WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient air engine

  1. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  2. Cold Start Emissions of Spark-Ignition Engines at Low Ambient Temperatures as an Air Quality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielaczyc Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at -7°C (the UDC, emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at -7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC. The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds’ driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but significant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating.

  3. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  4. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  5. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  6. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  7. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  8. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...

  9. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  10. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  12. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  14. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, A.; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk.

  15. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  16. Ambient operation of Li/Air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, R.E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of {proportional_to}20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg{sup -1}, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte ({proportional_to}70%). Lithium metal anodes and KB-carbon account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only {proportional_to}20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products. (author)

  17. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  18. STATUS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN BELLARY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. ZAREENA BANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey of air quality was carried out at important junctions in Bellary city to study the ambient air quality using high volume sampler at respirable heights of the variety of known air pollutants, suspended particulate matter(SPM, respirable particulate matter(RPM, sulphur dioxide(SO2, oxides of nitrogen(NOx, were given much importance during the study. Sampling stations were established at 8 different places in the city. It was found that the level of suspended particulate matter(SPM & respirable particulate matter(RPM, exceeds the ambient air quality standard of central pollution control board and that of sulphur dioxide(SO2 and oxides of nitrogen(NOx were well within the limits. The factors which were considered responsible for such high levels of certain pollutants in the city includes traffic congestion, increased human activities, mining activities and high rise buildings existing parallel to each other. The remedial measure suggested including banning old technology vehicles, upgrading two stroke engines to four stroke engines, using catalytic, planting more trees along the roadsides and proper traffic regulation.

  19. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  1. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  2. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  3. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  4. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  5. Traffic engineering in ambient networks: challenges and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Henrik; Gunnar, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on traffic engineering in ambient networks. We describe and categorize different alternatives for making the routing more adaptive to the current traffic situation and discuss the challenges that ambient networks pose on traffic engineering methods. One of the main objectives of traffic engineering is to avoid congestion by controlling and optimising the routing function, or in short, to put the traffic where the capacity is. The main challenge for traffic engin...

  6. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP)...

  7. Experimental analysis of the thermal entrainment factor of air curtains in vertical open display cabinets for different ambient air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical open refrigerated display cabinets suffer alterations of their thermal performance and energy efficiency due to variations of ambient air conditions. The air curtain provides an aerothermodynamics insulation effect that can be evaluated by the thermal entrainment factor calculation as an engineering approximation or by the calculus of all sensible and latent thermal loads. This study presents the variation of heat transfer rate and thermal entrainment factor obtained through experimental tests carried out for different ambient air conditions, varying air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and its direction relatively to the display cabinet frontal opening. The thermal entrainment factor are analysed and compared with the total sensible and latent heats results for the experimental tests. From an engineering point of view, it is concluded that thermal entrainment factor cannot be used indiscriminately, although its use is suitable to design better cabinet under the same climate class condition.

  8. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  9. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  10. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  11. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Ambarina S.; Rhoads, George G.; Demissie, Kitaw; Kruse, Lakota; Lin, Yong; Rich, David Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of stillbirth associated with ambient air pollution during pregnancy. Using live birth and fetal death data from New Jersey from 1998 to 2004, the authors assigned daily concentrations of air pollution to each birth or fetal death. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the relative odds of stillbirth associated with interquartile range increases in mean air pollutant concentrations in the first, second, and third ...

  12. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  13. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  15. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    .5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on...... ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the...

  16. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk an...

  17. Electron microprobe identification of fibrous aerosols in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclepore filters were used for sampling fibrous particles in ambient air. The fiber counting and fiber size measurements were done by means of SEM-methods. The number of fibers, distribution of fiber lengths, and diameters were plotted. The specific identification of asbestos fibers was made by electron microprobe analysis. Certain elements such as Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Ca, and Na as well as ratios such as Fe/Si and Mg/Si proved to be approximative identification factors for ambient asbestos. Not only asbestos and glass, also many other inorganic fibrous particles were found in the urban atmosphere as well as in the atmosphere of remote regions. Fibrous gypsum, fibrous ammonium sulfates, fibrous silicates, fibrous mica, and quartz were identified among these particles. Even in remote ambient air, relatively high concentrations of fibrous particles (103-104 m-3) could be measured, although the concentration of asbestos fibers were usually smaller than 102 m-3

  18. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Kraft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011– 2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 201...

  19. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  20. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  1. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  2. AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh. Kumar; Sarabpreet Singh

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the power plant strongly depends on ambient air temperature (AAT).Mass flow rate (kg/s)of air decreases in summer with increasing AAT for the same volumetric flow rate (m3/s), which results in reduced power output of turbine and increased heat rate.This paper analyzes the effects of the AAT on various parameters of power plant viz., mass flow rate of air, fuel consumption, steam, power output of turbine, efficiency and heat rate of gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cy...

  3. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kai; YE You-hua; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; PENG Shao-lin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the reported air quality index (API) and air pollutant monitoring data provided by the Guangzhou Environment Monitoring Stations over the last twenty-five years, the characteristics of air quality, prominent pollutants, and variation of the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, total suspended particulate(TSP), fine particulates (PM10), CO and dustfall in Guangzhou City were analyzed. Results showed that TSP was the prominent pollutant in the ambient air environment of Guangzhou City. Of the prominent pollutants, TSP accounted for nearly 62%, SO2 12.3%, and NOx 6.4%, respectively. The average API of Guangzhou over 6 years was higher than that of Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai, and lower than that of Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou. Concentrations of air pollutants have shown an downward trend in recent years, but they are generally worse than ambient air quality standards for USA, Hong Kong and EU. SO2 and NOx pollution were still serious, impling that waste gas pollution from all kinds of vehicles had become a significant problem for environmental protection in Guangzhou. The possible causes of worsening air quality were also discussed in this paper.

  4. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  5. Observation of microwave volume plasma ignition in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed microwave (MW) plasma was maintained in a waveguide with an ignition pin. Images of the MW discharge were recorded during ignition in ambient air with millisecond time resolution and correlated with measurements of absorbed MW power. This work is focused on the quantification of ignition stability and observation of the plasma structure. Additionally, a time- and space-integrated emission spectrum in the range 220–770 nm is presented. (paper)

  6. Ambient sesquiterpene concentration and its link to air ion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air ion size distributions have been measured continuously at the Finnish boreal forest site in Hyytiälä since spring 2003. In general, these measurements show a maximum of air ions below 1.0 nm in diameter. But this physical characterization does not provide any information about the ion's chemical composition, which is one key question regarding the explanation of nucleation events observed. In this study we propose a link of the observed maximum of negative air ions between 0.56 and 0.75 nm to the so-called stabilised Criegee biradical, formed in the reaction of biogenic sesquiterpenes with ozone and predominantly destroyed by its reaction with ambient water vapour. Calculations of the electron and proton affinities of 120 kJ mol−1 (1.24 eV and of 960 kJ mol−1 support this link. Other possible candidates such as sulphuric acid derived clusters are unable to explain the observations made. By using this approach, we are able to calculate the ambient concentration of sesquiterpenes at the air ion instrument inlet with a high time resolution on the daily and seasonal scale. The estimated concentration is found to reveal the same seasonal pattern as emission measurements conducted at shoot level. As expected for biogenic VOCs, the concentration is obtained highest during summer (maximum values of about 100 pptv and smallest during winter (minimum less than 1 pptv. Because of the sesquiterpenes high reactivity and its low ambient concentrations, this approach can be a first step in understanding their emission and their impact on atmospheric chemistry in more detail. The findings presented are highly relevant for emission budgets too, since boreal forests are extended over large areas of the globe.

  7. Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality in India - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Devendra Dohare; Vijayant Panday

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem all over the world which causes terrific loss to human health and other living being. Sulphur Dioxide(SO2),Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2),Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10), Ozone(O3), Lead (Pb), Carbon Monoxide(CO), Benzene(C6H6) and Nickel(Ni) are some of the parameters which have significant impact on environmental pollution. Purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the monitoring of ambient air pollution in India and compare the sam...

  8. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m3) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  9. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  10. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Fusheng Wang; Guofeng Xiao; Kai Wu; Shixuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API) shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012), which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous stan...

  11. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  12. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53, and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur... Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of sulfur as measured by sulfur...

  13. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  15. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  16. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  17. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  18. Ambient concentrations of radionuclides in air at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this component of the study was to obtain data on the radioactive content of dust resuspended under natural (ambient) conditions at various sites around Maralinga and at Emu. Ambient concentrations in air of radionuclides and the toxic chemical beryllium have been monitored by use of both high and low volume samplers over several years during calm conditions and during dust storms. Data are presented for the contaminated sites which indicate that airborne concentrations of plutonium are low most of the time (10-4 Bq/m3). Annual average ambient activity concentrations of plutonium at the most heavily contaminated sampling sites were ca. 10-3 Bq/m3 at a height of 1.1 m above ground level. The highest concentrations measured were ca. 2 x 10-2 bq/m3 averaged over a few days. The results indicate that the radiological risk due to naturally resuspended dust is dominated by a rare event, such as the occasional dust storms that resuspends considerable activity. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs., ills

  19. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  20. Particulate composition characteristics under different ambient air quality conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Lisa Tzu-Chi; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2011-07-01

    Particulate compositions including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble ionic species, and elemental compositions were investigated during the period from 2004 to 2006 in southern Taiwan. The correlation between the pollutant standard index (PSI) of ambient air quality and the various particle compositions was also addressed in this study. PSI revealed a correlation with fine (r = 0.74) and coarse (r = 0.80) particulate matter (PM). PSI manifested a significant correlation with the amount of analyzed ionic species (r approximately 0.80) in coarse and fine particles and a moderate correlation with carbon content (r = 0.63) in fine particles; however, it showed no correlation with elemental content. Although the ambient air quality ranged from good to moderate, the ionic species including chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4(2-)), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) increased significantly (1.5-3.7 times for Daliao and 1.8-6.9 times for Tzouying) in coarse PM. For fine particles, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and potassium (K+) also increased significantly (1.3-2.4 times for Daliao and 2.8-9.6 times for Tzouying) when the air quality went from good to moderate. For meteorological parameters, temperature evidenced a slightly negative correlation with PM concentration and PSI value, which implied a high PM concentration in the low-temperature condition. This reflects the high frequency of PM episodes in winter and spring in southern Taiwan. In addition, the mixing height increase from 980 to 1450 m corresponds to the air quality condition changing from unhealthy to good. PMID:21850835

  1. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  2. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result i...

  3. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air... the Federal Register (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16. The primary (health-based) Pb NAAQS... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  4. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... ppm NAAQS set in 1997, but is set at a more protective level. \\2\\ See 73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008. For... 6, 2010. (See 75 FR 2938; January 19, 2010.) Because of the significant uncertainty the ozone...

  5. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Nang Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Chen-Ching Ting

    2014-01-01

    The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the...

  6. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry deposition and air sampling were undertaken, simultaneously, in the ambient air of an urban site and a petrochemical-industry (PCI) plant by using several dry deposition plates and PS-1 samplers from January to May 1994 in southern Taiwan. The dry deposition plate with a smooth surface was always pointed into the wind. Twenty-one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MSD). The dry deposition flux of total-PAHs in urban and PCI sites averaged 166 and 211 microg/m2·d, respectively. In general, the PAH dry deposition flux increased with increases in the PAH concentration in the ambient air. The PAH pattern of dry deposition flux in both urban and PCI sites were similar to the pattern measured by the filter of the PS-1 sampler and completely different from the PAH pattern in the gas phase. The higher molecular weight PAHs have higher dry deposition velocities. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs primarily associated with the particle phase are deposited mostly by gravitational settling, while the gas phase PAHs were between 0.001 and 0.010 cm/s, only the lower molecular-weight PAHs--Nap and AcPy--had a significant fraction of dry deposition flux contributed by the gas phase. All the remaining higher molecular-weight PAHs had more than 94.5% of their dry deposition flux resulting from the particle phase. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs have a greater fraction in the particle phase and the dry deposition velocities of particulates are much higher than those of the gas phase

  7. Catalytic oxidation of tritium in air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium/air oxidation kinetic data are derived from ambient-temperature measurements carried out with three precious-metal catalysts. Each catalyst consists of a high-surface-area substrate in pelletized form, onto which precious metal has been dispersed. The metal/substrate combinations investigated are platinum/alumina, palladium/kaolin, and palladium/zeolite. Electron-microprobe scans reveal that the dispersed metal is deposited in each case near the outer surface of the pellet, with metal concentration decreasing exponentially from the pellet surface. Kinetic oxidation measurements are made in a unique apparatus consisting of a large Lucite enclosure with an air atmosphere processed by a recirculating cleanup system. Dual-ionization chambers with an intermediate adsorption bed permit measurement of tritium gas and tritiated water vapor. Rate coefficients are determined from concentration decay following a spike injection of tritium into the enclosure. The catalytic reaction is first-order in tritium concentration in the range 10 to 105 μCi/m3. Addition of hydrogen carrier gas is unnecessary. Each of the dispersed-metal catalysts is extremely active in promoting tritium oxidation in comparison with self-catalyzed atmospheric conversion; equivalent first-order rate constants are higher by roughly 9 orders of magnitude. The platinum-based catalyst is more effective than the palladium catalysts on a surface-area basis by about a factor of 3. Catalytic activity for all three catalysts declines with time of exposure to air after activation, following a power-law decay with an exponent of -1/2. A model for optimization of the catalyst reactivation cycle is proposed, revealing that the optimum catalyst volume scales with flow rate to the 2/3 power. Ambient-temperature tritium oxidation is cost-effective for small- to intermediate-scale cleanup systems. A heated catalyst is desirable for large-scale systems

  8. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  10. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  11. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  12. Air Entrainment in Dynamic Wetting: Knudsen Effects and the Influence of Ambient Air Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Sprittles, James E

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on coating flows and liquid drop impact both demonstrate that wetting failures caused by air entrainment can be suppressed by reducing the ambient gas pressure. Here, it is shown that non-equilibrium effects in the gas can account for this behaviour, with ambient pressure reductions increasing the gas' mean free path and hence the Knudsen number $Kn$. These effects first manifest themselves through Maxwell slip at the gas' boundaries so that for sufficiently small $Kn$ they can be incorporated into a continuum model for dynamic wetting flows. The resulting mathematical model contains flow structures on the nano-, micro- and milli-metre scales and is implemented into a computational platform developed specifically for such multiscale phenomena. The coating flow geometry is used to show that for a fixed gas-liquid-solid system (a) the increased Maxwell slip at reduced pressures can substantially delay air entrainment, i.e. increase the `maximum speed of wetting', (b) unbounded maximum speeds ...

