jaakkola, J J

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between term low birth weight (LBW) and ambient air levels of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter up to 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The study population consisted of singleton, term live births (37-44 weeks of gestation) born between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1996 in six northeastern cities of the United States: Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Springfield, Ma...

  10. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a natural experiment study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Nichols, Catherine; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunping; Liu, Xiaohong; Gao, Suhong; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM10), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM10 and NO2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods We estimated th...

  11. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformat...

  12. Effect of ambient air pressure on debris redeposition during laser ablation of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ambient air pressure on the redeposition of debris, ablated from the zinc borosilicate glass target using 6 ns, 266 nm laser pulses, has been studied for incident fluences of 3-18 J/cm2. Measurements were carried out in air at pressures ranging from 10-750 Torr. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope observations of the target surface were made to analyze the morphology of the redeposited debris. It was found that for higher values of the laser fluence and ambient pressure, the target surface is extremely rough, with large pieces of molten glass and debris fragments deposited near and around the ablation site. The profile of the redeposited debris also shows signs of a strong shock-wave-cleaning effect and possibly a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at higher pressures. Contrary to this, under low-pressure environment the surface of the redeposited debris is cleaner and smoother, with minimal damage around the ablated crater. The measured radius of the debris field was found to be proportional to the inverse cube root of the ambient pressure, consistent with the stagnation distance of the expansion plume when energy balance with the displaced air is considered. In addition to this, the mass of the redeposited debris was estimated from the measured optical thickness of the film and compared to the ablated mass. In the range below 100 Torr, both the mass of the redeposited debris and the percentage of the ablated mass which was redeposited were found to increase with the increasing fluence and the ambient air pressure

  13. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U....

  14. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The report deals with the EIMP (Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt). The programme is funded by Danida which is a cooperation project between Norway and Denmark. The programme covers the monitoring of air pollution, coastal water monitoring, and the monitoring of pollution sources and emissions. This report pays the attention to the Norwegian part of the programme executed by NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) which covers the development air quality monitoring network. 14 refs., 51 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    OpenAIRE

    SERAP AKDEMIR; SELCUK ARIN

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humi...

  16. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  17. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m2/K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  18. Monitoring southwest Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P; Prieto, Germán A

    2016-05-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth's crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  19. Bronchomotor response to cold air or helium-oxygen at normal and high ambient pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Y; Burnet, H; Cosson, P; Lucciano, M

    1988-05-01

    Effects of inhalation of cold air or helium-oxygen mixture on lung resistance (RL) were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized rabbits under normal ambient pressure and in human volunteers under normo- and hyperbaric conditions. In artificially ventilated rabbits, an increase in RL occurred when the tracheal temperature fell to 10 degrees C. This effect was more than double with helium breathing compared to air, despite a lower respiratory heat loss by convection (Hc) with helium. In 3 normal humans, inhalation of cold air (mouth temperature = 8 degrees C) at sea level had no effect on RL value. However, with a helium-nitrogen-oxygen mixture, a weak but significant increase in RL due to cold gas breathing was measured in 1 subject at 2 ATA and in 2 individuals at 3.5 ATA. The density of inhaled gas mixture (air or He-N2-O2) was near the same in the three circumstances (1, 2, and 3.5 ATA) but Hc value increased with helium. At 8 ATA a 30-55% increase in RL occurred in the 3 divers during inhalation of cold gas (Hc was multiplied by 6 compared to air at sea level) and at 25 ATA the cold-induced bronchospasm ranged between 38 and 95% (Hc multiplied by 27). Thus, in rabbits and humans helium breathing enhanced the cold-induced increase in RL at normal or elevated ambient pressure, and this effect was interpreted as resulting from different mechanisms in the two circumstances. PMID:3388628

  20. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  1. Coherent ambient infra-sound recorded by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present summary statistics of coherent infra-sound recorded by the IMS (International Monitoring System) network during 2005-2010, identified by systematic broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing. Our work represents a first attempt at statistically and systematically characterizing coherent ambient infra-sound recorded by the IMS. (authors)

  2. Looking back on 40 years of ambient radioactivity monitoring in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the history of ambient radioactivity monitoring in Switzerland, starting with the events that 40 years ago induced the government to take action. The development of sampling and measuring methods is reported as well as the underlying principles and concepts of the various measuring programmes and the relevant legal and technical requirements to be met by the methods applied. (orig./VHE)

  3. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  4. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM10. Methods: To examine the association between PM10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m−3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m−3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Average PM10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m−3 increase), and PM10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  5. Statement of work for the assessment of ambient environmental monitoring programs for the installations operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a review of the ambient environmental monitoring programs at the five Department of Energy installations for compliance and consistency with DOE and Energy Systems policies and strategies, DOE Orders, environmental laws and regulations, and the current best monitoring practices. The scope of the assessment shall include the ambient air, water, groundwater, biological, and radiological environmental monitoring performed near plant perimeter fences, in receiving streams, and at off-site locations. The scope of this task does not include assessing the on-site point source emission monitoring associated with specific stack sampling locations. It does not include specific National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) water monitoring and biological monitoring locations, nor does it include on-site groundwater monitoring locations. The scope of the assessment shall include the ambient air monitoring programs at each site and off-site; the surface water monitoring programs; and the off-site programs associated with the sampling of fish, wildlife, milk, groundwater, soil, vegetation, and stream sediments. Both radiological and nonradiological parameters should be reviewed and evaluated. The current monitoring locations should be evaluated to ensure that they are the appropriate locations to provide usable and defensible data. The current monitoring location to be evaluated at each site are shown in the tables included in this SOW. Also, the current parameters and sampling frequencies must be evaluated for adequacy. The tables outline the current ambient monitoring programs at each installation. 32 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  7. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  8. Tritium monitoring in air, optimization of a sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air humidity sampling method using dry silica gel and its application to tritium activity concentration monitoring in air humidity are described. The method was used to monitor tritium in the surroundings of Czech nuclear power plants. The problem of elimination of cross-contamination is discussed

  9. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.; Marsteen, L.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the third mission to Egypt and includes meetings and site visit reports. Air quality sites in Alexandria are described and comments are given to earlier selected sites in Cairo

  10. The association of ambient air pollution and physical inactivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10 and ozone (O3 exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging. Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. RESULTS: With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16-35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001. Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these

  11. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  12. Type of equipment in an air monitoring station; Equipement type d'une station de controle atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, F. [Cogema Marcoule, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1999-07-01

    This poster communication presents a general view of the station, the different materials used for the air and precipitations monitoring. The methods for gas measurements (tritium, krypton, iodine) are given. The collecting of dusts, dust and tritium mixed together, or rainwater and pluviometry are reviewed and the measurement of ambient radioactivity is made by beacon. (N.C.)

  13. Longterm monitoring of ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex radiation field at flight altitudes results mainly from the interaction of energetic charged particles with atmospheric molecules and atoms and consists of secondary neutrons, protons, gamma rays, electrons, positrons and muons. Due to the continuous interactions of primary and secondary particles within the atmosphere, the intensity of each component depends on the height. Since the Earth's magnetic field acts as rigidity filter for the charged primary particles, the flux of the primary particles into the atmosphere and the resulting intensity of secondary particles depend on the geomagnetic latitude being highest over the geomagnetic poles. The main primary component consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), mainly protons and alpha particles, whose flux is modulated in the heliosphere. Beside this slowly varying galactic component, solar energetic particle events may temporarily increase the intensity of this radiation field. In the frame of the Radiation Monitoring on Board Aircraft (RAMONA) collaboration, three NAVIgation and DOSimetry (NAVIDOS) systems were installed in 2008 and 2009 on board of three Lufthansa Airbus A340 aircraft. They have been maintained since then by the consortium. Two of the NAVIDOS units rely on the DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs), one is based on a LIULIN detector. This unique setup is ideally suited to investigate variations in the radiation field at different flight altitudes and geomagnetic positions and has been used to measure the radiation exposure during the recent extended solar minimum and thereafter. With increasing solar activity in 2010 the measured dose rates have been decreasing. Since these variations depend on the location of the aircraft, a detailed data analysis is required and presented.