  13. HIGH VOLUME INJECTION FOR GCMS ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of organic species in ambient particulate matter typically requires large air sample volumes, frequently achieved by grouping samples into monthly composites. Decreasing the volume of air sample required would allow shorter collection times and more convenient sample c...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  15. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  16. Monitoring and analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in ambient air / by Marina Nkhalong Ketsise

    OpenAIRE

    Ketsise, Marina Nkhalong

    2006-01-01

    The growing concern for environmental pollution indicates the importance of correctly predicting the fate of pollutants in ambient air. This study was conducted to predict the ambient levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the greater Sasolburg area and to better understand the distribution and the sources of PAH's in ambient air. PAH's are chemical compounds which consist of two or more fused benzene rings and made entirely from carbon and hydrogen. PAH's are...

  17. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  18. Comparitive study of ambient air quality status for big cities of Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the quality of air in Lahore and Faisalabad at selected sites. Total eight sampling stations were selected and all the sampling locations fall in different environmental backdrops such as residential, commercial, industrial and rural (control) areas. To study the quality of air, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and Sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were selected In the present study, it was found that the SPM NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ levels in all the sampling locations are within the permissible limits. However, the raising levels indicated at Residential cum Industrial area (shopping complex along with banks) followed by pure industrial area. The source of these pollutants is primarily transport sector and secondly industries. The ambient air quality reported to be low except 2Kl reported as medium. Sociological survey was conducted to determine the health hazards and the diseases related to air pollution. The results were alarming and found to be compatible with Punjab Public Health and Engineering Department (PPHE). There fore it is suggested that air quality management demands. (author)

  19. Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Ion Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Hang; Lackner, Klaus S; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-14

    Water confined in nanoscopic pores is essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Herein, we report a recently discovered unconventional, reversible chemical reaction driven by water quantities in nanopores. The reduction of the number of water molecules present in the pore space promotes the hydrolysis of CO3 (2-) to HCO3 (-) and OH(-) . This phenomenon led to a nano-structured CO2 sorbent that binds CO2 spontaneously in ambient air when the surrounding is dry, while releasing it when exposed to moisture. The underlying mechanism is elucidated theoretically by computational modeling and verified by experiments. The free energy of CO3 (2-) hydrolysis in nanopores reduces with a decrease of water availability. This promotes the formation of OH(-) , which has a high affinity to CO2 . The effect is not limited to carbonate/bicarbonate, but is extendable to a series of ions. Humidity-driven sorption opens a new approach to gas separation technology. PMID:26914978

  20. Cascade exchange pressure supercharging system of the transport engine with deep cooling of intake air

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseev, S; Krajniuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The new principle of the organisation of working process of the combined supercharging system of Internal Comdustion Engine (ICE) with the Cascade Pressure Exchanger(CPE) has been described. It allows considerably to raise level of forcing of the engine by supercharging at the expense of expansion of effective air supply area and coolings of supercharging air to temperature below an ambient without attraction of additional mechanical energy on refrigeration cycle realization. Substantiv...

  1. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonchul Baek; Atiq, Mahin K.; Hyung Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption...

  2. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Y.; A. Uzairu; J.O. Ujoh

    2013-01-01

    This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri), high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout), traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge), Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout), residential area (Kawo New Extension) and a control site (NFA base) in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle ...

  3. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... using maximum bleed air must be established. (c) Hazardous contamination of cabin air systems may not... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  5. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  6. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  7. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... the Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (EPA 452R-08-005... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  8. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards:...

  9. Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal. Methods Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on ...

  10. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution... on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  12. Ambient Engineering for High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiabin; Yu, Xuegong; Xie, Jiangsheng; Xu, Dikai; Tang, Zeguo; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2016-08-24

    Considering the evaporation of solvents during fabrication of perovskite films, the organic ambience will present a significant influence on the morphologies and properties of perovskite films. To clarify this issue, various ambiences of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and chlorobenzene (CBZ) are introduced during fabrication of perovskite films by two-step sequential deposition method. The results reveal that an ambient CBZ atmosphere is favorable to control the nucleation and growth of CH3NH3PbI3 grains while the others present a negative effect. The statistical results show that the average efficiencies of perovskite solar cells processed in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can be significantly improved by a relatively average value of 35%, compared with those processed under air. The efficiency of the best perovskite solar cells can be improved from 10.65% to 14.55% by introducing this ambience engineering technology. The CH3NH3PbI3 film with large-size grains produced in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can effectively reduce the density of grain boundaries, and then the recombination centers for photoinduced carriers. Therefore, a higher short-circuit current density is achieved, which makes main contribution to the improvement in efficiency. These results provide vital progress toward understanding the role of ambience in the realization of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. PMID:27489961

  13. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  14. Engine piston having an insulating air gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Mark Wayne; Hunold,Brent Michael

    2010-02-02

    A piston for an internal combustion engine has an upper crown with a top and a bottom surface, and a lower crown with a top and a bottom surface. The upper crown and the lower crown are fixedly attached to each other using welds, with the bottom surface of the upper crown and the top surface of the lower crown forming a mating surface. The piston also has at least one centrally located air gap formed on the mating surface. The air gap is sealed to prevent substantial airflow into or out of the air gap.

  15. Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Yue; Richard T. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examined association between preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growt...

  16. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  17. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  18. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  19. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  20. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  1. The effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of air flow plate standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume flow rate measured by air flow plate is influenced by the ambient conditions during the calibration. A series of numerical examples are conducted for the relationship and the outcomes demonstrated that the calibration is quite sensitive to the atmospheric pressure and the ambient temperature, but insensitive to relative humidity. The experiment model has been applied to calibration results with wide ranging ambient conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the benefits to calibration data of minimizing the effects of ambient conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  3. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  4. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient......

  5. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... titled, Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk... AGENCY Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient...

  6. History of the hot-air engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, S.

    1982-01-01

    It cannot be exactly determined any more who had first invented or built a hot-air engine and when that was, for many people had dealt with the development of power engines at the beginning of the 19th century. Also the documentation and patents systems had been rather underdeveloped or had not even existed yet. There was hardly any exchange of experiences or communication beyond the national boundaries. Consequently it can be assumed that similar machines were built simultaneously but independently of each other in many countries. However, almost all those machines and methods have fallen into oblivion within the course of time.

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  8. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  9. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  11. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdeep Singh3; Atahar Perwez

    2015-01-01

    Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had b...

  12. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  13. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qi-fei; CHEN Tong-bin; GAO Ding; HUANG Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5℃ when ambient air temperature changed 13℃. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3℃ when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 ℃. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent(at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate(at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  14. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  16. Electronically Controlling the System of Preheating Intake Air by Flame for Diesel Engine Cold-Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜巍; 赵福堂

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the cold-start performance of heavy duty diesel engine, electronically controlling the preheating of intake air by flame was researched. According to simulation and thermodynamic analysis about the partial working processes of the diesel engine, the amount of heat energy, enough to make the fuel self-ignite at the end of compression process at different temperatures of coolant and intake-air, was calculated. Several HY20 preheating plugs were used to heat up the intake air. Meanwhile, an electronic control system based on 8 bit micro-controller unit (MCS-8031) was designed to automatically control the process of heating intake air. According to the various temperatures of coolant and ambient air, one plug or two plugs can automatically be selected to heat intake air. The demo experiment validated that the total system could operate successfully and achieve the scheduled function.

  17. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 ...

  18. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W.; Coull, Brent A.; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  20. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-07-07

    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  1. Application of grey weighted related degree to the ambient air quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-lin; SHEN Jin; SUN Li-xin; LV Xiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to establish the integrated method to assess the ambient air quality because the atmospheric environmental system is composed of several environmental elements, which contains many contamination factors. In view of the typical grey system character of the monitored data in the ambient air, this paper introduces the weighted value to obtain related degree during applying the method of grey related degree analysis to assess ambient air quality by each polluting factor producing different effects on the environment quality. This method could give more reasonable and reliable evaluating results. Taking the monitored data of Harbin, a provincial city of Heilongjiang, for example in this paper, the result of assessment by this method was coincident with the actual environmental quality of Harbin.

  2. Simple and accurate quantification of BTEX in ambient air by SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Kenessov, Bulat; Koziel, Jacek A; Carlsen, Lars; Bektassov, Marat; Demyanenko, Olga P

    2016-07-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) comprise one of the most ubiquitous and hazardous groups of ambient air pollutants of concern. Application of standard analytical methods for quantification of BTEX is limited by the complexity of sampling and sample preparation equipment, and budget requirements. Methods based on SPME represent simpler alternative, but still require complex calibration procedures. The objective of this research was to develop a simpler, low-budget, and accurate method for quantification of BTEX in ambient air based on SPME and GC-MS. Standard 20-mL headspace vials were used for field air sampling and calibration. To avoid challenges with obtaining and working with 'zero' air, slope factors of external standard calibration were determined using standard addition and inherently polluted lab air. For polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, differences between the slope factors of calibration plots obtained using lab and outdoor air were below 14%. PDMS fiber provided higher precision during calibration while the use of Carboxen/PDMS fiber resulted in lower detection limits for benzene and toluene. To provide sufficient accuracy, the use of 20mL vials requires triplicate sampling and analysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of 108 ambient air samples from Almaty, Kazakhstan. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were 53, 57, 11 and 14µgm(-3), respectively. The developed method can be modified for further quantification of a wider range of volatile organic compounds in air. In addition, the new method is amenable to automation. PMID:27154647

  3. Contribution ratios of natural radionuclides to ambient dose rate in air after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important that the contribution ratio of natural radioactivity to ambient dose rate in air is clarified after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In this study, ambient dose rates in air were observed at 34 places in eastern Japan and the contribution ratios were clarified. The mean contribution ratio of the natural radionuclides was 71 % (range 0-100 %). In most places, the natural radionuclides made a larger contribution to the ambient dose rate in air. (author)

  4. Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, E.M. [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in most of the German states. The measurements were carried out under different seasonal conditions and at locations with differing air quality. Benzo(a)pyrene was widely used as an indicator substance for heating systems and industrial firing systems. Coronene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene were used as indicator substances for motor traffic.

  5. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... 1997 (62 FR 38856) by setting the primary standard at a level of 0.08 ppm, based on the annual fourth... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR..., and form, respectively, of the primary O 3 standard (73 FR 16472- 16475). For these reasons,...

  6. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  7. Nocturnal stomatal conductance and ambient air quality standards for ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Minnick, Tamera J.

    Vegetation response to ozone depends on ozone conductance into leaves and the defensive action inside the leaf. Ozone parameters currently used for air quality standards do not incorporate conductance or defensive components. Nighttime flux has often been ignored in ozone metrics relating to plant response, since ozone concentration and conductance are considered to be minimal at night. However, ozone concentration can remain relatively high at night, particularly in mountainous areas. Although conductance is lower at night than during the day for most plants, nocturnal conductance can result in considerable ozone flux into plants. Further, plants can be more susceptible to ozone exposure at night than during the daytime, a result of lower plant defenses at night. Any ozone metric used to relate air quality to plant response should use a 24 h ozone exposure period to include the nighttime exposures. It should also incorporate plant defensive mechanisms or their surrogate.

  8. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudež, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R; de Maat, Moniek P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with plate...

  9. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  10. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  11. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Public Health under Various Traffic Policies in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN-GHONG CHEN; HAI-DONG KAN; CHENG HUANG; LI LI; YUN-HUI ZHANG; REN-JIE CHEN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential impact of ambient air pollution on public health under various traffic policies in Shanghai. Methods The exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned traffic scenarios was estimated,and the public health impact was assessed using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiological studies. Results Our results showed that ambient air pollution in relation to traffic scenarios had a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents.Compared with the base case scenario,implementation of various traffic scenarios could prevent 759-1574,1885-2420,and 2277-2650 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mean-value) in 2010,2015,and 2020,respectively.It could also decrease the incidence of several relevant diseases. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the need to consider air pollution-related health effects as an important impact of traffic policy in Shanghai.

  12. Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmia in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are cardiac rhythm disorders that comprise an important public health problem. Few prior studies have examined the association between ambient air pollution and arrhythmias in general populations in mainland China. Methods We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the short-term association between air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and outpatient visit...

  13. A Case–Crossover Study of Wintertime Ambient Air Pollution and Infant Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, Catherine; Lumley, Thomas; Shepherd, Kristen; Davis, Robert; Larson, Timothy; Ritz, Beate; Kaufman, Joel

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association of infant bronchiolitis with acute exposure to ambient air pollutants. Design We employed a time-stratified case–crossover method and based the exposure windows on a priori, biologically based hypotheses. Participants We evaluated effects in 19,901 infants in the South Coast Air Basin of California in 1995–2000 with a hospital discharge record for bronchiolitis in the first year of life (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1). Evaluations/...

  14. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  15. Spectroscopic Characterization of a Radio-Frequency Argon Plasma Jet Discharge in Ambient Air

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Patrick; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This study includes a detailed experimental investigation of the spatial and temporal spectroscopic emission of an argon plasma jet discharge. The study is carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. The optical emission spectroscopy of neutral atomic spectral lines and molecular bands, over a range of plasma process parameters, is investigated. Wavelength-resolved argon optical emission profiles are used to monitor the electron energy distribution functio...

  16. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  17. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

  18. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  19. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326- 54341). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  20. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  1. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  2. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186). In the 1971 decision, the... criteria and standards for CO (50 FR 37484). In that review, EPA updated the scientific criteria upon...

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  4. Oxidation of ST55, LH15 and Arema steels at high temperatures in ambient air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jaroslav; Million, Bořivoj; Adamaszek, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2004), s. 242-250. ISSN 0023-432X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : high temperatures * oxidation steels * ambient air Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2004

  5. Determination of hexavalent chromium in ambient air: A story of method induced Cr(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirez, Kristof; Silversmit, Geert; Bleux, Nico; Adriaensens, Elke; Roekens, Edward; Servaes, Kelly; Vanhoof, Chris; Vincze, Laszlo; Berghmans, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy of the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter remains a challenge from the point of view of minimal Cr species interconversion. Knowledge of this method induced oxidation and reduction is particularly relevant for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient particulate matter, as the level of observed Cr(III) oxidation (average of 1.7% in this study) can contribute significantly to the monitored range of measured Cr(VI) in PM 10. For Cr concentrations in PM 10 > 10 ng Cr m -3, this method induced oxidation could lead to false positive exceeding of an air quality guideline value of 0.2 ng Cr(VI) m -3 in PM 10. The median daily Cr(VI) concentration in PM 10 measured over a monitoring period of more than 2 months at two locations close to a stainless steel factory amounted to 0.9 ng Cr(VI) m -3 and 0.27 ng Cr(VI) m -3. Average daily Cr(VI)/Cr ratios in PM 10 of 3.5% and 2.6% were measured at these locations. The described monitoring for the determination of Cr(VI) in ambient air via alkaline impregnated filters is sensitive (method detection limit of 0.015 ng Cr(VI) m -3) and reproducible (precision of the method ˜25%). The average Cr(VI) recovery of 75% strongly indicates the effects of ambient sampling conditions and ambient particles on the Cr(VI) recoveries. The stability of the Cr(VI) and the Cr(III) spike on 0.12 M NaHCO 3 impregnated filters observed with XANES, indicates that the alkaline extraction of the filter in combination with the sampled air matrix is likely to induce the Cr conversions. The XANES spectra shows further that a Cr-spinel is the predominant component of Cr in ambient air PM 10 at the monitored locations.

  6. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lan; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqun; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Li, Min; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Bell, Michelle L.; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-07-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010-2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m-3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m-3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

  7. Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects. (letter)

  8. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  9. The contribution of waste water treatment plants to PBDEs in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples were collected at different sites in and around two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in central Italy to determine the concentrations, compositional profiles and contribution to ambient levels of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The investigated WWTPs were selected as they treat industrial wastewater produced by local textile industries along with municipal wastewater. PBDE concentrations within the WWTPs were higher than those measured at reference sites located 4 and 5 km away with BDE-209 dominating the BDE congener composition in all air samples in 2008. Ambient PBDE concentrations measured in and around the WWTPs and estimates of emissions from aeration tanks suggest that WWTPs are sources of PBDEs to ambient air. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlations confirmed this result. The effect of distance from the plant and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. Although the primary fate of PBDEs in WWTPs will be partitioning to sewage sludge, this study suggests that plants can provide a measurable source of these compounds to local ambient air. - Highlights: ► Levels and distribution profiles of PBDEs in the atmosphere surrounding two WWTPs. ► Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surrounding area of two WWTPs in Italy. ► To investigate WWTPs as sources of PBDEs to the atmosphere. ► Samples collected downwind respect to the plant showed BDE-209 as dominant congener. ► The effect of distance and wind direction on atmospheric concentrations was also investigated. - Waste water treatment plants as sources of PBDEs to the ambient air.

  10. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  11. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  12. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  13. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 8-hour primary and secondary....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  14. Ambient air quality levels in Tehran, Iran, from 1988 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, M.A.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Public Health, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe trends in ambient air quality in Tehran between 1988 and 1993, to determine if these levels exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, and to discuss possible health effects related to exposure for these particular pollutants. Data were acquired from Iran's Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Ministry of Health (MH). These agencies operate five automated ambient air monitoring stations located in areas with heavy traffic. Daily samples of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, total suspended particulate matter (TSM), and hydrocarbons (HC) were collected to provide 24 hour averages for each pollutant. Every three months, mean concentrations were reported to IEPA. Composite samples from all five stations were stored in a databank operated by IEPA. The ambient air quality guidelines were obtained from WHO reports. Statistical analysis was carried out using a regression model, which was designed to fit the air pollution data and take into account missing data. The results showed that there was a statistically significant upward trend in air pollution levels for all of the measured pollutants, except NO{sub 2}, during the years 1988 to 1993. WHO guidelines were routinely and substantially exceeded by all pollutants except TSM. These findings suggest that as the population continues to grow, and increasing numbers of motor vehicles are driven in Tehran, there is concern for the health effects that may result from exposure to these pollutants. (Author)

  15. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  16. Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHAO-WEI FU; SHUN-ZHANG YU; LI-NA MU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between ambient air pollution and daily mortality of SARS in Beijing. Methods The approach of time-series Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between daily SARS mortality, ambient air pollution, and other factors from April 25 to May 31, 2003 in Beijing. Results An increase of each 10 μμg/m3 over a 5-day moving average of PM10, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to 1.06 (1.00-1.12), 0.74 (0.48-1.13) and 1.22 (1.01-1.48) relative risks (RRs) of daily SARS mortality, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) values depended largely on the selection of lag days. Conclusion The daily mortality of SARS might be associated with certain air pollutants in Beijing.

  17. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung...... effect on the concentration of CC16 in plasma and urine or on the static and dynamic volumes or ventilation distribution of the lungs. The study thus demonstrates increased permeability of the alveolar blood-gas barrier following moderate exercise, whereas exposure to ambient levels of urban air.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood...

  18. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  19. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  20. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  1. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  2. The Comparative Reactivity Method ─ a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s−1 and up to 50% between 6–8 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s and the urban atmosphere of Mainz

  3. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design c...

  4. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  5. Atomic oxygen in a cold argon plasma jet: TALIF spectroscopy in ambient air with modelling and measurements of ambient species diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By investigating the atomic oxygen density in its effluent, two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy measurements are for the first time performed in a cold argon/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The measurements are carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. We propose a novel absorption technique in the VUV spectral range, where emission originating from within the discharge is used as light source to determine the inflow of atmospheric oxygen into the effluent. Furthermore, we propose a modelling solution for the on-axis density of inflowing ambient air based on the stationary convection–diffusion equation. (paper)

  6. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  7. Mechanism Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air by Hydration Energy Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Lackner, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydration of neutral and ionic species on solid interfaces plays an important role in a wide range of natural and engineered processes within energy systems as well as biological and environmental systems. Various chemical reactions are significantly enhanced, both in the rate and the extent of the reaction, because of water molecules present or absent at the interface. A novel technology for carbon dioxide capture, driven by the free energy difference between more or less hydrated states of an anionic exchange resin is studied for a new approach to absorb CO2 from ambient air. For these materials the affinity to CO2 is dramatically lowered as the availability of water is increased. This makes it possible to absorb CO2 from air in a dry environment and release it at two orders of magnitude larger partial pressures in a wet environment. While the absorption process and the thermodynamic properties of air capture via ion exchange resins have been demonstrated, the underlying physical mechanisms remain to be understood. In order to rationally design better sorbent materials, the present work elucidates through molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical modeling the energy changes in the carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide ions that are induced by hydration, and how these changes affect sorbent properties. A methodology is developed to determine the free energy change during carbonate ion hydrolysis changes with different numbers of water molecules present. This makes it possible to calculate the equilibrium in the reaction CO3--•nH2O ↔ HCO3- • m1H2O + OH- • m2H2O + (n - 1 - m1 - m2)H2O Molecular dynamics models are used to calculate free energies of hydration for the CO32- ion, the HCO3- ion, and the OH- ion as function of the amount of water that is present. A quantum mechanical model is employed to study the equilibrium of the reaction Na2CO3 + H2O ↔ NaHCO3 + NaOHin a vacuum and at room temperature. The computational analysis of the free energy of

  8. Assessment of ambient air quality in coal mine waste areas - a case study in Fuxin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Siang, Y.J.; Wang, H.; Li, D.L. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    An extension of the matter-element method was applied to estimate ambient air quality in Haizhou opencast colliery in Fuxin coal mine. Air pollutants data such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total suspended particulates, particulate matter and dustfall were collected at four different air-quality monitoring stations located in four districts around the Fuxin colliery. Results show that total suspended particulates, particulate matter <10 {mu}m, dustfall and sulphur dioxide were the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were also detected at the Fuxin colliery. Air pollution came mainly from industrial emissions, mining activities and abandoned gangue stockpiles (mine tailings). Compared to those applied to other mathematical assessment methods, it was demonstrated that the extension of the matter-element model was quite appropriate for air quality assessment.

  9. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  10. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  11. The Comparative Reactivity Method – a new tool to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s−1 and the urban atmosphere of Mainz (~10 s−1 Germany, show the promise of the new method and indicate that a significant fraction of OH reactive species in the tropical forests is likely missed by current measurements. Suggestions for improvements to the technique and future applications are discussed.

  12. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  13. Does urban forestry have a quantitative effect on ambient air quality in an urban environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irga, P. J.; Burchett, M. D.; Torpy, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    Increasing urban greenspace has been proposed as a means of reducing airborne pollutant concentrations; however limited studies provide experimental data, as opposed to model estimates, of its ability to do so. The current project examined whether higher concentrations of urban forestry might be associated with quantifiable effects on ambient air pollutant levels, whilst accounting for the predominant source of localized spatial variations in pollutant concentrations, namely vehicular traffic. Monthly air samples for one year were taken from eleven sites in central Sydney, Australia. The sample sites exhibited a range of different traffic density, population usage, and greenspace/urban forest density conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), suspended particles air samples taken from sites with less greenspace frequently had high concentrations of all fractions of aerosolized particulates than other sites, whilst sites with high proximal greenspace had lower particulates, even when vehicular traffic was taken into account. No observable trends in concentrations of NO, TVOC and SO2 were observed, as recorded levels were generally very low across all sampled areas. The findings indicate, first, that within the urban areas of a city, localized differences in air pollutant loads occur. Secondly, we conclude that urban areas with proportionally higher concentrations of urban forestry may experience better air quality with regards to reduced ambient particulate matter; however conclusions about other air pollutants are yet to be elucidated.

  14. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo. PMID:24151679

  15. Estimating the effects of ambient conditions on the performance of UVGI air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Josephine; Bahnfleth, William; Freihaut, James [Indoor Environment Center, Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) uses UVC radiation produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps to control biological air contaminants. Ambient air velocity and temperature have a strong effect on lamp output by influencing the lamp surface cold spot temperature. In-duct UVGI systems are particularly susceptible to ambient effects due to the range of velocity and temperature conditions they may experience. An analytical model of the effect of ambient conditions on lamp surface temperature was developed for three common lamp types in cross flow from a convective-radiative energy balance assuming constant surface temperature. For one lamp type, a single tube standard output lamp, UVC output and cold spot temperature data were obtained under typical in-duct operating conditions. Over an ambient temperature range of 10-32.2 C and an air velocity range of 0-3.25 m/s, measured cold spot temperature varied from 12.7 to 41.9 C and measured lamp output varied by 68% of maximum. Surface temperatures predicted by the heat transfer model were 6-17 C higher than corresponding measured cold spot temperatures, but were found to correlate well with cold spot temperature via a two-variable linear regression. When corrected using this relationship, the simple model predicted the cold spot temperature within 1 C and lamp UVC output within {+-}5%. To illustrate its practical use, the calibrated lamp model was employed in a simulation of the control of a contaminant in a single-zone ventilation system by an in-duct UVGI device. In this example, failure to account for the impact of ambient condition effects resulted in under-prediction of average space concentration by approximately 20% relative to a constant output system operating at maximum UVC output. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  17. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient..., known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR 49 (1999... a notice on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39254) which invited the public to comment on EPA's...

  18. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  19. Consequences of fluctuations in the ambient air temperature at Lake Tanganyika --- A wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mbungu Tsumbu, Jean-Pierre; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bopili-Mbotia-Lepiba, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the horizontal wind speed and of both the ambient air temperature and the water temperature according to the depth. Our study clearly shows how Lake Tanganyika is thermally stratified, showing four different water layers. The study shows how waters of upper layers tend to have the same temperature as the deepest water during the dry season. The water stratification tends then to disappear completely in the dry season. The study is based on the fact that water rele...

  20. Relation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight in the Northeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonet, M; Bush, T J; Correa, A; Jaakkola, J J

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between term low birth weight (LBW) and ambient air levels of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter up to 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). The study population consisted of singleton, term live births (37-44 weeks of gestation) born between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1996 in six northeastern cities of the United States: Boston, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Springfield, Ma...

  1. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a natural experiment study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Nichols, Catherine; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunping; Liu, Xiaohong; Gao, Suhong; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM10), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM10 and NO2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods We estimated th...

  2. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformat...

  3. Effect of ambient air pressure on debris redeposition during laser ablation of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ambient air pressure on the redeposition of debris, ablated from the zinc borosilicate glass target using 6 ns, 266 nm laser pulses, has been studied for incident fluences of 3-18 J/cm2. Measurements were carried out in air at pressures ranging from 10-750 Torr. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope observations of the target surface were made to analyze the morphology of the redeposited debris. It was found that for higher values of the laser fluence and ambient pressure, the target surface is extremely rough, with large pieces of molten glass and debris fragments deposited near and around the ablation site. The profile of the redeposited debris also shows signs of a strong shock-wave-cleaning effect and possibly a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at higher pressures. Contrary to this, under low-pressure environment the surface of the redeposited debris is cleaner and smoother, with minimal damage around the ablated crater. The measured radius of the debris field was found to be proportional to the inverse cube root of the ambient pressure, consistent with the stagnation distance of the expansion plume when energy balance with the displaced air is considered. In addition to this, the mass of the redeposited debris was estimated from the measured optical thickness of the film and compared to the ablated mass. In the range below 100 Torr, both the mass of the redeposited debris and the percentage of the ablated mass which was redeposited were found to increase with the increasing fluence and the ambient air pressure

  4. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U....