  14. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  15. Portable tritium-in-air monitor (TIAM) for monitoring tritium activity during shutdown in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an overview of Portable Tritium in Air Monitor and usefulness of the system for health safety in Pressured Heavy Water Reactor based Nuclear Power Plants during Shutdown activity. Tritium in Air Monitor is meant for detection of Tritium activity in air in different accessible area and shutdown area inside the Reactor Building and also in atmospheric release. (author)

  16. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of active landslides and rock columns prone to failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Simon; Valentin, Johann; Larose, Eric; Jongmans, Denis; Baillet, Laurent; Bottelin, Pierre; Franz, Martin; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Ambient seismic noise can be used to monitor the integrity of unstable slopes and rock columns prone to failure. To that end, we record continuously seismic waveforms in the fields using 1D or 3D short period seismic sensors together with autonomous and telemetered data loggers that can be operated in severe environmental conditions. When monitoring landslides made of unconsolidated materials (such as clay), we propose to monitor the relative seismic velocity changes using the Coda Wave Interferometry technique operated on the coda of daily ambient seismic noise correlations (Passive Image Interferometry). When monitoring the rupture of a rock column, we propose to track the evolution of the polarization and natural frequencies of the first resonant modes of the structures. In both cases, experimental results suggest potential precursory signals some days before the failure. We also observe a clear dependence of the seismic properties of the soil and environmental conditions such as temperature and hydrology. Bibliography : G. Mainsant, E. Larose, C. Brönnimann, D. Jongmans, C. Michoud, M. Jaboyedoff : Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide : toward failure prediction, J. Geophys. Res. 117, F01030 (2012). P. Bottelin, C. Lévy, L. Baillet, D. Jongmans, P. Gueguen, Modal and thermal analysis of les arches unstable rock column (vercors massif, french alps), Geophys. J. Int. 194 (2013) 849-858.

  17. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) surveyed the current air monitoring and sampling practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate a large diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The differences among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

  19. Radiation contamination air monitoring basing on NATO normalization documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and actions connected with conducting of the air radiation monitoring have been described in the article. The staff and tasks of special military troops for air sampling as well as commonly used methods for air sampling have been presented and discussed

  20. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  1. User-Centric Indoor Air Quality Monitoring on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yifei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Li, Kun; University of Colorado, Boulder; Piedrahita, Ricardo; University of Colorado, Boulder; Yun, Xiang; University of Michigan; Tian, Lei; University of Colorado, Boulder; Mansata, Omkar M.; University of Michigan; Lv, Qin; University of Colorado, Boulder; Dick, Robert P.; University of Michigan; Hannigan, Michael; University of Colorado, Boulder; Shang, Li; University of Colorado, Boulder

    2013-01-01

    Since people spend a majority of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) can have a significant impact on human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. Due to the diversity and dynamics of people's indoor activities, it is important to monitor IAQ for each individual. Most existing air quality sensing systems are stationary or focus on outdoor air quality. In contrast, we propose MAQS, a user-centric mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. MAQS users carry portable, indoor location ...

  2. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  3. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  4. Polymer Electrolyte-Based Ambient Temperature Oxygen Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    An ambient temperature oxygen microsensor, based on a Nafion polymer electrolyte, has been developed and was microfabricated using thin-film technologies. A challenge in the operation of Nafion-based sensor systems is that the conductivity of Nafion film depends on the humidity in the film. Nafion film loses conductivity when the moisture content in the film is too low, which can affect sensor operation. The advancement here is the identification of a method to retain the operation of the Nafion films in lower humidity environments. Certain salts can hold water molecules in the Nafion film structure at room temperature. By mixing salts with the Nafion solution, water molecules can be homogeneously distributed in the Nafion film increasing the film s hydration to prevent Nafion film from being dried out in low-humidity environment. The presence of organics provides extra sites in the Nafion film to promote proton (H+) mobility and thus improving Nafion film conductivity and sensor performance. The fabrication of ambient temperature oxygen microsensors includes depositing basic electrodes using noble metals, and metal oxides layer on one of the electrode as a reference electrode. The use of noble metals for electrodes is due to their strong catalytic properties for oxygen reduction. A conducting polymer Nafion, doped with water-retaining components and extra sites facilitating proton movement, was used as the electrolyte material, making the design adequate for low humidity environment applications. The Nafion solution was coated on the electrodes and air-dried. The sensor operates at room temperature in potentiometric mode, which measures voltage differences between working and reference electrodes in different gases. Repeat able responses to 21-percent oxygen in nitrogen were achieved using nitrogen as a baseline gas. Detection of oxygen from 7 to 21 percent has also been demonstrated. The room-temperature oxygen micro sensor developed has extremely low power

  5. Monitoring Air Moisture with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Khélifa, N. -E.; Pinot, P.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of air density and the quantitative estimates of water vapour adsorbed or desorbed by the surface of mass standard, remain the principals sources of uncertainties when weighing mass standard made from stainless steel or super alloy. The classical method, for air density determination, use the so called CIPM-1981/91 formula and the measured air parameters. An other approach is based only on the results of comparisons, realized successively in air and in vacuum, between special ar...

  6. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  7. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  8. Monitoring air sparging using resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air sparging is a relatively new technique for the remediation of ground water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. In this technique, air is injected below the water table, beneath the contaminated soil. Remediation occurs by a combination of contaminant partitioning into the vapor phase and enhanced biodegradation. The air is usually removed by vacuum extraction in the vadose zone. The efficiency of remediation from air sparging is a function of the air flow pattern, although the distribution of the injected air is still poorly understood. Cross-borehole resistivity surveys were performed at a former service station in Florence, Oregon, to address this unknown. The resistivity measurements were made using six wells, one of which was the sparge well. Data were collected over a two-week period during and after several air injections, or sparge events. Resistivity images were calculated between wells using an algorithm that assumes axially symmetric structures. The movement of the injected air through time was defined by regions of large increases in resistivity, greater than 100 percent from the background. During early sparge times, air moved outward and upward from the injection point as it ascended to the unsaturated zone. At later sparge times, the air flow reached a somewhat stable cone-shaped pattern radiating out and up from the injection point. Two days after sparging was discontinued, a residue of entrained air remained in the saturated zone, as indicated by a zone of 60 to 80 percent water saturation

  9. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-01

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information. PMID:27505037

  10. Relationship between the Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Indoor and Ambient Air of the Tehran Children Hospital in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Soheila Rezaei; Kazem Naddafi; Hossain Jabbari; Masoud Yonesian; Arsalan Jamshidi; Abdolmohamad Sadat; Alireza Raygan Shirazinejad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In recent years exposure to fine airborne particles has been identified as an important factor affecting human health. Epidemiological studies have showed that the aerosol laden air can be an agent for microorganisms’ dispersion. Ignoring internal sources, ambient air quality significantly affects indoor air quality. Since people spend most of their times in the indoor spaces and little data are available on the general understanding of the indoor air quality, the...

  11. Particle-bound Dechlorane Plus and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in ambient air around Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study, atmospheric particles from Shanghai, the biggest city and the most important industrial base in China, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP). Concentrations of Σ20PBDEs and DP both exhibited the changing trend of industrial area > urban areas. Jiading District had the highest levels of particulate PBDEs and DP with values of 744 ± 152 pg/m3 and 5.48 ± 1.28 pg/m3, respectively. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PBDEs in Shanghai were at medium pollution level, while DP was at lower level, which reflected their different production and use in Shanghai. The results from multiple linear regression analysis suggested that deca-BDE mixture was the most important contributor of particulate PBDEs in Shanghai. The fractions of anti-DP showed no significant differences to those of the technical mixtures (p > 0.05), which suggested that no obviously stereoselective process occurred in ambient air around Shanghai. - Highlights: → Atmospheric PBDEs of Shanghai were at moderate levels and dominated by BDE-209. → Particulate DP was low even Shanghai is not far from the DP manufacturing factory. → DP showed no obviously stereoselective process in air particles from Shanghai. → Significant positive correlation was found between particulate PBDEs and PBDD/Fs. - The moderate PBDEs levels with deca-BDE being the most important contributor and low DP levels in ambient air around Shanghai reflected their different usage in this area.

  12. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  14. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq. atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected, with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254, similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH

  15. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  16. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  17. Stability of Monitoring Weak Changes in Multiply Scattering Media with Ambient Noise Correlation: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hadziioannou, Céline; Coutant, Olivier; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that small changes can be monitored in a scattering medium by observing phase shifts in the coda. Passive monitoring of weak changes through ambient noise correlation has already been applied to seismology, acoustics and engineering. Usually, this is done under the assumption that a properly reconstructed Green function as well as stable background noise sources are necessary. In order to further develop this monitoring technique, a laboratory experiment was performed in the 2.5MHz range in a gel with scattering inclusions, comparing an active (pulse-echo) form of monitoring to a passive (correlation) one. Present results show that temperature changes in the medium can be observed even if the Green function (GF) of the medium is not reconstructed. Moreover, this article establishes that the GF reconstruction in the correlations is not a necessary condition: the only condition to monitoring with correlation (passive experiment) is the relative stability of the background noise struc...