  5. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    OpenAIRE

    SERAP AKDEMIR; SELCUK ARIN

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humi...

  6. METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM. PARTICULATE MATTER AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING REPORT, JANUARY THROUGH DECEMBER 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental field studies in the Yucca Mountain site characterization activities have included monitoring ambient levels of particulate matter since April 1989. The monitoring and reporting work was performed by the Management and Operating Environmental Field Programs Division. The parameters monitored, methods used in the monitoring, and the sampling schedule complied with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations and monitoring guidance. The inhalable particulate matter results have been reported to the State of Nevada since July 1991 to comply with State of Nevada air quality permit requirements. Three previous project reports presented the results obtained through 1995 (Environmental Field Programs Division 1992a; 1992b; 1996). This report presents the results obtained during 1996. Results of this monitoring program continue to identify that particulate matter remains well below applicable ambient air quality standards. The maximum inhalable particulate matter result was 60 micrograms per standard cubic meter; this result is less than one-half of the applicable 24-hour National (and Nevada) Ambient Air Quality Standard of 150 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The annual inhalable particulate matter averages for the period were approximately one-fifth of the applicable annual standard of 50 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The 1996 results were similar to results from 1989 to 1995

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions generated by a corona discharge in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Fitzmorris, Kristin; Peiris, Manoj; Hopkins, Adam J; Petrak, Benjamin; Killinger, Dennis K; Muller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence from N2(+) ions via the B(2)Σu(+)-X(2)Σg(+) band system in the near-ultraviolet. The ions were generated continuously by a plasma glow discharge in low pressure N2 and by a corona discharge in ambient air. The fluorescence decay time was found to rapidly decrease with increasing pressure leading to an extrapolated decay rate of ≍10(10) s(-1) at atmospheric pressure. In spite of this quenching, we were able to observe laser induced fluorescence in ambient air by means of a time-gated spectral measurement. In the process of comparing the emission signal with that of N2 spontaneous Raman scattering, ion concentrations in ambient air of order 10(8-)10(10) cm(-3) were determined. With moderate increases in laser power and collection efficiency, ion concentrations of less than 10(6) cm(-3) may be measurable, potentially enabling applications in atmospheric standoff detection of ionizing radiation from hazardous radioactive sources. PMID:26414524

  8. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m2/K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  9. Bronchomotor response to cold air or helium-oxygen at normal and high ambient pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Y; Burnet, H; Cosson, P; Lucciano, M

    1988-05-01

    Effects of inhalation of cold air or helium-oxygen mixture on lung resistance (RL) were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized rabbits under normal ambient pressure and in human volunteers under normo- and hyperbaric conditions. In artificially ventilated rabbits, an increase in RL occurred when the tracheal temperature fell to 10 degrees C. This effect was more than double with helium breathing compared to air, despite a lower respiratory heat loss by convection (Hc) with helium. In 3 normal humans, inhalation of cold air (mouth temperature = 8 degrees C) at sea level had no effect on RL value. However, with a helium-nitrogen-oxygen mixture, a weak but significant increase in RL due to cold gas breathing was measured in 1 subject at 2 ATA and in 2 individuals at 3.5 ATA. The density of inhaled gas mixture (air or He-N2-O2) was near the same in the three circumstances (1, 2, and 3.5 ATA) but Hc value increased with helium. At 8 ATA a 30-55% increase in RL occurred in the 3 divers during inhalation of cold gas (Hc was multiplied by 6 compared to air at sea level) and at 25 ATA the cold-induced bronchospasm ranged between 38 and 95% (Hc multiplied by 27). Thus, in rabbits and humans helium breathing enhanced the cold-induced increase in RL at normal or elevated ambient pressure, and this effect was interpreted as resulting from different mechanisms in the two circumstances. PMID:3388628

  10. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly. PMID:23636622

  11. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  12. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  13. Air/superfund national technical guidance study series. Volume 4. Guidance for ambient air monitoring at superfund sites (revised). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of an EPA-sponsored study to develop guidance for designing and conducting ambient air monitoring at Superfund sites. By law, all exposure pathways - including the air pathway - must be evaluated for every Superfund site; therefore, some level of ambient air monitoring usually is necessary at each site. The document offers technical guidance for use by a diverse audience, including EPA Air and Superfund Regional and Headquarters staff, State Air and Superfund staff, federal and state remedial and removal contractors, and potentially responsible parties. The manual is written to serve the needs of individuals with various levels of scientific training and experience in selecting and using ambient air monitoring methods in support of air pathway assessments

  14. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  15. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  16. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  17. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide, SO2 (Sulfur dioxide and NO (Nitrous oxide at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMAQG during October 2013 to Jun 2014. Meteorological data was collected from the E-Sampler device for 24 hours. It was found that the CO concentrations were fall within the RMAQG at all stations monitored. The SO2 concentration was high at Station 3 (Material lab, with 0.66 ppm which was exceeded the RMAQG of 0.13 ppm. All three stations recorded high concentration of NO, which the peak concentration occurred at the afternoon sampling. The nearest Station 3 (Material lab has recorded the highest level of NO, SO2 and CO compared to the other stations. The monitoring data has contributed some highlights to the authority and awareness about possible long risk effect of the air pollutants at the case study.

  18. The association of ambient air pollution and physical inactivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10 and ozone (O3 exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging. Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. RESULTS: With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16-35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001. Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these

  19. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  20. 75 FR 61486 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... an atmospheric chemistry perspective as well as from an environmental effects perspective, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

  1. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  2. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  3. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Masson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability

  4. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Nicholas; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Hannigan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors produce an electric current in response to target pollutants. This work addresses the development of practical models for understanding and quantifying the signal response of electrolytic sensors. Such models compensate for confounding effects on the sensor response, such as ambient temperature and humidity, and address other issues that affect the usability of low-cost sensors, such as sensor drift and inter-sensor variability. PMID:26516860

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of a radio-frequency argon plasma jet discharge in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, P. J.; Milosavljević, V.

    2015-06-01

    This study includes a detailed experimental investigation of the spatial and temporal spectroscopic emission of an argon plasma jet discharge. The study is carried out in ambient air and quenching by inflowing air species is considered. The optical emission spectroscopy of neutral atomic spectral lines and molecular bands, over a range of plasma process parameters, is investigated. Wavelength-resolved argon optical emission profiles are used to monitor the electron energy distribution function and the density of argon metastable atoms. The experimental data indicates that the argon flow rate, in a confined open-air plasma discharge, limits the impact of molecular oxygen in the creation of oxygen radicals. The absolute calibrated emission spectra facilitate the possibility of standardization of the so-called plasma dose.

  6. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient Monitoring sites locations (includes O3, PM, and met sites), Published in 2007, NC DENR / Div. of Air Quality / Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as 'Ambient Monitoring...

  7. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  9. Relationship between the Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Indoor and Ambient Air of the Tehran Children Hospital in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Soheila Rezaei; Kazem Naddafi; Hossain Jabbari; Masoud Yonesian; Arsalan Jamshidi; Abdolmohamad Sadat; Alireza Raygan Shirazinejad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In recent years exposure to fine airborne particles has been identified as an important factor affecting human health. Epidemiological studies have showed that the aerosol laden air can be an agent for microorganisms’ dispersion. Ignoring internal sources, ambient air quality significantly affects indoor air quality. Since people spend most of their times in the indoor spaces and little data are available on the general understanding of the indoor air quality, the...

  10. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  11. Particle-bound Dechlorane Plus and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in ambient air around Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study, atmospheric particles from Shanghai, the biggest city and the most important industrial base in China, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP). Concentrations of Σ20PBDEs and DP both exhibited the changing trend of industrial area > urban areas. Jiading District had the highest levels of particulate PBDEs and DP with values of 744 ± 152 pg/m3 and 5.48 ± 1.28 pg/m3, respectively. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PBDEs in Shanghai were at medium pollution level, while DP was at lower level, which reflected their different production and use in Shanghai. The results from multiple linear regression analysis suggested that deca-BDE mixture was the most important contributor of particulate PBDEs in Shanghai. The fractions of anti-DP showed no significant differences to those of the technical mixtures (p > 0.05), which suggested that no obviously stereoselective process occurred in ambient air around Shanghai. - Highlights: → Atmospheric PBDEs of Shanghai were at moderate levels and dominated by BDE-209. → Particulate DP was low even Shanghai is not far from the DP manufacturing factory. → DP showed no obviously stereoselective process in air particles from Shanghai. → Significant positive correlation was found between particulate PBDEs and PBDD/Fs. - The moderate PBDEs levels with deca-BDE being the most important contributor and low DP levels in ambient air around Shanghai reflected their different usage in this area.

  12. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  14. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  15. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq. atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected compared to daytime (average 1 μg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected, with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254, similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH

  16. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM10, and PM2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  17. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  18. Volcanic gas emissions and their impact on ambient air character at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T. [Minerals Management Service, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Navarrete, R. [Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    1994-12-31

    Gas emissions from Kilauea occur from the summit caldera, along the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), and where lava enters the ocean. We estimate that the current ERZ eruption of Kilauea releases between 400 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} per day, during eruptive pauses, to as much as 1850 metric tonnes per day during actively erupting periods, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl and HF. In order to characterize gas emissions from Kilauea in a meaningful way for assessing environmental impact, we made a series of replicate grab-sample measurements of ambient air and precipitation at the summit of Kilauea, along its ERZ, and at coastal sites where lava enters the ocean. The grab-sampling data combined with SO{sub 2} emission rates, and continuous air quality and meteorological monitoring at the summit of Kilauea show that the effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Prevailing tradewinds typically carry the gases and aerosols released to the southwest, where they are further distributed by the regional wind regime. Episodes of kona, or low speed variable winds sometimes disrupt this pattern, however, and allow the gases and their oxidation products to collect at the summit and eastern side of the island. Summit solfatara areas of Kilauea are distinguished by moderate to high ambient SO{sub 2}, high H{sub 2}S at one location, and low H{sub 2}S at all others, and negligible HCl concentrations, as measured 1 m from degassing point-sources. Summit solfatara rain water has high sulfate and low chloride ion concentrations, and low pH.

  19. Behavior and source characteristic of PCBS in urban ambient air of Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the behavior and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, gaseous and particulate phase concentrations were measured at Yokohama City, Japan, during March 2002 and February 2003. The concentration of total PCB and TEQ ranged from 62 to 250 pg/m3 and from 2 to 14 fgTEQ/m3, respectively. The gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) was obtained as a function of temperature. The relationship between the partition coefficient and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (P L) was also established (coefficients of determination for log K p versus log P L plot were >0.76, except for three samples). As a result, the partition ratio of gaseous and particulate phase PCBs can be estimated for an arbitrary temperature. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the source identification of PCBs in ambient air. The concentrations of 122 congeners between tetra-CBs and deca-CB were used as input variables, and three PCs with eigenvalue more than 10 were obtained. The principal component 1 (PC 1) accounted for 43.4% of the total variance, and was interpreted as volatilization from PCB products and/or sites polluted by PCBs. The concentrations of PCB congeners were strongly related with PC 1 which showed high correlation with temperature. PC 2 accounted for 22.3%, and was interpreted as PCBs from incineration sources, while PC 3 accounted for 10.8%, but could not be interpreted. - The relationship between the gas-particle partition coefficient (Kp) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure was estimated using gaseous and particle phase concentration in ambient air, and was estimated source apportionment of PCBs

  20. Comparison of the externally heated air valve engine and the helium Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air EHVE produces comparable power as equivalent helium Stirling engine. • No heat regenerator used in the EHVE, standard lubrication system. • External combustion engine combined with forced flow added (super-charging). • EHVE uses typical piston engine body design and governing cam system. • Possible use of different fuels: oil, coal, gas also sun and nuclear energy. - Abstract: A two-stroke, externally heated valve engine (EHVE) with a heater, a cooler and two blowers is simulated. The engine is entirely different from a typical Stirling engine. The pressure ratio pmax/pmin of its cycle is higher, but the engine volume and the mean value of the heat exchanger wall temperatures are the same. The power and efficiency of the EHVE and Stirling engines under the same maximum pressures are compared. The results show that the EHVE engine reaches almost the same level of performance as the Stirling engine, while using only available atmospheric air, rather than helium

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  2. Tritium release from a nonevaportable getter-pump cartridge exposed to moist air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tritium released when a commercially available getter-pump cartridge was exposed to moist air at ambient temperatures was measured. The cartridge consisted of Zr-Al powder pressed onto an iron substrate, which is the type of cartridge proposed for use in the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor. While the initial release of tritium was rapid the total activity released was lss than 0.005% of the cartridge loading. Of this amount, at least 80% was released as tritiated water. 8 figures

  3. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor A Utsal; Dobryakov, Yuri G; Vitenberg, Alexander G; Makarova, Svetlana V; Anna Yu Eshchenko; Igor G Zenkevich

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) a...

  4. CRITERIOS PARA UNA AGENDA AMBIENTAL DE AREAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS COSTERAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marcela; López, María José; Testa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Las Áreas Protegidas costeras en la provincia de Buenos Aires tienen dificultades de gestión ambiental y requieren de un ordenamiento vinculado al desarrollo sostenible, donde se reconozcan los vínculos entre los derechos de propiedad, la participación y la acción colectiva en el manejo de los recursos del territorio. Por lo tanto, la institucionalidad del manejo de las reservas provinciales costeras se define en escenarios muy complejos de governanza. Las estrategias de governanza de las Áre...

  5. A simple and safe method for preparation of Mg(OH)2 nanorods in ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Shah; Al-Marzouki, F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 nanorods with diameters of 90±10nm and lengths of more than 2μms were prepared by a simple route at ~75oC in ambient air. The approach is based on reaction of magnesium powder and de-ionized water without the use of any harmful, toxic or corrosive reagents. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows single crystalline structure of Mg(OH)2 (brucite) whereas Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that nanorods are almost uniform in size. Since only water...

  6. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x (SCN) x perovskite films can be readily prepare...