  18. Seasonal variation of 7Be and 3H in Korean ambient air and rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seasonal variation of the 7Be activities in air was monitored by a continuous sampling with a high volume air dust sampler. And also, 7Be and 3H activities in precipitation were determined. The activity level of 7Be in air was ranged from 1.94 to 47.2 Bq/m3. And 7Be in the precipitation was separated using cation exchange resin and the monthly average activity level was ranged from 0.29 to 4.77 Bq/L. 3H was analyzed using electrolytic enrichment method and activity ranged from 0.27 to 2.22 Bq/L. (author)

  19. Behavior and source characteristic of PCBS in urban ambient air of Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the behavior and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, gaseous and particulate phase concentrations were measured at Yokohama City, Japan, during March 2002 and February 2003. The concentration of total PCB and TEQ ranged from 62 to 250 pg/m3 and from 2 to 14 fgTEQ/m3, respectively. The gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) was obtained as a function of temperature. The relationship between the partition coefficient and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (P L) was also established (coefficients of determination for log K p versus log P L plot were >0.76, except for three samples). As a result, the partition ratio of gaseous and particulate phase PCBs can be estimated for an arbitrary temperature. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the source identification of PCBs in ambient air. The concentrations of 122 congeners between tetra-CBs and deca-CB were used as input variables, and three PCs with eigenvalue more than 10 were obtained. The principal component 1 (PC 1) accounted for 43.4% of the total variance, and was interpreted as volatilization from PCB products and/or sites polluted by PCBs. The concentrations of PCB congeners were strongly related with PC 1 which showed high correlation with temperature. PC 2 accounted for 22.3%, and was interpreted as PCBs from incineration sources, while PC 3 accounted for 10.8%, but could not be interpreted. - The relationship between the gas-particle partition coefficient (Kp) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure was estimated using gaseous and particle phase concentration in ambient air, and was estimated source apportionment of PCBs

  20. Tritium release from a nonevaportable getter-pump cartridge exposed to moist air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tritium released when a commercially available getter-pump cartridge was exposed to moist air at ambient temperatures was measured. The cartridge consisted of Zr-Al powder pressed onto an iron substrate, which is the type of cartridge proposed for use in the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor. While the initial release of tritium was rapid the total activity released was lss than 0.005% of the cartridge loading. Of this amount, at least 80% was released as tritiated water. 8 figures

  1. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor A Utsal; Dobryakov, Yuri G; Vitenberg, Alexander G; Makarova, Svetlana V; Anna Yu Eshchenko; Igor G Zenkevich

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) a...

  2. CRITERIOS PARA UNA AGENDA AMBIENTAL DE AREAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS COSTERAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marcela; López, María José; Testa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Las Áreas Protegidas costeras en la provincia de Buenos Aires tienen dificultades de gestión ambiental y requieren de un ordenamiento vinculado al desarrollo sostenible, donde se reconozcan los vínculos entre los derechos de propiedad, la participación y la acción colectiva en el manejo de los recursos del territorio. Por lo tanto, la institucionalidad del manejo de las reservas provinciales costeras se define en escenarios muy complejos de governanza. Las estrategias de governanza de las Áre...

  3. A simple and safe method for preparation of Mg(OH)2 nanorods in ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Shah; Al-Marzouki, F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 nanorods with diameters of 90±10nm and lengths of more than 2μms were prepared by a simple route at ~75oC in ambient air. The approach is based on reaction of magnesium powder and de-ionized water without the use of any harmful, toxic or corrosive reagents. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows single crystalline structure of Mg(OH)2 (brucite) whereas Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that nanorods are almost uniform in size. Since only water...

  4. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x (SCN) x perovskite films can be readily prepare...

  5. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register FEM Federal Equivalent Method FRM Federal Reference Method... lowering the emission threshold for source-oriented monitoring to 0.5 tpy. See 75 FR 81127 (Dec. 27, 2010... (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR part 49 (1999). That rule specifies...

  6. Comparitive study of ambient air quality status for big cities of Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the quality of air in Lahore and Faisalabad at selected sites. Total eight sampling stations were selected and all the sampling locations fall in different environmental backdrops such as residential, commercial, industrial and rural (control) areas. To study the quality of air, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and Sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were selected In the present study, it was found that the SPM NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ levels in all the sampling locations are within the permissible limits. However, the raising levels indicated at Residential cum Industrial area (shopping complex along with banks) followed by pure industrial area. The source of these pollutants is primarily transport sector and secondly industries. The ambient air quality reported to be low except 2Kl reported as medium. Sociological survey was conducted to determine the health hazards and the diseases related to air pollution. The results were alarming and found to be compatible with Punjab Public Health and Engineering Department (PPHE). There fore it is suggested that air quality management demands. (author)

  7. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cheng; Jie Yang; Dongjian Zheng; Bo Li; Jie Ren

    2015-01-01

    The ambient vibration testing (AVT) measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefo...

  8. Relationship between ambient air pollution and DNA damage in Polish mothers and newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized regions in Poland are characterized by high ambient pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal burning for industry and home heating. In experimental bioassays, certain PAHs are transplacental carcinogens and developmental toxicants. The amount of PAHs bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in maternal and umbilical white blood cells were measured in 70 mothers and newborns from Krakow, Poland. Modulation of adduct levels by genotypes previously linked to risk of lung cancer, specifically glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). There was a dose-related increase in maternal and newborn adduct levels with ambient pollution at the women's place of residence among subjects who were not employed away from home (p less than or equal to 0.05). Maternal smoking (active and passive) significantly increased maternal (p less than or equal to 0.01) but not newborn adduct levels. Results indicate that PAH-induced DNA damage in mothers and newborns is increased by ambient air pollution

  9. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  10. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap, E-mail: ravips@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  11. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAP AKDEMIR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humidity sensor are used in cooling systems to measure temperature and relative humidity. The umber of sensors are not enough to determine variability of temperature and relative humidity. There should be additional sensors located different places to give idea for cold storage.

  12. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C2 and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  14. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  15. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  16. Assessment and remediation of odor emissions from a complex industrial facility (Ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the findings of a review and presents examples of ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States. State and provincial odor regulations were reviewed and other metropolitan cities or counties (regions) that have separate odor regulations were also included. The key topics addressed in this paper include an assessment of the methods used for odor regulation and the methods used to evaluate the odor impact to determine compliance with the regulation. Three types of ambient air odor regulations were identified: 1. 28 States, Provinces and regions (jurisdictions) have specific odor regulations. These regulations generally define what constitutes an odor impact and typically provide requirements for remedial measures; 2. 25 jurisdictions regulate odors by a general prohibition regulation. These regulations define odor in ambient air as a condition of air pollution, nuisance or objectionable odor that would typically prevent persons from the enjoyment of life and property; and 3. 13 jurisdictions do not have specific or general prohibition regulations regarding odors. For the jurisdictions that have specific or general prohibition odor regulations, there are a number of different techniques used to define what constitutes an odor impact. Odor impacts are typically defined in a regulation by one (or more) of the following techniques: dilution to threshold, or odor unit limit; determination of odor emission rates; odor concentration limits for selected chemicals (ppm); comparison with the n-butanol intensity scale (1 to 8); and investigation by an agency investigator. Compliance with odor regulations is typically determined using one (or more) of the following field methods: odor stack testing and dispersion modelling; odor panel analysis of stack or ambient air samples; chemical monitoring (ppm); odor school certified / agency investigator; and scentometer. (author)

  17. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O2* species of unknown identity with ground state O2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  18. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  19. Measurements of Nitric-Oxide Nitrogen-Dioxide and Nitric Acid in Ambient and Captive Air by Second Harmonic Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshio

    A Tropospheric Air Monitoring System (TAMS) was designed and constructed to measure trace gases in ambient air. The second harmonic component of the modulated light from a tunable diode laser due to an absorption line was measured to determine the mixing ratio of a trace gas in the sample. The technique of second harmonic detection increased the signal-to-noise ratio so that a species with mixing ratios in the sub-ppbv range could be detected. Second harmonic signals of an absorption line was calculated at different pressures (line shapes) and different modulation amplitudes to understand the optimum conditions for trace gas measurements. Also examined were the properties of the second harmonic signals due to etalon fringes, wavelength dependence of the laser power, tails of other absorption lines and interferences by these factors. The reduction of random noise by second harmonic detection was also investigated. The TAMS was intercalibrated with a chemiluminescence instrument of the University of Michigan. The system was transported to Los Angeles in fall of 1981 to join a captive air measurement programme. Both the captive and ambient air in Los Angeles was monitored for a one month period. The agreement with the University of Michigan was excellent for NO and satisfactory for NO(,2) and HNO(,3). The results of the intercalibrations and measurements are described.

  20. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  1. Lead concentration in the blood of children and its association with lead in soil and ambient air--trends between 1983 and 2000 in Duisburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranft, Ulrich; Delschen, Thomas; Machtolf, Monika; Sugiri, Dorothee; Wilhelm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Children are known to be at greater risk of exposure to lead (Pb). As Pb levels in ambient air have decreased during the last decades, the relative contribution of soil ingestion to ambient Pb exposure has increased. Using data from five cross-sectional studies conducted during 1983 to 2000 in the industrial city of Duisburg and comprising 843 children, 6-11 yr old, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Pb in soil to Pb blood levels of children in comparison to the contribution of Pb in air. Based on measurements of soil samples, the spatial distribution of Pb in soil (0-10 cm depth) was estimated for the study area. Pb exposure in ambient air was calculated using routinely monitored air quality data and Lagrange dispersion modeling. Individual exposure data were assigned using geo-coded home addresses. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate adjusted association measures. Median (95th percentile) level of Pb in soil was 206 (877) mg/kg. A simultaneous decrease in air Pb and blood Pb was observed (air: from 0.47 (0.47) to 0.03 (0.16) microg/m(3); blood: from 86 (163) to 31 (68) microg/L). Significant associations between Pb in blood and Pb in the two exposure media were found. An increase of 0.44 microg/m(3) Pb in air led to an rise in blood Pb by 155%, whereas blood Pb changed by about 63% if Pb in soil increased by 800 mg/kg. The results of the study were used for a local risk assessment and the definition of action values for Pb in soil. PMID:18569568

  2. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  3. Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Libraries and Archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřil, M.; Ďurovič, M.; Straka, R.; Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila

    Prague: -, 2014, s. 32. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments /11./. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2014-16.04.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : corrosion * classification * monitoring Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  6. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  7. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  8. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as asorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured. Thesample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up ehition through a silica gelcolumn was optimized. The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows: resinweight was 1.5 g, ultrasonic extraction time 20 min, volume of extraction solvent 100 mi andextraction operation times 2~3. The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to nextstep of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and amixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3 (v/v). The PAHs fractions in the real samplesfrom Changzhou, China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of massspectra, retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of thestandards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as "priority pollutants" of the environment. Theanalysis of the real samples indicates that the carbonized fibrous resin is a good sorbent. Thepretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for P,AHs isproved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs inatmospheric environment.

  9. Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

  10. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-11-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  11. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  12. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  13. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  14. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  15. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  16. Management Aspects of Implementing the New Effluent Air Monitoring Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision to ANSI/HPS N13.1,'Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities,' went into effect in January 1999 - replacing the 1969 version of the standard. There are several significant changes from the old version of the standard. The revised standard provides a new paradigm where representative air samples can be collected by extracting the sample from a single point in air streams where the contaminants are well mixed. The revised standard provides specific performance criteria and requirements for the various air sampling processes - program structure, sample extraction, transport, collection, effluent and sample flow measurement, and quality assurance. A graded approach to sampling is recommended with more stringent requirements for stacks with a greater potential to emit. These significant changes in the standard will impact the air monitoring programs at some sites and facilities. The impacts on the air monitor design, operation, maintenance, and quality control processes are discussed.

  17. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  18. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  19. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  20. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 4 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1997-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the fourth mission to Egypt, including planning of the second phase meetings and site visits. Additional air quality sites in Cairo have been described. A project group meeting and a visit to Egypt Meteorological Service have been reported

  1. Optical Monitor for Major Air Constituents Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The well-being of the crew on manned missions depends critical on the composition of the habitat air. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are the most important...

  2. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Ithnin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer, Aeroqual, MultiRAE, ICP-MS, NMAM 7303 and gravimetric method. Gilian High Volume Air Sampler was used to measure heavy metal parameters that were conducted for 8 h, Personal Sampling Pump to measure total suspended particulates for 8 h, MultiRAE for H2S and CH4 gas, Aeroqual for CO2 gas, Multilog for CO gas and a Tedlar bag for O2 gas. For biological parameters, settle plate method was used and conducted for 20 min. Veloci CALC and wind probe were used to measure physical parameters. Results: In the ambient air, the mean concentration of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP, lead and cadmium were higher at an exposed location compared to the control with a reading of 0.325±0.29, 0.108±0.050 and 0.06±0.045 ng m-3 respectively. The reason was that the exposed location was a former landfill site and there were several co-founding factors. Mean concentration for chemical parameters were higher at the exposed location and all the chemical parameters were not exceeding the EPA Protocol Gas for Single Component. The mean concentration of oxygen is 20.95±0.005%, carbon dioxide 669.25±84.109 ppm and carbon monoxide 1.8±0.957 ppm. For biological parameters, mean for the colony total count also higher at the exposed location compared to control location where the mean for bacterial was 17.75±4.573cfu while for fungal, the mean is 8.0±2.828 cfu. Indoor air quality results showed that concentration means of CO2 was 877.8±59.40 ppm, CO was 5.0

  3. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  4. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  5. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  6. Forty years increase of the air ambient temperature in Greece: The impact on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Forty years hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece are analysed. • The air temperature increase influences the buildings’ energy demand. • A typical office building’s energy demand is examined. • The heating load is decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade. • The cooling load is increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. - Abstract: Air temperatures in urban areas continue to increase because of the heat island phenomenon (UHI) and the undeniable warming of the lower atmosphere during the past few decades. The observed high ambient air temperatures intensify the energy demand in cities, deteriorate urban comfort conditions, endanger the vulnerable population and amplify pollution problems especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. The present paper analyses 40 years of hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece in order to understand the impact of air temperature and relative humidity trends on the energy consumption of buildings. Using a typical office building, the analysis showed that for the period in question the heating load in the Greek building sector has decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade, while the cooling load increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. This phenomenon has major environmental, economic and social consequences, which will be amplified in the upcoming decades in view of the expected man-made climatic changes in this geographic area

  7. Spatial modeling for air pollution monitoring network design: example of residential woodsmoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Larson, Timothy; Baribeau, Anne-Marie; Brauer, Michael; Rensing, Michael; Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to develop an air pollution monitoring network to characterize small-area spatial contrasts in ambient air pollution concentrations. Using residential woodburning emissions as our case study, this paper reports on the first three stages of a four-stage protocol to measure, estimate, and validate ambient residential woodsmoke emissions in Vancouver, British Columbia. The first step is to develop an initial winter nighttime woodsmoke emissions surface using inverse-distance weighting of emissions information from consumer woodburning surveys and property assessment data. Second, fireplace density and a compound topographic index based on hydrological flow regimes are used to enhance the emissions surface. Third, the spatial variation of the surface is used in a location-allocation algorithm to design a network of samplers for the woodsmoke tracer compound levoglucosan and fine particulate matter. Measurements at these network sites are then used in the fourth stage of the protocol (not presented here): a mobile sampling campaign aimed at developing a high-resolution surface of woodsmoke concentrations for exposure assignment in health effects studies. Overall the results show that relatively simple data inputs and spatial analysis can be effective in capturing the spatial variability of ambient air pollution emissions and concentrations. PMID:17824279

  8. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O3 and PM2.5. However, SO2 and NO2 showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO2 was observed, but there was no change in O3 and NO2. The decreasing trends observed with SO2 at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends

  9. Monitoring tritium in air containing other radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey is presented of methods that have been developed for active tritium monitoring that may be applied to measure tritium concentrations in air containing 13N, 16N, and 41Ar produced by D-T neutrons. Included are instruments that employ current subtraction to achieve discriminations and others that selectively remove atmospheric water vapor from stream of activated air

  10. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  11. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pol...

  12. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Mônica V. MARQUEZINI; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Ubiratan P Santos; Alfésio L F Braga; Alves, Milton R.; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, ...

  13. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yang; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009∼201...

  14. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  15. Development of a thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of haloanisoles and halophenols in wineries' ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ruiz-García, J; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2013-08-30

    An analytical method for the detection and quantification of haloanisoles and their corresponding halophenols in wineries' ambient air was developed. The target analytes were haloanisoles and halophenols, reported by previous scientific literature as responsible for wine taint. A calibrated pump and active tubes filled with Tenax GR™ were used for sampling. These tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The adsorption efficiencies of five commercial sampling tubes filled with different materials were evaluated. The efficiencies of the selected adsorbent were close to 100% for all sampled compounds. Desorption, chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions were accurately optimized allowing very low limits of quantification and wide linear ranges. The limits of quantification in ambient air ranged from 0.8pgtube(-1) for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, to 28pgtube(-1) for pentachlorophenol. These results are of great importance because human sensory threshold for haloanisoles is very low. The chromatographic method was also validated and the instrumental precision and trueness were established, a maximum RSD of 9% and a mean recovery of 91-106% were obtained. The proposed method involves an easy and sensitive technique for the early detection of haloanisoles and their precursor halophenols in ambient air avoiding contamination of wine or winery facilities. PMID:23891369

  16. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  17. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  18. The monitoring and fatigue behavior of CFCCs at ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallographically polished flexure bars of Nicalon/SiC and Nicalon/alumina composites were subjected to monotonic and cycle-fatigue loadings, with loading either parallel or normal to the fabric plies. The fabric orientation did not significantly affect the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/SiC composite at ambient temperature. However, the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/alumina composite was significantly affected by the fabric orientation at ambient temperature in air and at 1000 degrees C in argon atmosphere. In addition, there was a significant degradation in the fatigue performance of the alumina matrix composite at the elevated temperature, owing to creep in the material and degradation in the fiber strength

  19. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find evidence of a positive association between ambient air pollution and asthma prevalence as measured at the community level.