  7. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  8. Air intake and exhaust systems in fuel cell engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuesser, R.; Weber, O. [Mann and Hummel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the air intake and exhaust system of a fuel cell powered road vehicle. In this instance the automotive supplier designed both the air intake and the exhaust system. The fuel cell engine gives a cold combustion effect making it possible to manufacture the exhaust from plastic materials. (UK)

  9. Relationship between ambient air pollution and DNA damage in Polish mothers and newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrialized regions in Poland are characterized by high ambient pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal burning for industry and home heating. In experimental bioassays, certain PAHs are transplacental carcinogens and developmental toxicants. The amount of PAHs bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in maternal and umbilical white blood cells were measured in 70 mothers and newborns from Krakow, Poland. Modulation of adduct levels by genotypes previously linked to risk of lung cancer, specifically glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). There was a dose-related increase in maternal and newborn adduct levels with ambient pollution at the women's place of residence among subjects who were not employed away from home (p less than or equal to 0.05). Maternal smoking (active and passive) significantly increased maternal (p less than or equal to 0.01) but not newborn adduct levels. Results indicate that PAH-induced DNA damage in mothers and newborns is increased by ambient air pollution

  10. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  11. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap, E-mail: ravips@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.

  12. SPATIAL VARIABILTY OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIR VELOCITY IN A COLD STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAP AKDEMIR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution the ambient temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined for different storage temperatures such as 0 oC, 1 oC, 2 oC and 3 oC in an experimental cold store. Mapping software were used to show the variability. Spatial distribution of the temperature and the relative humidity was not uniform in the cold store. Reason of bad spatial distributions was bad spatial distribution of air velocity distributed by evaporator. A temperature and/or a relative humidity sensor are used in cooling systems to measure temperature and relative humidity. The umber of sensors are not enough to determine variability of temperature and relative humidity. There should be additional sensors located different places to give idea for cold storage.

  13. Measurement of major ambient air pollution components at sub-urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base line study for the measurement of major ambient air pollution components such as O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, CO, NO, NO/sub x/,PM10, methane, non-methane along with the meteorological parameters was carried out by air pollution Monitoring Mobile Laboratory at an urban back ground site of Karachi. The average concentration of O/sub 3/ was found to be between 4.62 and 20.36 ppb, SO/sub 2/ 0.73 and 4.69 ppb, CO 0.14 and 0.77 ppm. NO 0.92 and 2.73 ppb, NO/sub x/ 3.1 and 7.5 ppb, PM10 142 and 251 mu g m/sup -3/, methane 1.09 and 2.7 ppm, non-methane hydrocarbon 0.41 and 0.96 ppm. (author)

  14. Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C2 and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals

  15. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront

  16. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O2* species of unknown identity with ground state O2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  17. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  18. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  19. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  20. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  1. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  3. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as asorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured. Thesample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up ehition through a silica gelcolumn was optimized. The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows: resinweight was 1.5 g, ultrasonic extraction time 20 min, volume of extraction solvent 100 mi andextraction operation times 2~3. The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to nextstep of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and amixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3 (v/v). The PAHs fractions in the real samplesfrom Changzhou, China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of massspectra, retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of thestandards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as "priority pollutants" of the environment. Theanalysis of the real samples indicates that the carbonized fibrous resin is a good sorbent. Thepretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for P,AHs isproved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs inatmospheric environment.

  4. Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

  5. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Custer, T.; Song, W.; Pech, F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2010-11-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS), 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS). Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m-2 s-1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  6. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  7. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  8. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  9. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  10. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  11. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  12. The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001 and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005. These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIR CHARGED LOW POWERED STIRLING ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can ÇINAR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air charged, low powered manufactured ? type Stirling engine was investigated experimentally. Tests were conducted at 800, 900 and 1000 °C hot source temperatures, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 bars air charge pressure. The variation of engine power depending on the charge pressure and hot source temperature for two different heat transfer area was investigated experimentally. Maximum output power was obtained at 1000 °C and 3 bars charge pressure as 58 W at 441 rpm. Engine speed was reached at 846 rpm without load.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIR CHARGED LOW POWERED STIRLING ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Can ÇINAR

    2004-01-01

    In this study, an air charged, low powered manufactured ? type Stirling engine was investigated experimentally. Tests were conducted at 800, 900 and 1000 °C hot source temperatures, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 bars air charge pressure. The variation of engine power depending on the charge pressure and hot source temperature for two different heat transfer area was investigated experimentally. Maximum output power was obtained at 1000 °C and 3 bars charge pressure as 58 W at 441 rpm. Engine speed w...

  15. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Ithnin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer, Aeroqual, MultiRAE, ICP-MS, NMAM 7303 and gravimetric method. Gilian High Volume Air Sampler was used to measure heavy metal parameters that were conducted for 8 h, Personal Sampling Pump to measure total suspended particulates for 8 h, MultiRAE for H2S and CH4 gas, Aeroqual for CO2 gas, Multilog for CO gas and a Tedlar bag for O2 gas. For biological parameters, settle plate method was used and conducted for 20 min. Veloci CALC and wind probe were used to measure physical parameters. Results: In the ambient air, the mean concentration of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP, lead and cadmium were higher at an exposed location compared to the control with a reading of 0.325±0.29, 0.108±0.050 and 0.06±0.045 ng m-3 respectively. The reason was that the exposed location was a former landfill site and there were several co-founding factors. Mean concentration for chemical parameters were higher at the exposed location and all the chemical parameters were not exceeding the EPA Protocol Gas for Single Component. The mean concentration of oxygen is 20.95±0.005%, carbon dioxide 669.25±84.109 ppm and carbon monoxide 1.8±0.957 ppm. For biological parameters, mean for the colony total count also higher at the exposed location compared to control location where the mean for bacterial was 17.75±4.573cfu while for fungal, the mean is 8.0±2.828 cfu. Indoor air quality results showed that concentration means of CO2 was 877.8±59.40 ppm, CO was 5.0

  16. Application of DALYs in Measuring Health Effect of Ambient Air Pollution: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; CHANG-HONG CHEN; GUO-HAI CHEN; GUI-XIANG SONG; BING-HENG CHEN; QING-YAN FU; HAI-DONG KAN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on human health and the subsequent disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Shanghai. Methods We used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to air pollution in Shanghai in 2000, and then we estimated the corresponding DALYs lost in Shanghai based on unit DALYs values of the health consequences. Results Ambient air pollution caused 103 064 DALYs lost in Shanghai in 2000. Among all the health endpoints, premature deaths and chronic bronchitis predominated in the value of total DALYs lost. Conclusion The air pollution levels have an adverse effect on the general population health and strengthen the rationale for limiting the levels of air pollution in outdoor air in Shanghai.

  17. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  18. Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  19. Forty years increase of the air ambient temperature in Greece: The impact on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Forty years hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece are analysed. • The air temperature increase influences the buildings’ energy demand. • A typical office building’s energy demand is examined. • The heating load is decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade. • The cooling load is increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. - Abstract: Air temperatures in urban areas continue to increase because of the heat island phenomenon (UHI) and the undeniable warming of the lower atmosphere during the past few decades. The observed high ambient air temperatures intensify the energy demand in cities, deteriorate urban comfort conditions, endanger the vulnerable population and amplify pollution problems especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. The present paper analyses 40 years of hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece in order to understand the impact of air temperature and relative humidity trends on the energy consumption of buildings. Using a typical office building, the analysis showed that for the period in question the heating load in the Greek building sector has decreased by about 1 kWh/m2 per decade, while the cooling load increased by about 5 kWh/m2 per decade. This phenomenon has major environmental, economic and social consequences, which will be amplified in the upcoming decades in view of the expected man-made climatic changes in this geographic area

  20. Ambient air quality standards and guidelines in some countries. Ilmanlaadun ohjearvot ja normit muissa maissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroueh, U.M.; Laukkarinen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) initiated in 1973 the WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme, the result of which is a series of criteria documents concerning most significant air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants and ozone). The objective of the programme was to provide national authorities guidelines for setting exposure limits consistent with the protection of public health. Most national standards are based on the WHO guidelines when health effects are concerned. One important aspect when evaluating standards and guidelines applied in different countries, is the capability of the authorities to monitor and manage the quality of ambient air. In some standards whole the assessment system (monitoring stations, sampling frequency, instrumentation, data evaluation etc.) is precisely specified whereas others define only the measuring methods. For the present only European Communities have attempted to harmonize both air quality regulations and the assessment system throughout the territory of member states. The most significant member states have issued also air quality standards of their own differing from EC values, and according to some international experts the effects of EC limit values are minor so far.

  1. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  2. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pol...

  3. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Mônica V. MARQUEZINI; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Ubiratan P Santos; Alfésio L F Braga; Alves, Milton R.; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, ...

  4. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yang; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009∼201...

  5. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10. The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  6. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  7. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  8. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN for Ambient Air Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87 with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42 with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  9. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  10. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find evidence of a positive association between ambient air pollution and asthma prevalence as measured at the community level.

  11. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Congestive Heart Failure: a Repeated-Measures Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips Russell S; Suh Helen H; Coull Brent A; Yeh Gloria Y; Wellenius Gregory A; Mittleman Murray A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollut...

  12. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Richard; N. Bukowiecki; Lienemann, P.; Furger, M.; Weideli, B.; Fierz, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Figi, R.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Prévôt, A. S H; U. Baltensperger

    2010-01-01

    Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in a...

  13. Development of Ambient Air Quality Population-Weighted Metrics for Use in Time-Series Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2008-01-01

    A robust methodology is developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter components, from monitors located in the twenty-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the 1999 through 2004 time period were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models...

  14. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  15. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate informatio...

  16. Annual report of the ambient air quality measurements in Austria 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the result of the ambient air quality measurements conducted according to the air quality act (Austrian Federal Law Gazette I 115/97) in Austria in 2000. This act defines ambient air quality limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide, benzene, lead in air, deposition (total mass including lead and cadmium) and a target value for ozone. The report also comprises results of explorative measurements of PM10 and PM2,5. Only one exceedance of the limit value for sulphur dioxide (0,20 mg/m3 as half hour mean value, not to be exceeded more than three times a day; 0,50 mg/m3 as half hour mean value) was observed. The exceedance was caused by air pollution transport from Slovenia. The limit values for nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulates were exceeded quite frequently in 2000. For nitrogen dioxide, mainly traffic stations were affected. Exceedances of the limit value (0,20 mg/m3 as half hour mean value) were observed both during winter episodes with unfavourable conditions for dispersion, as well as in spring/summer at a heavily frequented road during episodes with high ozone levels, causing rapid oxidation of NO to NO2. Exceedances of the limit value for total suspended particulates (0,15 mg/m3 as daily mean value) were predominately recorded in urban areas in the vicinity of heavily frequented streets, especially in southern alpine basins and valleys with unfavourable dispersion conditions. The highest pollution was recorded at a heavily frequented crossroad in Graz. For carbon monoxide (eight hour mean value of 10 mg/m3), benzene ( 10 μg/m3 as annual mean value) and lead (1 μg/m3, as annual mean value), no exceedances were recorded. The pollution levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide show a strong decrease during the last decade, whereas for nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter no clear trend can be identified. The target value of ozone is exceeded at all of the

  17. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  18. Computer Model to Estimate Reliability Engineering for Air Conditioning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability engineering is used to predict the performance and optimize design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. Air conditioning systems are expose to a number of failures. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or air conditioning system. Forecasting for system failure rates are very important for maintenance. This paper focused on the reliability of the air conditioning systems. Statistical distributions that were commonly applied in reliability settings: the standard (2 parameter) Weibull and Gamma distributions. After distributions parameters had been estimated, reliability estimations and predictions were used for evaluations. To evaluate good operating condition in a building, the reliability of the air conditioning system that supplies conditioned air to the several The company's departments. This air conditioning system is divided into two, namely the main chilled water system and the ten air handling systems that serves the ten departments. In a chilled-water system the air conditioner cools water down to 40-45 degree F (4-7 degree C). The chilled water is distributed throughout the building in a piping system and connected to air condition cooling units wherever needed. Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided reliability software, this is due to the Weibull and Gamma distributions indicated that the reliability for the systems equal to 86.012% and 77.7% respectively. A comparison between the two important families of distribution functions, namely, the Weibull and Gamma families was studied. It was found that Weibull method performed for decision making.

  19. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen Hong Tseng; Chien Hou Wu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Kong Hwa Chiu [Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology; Jiunn Guang Lo [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Environmental Chemistry Lab.; Yuan Pein Inst. of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiological Technology

    2004-08-01

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling sites. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled. (author)

  20. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among persons with congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a mortality time series study to investigate the association between daily mortality for congestive heart failure (CHF), and dail concentrations of particles and gaseous pollutants in the ambient air o Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984-1993. In addition, using data fro the universal Quebec Health Insurance Plan, we identified individuals ≥6 years of age who, one year before death, had a diagnosis of CHF. Fixed-sit air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of pollutants We regressed the logarithm of daily counts of mortality on the daily mean levels of each pollutant, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and other gaseous and particle pollutants. Using cause of deat information, we did not find any associations between daily mortality for CH and any air pollutants. The analyses of CHF defined from the medical record showed positive associations with coefficient of haze, the extinction coefficient, SO2, and NO2. For example, the mean percent increase in dail mortality for an increase in the coefficient of haze across the interquartile range was 4.32% (95% CI: 0.95-7.80%) and for NO2 it was 4.08% (95% CI 0.59-7.68%). These effects were generally higher in the warm season

  1. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (0.1-2.5 μm) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure

  2. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna M T de Rooij

    Full Text Available One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East, in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%. Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76. We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

  3. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; de Bruin, Arnout; Janse, Ingmar; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%). Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31–2.76). We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak. PMID:26991094

  4. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM10, PM2.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM10/PM2.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  5. Atmospheric pressure diffuse plasma in ambient air for ITO surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of atmospheric filament-free diffuse plasma in ambient air and oxygen by Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) on surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) were studied. The DCSBD plasma treatment resulted in significant reduction of water contact angles (even for 1 s long treatment). The decrease can be explained by the chemical changes on surface. These were studied by XPS which shows considerable decrease in the carbon surface concentration. The detailed analysis of C1s peak indicates the increase of the highest binding energy component of the C1s peak that corresponds to polar bonds with oxygen, which may be also related to decrease of water contact angle. AFM measurement showed no significant effect of plasma on ITO surface morphology.