  20. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  1. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  2. BLUME - the Berlin air pollution monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the BLUME air pollution chracteristics obtained in winter 1987/88. Figures and tables summarize and compare the measuring results obtained for sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone. Air pollution in winter 1987/88 was not as critical as in the previous years. The 1987/88 mean sulfur dioxide concentrations were found to be the lowest values determined since BLUME measurements started in 1975, and the mean values obtained for airborne particles and for most of the remaining pollutants were lower than in the previous year. The causes of these relatively low pollutant concentrations are discussed. (orig./BBR)

  3. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure: a Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Russell S; Suh Helen H; Coull Brent A; Yeh Gloria Y; Wellenius Gregory A; Mittleman Murray A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollut...

  4. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Richard; N. Bukowiecki; Lienemann, P.; Furger, M.; Weideli, B.; Fierz, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Figi, R.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Prévôt, A. S H; U. Baltensperger

    2010-01-01

    Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in a...

  5. Fiber-optic based instrumentation for water and air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper real-time in-situ water and air monitoring capabilities based on fiber-optic sensing technology are described. This relatively new technology combines advances in fiber optic and optoelectronics with chemical spectorscopic techniques to enable field environmental monitoring of sub ppm quantities of specific pollutants. The advantages of this technology over conventional sampling methods are outlined. As it is the more developed area the emphasis is on water quality monitoring rather than air. Examples of commercially available, soon-to be available and laboratory systems are presented. One such example is a system used to detect hydrocarbon spills and leaking of underground hydrocarbon storage tanks

  6. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  7. 4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (Italy) by ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.

  8. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a...... transect on heathland close to a pig farm. Monthly mean ammonia concentrations declined exponentially approaching background levels after 300 m. Nitrogen content of the lichen transplants tended to decline with distance, though only a few stations were significantly different from each other. Where ammonia...

  9. Estimating domestic wood burning emissions in Nordic countries using ambient air observations, receptor and dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Karl, M.; Laupsa, H.; Johansson, C.; Pohjola, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 in Nordic countries during winter is wood burning from domestic heating. In Norway alone it is estimated that 80% of PM2.5 is emitted through this source. Though direct measurements of wood burning emissions are possible under controlled conditions, emission inventories for domestic heating are difficult to calculate. Emissions vary from stove to stove as well as wood type, wood condition and burning habits. The consumption rate of wood burning is also strongly dependent on meteorological as well as societal conditions. As a result the uncertainty in wood burning emission inventories used in dispersion modelling is considered to be quite high. As an alternative method for estimating the emissions resulting from wood burning for domestic heating this paper combines ambient air measurements, chemical analysis of filter samples, receptor models, dispersion models, and simple inverse modelling methods to infer emission strengths. The methodology is applied in three Nordic cities, notably Oslo (Norway), Helsinki (Finland) and Lycksele (Sweden). In these cities daily filter samples over several months have been collected. The filter samples have been chemically analysed for a range of elemental and specific markers including OC/EC and Levoglucosan. The chemical analysis has been used as input for a range of receptor models, including UNMIX, PMF, PMF-2 and COPREM. From these calculations the source contributions at the measurement sites, with particular emphasis on wood burning, have been estimated. Though the receptor models have a common basis their application method varies, and as a result the number of identifiable sources and their contributions may differ. For the application here the contribution of wood burning was not found to vary significantly, irrespective of the model or user. It was also found that Levoglucosan as a wood burning tracer was essential for the identification of the wood burning sources. Source

  10. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  11. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  12. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  13. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna M T de Rooij

    Full Text Available One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East, in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%. Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76. We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

  14. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%). Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31–2.76). We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak. PMID:26991094

  15. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM10, PM2.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM10/PM2.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  16. The use of ambient air quality modeling to estimate individual and population exposure for human health research: a case study of ozone in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L

    2006-07-01

    Ambient monitors are commonly used to estimate exposure for epidemiological studies, and air quality modeling is infrequently applied. However air quality modeling systems have the potential to alleviate some, although not all, of the limitations of monitoring networks. To investigate this application, exposure estimates were generated for a case study high ozone episode in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States based on measurements and concentration estimates from an air quality modeling system. Hourly estimates for 2268 4-km by 4-km gridcells were generated in a domain that includes only eight ozone monitors. Individual and population-based ozone exposures were estimated using multiple approaches, including area-weighted average of modeled estimates, nearest monitor, and spatial interpolation by inverse distance weighting and kriging. Results based on concentration fields from the air quality modeling system revealed spatial heterogeneity that was obscured by approaches based on the monitoring network. With some techniques, such as spatial interpolation, monitoring data alone was insufficient to estimate exposure for certain areas, especially for rural populations. For locations far from ozone monitors, the estimates from the nearest monitor approach tended to overestimate exposure, compared to modeled estimates. Counties in which one or more monitors were present had statistically higher population density and modeled ozone estimates than did counties without monitors (p-value <0.05). This work demonstrates the use of air quality modeling to generate higher spatial and temporal resolution exposure estimates, and compares the advantages of this approach to traditional methods that use monitoring data alone. The air quality modeling method faces its own limitations, such as the need to thoroughly evaluate concentration estimates and the use of ambient levels rather than personal exposure. PMID:16516968

  17. Atmospheric pressure diffuse plasma in ambient air for ITO surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of atmospheric filament-free diffuse plasma in ambient air and oxygen by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) on surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) were studied. The DCSBD plasma treatment resulted in significant reduction of water contact angles (even for 1 s long treatment). The decrease can be explained by the chemical changes on surface. These were studied by XPS which shows considerable decrease in the carbon surface concentration. The detailed analysis of C1s peak indicates the increase of the highest binding energy component of the C1s peak that corresponds to polar bonds with oxygen, which may be also related to decrease of water contact angle. AFM measurement showed no significant effect of plasma on ITO surface morphology.

  18. Ambient air quality during wheat and rice crop stubble burning episodes in Patiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Susheel K.; Singh, Nirankar; Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Open crop stubble burning events were observed in and around Patiala city, India. A ground level study was deliberated to analyze the contribution of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and rice ( Oriza sativa) crop stubble burning practices on concentration levels of aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 in ambient air at five different sites in and around Patiala city covering agricultural, commercial and residential areas. Aerosols were collected on GMF/A and QMF/A (Whatman) sheets for a 24 h period throughout the year in 2007. Simultaneously, sampling of SO 2 and NO 2 was conducted and results obtained during stubble burning periods were compared to the non-stubble burning periods. Results clearly pointed out a distinct increase in aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 levels during the crop stubble burning periods.

  19. Characterization of the finest and coarse airborne particulate matter in Kuala Lumpur's ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will report the mass concentration of the finest (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) airborne particles in ambient air of Kuala Lumpur area collected using GENT Stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling site (Lat: 03deg 10' 30'' Long: 101deg 43' 24.2'') is about 1 km from Kuala Lumpur City Center. Elemental concentration in the samples collected once every month throughout the year 2002 has been analyzed using the currently available NAA facilities at MINT. Elements determined in the study include Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, NA, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Quality control material used to control the quality of the analytical procedures was NBS 1633a. (author)

  20. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  1. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marius DEACONU; Cretu, Mihaiella

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a v...

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  3. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using vertical Bridgman method in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K.; Ohba, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Miyagawa, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to β-Ga2O3 single crystal growth was studied, using the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in ambient air, while measuring the β-Ga2O3 melting temperature and investigating the effects of crucible composition and shape. β-Ga2O3 single crystals 25 mm in diameter were grown in platinum-rhodium alloy crucibles in ambient air, with no adhesion of the crystals to the crucible wall. Single crystal growth without a crystal seed was realized by (100) faceted growth with a growth direction perpendicular to the (100) faceted plane.

  5. Un monitor de estado de servidores en un ambiente TCP/IP

    OpenAIRE

    Persico, Andrea; Flores, Sonia; Printista, Alicia Marcela

    2003-01-01

    La perfomance de las redes de computadoras se presenta como un tópico atractivo, cuyo análisis es una tarea de gran interés en la actualidad. En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de un monitor de estado de servidores en una red de computadoras, trabajando en un ambiente TCP/IP con el objetivo de obtener información la cual describe la condición en que se encuentran los servidores a través de distintas métricas tales como memoria disponible, utilización de CPU, balance de carga, etc.

  6. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode and/or with gas amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and cetera. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification. . To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of 1. The second type alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10E4). A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as comparison with the commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible ap...

  7. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  8. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure for 7 days, using a passive sampler. Impression cytology samples were obtained from inferior tarsal conjunctiva. Comparisons between the two groups in terms of NO2 exposure and goblet-cell counts were performed using the Student t-test. Correlations between goblet-cells counts and corresponding individual NO2 exposure levels were determined using Spearman’s correlation. Results Individuals living in São Paulo received a significantly (p = 0.005) higher dose of NO2 (mean 32.47; SD 9.83) than those living in Divinolândia (mean 19.33; SD 5.24). There was a steady increase in goblet-cell counts, proportional to NO2 exposure (Spearman’s correlation = 0.566, p = 0.001), with a dose–response pattern. Conclusions A positive and significant association between exposure to air pollution and goblet-cell hyperplasia in human conjunctiva was detected. The combination of simple measurements of exposure and impression cytology was an effective and noninvasive approach for characterizing human response to ambient levels of air pollution. PMID:18087595

  9. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 2. Air genotoxic potency screening assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of passive air sampling to be employed in the evaluation of direct genotoxicity of ambient air samples was assessed. Genotoxic effects of the total extracts from the polyurethane foam filters exposed for 28 days during a regional passive air sampling campaign were investigated. Twenty sampling sites were selected in Brno city on the area of approximately 20 x 20 km in October and November 2004. Brno is the second largest city of the Czech Republic, highly industrialized with approximately 370,000 of permanent inhabitants. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were determined in all samples. Fraction of each extract was also assayed in the bacterial genotoxicity test using Escherichia coli sulA::lacZ. Complete dose-response relationships of the air extracts were determined. The statistical analysis showed significant correlation between observed biological effects and PAHs concentrations in samples. - Extracts from passive air samples can be used to assess genotoxic potency

  10. Sources of PM(10) and PM (2.5) in Cairo's ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2007-10-01

    A source attribution study was performed to assess the contributions of specific pollutant source types to the observed particulate matter (PM) levels in the greater Cairo Area using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Three intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 21-March 3, 1999, October 27-November 27, 1999, and June 8-June 26, 2002. PM(10), PM(2.5), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. Major contributors to PM(10) included geological material, mobile source emissions, and open burning. PM(2.5) tended to be dominated by mobile source emissions, open burning, and secondary species. This paper presents the results of the PM(10) and PM(2.5), source contribution estimates. PMID:17268919

  11. Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salem, S. M.; Khan, A R

    2008-01-01

    Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3), NO, NOx, SO2, CO, H2S and NH3) of two Kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, Fahaheel and Al-Riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1) the exceedances of the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA) air quality limits, (2) primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3) diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4) the "weekend effect"on O3 levels. High O3 levels, above the threshold lim...

  12. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  13. Effects of ambient vibrations on heritage buildings: overview and wireless dynamic monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing awareness of the negative effects due to ambient vibrations caused by transportations infrastructures in Historical centres is attributable to the high vulnerability of heritage buildings as a consequence of deterioration phenomena and damages that reduced the structural capacity of such valuable constructions over the past centuries. As the mobility demand increases, several cities hosting heritage buildings are subjected to raising traffic loadings, so that constructions of new infrastructures is often required. Hence, assessing the effects of short-term vibrations due to construction activities or the consequences of the long-term vibrations caused by traffic is very important for the preservation of cultural heritage. An operative approach for evaluating the effects of ambient vibrations based on experimental measurements is a useful tool when a new infrastructure is being built, and can support strategic decisions for the elaboration of transportation plans at the urban level. Therefore, an overview is here presented of existing studies, guidelines and codes that provide pertinent information on this topic. Of special importance is the analysis of existing proposed thresholds, i.e. limit values that, if compiled with, damage due to ambient vibrations is not likely to occur. On the basis of such overview, the selection of threshold values for the Flavian Amphitheater is discussed, along with current efforts towards a wireless dynamic monitoring of its dynamic response.

  14. Fatigue monitoring and analysis of orthotropic steel deck considering traffic volume and ambient temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; YongSheng; DING; YouLiang

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue has gradually become a serious issue for orthotropic steel deck used for long-span bridges. Two fatigue effects, namely number of stress cycles and equivalent stress amplitude, were introduced as investigated parameters in this paper. Investigation was focused on their relationships with traffic volume and ambient temperature by using 7-months fatigue monitoring data of an actual bridge. A fatigue analytical model considering temperature-induced changes in material property of asphalt pavement was established for verifying these relationships. The analysis results revealed that the number of stress cycles and equivalent stress amplitude showed a linear correlation with the traffic volume and ambient temperature, respectively, and that the rib-to-deck welded joint was much more sensitive to the traffic volume and ambient temperature than the rib-to-rib welded joint. The applicability of the code-recommended model for fatigue vehicle loading was also discussed, which revealed that the deterministic vehicle loading model requires improvement to account for significant randomness of the actual traffic conditions.

  15. Summary Day 1: Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Querol, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Presentación resumen de las ponencias del primer día de las Second AirMonTech Workshop, Current and Future Air Quality Monitoring. Estas jornadas tuvieron lugar en Barcelona del 25 al 26 de abril de 2012.

  16. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing. PMID:26398125

  17. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  18. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioindication using epiphytic lichens has developed rapidly in the last decades. Both mapping of lichen vegetation and multielement analysis of Hypogymnia physodes collected on a national scale were used. A simple method based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species was performed in 1991 and 1995 and the so-called Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated, providing a picture of the general air quality in the country. However, by analysis of lichen material using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis detailed information about its composition and levels of pollutants was obtained. In the present work an attempt to combine the IAP results with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements together with available results for SO2 in the atmosphere using multivariate statistical methods is presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Acute Respiratory Inflammation in Children and Black Carbon in Ambient Air before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiwei; Huang, Wei; ZHU, TONG; Hu, Min; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhang, Yuanhang; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Hong; Gehring, Ulrike; Li, Chengcai; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for a causative association between black carbon (BC) and health outcomes is limited. Objectives: We estimated associations and exposure–response relationships between acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren and concentrations of BC and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in ambient air before and during the air pollution intervention for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Methods: We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as an...

  20. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  1. Evaluation of methods for monitoring air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Janoszka; Agata Wziątek; Gromiec, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of different branches of industry and a growing fossil fuels mining results in a considerable emission of by-products. Major air pollutants are: CO, CO₂, SO₂, SO₃, H₂S, nitrogen oxides, as well as compounds of an organic origin. The main aspects of this paper is to review and evaluate methods used for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in the air. Different instrumental techniques were discussed, electrochemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric (wet and dry), to select the ...

  2. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Erik T; Dulay, Maria T; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-21

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  3. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  4. Impact of Emissions from Power Stations on the Ambient Air Quality of Selected Urban Areas in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader N.A. Azmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kuwait, two main power stations, one comprising of seven-300MW steam generators at Doha and other with eight-300MW steam generators at Subyia cover the major power requirement of Kuwait city. These stations used different types of fuel oil as the prime source of energy that has different sulpher contents (S%. Comprehensive emission inventories for year the 2001 were used to execute Source Complex model for Short-term Dispersion (ISCST4.5 to predict ambient ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx at selected receptors. A yearlong meteorological data were used in conjunction with the dispersion model to compute SO2 and NOx levels in and around the power stations. For validation of the model, computed results were compared with the measured daily average values at a fixed Kuwait EPA air quality monitoring station located at the roof of polyclinic in Rabia residential area. Contributions of each power station to the highest predicted values were assessed. Significance of the fifty highest hourly, daily and annual ground level concentration values under existing meteorological conditions was analyzed. The results for year 2001 revealed that daily and annual mean predicted SO2 concentrations had exceedance about 5.7% and 0.16% respectively of the total area under investigation. Based on these results, mitigation strategies would be proposed to abate high pollution levels caused by these power stations.

  5. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  6. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  7. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... available for public comment (76 FR 20347). The final IRP announced today has been prepared after... was issued on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8934). Dated: December 5, 2011. Mary E. Henigin, Acting... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  8. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

  9. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  10. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...The EPA is announcing an extension of the public comment period for a draft assessment document titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010). The comment period was originally scheduled to end on April 29, 2010. The extended comment period......

  11. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 1-hour primary and secondary....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  12. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume. (low temperature plasma)

  13. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  14. Evaluation of two passive samplers for the analysis of organophosphate esters in the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Lin, Yongfeng; Liu, Runzeng; Hu, Fanbao; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-15

    Both polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) passive air sampling (PAS) methods were deployed and compared separately for the analysis of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in outdoor atmospheric environment. During an continuous period of 84 days, parallel samples were also collected by a high-volume active air sampler (HV-AAS) to assess the contamination levels and to calibrate uptake parameters of PAS. The total concentration of OPEs in both particulate and gaseous phases ranged from 1.50 to 5.64ng m(-3) in ambient air. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the dominating analog, representing 78±9% of total OPE concentration. SIP-PAS showed longer linear-phase sampling period for TCPP, and accumulated more amount of the most volatile triethyl phosphate (TEP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) homologues, while similar sorption performances of both PAS methods were found for most of the semi-volatile OPEs. Linear sampling rates in PUF-PAS and SIP-PAS disks were calculated for individual OPEs except for TEP and TBP, and the average uptake rates (3.3±1.1 and 3.5±1.7m(3)d(-1), respectively) were close to the acknowledged value (4m(-3)d(-1)) for persistent organic pollutants. Besides, isotopic labeled D15-Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) could be used as a viable depuration compound to calculate site-specific sampling rates of OPEs, with a linear loss of up to ∼60% at the end of deployment time. PMID:26592578

  15. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  16. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring...