  6. Ambient air quality during wheat and rice crop stubble burning episodes in Patiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Susheel K.; Singh, Nirankar; Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    Open crop stubble burning events were observed in and around Patiala city, India. A ground level study was deliberated to analyze the contribution of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and rice ( Oriza sativa) crop stubble burning practices on concentration levels of aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 in ambient air at five different sites in and around Patiala city covering agricultural, commercial and residential areas. Aerosols were collected on GMF/A and QMF/A (Whatman) sheets for a 24 h period throughout the year in 2007. Simultaneously, sampling of SO 2 and NO 2 was conducted and results obtained during stubble burning periods were compared to the non-stubble burning periods. Results clearly pointed out a distinct increase in aerosol, SO 2 and NO 2 levels during the crop stubble burning periods.

  7. Characterization of the finest and coarse airborne particulate matter in Kuala Lumpur's ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will report the mass concentration of the finest (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) airborne particles in ambient air of Kuala Lumpur area collected using GENT Stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling site (Lat: 03deg 10' 30'' Long: 101deg 43' 24.2'') is about 1 km from Kuala Lumpur City Center. Elemental concentration in the samples collected once every month throughout the year 2002 has been analyzed using the currently available NAA facilities at MINT. Elements determined in the study include Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, NA, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Quality control material used to control the quality of the analytical procedures was NBS 1633a. (author)

  8. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  9. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals using vertical Bridgman method in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K.; Ohba, E.; Kobayashi, T.; Yanagisawa, J.; Miyagawa, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to β-Ga2O3 single crystal growth was studied, using the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in ambient air, while measuring the β-Ga2O3 melting temperature and investigating the effects of crucible composition and shape. β-Ga2O3 single crystals 25 mm in diameter were grown in platinum-rhodium alloy crucibles in ambient air, with no adhesion of the crystals to the crucible wall. Single crystal growth without a crystal seed was realized by (100) faceted growth with a growth direction perpendicular to the (100) faceted plane.

  10. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  11. A hot air driven thermoacoustic-Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, M.E.H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Significant energy savings can be obtained by implementing a thermally driven heat pump into industrial or domestic applications. Such a thermally driven heat pump uses heat from a high-temperature source to drive the system which upgrades an abundantly available heat source (industrial waste heat, air, water, geothermal). A way to do this is by coupling a thermoacoustic engine with a thermoacoustic heat pump. The engine is driven by a burner and produces acoustic power and heat at the required temperature. The acoustic power is used to pump heat in the heat pump to the required temperature. This system is attractive since it uses a noble gas as working medium and has no moving mechanical parts. This paper deals with the first part of this system: the engine. In this study, hot air is used to simulate the flue gases originating from a gas burner. This is in contrast with a lot of other studies of thermoacoustic engines that use an electrical heater as heat source. Using hot air resembles to a larger extent the real world application. The engine produces about 300W of acoustic power with a performance of 41% of the Carnot efficiency at a hot air temperature of 620C.

  12. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure for 7 days, using a passive sampler. Impression cytology samples were obtained from inferior tarsal conjunctiva. Comparisons between the two groups in terms of NO2 exposure and goblet-cell counts were performed using the Student t-test. Correlations between goblet-cells counts and corresponding individual NO2 exposure levels were determined using Spearman’s correlation. Results Individuals living in São Paulo received a significantly (p = 0.005) higher dose of NO2 (mean 32.47; SD 9.83) than those living in Divinolândia (mean 19.33; SD 5.24). There was a steady increase in goblet-cell counts, proportional to NO2 exposure (Spearman’s correlation = 0.566, p = 0.001), with a dose–response pattern. Conclusions A positive and significant association between exposure to air pollution and goblet-cell hyperplasia in human conjunctiva was detected. The combination of simple measurements of exposure and impression cytology was an effective and noninvasive approach for characterizing human response to ambient levels of air pollution. PMID:18087595

  13. Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salem, S. M.; Khan, A R

    2008-01-01

    Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3), NO, NOx, SO2, CO, H2S and NH3) of two Kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, Fahaheel and Al-Riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1) the exceedances of the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA) air quality limits, (2) primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3) diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4) the "weekend effect"on O3 levels. High O3 levels, above the threshold lim...

  14. Exergy Analysis of the Revolving Vane Compressed Air Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Subiantoro; Kin Keong Wong; Kim Tiow Ooi

    2016-01-01

    Exergy analysis was applied to a revolving vane compressed air engine. The engine had a swept volume of 30 cm3. At the benchmark conditions, the suction pressure was 8 bar, the discharge pressure was 1 bar, and the operating speed was 3,000 rev·min−1. It was found that the engine had a second-law efficiency of 29.6% at the benchmark conditions. The contributors of exergy loss were friction (49%), throttling (38%), heat transfer (12%), and fluid mixing (1%). A parametric study was also conduct...

  15. Experimental study of gas engine driven air to water heat pump in cooling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays a sustainable development for more efficient use of energy and protection of the environment is of increasing importance. Gas engine heat pumps represent one of the most practicable solutions which offer high energy efficiency and environmentally friendly for heating and cooling applications. In this paper, the performance characteristics of gas engine driven heat pump used in water cooling were investigated experimentally without engine heat recovery. The effects of several important factors (evaporator water inlet temperature, evaporator water volume flow rate, ambient air temperature, and engine speed) on the performance of gas engine driven heat pump were studied in a wide range of operating conditions. The results showed that primary energy ratio of the system increased by 22.5% as evaporator water inlet temperature increased from 13 oC to 24 oC. On the other hand, varying of engine speed from 1300 rpm to 1750 rpm led to decrease in system primary energy ratio by 13%. Maximum primary energy ratio has been estimated with a value of two over a wide range of operating conditions.

  16. Ambient air toxics monitoring and impact analysis for a resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air monitoring has been conducted for approximately three years beginning in January of 1988 at four locations surrounding the Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility (GDRRF). The GDRRF began burning refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in early 1989. Two sampling locations operated by Roy F. Weston, Inc. are located in Michigan near the facility, and two sampling locations operated by Environment Canada are located across the Detroit River in Ontario. The groups of compounds sampled include dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trace metals, and inorganic acids. The sampling results comprise one of the most comprehensive databases available for assessment of RRF air quality impacts. This paper presents a comparison of the sampling results between two of the four sampling locations. The site locations were chosen to represent background and impacted sites based on dispersion modeling and climatology. The background and impacted site results are statistically compared to determine impacts from the facility. Also, multiple regression and principal components techniques are used to identify source-receptor relations and source signatures

  17. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  18. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  19. Identification of persons with cardiorespiratory conditions who are at risk of dying from the acute effects of ambient air particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Burnett, R.T.; Bailar, J C; Tamblyn, R.; Ernst, P.; Flegel, K.; J. Brook; Bonvalot, Y; Singh, R.; Valois, M F; Vincent, R

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify subgroups of the population susceptible to the effects of ambient air particles. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provided daily mean levels of various measures of particulates and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfates were also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec, Canada). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and Sutton sulfates to predict fine pa...

  20. Acute Respiratory Inflammation in Children and Black Carbon in Ambient Air before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiwei; Huang, Wei; ZHU, TONG; Hu, Min; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhang, Yuanhang; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Hong; Gehring, Ulrike; Li, Chengcai; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for a causative association between black carbon (BC) and health outcomes is limited. Objectives: We estimated associations and exposure–response relationships between acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren and concentrations of BC and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in ambient air before and during the air pollution intervention for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Methods: We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as an...

  1. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  2. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... available for public comment (76 FR 20347). The final IRP announced today has been prepared after... was issued on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8934). Dated: December 5, 2011. Mary E. Henigin, Acting... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  3. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

  4. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  5. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...The EPA is announcing an extension of the public comment period for a draft assessment document titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010). The comment period was originally scheduled to end on April 29, 2010. The extended comment period......

  6. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National 1-hour primary and secondary....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  7. Testing of the automatic dust concentration monitor FH62I for continuous monitoring of suspended particulates in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of solid dust aerosol with a simple device and the method of calibration are described. The instrument (using a KR-85 β-source) is suitable for operation in monitoring stations for real-time surveillance of suspended particulates in ambient air. (orig./HP)

  8. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume. (low temperature plasma)

  9. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  10. Evaluation of two passive samplers for the analysis of organophosphate esters in the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Lin, Yongfeng; Liu, Runzeng; Hu, Fanbao; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-15

    Both polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) passive air sampling (PAS) methods were deployed and compared separately for the analysis of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in outdoor atmospheric environment. During an continuous period of 84 days, parallel samples were also collected by a high-volume active air sampler (HV-AAS) to assess the contamination levels and to calibrate uptake parameters of PAS. The total concentration of OPEs in both particulate and gaseous phases ranged from 1.50 to 5.64ng m(-3) in ambient air. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the dominating analog, representing 78±9% of total OPE concentration. SIP-PAS showed longer linear-phase sampling period for TCPP, and accumulated more amount of the most volatile triethyl phosphate (TEP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) homologues, while similar sorption performances of both PAS methods were found for most of the semi-volatile OPEs. Linear sampling rates in PUF-PAS and SIP-PAS disks were calculated for individual OPEs except for TEP and TBP, and the average uptake rates (3.3±1.1 and 3.5±1.7m(3)d(-1), respectively) were close to the acknowledged value (4m(-3)d(-1)) for persistent organic pollutants. Besides, isotopic labeled D15-Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) could be used as a viable depuration compound to calculate site-specific sampling rates of OPEs, with a linear loss of up to ∼60% at the end of deployment time. PMID:26592578

  11. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of adults: findings from a cross-sectional study in Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Uddhao Gawande; Abhijit Khanvilkar; Suhas Kadam; Gurudatt Potdar, Hrushikesh Salvitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor air pollution and continuous exposure to ambient air pollutants like particulate matter are among the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes all over the world. This association between air pollution and the impairment of respiratory functions is evident from number of epidemiological studies specific study has been conducted with an objective to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases of adults, in Chandrapur...

  12. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A Utsal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10 at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter – 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol. In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxybenzoic acid (depside. However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO should be reconsidered as preferably an oxidative decarboxylation with formation of carbon dioxide, CO2. Direct head-space analysis of the gaseous components formed during quercetin oxidation in aqueous solution at ambient temperature indicates that the ratio of carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide in the gas phase after acidification of the reaction media is ca. 96:4 %. Oxidation under these mild conditions is typical for other flavonols having OH groups at C3 (e.g., kaempferol, but it is completely suppressed if this hydroxyl group is substituted by a glycoside fragment (as in rutin, or a methyl substituent. An alternative oxidation mechanism involving the direct cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in the diketo-tautomer of quercetin is proposed.

  13. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  14. Iatrogenic Complications in Five Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Ambient Air: Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N. Manser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing use of carbon dioxide for endoscopies during the last years, ambient air is still used. The amount of air depends on several factors such as examination time, presumable diameter of the endoscope channel and of course active use of air by the operator. Although endoscopic complications due to ambient air in the gastrointestinal (GI tract are a rare observation and mostly described in the colon, we report five cases in the upper GI tract due to insufflating large amounts of air through the endoscopes. All 5 patients needed an emergency upper endoscopy for acute presumed upper GI bleeding. In two cases both esophageal variceal bleeding and ulcer bleeding were detected; the fifth case presented with a bleeding due to gastric cancer. Due to insufflation of inadequate amounts of air through the endoscope channel, all patients deteriorated in circulation and ventilation. Two rumenocenteses and consecutively three laparotomies had to be performed in three patients. In the other two, gastroscopies had to be stopped for an emergency computed tomography. All critical incidents were believed to be a consequence of a long-lasting examination with use of too much air. Therefore in emergency situations, endoscopies should be performed with either submersion, low air flow pumps or even better by the use of carbon dioxide.