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  18. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  19. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of adults: findings from a cross-sectional study in Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Uddhao Gawande; Abhijit Khanvilkar; Suhas Kadam; Gurudatt Potdar, Hrushikesh Salvitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor air pollution and continuous exposure to ambient air pollutants like particulate matter are among the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes all over the world. This association between air pollution and the impairment of respiratory functions is evident from number of epidemiological studies specific study has been conducted with an objective to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases of adults, in Chandrapur...

  20. Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 (133Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of 133Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to 133Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations

  1. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A Utsal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10 at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter – 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol. In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxybenzoic acid (depside. However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO should be reconsidered as preferably an oxidative decarboxylation with formation of carbon dioxide, CO2. Direct head-space analysis of the gaseous components formed during quercetin oxidation in aqueous solution at ambient temperature indicates that the ratio of carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide in the gas phase after acidification of the reaction media is ca. 96:4 %. Oxidation under these mild conditions is typical for other flavonols having OH groups at C3 (e.g., kaempferol, but it is completely suppressed if this hydroxyl group is substituted by a glycoside fragment (as in rutin, or a methyl substituent. An alternative oxidation mechanism involving the direct cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in the diketo-tautomer of quercetin is proposed.

  2. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  3. Autonomous remote gas sensor network platforms with applications in landfill, wastewater and ambient air quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Eoghan; Nardi Pinto, Camila; Collins, Fiachra; Fay, Cormac; Fregonezi Paludetti, Lizandra; Zanoni Nubiato, Keni; Xavier Costa, Ernane; Morgado, Marcelo; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are produced by anaerobes on decaying matter. This gas production is present in landfill sites and in anaerobic lagoons in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Monitoring gas production is important as CO2 can collect in low lying areas and asphyxiates, CH4 is flammable in the 5%-15% v/v gas/air region. Both CO2 and CH4 are greenhouse gases, CH4 having 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. At landfill site perimeters, CO2 and CH4 must not exceed ...

  4. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient vibration testing (AVT measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefore, in this paper, the health monitoring method of concrete dams based on the AVT is studied. The kernel principle analysis (KPCA based method is adopted to eliminate the effect of environmental variables and monitor the health of dam under varying environments. By taking full advantage of the AVT data obtained from vibration observation system of dam, the identification capabilities and the warning capabilities of structural damage can be improved. With the simulated AVT data of the numerical model of a concrete gravity dam and the measured AVT data of a practical engineering, the performance of the dam health monitoring method proposed in this paper is verified.

  5. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  6. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  7. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne 239Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of 239Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne 239Pu are described

  8. Iatrogenic Complications in Five Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Ambient Air: Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N. Manser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing use of carbon dioxide for endoscopies during the last years, ambient air is still used. The amount of air depends on several factors such as examination time, presumable diameter of the endoscope channel and of course active use of air by the operator. Although endoscopic complications due to ambient air in the gastrointestinal (GI tract are a rare observation and mostly described in the colon, we report five cases in the upper GI tract due to insufflating large amounts of air through the endoscopes. All 5 patients needed an emergency upper endoscopy for acute presumed upper GI bleeding. In two cases both esophageal variceal bleeding and ulcer bleeding were detected; the fifth case presented with a bleeding due to gastric cancer. Due to insufflation of inadequate amounts of air through the endoscope channel, all patients deteriorated in circulation and ventilation. Two rumenocenteses and consecutively three laparotomies had to be performed in three patients. In the other two, gastroscopies had to be stopped for an emergency computed tomography. All critical incidents were believed to be a consequence of a long-lasting examination with use of too much air. Therefore in emergency situations, endoscopies should be performed with either submersion, low air flow pumps or even better by the use of carbon dioxide.

  9. Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they

  10. Potential of ambient noise techniques to monitor reservoir dynamics at the St. Gallen geothermal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, A.; Larose, E. F.; Wiemer, S.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade two large geothermal energy projects were launched in Switzerland (Basel 2006, St Gallen 2013). Both of them were stopped after the occurrence of strongly felt earthquakes (Ml3.4 and 3.5, respectively). This illustrates that one of the key challenges for the use of deep geothermal energy remains to control the risk of inducing felt and potentially hazardous seismic events during the development and operation of an underground heat exchangers. Current monitoring techniques of induced seismicity, e.g. traffic light systems, attempt to forecast seismic hazard during and after stimulation based on observed seismicity and hydraulic data. A limitation of these techniques is their focus on seismic processes. We demonstrate the potential of ambient seismic noise correlation techniques to monitor aseismic reservoir dynamics related to the 2013 geothermal project in St. Gallen. In St. Gallen, reservoir characterization tests lead to an unexpected leakage of methane gas into the well. Well-head pressure rose rapidly and operators decided to prevent a possible well blow-out with counter-pressure. The result was an immediate increase of induced seismicity with a maximum event of Ml3.5. While the reservoir characterization was not accompanied by any significant induced seismicity that could have given an indication for the ongoing processes in the reservoir, ambient noise cross-correlations reveal a significant aseismic perturbation in the system that can be clearly linked to the stimulation tests. These additional constraints may help to better understand reservoir dynamics. We also discuss the future role of noise correlation based techniques for monitoring/mitigation purposes.

  11. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  12. Performance of wire-type Rn detectors operated with gas gain in ambient air in view of its possible application to early earthquake predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    We describe a detector of alpha particles based on wire type counters (single-wire and multiwire) operating in ambient air at high gas gains (100-1000). The main advantages of these detectors are: low cost, robustness and ability to operate in humid air. The minimum detectable activity achieved with the multiwire detector for an integration time of 1 min is 140 Bq per m3, which is comparable to that featured by commercial devices. Owing to such features the detector is suited for massive application, for example for continuous monitoring of Rn or Po contaminations or, as discussed in the paper, its use in a network of Rn counters in areas affected by earth-quakes in order to verify, on a solid statistical basis, the envisaged correlation between the sudden Rn appearance and a forthcoming earthquake.

  13. Battery peak charge voltage monitor for dual air density satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A battery peak charge voltage monitor was developed for use on the dual air density satellite (DADS). This device retains a reading of the maximum voltage reached by the spacecraft battery during periods of charging, and makes it available during periods of data transmission. The monitor is connected across the battery and operates solely from the battery; it is powered continuously with quiescent input current of only 3 milliamperes. Standard integrated circuits and a thin-film resistor network are utilized. The monitor occupies approximately 40 square centimeters of a printed-circuit board within a larger electronic package.

  14. Instrumentation for continuous on-line monitoring of non-methane organic carbon in air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); McAllister, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nonmethane organic carbons (NMOC) is a measure of total organic carbon except that from methane. EPA standard method 25 was developed in the mid 1970`s as a means of quantifying NMOC emission from stationary source such as incinerators and paint industry. This method which involves obtaining a grab sample, and transporting it to the lab for analysis is not suitable for continuous monitoring. Moreover, this GC based method is prone to interferences from moisture and high concentrations of CO{sub 2}. In this paper we discuss the development of a novel columnless instrument that can be used for continuous on-line monitoring of NMOC in emission sources as well as in ambient air. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Raman gas analyzer applicability to monitoring of gaseous air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.; Matrosov, I. I.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    It is shown that the main problem, arising when designing a stationary Raman gas analyzer intended to monitor gaseous air pollutions, is to get SRS signals of sufficient intensity. The engineering solutions are presented that provide the required sensitivity (~ 50-100 ppb). It is achieved by compressing a gas medium under analysis and gaining intensity of the exciting laser radiation.

  16. Pollutants in particulate and gaseous fractions of ambient air interfere with multiple signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jirí; Jálová, Veronika; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, contamination of air has been evaluated primarily by chemical analyses of indicator contaminants and these studies have focused mainly on compounds associated with particulates. Some reports have shown that air contaminants can produce specific biological effects such as toxicity mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or modulation of the endocrine system. This study assessed the dioxin-like toxicity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity and anti-/retinoic activity of both the particulate and gas phase fractions of air in two regions with different types of pollution sources and a background locality situated in an agricultural area of Central Europe. The first region (A) is known to be significantly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and chemical industry. The other region (B) has been polluted by historical releases of PCBs, but the major current sources of contamination are probably combustion sources from local traffic and heating. Samples of both particle and gas fractions produced dioxin-like (AhR-mediated) activity, anti-estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, but none had any effect on retinoid signaling. AhR-mediated activities were observed in all samples and the TEQ values were comparable in both fractions in region A, but significantly greater in the particulate fraction in region B. The greater AhR-mediated activity corresponded to a greater coincident antiestrogenicity of both phases in region B. Our study is the first report of antiestrogenicity and antiandrogenicity in ambient air. Anti-androgenicity was observed in the gas phase of all regions, while in the particulate phase only in one region due to the specific type of pollution in that area. Even though based on concentrations of individual compounds, except for the OCPs, the level of contamination of the two regions was similar, there were strong differences in responses in the bioassays between the two regions. Moreover, AhR-mediated activity and

  17. Performance assessment and improvement of plutonium-in air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous Plutonium-in-Air Monitoring is mandatory requirement for laboratories/facilities where Plutonium based materials are handled to detect air borne Plutonium particle radioactivity as promptly as possible. Counting of Plutonium activity is affected because of presence of natural background activity which is due to daughter product of radon and thoron. Counting of plutonium activity in air gives false alarm because of presence of natural background activity. Due to increased dust load, interference of natural background becomes more due to degradation of its energy. Also concentration of natural background activity changes with the weather conditions. Hence Plutonium in Air Monitors are being used to detect Plutonium activity, which uses the alpha spectrometric technique for resolving natural background activity. But only resolving peak is not enough, due to degradation of natural background activity its energy falls into Plutonium activity channel. This give false indication of plutonium activity hence a complex algorithm is to be used to nullify/minimize the effect of varying natural background activity. Complex algorithm which is used to nullify/minimize the effect of natural background activity counts in plutonium channel is termed as active background compensation. Presently used Continuous Air Monitors (Plutonium in Air Monitors) has 1K MCA divided into five ROIs (Region of Interests) and also uses complex algorithm for active background compensation. But it was giving false alarm because these instruments were calibrated in cleaner environment and fairly constant weather condition which does not significantly change the concentration of natural background activity. Hence this monitor was required to be recalibrated and several coefficients were also required to be modified for effective background compensation. Monitors were recalibrated with 239Pu source and spectra was so adjusted that interference of spectrum of natural background activity is

  18. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  19. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (author)

  20. Monitoring and analysis of an absorption air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Vinaspre, M.; Bourouis, M.; Coronas, A. [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia, A.; Soto, V.; Pinazo, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, high-energy consumption due to air-conditioning has led to a growing interest in the efficient use of energy in buildings. Although simulation programs have always been the main tools for analyzing energy in buildings, the reliability of their results is often compromised by a lack of certainty to reflect real conditions. The aim of this work is to monitorize and analyze the thermal behavior of an absorption-based air-conditioning installation of a university building in Tarragona, Spain. The existing monitoring system of the installation has been improved by implementing additional sensors and flow meters. The data has been stored during summer 2002 and used to assess the energy balance of the air-conditioning installation and the operational regime of the absorption chiller. [Author].

  1. Waste to energy plant-air pollution monitoring and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can't eat it. We can't wear it. We are running out of places to bury it. We can't export it. We can't stop making it. Garbage seems to be, by volume at least, our biggest national product. These facts are driving more and more industries and municipalities to construct waste to energy plants. Following the adage that when you get lemons, make lemonade, municipalities have been burning their garbage to produce steam and electricity. Communities, fearful that what they have produced may be toxic to them when burned, have enacted stringent air pollution control and monitoring regulations. The federal government has enacted regulations under the Clean Air Act 43 CFR Part 60 which regulate the emission limits monitoring and reporting requirements of waste energy plants. The most important of these regulations was enacted on December 16, 1987 and June 26, 1987, regulating particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions. This paper reports that these regulations also tie in to various other EPA regulations and requirements. The most important of these to air pollution monitoring is Appendix F, Quality Assurance. However, these regulations are only minimum requirements -- individual states further strengthen their bite by requiring lower emissions limits and the monitoring of additional parameters such as H2S, HCl, NH2, CO, CO2 and moisture. These monitoring limits and reporting requirements are currently being negotiated on a case by case basis in most instances

  2. Study on an Air Quality Evaluation Model for Beijing City Under Haze-Fog Pollution Based on New Ambient Air Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Dong-Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive eval...

  3. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; de Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the “next generation” of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered - particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policy-relevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  4. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  5. Sable Island air monitoring program report: 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sable Island is an island situated in the Atlantic which receives pollutant flows from the Great Lakes and the United States Eastern Seaboard. The Sable Island air monitoring station was set up by the Environmental Studies Research Funds and its partners to monitor the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). This paper presents the results of the first 4 years of operation of the station. It was found that concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone exceeded desirable levels on several occasions while concentrations of NOx, SO2 and H2S recorded were much below maximum acceptable levels. In addition it was found that the episodes of elevated pollutant levels were due to transboundary flows from onshore. The Sable Island air monitoring project showed good results in its first 4 years of operation and the project partners are considering extending the program.

  6. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Sîrbu, Alina; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Bossche, Joris Van den

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights int...

  7. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  8. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  9. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  10. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  11. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  12. Tribological behavior of micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsem, D. H.; van der Hulst, R.; Stach, E. A.; Dugger, M. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2009-02-01

    As tribological properties are critical factors in the reliability of microelectromechanical systems, it is important to understand the physical processes and parameters governing wear and friction in silicon structural films. Dynamic friction, wear volumes and wear morphology have been studied for polysilicon devices from the Sandia SUMMiT VTM process actuated in ambient air at μN loads. A total of seven devices were tested. Roughly half of the devices showed a peak in the friction coefficient at three times the initial value with failure after 105 cycles. The other half of the devices behaved similarly initially; however, following the friction coefficient peak they displayed a lower steady-state friction regime with no failure for millions of cycles. Additionally, the nanoscale wear coefficient and roughness increased in the first ~105 cycles and then slowly decayed over several million cycles. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed amorphous oxygen-rich debris. These measurements show that after a short adhesive wear regime, abrasive wear is the governing mechanism with failures attributed to differences in the local nanoscale surface morphology. Changing the relative humidity, sliding speed and load was found to influence the friction coefficient, but re-oxidation of worn polysilicon surfaces was only found to have an effect after periods of inactivity.

  13. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  14. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  15. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2011-07-01

    The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all experience expansion and contraction. Because of the different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients between these materials, hygro-thermal stresses are introduced into the unit cell during operation. In addition, the non-uniform current and reactant flow distributions in the cell result in non-uniform temperature and moisture content of the cell which could in turn, potentially causing localized increases in the stress magnitudes, and this leads to mechanical damage, which can appear as through-the-thickness flaws or pinholes in the membrane, or delaminating between the polymer membrane and gas diffusion layers. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of these damage mechanisms in the membranes and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operation conditions. A three-dimensional, multi-phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a planar ambient air-breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed and used to study the effects of ambient conditions on the temperature distribution, displacement, deformation, and stresses inside the cell. The behaviour of the fuel cell during operation has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of mechanical, hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. The results show that the non

  16. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all experience expansion and contraction. Because of the different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients between these materials, hygro-thermal stresses are introduced into the unit cell during operation. In addition, the non-uniform current and reactant flow distributions in the cell result in non-uniform temperature and moisture content of the cell which could in turn, potentially causing localized increases in the stress magnitudes, and this leads to mechanical damage, which can appear as through-the-thickness flaws or pinholes in the membrane, or delaminating between the polymer membrane and gas diffusion layers. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of these damage mechanisms in the membranes and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operation conditions. A three-dimensional, multi–phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a planar ambient air-breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed and used to study the effects of ambient conditions on the temperature distribution, displacement, deformation, and stresses inside the cell. The behaviour of the fuel cell during operation has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of mechanical, hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. The results show

  17. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  18. MSNoise: a Python Package for Monitoring Seismic Velocity Changes using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Brenguier, Florent

    2014-05-01

    We present MSNoise, a complete software suite to compute relative seismic velocity changes under a seismic network, using ambient seismic noise. The whole is written in Python, from the monitoring of data archives, to the production of high quality figures. All steps have been optimized to only compute the necessary steps and to use 'job'-based processing. All steps can be changed by matching the in/outs. MSNoise exposes an API for communication with the data archive and the database. We present a validation of the software on a dataset acquired during the UnderVolc project on the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano, La Réunion Island, France, for which precursory relative changes of seismic velocity are visible for three eruptions betwee 2009 and 2011. MSNoise is available on http://www.msnoise.org

  19. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  20. In situ monitoring of urban air in Córdoba, Argentina using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    During the last decades, a significant deterioration of ambient air quality has been observed in Argentina. However, the availability of air pollution monitoring stations is still limited to only few cities. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity of ambient levels of air pollution in Córdoba using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay. The experiment was performed from October, 2004 to April 2005. Pots with Tradescantia pallida were placed in three sites: Córdoba city center, characterized by important avenues with high traffic activity (cars, taxis, and public transport vehicles); the university campus, along a side road with heavy traffic of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles, buses and trucks; and a residential area, with no significant local sources of air pollution. Twenty young T. pallida inflorescences were collected from each sampling site in November, February and April. Micronuclei frequencies were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Simultaneously, the environmental levels of total suspended particles (24 h mean) were determined for each site. A significant difference in micronuclei frequency was observed among sites ( p=0.036). Post-hoc analysis revealed that the residential area exhibited a lower micronuclei frequency than the university and city center areas. In conclusion, we found that the gradients of ambient air pollution of Córdoba are associated with changes in the spontaneous micronuclei frequency of Tradescantia pollen mother cells. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring with higher plants may be useful for characterizing air pollution in areas without instrumental monitoring techniques, or for exploring the distribution of air contaminants at a microscale.