  15. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  16. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to particulate matter: relationships between personal and ambient air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebelt, S T; Petkau, A J; Vedal, S; Fisher, T V; Brauer, M

    2000-07-01

    Mot time-series studies of particulate air pollution and acute health outcomes assess exposure of the study population using fixed-site outdoor measurements. To address the issue of exposure misclassification, we evaluate the relationship between ambient particle concentrations and personal exposures of a population expected to be at risk of particle health effects. Sampling was conducted within the Vancouver metropolitan area during April-September 1998. Sixteen subjects (non-smoking, ages 54-86) with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) wore personal PM2.5 monitors for seven 24-hr periods, randomly spaced approximately 1.5 weeks apart. Time-activity logs and dwelling characteristics data were also obtained for each subject. Daily 24-hr ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured at five fixed sites spaced throughout the study region. SO4(2-), which is found almost exclusively in the fine particle fraction and which does not have major indoor sources, was measured in all PM2.5 samples as an indicator of accumulation mode particulate matter of ambient origin. The mean personal and ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 18 micrograms/m3 and 11 micrograms/m3, respectively. In analyses relating personal and ambient measurements, ambient concentrations were expressed either as an average of the values obtained from five ambient monitoring sites for each day of personal sampling, or as the concentration obtained at the ambient site closest to each subject's home. The mean personal to ambient concentration ratio of all samples was 1.75 (range = 0.24 to 10.60) for PM2.5, and 0.75 (range = 0.09 to 1.42) for SO4(2-). Regression analyses were conducted for each subject separately and on pooled data. The median correlation (Pearson's r) between personal and average ambient PM2.5 concentrations was 0.48 (range = -0.68 to 0.83). Using SO4(2-) as the exposure metric, the median r between personal and average ambient concentrations was 0.96 (range

  17. Pollutants in particulate and gaseous fractions of ambient air interfere with multiple signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jirí; Jálová, Veronika; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, contamination of air has been evaluated primarily by chemical analyses of indicator contaminants and these studies have focused mainly on compounds associated with particulates. Some reports have shown that air contaminants can produce specific biological effects such as toxicity mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or modulation of the endocrine system. This study assessed the dioxin-like toxicity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity and anti-/retinoic activity of both the particulate and gas phase fractions of air in two regions with different types of pollution sources and a background locality situated in an agricultural area of Central Europe. The first region (A) is known to be significantly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and chemical industry. The other region (B) has been polluted by historical releases of PCBs, but the major current sources of contamination are probably combustion sources from local traffic and heating. Samples of both particle and gas fractions produced dioxin-like (AhR-mediated) activity, anti-estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, but none had any effect on retinoid signaling. AhR-mediated activities were observed in all samples and the TEQ values were comparable in both fractions in region A, but significantly greater in the particulate fraction in region B. The greater AhR-mediated activity corresponded to a greater coincident antiestrogenicity of both phases in region B. Our study is the first report of antiestrogenicity and antiandrogenicity in ambient air. Anti-androgenicity was observed in the gas phase of all regions, while in the particulate phase only in one region due to the specific type of pollution in that area. Even though based on concentrations of individual compounds, except for the OCPs, the level of contamination of the two regions was similar, there were strong differences in responses in the bioassays between the two regions. Moreover, AhR-mediated activity and

  18. Liquid air fueled open–closed cycle Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy of liquid air is divided into cryogenic energy and expansion energy. • Open–closed cycle Stirling mechanism is employed to improve efficiency. • The Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in cold space. - Abstract: An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, the added Stirling mechanism helps achieve its high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. On one hand, based on Stirling mechanism, gas in the hot space absorbs heat from atmosphere when expanding; gas in the cold space is cooled down by liquid air when compressed. Taking atmosphere as heat source and liquid air as heat sink, a closed Stirling cycle is formed. On the other hand, an exhaust port is set in the hot space. When expanding in the hot space, the vaporized gas is discharged through the exhaust port. Thus, an open cycle is established. To model and analyze the system, the Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in the cold space, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The results obtained from the model show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Its efficiency could be improved by reducing temperature difference between the regenerator and the cold/hot space, increasing the swept volume ratio, decreasing the liquid–gas ratio. To keep

  19. Study on an Air Quality Evaluation Model for Beijing City Under Haze-Fog Pollution Based on New Ambient Air Quality Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Dong-Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive eval...

  20. Annual report on the ambient air quality measurement in Austria 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the ambient air quality situation (measurements) conducted according to the Air Quality Act and the Ozone Act in Austria during 2004 is presented. The situation was assessed mainly in relation to Austrian limit and target values of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (this is measured using two different indicators: total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10), carbon monoxide, benzene and lead. The PM10 limit value - 35 days with average concentrations above 50 μg/m3 - was exceeded at 27 sites. The highest exceedances were measured at traffic related sites in large cities, in particular the city of Graz, in Vienna, at industrial sites (e.g. Linz). Main sources for primary particulate matter are road traffic, domestic heating (in particular wood burning), industrial emissions, construction activities and off-road sources. For nitrogen dioxide, the short term limit value was exceeded at few traffic related sites, mainly - but not only - in larger towns. The limit value for the protection of vegetation of 30 μg/m3 NOx was exceeded at one site in Tyrol (Kramsach). Limit values for sulfur dioxide were exceeded at three sites. Neither the limit values for carbon monoxide, lead and benzene nor the alert thresholds for nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide were exceeded in this year. Deposition of total particulates limit value was exceeded at a few sites, lead and cadmium in two industrial sites. Low ozone levels were measured at most monitoring sites, the information threshold of 180 μg/m3 ozone as one hour mean was exceeded at 21 sites on all together 9 days and the alert threshold of 240 μg/m3 as one hour mean was not exceeded. 45 figs., 57 tabs. (nevyjel)

  1. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  2. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  3. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  4. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  5. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions. - There is a large potential of phytotoxic risk on vegetation in Selangor State, Malaysia

  6. Time series analysis of ambient air concentrations in Alexandria and Nile delta region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collected from the Air Monitoring Network of Alexandria and Delta (EEAA/EIMP-program), were analyzed. Emphasis is given to indicator pollutants PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO. Two sites have been selected in Alexandria (IGSR and Shohada) and three sites in Delta region (Kafr Elzyat, Mansoura and Mahalla) for analysis of three years from 2000-2002. Box -Jenkins modeling has been used mainly for forecasting and assessing relative importance of various parameters or pollutants. Results showed that, the autoregressive (AR) order for all series ranged from 0-2 except NO2 at Mansoura site. Also the moving average order ranged from 0-2 except CO at IGSR site. Nitrogen dioxide and Ozone at IGSR site have the same ARIMA model which is (0, 1, and 2). Cross correlation analysis has revealed important information on the dynamics, chemistry and interpretation of ambient pollution. Cross-correlation functions of SO2 and PM10 at IGSR sites suggest that, sulfur dioxide has been adsorbed on the surface of particulates which has an alkaline nature. This enhances the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate, which results in low levels of SO2 in spite of the presence of sources

  7. Tribological behavior of micron-scale polycrystalline silicon structural films in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsem, D. H.; van der Hulst, R.; Stach, E. A.; Dugger, M. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2009-02-01

    As tribological properties are critical factors in the reliability of microelectromechanical systems, it is important to understand the physical processes and parameters governing wear and friction in silicon structural films. Dynamic friction, wear volumes and wear morphology have been studied for polysilicon devices from the Sandia SUMMiT VTM process actuated in ambient air at μN loads. A total of seven devices were tested. Roughly half of the devices showed a peak in the friction coefficient at three times the initial value with failure after 105 cycles. The other half of the devices behaved similarly initially; however, following the friction coefficient peak they displayed a lower steady-state friction regime with no failure for millions of cycles. Additionally, the nanoscale wear coefficient and roughness increased in the first ~105 cycles and then slowly decayed over several million cycles. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed amorphous oxygen-rich debris. These measurements show that after a short adhesive wear regime, abrasive wear is the governing mechanism with failures attributed to differences in the local nanoscale surface morphology. Changing the relative humidity, sliding speed and load was found to influence the friction coefficient, but re-oxidation of worn polysilicon surfaces was only found to have an effect after periods of inactivity.

  8. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  9. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2011-07-01

    The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all experience expansion and contraction. Because of the different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients between these materials, hygro-thermal stresses are introduced into the unit cell during operation. In addition, the non-uniform current and reactant flow distributions in the cell result in non-uniform temperature and moisture content of the cell which could in turn, potentially causing localized increases in the stress magnitudes, and this leads to mechanical damage, which can appear as through-the-thickness flaws or pinholes in the membrane, or delaminating between the polymer membrane and gas diffusion layers. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of these damage mechanisms in the membranes and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operation conditions. A three-dimensional, multi-phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a planar ambient air-breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed and used to study the effects of ambient conditions on the temperature distribution, displacement, deformation, and stresses inside the cell. The behaviour of the fuel cell during operation has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of mechanical, hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. The results show that the non

  10. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all experience expansion and contraction. Because of the different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients between these materials, hygro-thermal stresses are introduced into the unit cell during operation. In addition, the non-uniform current and reactant flow distributions in the cell result in non-uniform temperature and moisture content of the cell which could in turn, potentially causing localized increases in the stress magnitudes, and this leads to mechanical damage, which can appear as through-the-thickness flaws or pinholes in the membrane, or delaminating between the polymer membrane and gas diffusion layers. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of these damage mechanisms in the membranes and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be studied under real cell operation conditions. A three-dimensional, multi–phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a planar ambient air-breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed and used to study the effects of ambient conditions on the temperature distribution, displacement, deformation, and stresses inside the cell. The behaviour of the fuel cell during operation has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. A unique feature of the present model is to incorporate the effect of mechanical, hygro and thermal stresses into actual three-dimensional fuel cell model. The results show

  11. Engine-driven hybrid air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaokui QIN; Hongmei LU; Xiong LIU; Gerhard SCHMITZ

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid air-conditioning system that com-bines an engine-driven chiller with desiccant dehumidifi-cation was configured and experimentally tested to provide reliable data for energy consumption and operation cost. The engine performance and the desiccant wheel perfor-mance were measured and a numeric model previously set up for dehumidification capacity prediction was validated. For a reference building, the results based upon measured data show that under present electricity/gas price ratio, more than 40% of operation cost can be saved by the hybrid system.

  12. Potential Industrial Applications of the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) Operating in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece Roth, J.

    2004-11-01

    The majority of industrial plasma processing with glow discharges has been conducted at pressures below 10 torr. This tends to limit applications to high value workpieces as a result of the high capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharge plasmas would play a much larger industrial role if they could be generated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP), developed at the University of Tennessee's Plasma Sciences Laboratory, is a non-thermal RF plasma operating on displacement currents with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. As a glow discharge, the OAUGDP operates with maximum electrical efficiency at the Stoletow point, where the energy input per ion-electron pair is a minimum [1, 2]. Several interdisciplinary teams have investigated potential applications of the OAUGDP. These teams included collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, and Food Science and Technology, as well as the NASA Langley Research Center. The potential applications of the OAUGDP have all been at one atmosphere and room temperature, using air as the working gas. These applications include sterilizing medical and dental equipment; sterilizable air filters to deal with the "sick building syndrome"; removal of soot from Diesel engine exhaust; subsonic plasma aerodynamic effects, including flow re-attachment to airfoils and boundary layer modification; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of working gases; increasing the surface energy of materials; improving the adhesion of paints and electroplated layers: improving the wettability and wickability of fabrics; stripping of photoresist; and plasma deposition and directional etching of potential microelectronic relevance. [1] J. R. Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering

  13. Exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution does not influence vascular function or inflammatory pathways in young healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E. V.; Møller, P.; Barregård, L.;

    2008-01-01

    semialdehyde in plasma. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed on microvascular function or the biomarkers after exposure to particle rich or particle filtered air. Conclusion: This study indicates that exposure to air pollution particles at outdoor concentrations is not associated......Background: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on......: 11600 +/- 5600 per cm(3), mass concentrations: 13.8 +/- 7.4 mu g/m(3) and 10.5 +/- 4.8 mu g/m(3) for PM10-2.5 and PM2.5, respectively) or particle filtered (NC: 555 +/- 1053 per cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. Microvascular function was assessed non-invasively by measuring digital peripheral...

  14. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air with combination of thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The air samples were collected by active sampling method using Tenax-TA sorbent tubes, and desorbed by thermal desorption. The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and internal standard method was applied to quantify the VOCs. The results of all the 23 VOCs showed good linearities in low level (0. 01-1 ng) and high level (1-100 ng) with all the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0. 99. The method quantification limits were between 0. 000 08-1 µg/m3. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) at three spiked levels of 2, 10 and 50 ng. The recoveries between 77% and 124% were generally obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all cases were lower than 20%, except for chlorobenzene at the low spiked level. The developed method was applied to determine VOCs in ambient air collected at three sites in Shanghai. Several compounds, like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylenes, p-xylenes, styrene, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and hexachlorobutadiene were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the VOCs in ambient air. PMID:27382728

  15. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanweer Khan

    Full Text Available The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut.

  16. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  17. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  18. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in ambient air: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particles sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  20. Development of ambient air quality population-weighted metrics for use in time-series health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diane; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-05-01

    A robust methodology was developed to compute population-weighted daily measures of ambient air pollution for use in time-series studies of acute health effects. Ambient data, including criteria pollutants and four fine particulate matter (PM) components, from monitors located in the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area over the time period of 1999-2004 were normalized, spatially resolved using inverse distance-square weighting to Census tracts, denormalized using descriptive spatial models, and population-weighted. Error associated with applying this procedure with fewer than the maximum number of observations was also calculated. In addition to providing more representative measures of ambient air pollution for the health study population than provided by a central monitor alone and dampening effects of measurement error and local source impacts, results were used to evaluate spatial variability and to identify air pollutants for which ambient concentrations are poorly characterized. The decrease in correlation of daily monitor observations with daily population-weighted average values with increasing distance of the monitor from the urban center was much greater for primary pollutants than for secondary pollutants. Of the criteria pollutant gases, sulfur dioxide observations were least representative because of the failure of ambient networks to capture the spatial variability of this pollutant for which concentrations are dominated by point source impacts. Daily fluctuations in PM of particles less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) mass were less well characterized than PM of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass because of a smaller number of PM10 monitors with daily observations. Of the PM2.5 components, the carbon fractions were less well spatially characterized than sulfate and nitrate both because of primary emissions of elemental and organic carbon and because of differences in measurement techniques used to assess

  1. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD(regsign)) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM(regsign)) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  2. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH.

  3. Modeling, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the unsteady cooling of a solid body in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Salazar, Abraham [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Rebollo, Daniel [Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The scope of the present article is two-fold. Firstly, to conduct an experiment to provide the temperature-time history of the cooling of a hot ball bearing in quiescent ambient air. Secondly, to predict the temporal variation of the bearing under the hypothesis of natural convection, radiation or natural convection coexists with radiation for a non-vanishing total hemispherical emissivity of the surface of the bearing. Numerical solutions of the three governing nonlinear lumped heat equations were carried out with a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) algorithm accounting for automatic step size control. The experimental data was obtained with chrome steel ball bearings of diameter 0.953 cm (7/16 in) heated in an electric oven to a pre-set temperature. The heated bearing was exposed later to ambient air at atmospheric temperature and pressure. (orig.)

  4. Modeling, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the unsteady cooling of a solid body in quiescent ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Antonio; Salazar, Abraham; Rebollo, Daniel

    The scope of the present article is two-fold. Firstly, to conduct an experiment to provide the temperature-time history of the cooling of a hot ball bearing in quiescent ambient air. Secondly, to predict the temporal variation of the bearing under the hypothesis of natural convection, radiation or natural convection coexists with radiation for a non-vanishing total hemispherical emissivity of the surface of the bearing. Numerical solutions of the three governing nonlinear lumped heat equations were carried out with a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) algorithm accounting for automatic step size control. The experimental data was obtained with chrome steel ball bearings of diameter 0.953 cm (7/16 in) heated in an electric oven to a pre-set temperature. The heated bearing was exposed later to ambient air at atmospheric temperature and pressure.

  5. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Awan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulates (TSPs in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3 in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.

  6. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Allahabadi, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Fathabadi, Zeynab Abaszadeh; Raisi, Zahra; Rezai, Mehrab; Aval, Mohsen Yazdani

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs-zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)-was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cdheavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them. PMID:27053049

  8. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, R.T.; Cakmak, S; Brook, J. R.; Krewski, D

    1997-01-01

    In order to address the role that the ambient air pollution mix, comprised of gaseous pollutants and various physical and chemical measures of particulate matter, plays in exacerbating cardiorespiratory disease, daily measures of fine and coarse particulate mass, aerosol chemistry (sulfates and acidity), and gaseous pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) were collected in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These time series were...

  9. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Amy M.; Tager, Ira B.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 ...

  10. Severe and Moderate Asthma Exacerbations in Asthmatic Children and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the role of early life or long-term exposure is less clear. We assessed the association between severe asthma exacerbations with both birth and annual exposure to outdoor air pollutants with a population-based cohort of asthmatic children in the province of Quebec (Canada). Method: Exacerbations of asthma occurring between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2011 were defined as one hospitalization or emergency room visit with a diagnosis of asthma for children (<13 years old) already diagnosed with asthma. Annual daily average concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at the child’s residential postal code. Satellite based levels of fine particulate (PM2.5) estimated for a grid of 10 km by 10 km were also assigned to postal codes of residence for the whole province. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox models with a gap time approach for both birth and time-dependant exposure. Results: Of the 162,752 asthmatic children followed (1,020,280 person-years), 35,229 had at least one asthma exacerbation. The HRs stratified by age groups and adjusted for the year of birth, the ordinal number of exacerbations, sex, as well as material and social deprivation, showed an interquartile range increase in the time-dependant exposure to NO2 (4.95 ppb), O3 (3.85 ppb), and PM2.5 (1.82 μg/m3) of 1.095 (95% CI 1.058–1.131), 1.052 (95% CI 1.037–1.066) and 1.025 (95% CI 1.017–1.031), respectively. While a positive association was found to PM2.5, no associations were found between exposure at birth to NO2 or O3. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion, within the limitation of this study, that asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children are mainly associated with time dependent residential exposures less with exposure at birth. PMID:27490556

  11. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM10. Methods: To examine the association between PM10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m−3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m−3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Average PM10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m−3 increase), and PM10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m−3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  12. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  13. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ambient Air in an Oxidation Flow Reactor at GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; de Sa, Suzane S.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Hu, Weiwei; Seco, Roger; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Brito, Joel; Wurm, Florian; Artaxo, Paulo; Yee, Lindsay; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabrial; Goldstein, Allen; Newburn, Matt K.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Martin, Scot T.; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    During GoAmazon2014/5, ambient air was exposed to controlled concentrations of OH or O3 in situ using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). Oxidation ranged from hours-several weeks of aging. Oxidized air was sampled by several instruments (e.g., HR-AMS, ACSM, PTR-TOF-MS, SMPS, CCN) at both the T3 site (IOP1: Feb 1-Mar 31, 2014, and IOP2: Aug 15-Oct 15, 2014) and T2 site (between IOPs and into 2nd IOP). The oxidation of ambient air in the OFR led to substantial and variable secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from any SOA-precursor gases, known and unknown, that entered the OFR. In general, more SOA was produced during the nighttime than daytime, suggesting that SOA-precursor gases were found in relatively higher concentrations at night. Similarly, more SOA was formed in the dry season (IOP2) than wet season (IOP1). The maximum amount of SOA produced during nighttime from OH oxidation ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 on some nights to greater than 10 μg/m3 on other nights. O3 oxidation of ambient air also led to SOA formation, although several times less than from OH oxidation. The amount of SOA formation sometimes, but not always, correlated with measured gas-phase biogenic and/or anthropogenic SOA precursors (e.g., SV-TAG sesquiterpenes, PTR-TOFMS aromatics, isoprene, and monoterpenes). The SOA mass formed in the OFR from OH oxidation was up to an order of magnitude larger than could be explained from aerosol yields of measured primary VOCs. This along with measurements from previous campaigns suggests that most SOA was formed from intermediate S/IVOC sources (e.g., VOC oxidation products, evaporated POA, or direct emissions). To verify the SOA yields of VOCs under OFR experimental conditions, atmospherically-relevant concentrations of several VOCs were added individually into ambient air in the OFR and oxidized by OH or O3. SOA yields in the OFR were similar to published chamber yields. Preliminary PMF factor analysis showed production of secondary factors in

  14. Influence of ambient air on the flowing afterglow of an atmospheric pressure Ar/O2 radiofrequency plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Duluard, C Y; Hubert, J; Reniers, F

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ambient air on the flowing afterglow of an atmospheric pressure Ar/O2 radiofrequency plasma has been investigated experimentally. Spatially resolved mass spectrometry and laser induced fluorescence on OH radicals were used to estimate the intrusion of air in between the plasma torch and the substrate as a function of the torch-to-substrate separation distance. No air is detected, within the limits of measurement uncertainties, for separation distances smaller than 5 mm. For larger distances, the effect of ambient air can no longer be neglected, and radial gradients in the concentrations of species appear. The Ar 4p population, determined through absolute optical emission spectroscopy, is seen to decrease with separation distance, whereas a rise in emission from the N2(C--B) system is measured. The observed decay in Ar 4p and N2(C) populations for separation distances greater than 9mm is partly assigned to the increasing collisional quenching rate by N2 and O2 molecules from the entrained air....

  15. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis

  16. Modelling internal air systems in gas turbine engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Michael Owen

    2007-01-01

    Rotating-disc systems can be used to model,experimentally and computationally,the flow and heat transfer that occur inside the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbine engines.These rotating-disc systems have been used successfully to simplify and understand some of the complex flows that occur in internal-air systems,and designers have used this insight to improve the cooling effectiveness,thereby increasing the engine efficiency and reducing the emissions.In this review paper,three important cases are considered:hot-gas ingress;the pre-swirl system;and buoyancy-induced flow.Ingress,or ingestion,occurs when hot gas from the mainstream gas path is ingested into the wheel-space between the turbine disc and its adjacent casing.Rim seals are fitted at the periphery of the system,and sealing flow is used to reduce or prevent ingress.However,too much sealing air reduces the engine efficiency,and too little can cause serious overheating,resulting in damage to the turbine rim and blade roots.Although the flow is three-dimensional and unsteady,there are encouraging signs that simple 'orifice models' could be used to estimate the amount of ingress into the wheel-space.In a pre-swirl system,the cooling air for the gas-turbine blades is swirled by stationary nozzles,and the air is delivered to the blades via receiver holes in the rotating turbine disc.Swirling the air reduces its temperature relative to the rotating blades,and the designer needs to calculate the air temperature and pressure drop in the system.The designer also needs to calculate the effect of this swirling flow on the heat transfer from the turbine disc to the air,as this has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and stresses in the disc.Recent experimental and computational studies have given a better understanding of the flow and heat transfer in these systems.Buoyancy-induced flow occurs in the cavity between two co-rotating compressor discs when the temperature of the discs is higher

  17. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  18. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  19. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC ambient air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  20. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  1. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  2. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  3. USNRC regulatory guidance for engineered safety feature air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for clear, technically appropriate, and easily implementable guidance for the design, testing, and maintenance of nuclear air cleaning systems has long been recognized. Numerous industry consensus standards have been issued and revised over the last 30 years. Guidance has also been published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the form of regulations, regulatory guides, standard review plans, NUREG documents, and information notices. This paper will summarize the latest revisions to these documents and emphasize Regulatory Guide 1.52, Design, Testing, and Maintenance Criteria for Post-Accident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants, which was last revised in 1978. The USNRC has undertaken a project to revise this regulatory guide, and the status of that revision is highlighted

  4. The Regional Impacts of Cooking and Heating Emissions on Ambient Air Quality and Disease Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Carter, Ellison; Kumar, Rajesh; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Frostad, Joseph; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Baumgartner, Jill; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution is a major risk factor globally and particularly in Asia. A large portion of air pollutants result from residential combustion of solid biomass and coal fuel for cooking and heating. This study presents a regional modeling sensitivity analysis to estimate the impact of residential emissions from cooking and heating activities on the burden of disease at a provincial level in China. Model surface PM2.5 fields are shown to compare well when evaluated against surface air quality measurements. Scenarios run without residential sector and residential heating emissions are used in conjunction with the Global Burden of Disease 2013 framework to calculate the proportion of deaths and disability adjusted life years attributable to PM2.5 exposure from residential emissions. Overall, we estimate that 341 000 (306 000-370 000; 95% confidence interval) premature deaths in China are attributable to residential combustion emissions, approximately a third of the deaths attributable to all ambient PM2.5 pollution, with 159 000 (142 000-172 000) and 182 000 (163 000-197 000) premature deaths from heating and cooking emissions, respectively. Our findings emphasize the need to mitigate emissions from both residential heating and cooking sources to reduce the health impacts of ambient air pollution in China. PMID:27479733

  5. Method for Fusing Observational Data and Chemical Transport Model Simulations To Estimate Spatiotemporally Resolved Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Mariel D; Zhai, Xinxin; Holmes, Heather A; Chang, Howard H; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Tolbert, Paige E; Russell, Armistead G; Mulholland, James A

    2016-04-01

    Investigations of ambient air pollution health effects rely on complete and accurate spatiotemporal air pollutant estimates. Three methods are developed for fusing ambient monitor measurements and 12 km resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ) simulations to estimate daily air pollutant concentrations across Georgia. Temporal variance is determined by observations in one method, with the annual mean CMAQ field providing spatial structure. A second method involves scaling daily CMAQ simulated fields using mean observations to reduce bias. Finally, a weighted average of these results based on prediction of temporal variance provides optimized daily estimates for each 12 × 12 km grid. These methods were applied to daily metrics of 12 pollutants (CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and five PM2.5 components) over the state of Georgia for a seven-year period (2002-2008). Cross-validation demonstrates a wide range in optimized model performance across pollutants, with SO2 predicted most poorly due to limitations in coal combustion plume monitoring and modeling. For the other pollutants studied, 54-88% of the spatiotemporal variance (Pearson R(2) from cross-validation) was captured, with ozone and PM2.5 predicted best. The optimized fusion approach developed provides daily spatial field estimates of air pollutant concentrations and uncertainties that are consistent with observations, emissions, and meteorology. PMID:26923334

  6. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  7. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient..., 2010 (75 FR 35520), and became effective on August 23, 2010. Based on the Administrator's review of the... regulations, known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40...

  8. Application of Computer Model to Estimate the Consistency of Air Conditioning Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Amal El-Berry; Afrah Al-Bossly

    2013-01-01

    Reliability engineering is utilized to predict the performance and optimization of the design and maintenance of air conditioning systems. There are a number of failures associated with the conditioning systems. The failures of an air conditioner such as turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply and loss of air flow entirely are mainly due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner o...

  9. Distribuição vertical e horizontal de temperaturas do ar em ambientes protegidos Vertical and horizontal distribution of air temperature in a plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Furlan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, em dois ambientes protegidos construídos no sentido leste-oeste, com área total de 112 m² e coberto com plástico (150 micra, tratado contra raios ultravioleta. Para caracterizar a distribuição espacial da temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido, instalaram-se termopares (cobre-constantã formando malhas, com espaçamento horizontal entre eles de 3,0 m e nas alturas de 0,5, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,0 m em relação ao solo. Os dados foram armazenados a cada 15 min por sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados nos ambientes protegidos. O sistema de nebulização constituiu-se de duas linhas com 70 bocais totais, instalados a uma altura de 3,0 m, utilizando-se uma pressão de trabalho de 200 kPa. A nebulização não afetou o gradiente vertical de temperatura, que manteve a tendência de aumento de temperatura com a altura, em relação ao nível do solo, enquanto o efeito na redução de temperatura pelo sistema de nebulização somente foi eficaz durante a realização da mesma. Para a representação da distribuição espacial de temperatura do ar no ambiente protegido nos diferentes níveis de altura, construiu-se superfícies isotérmicas a partir dos resultados. Verifica-se que a nebulização apresentou maior efeito na homogeneização da distribuição de temperatura no ambiente protegido no nível referente a 2,0 m de altura, em relação ao solo.This work was conducted in the experimental area of the Department of Rural Engineering of "Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were installed in the east-west direction, with 6.4 m of width, 17.5 m of length and 3.0 m high, with total area of 112 m²; covered by plastic of 150 micra thickness, treated against ultra violet rays. To characterize the

  10. The association between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Beijing after the 2008 olympics: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter in Beijing during the two years (2009,2010 after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We used generalized additive model to analyze relationship between daily mortality and air pollution. In single air pollutant model with two-day moving average concentrations of the air pollutants, increase in their interquartile range (IQR associated with percent increase in nonaccidental mortality, 2.55 percent [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.99, 3.11] for CO, 2.54 percent (95% CI: 2.00, 3.08 for NO2 and 1.80 percent (95% CI: 1.21, 2.40 for PM10, respectively; increases in the IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with percent increase in cardiovascular mortality, 2.88 percent (95% CI: 2.10,3.65 for CO, 2.63 percent (95% CI: 1.87, 3.39 for NO2 and 1.72 percent (95% CI: 0.88, 2.55 for PM10, respectively; and increase in IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with respiratory mortality, 2.39 percent (95% CI: 0.68, 4.09 for CO, 1.79 percent (95% CI: 0.11, 3.47 for NO2 and 2.07 percent (95% CI: 0.21, 3.92 for PM10, respectively. We used the principal component analysis to avoid collinearity of varied air pollutants. In addition, the association stratified by sex and age was also examined. Ambient air pollution remained a significant contributor to nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortalities in Beijing during 2009,2010.

  11. Study of Ambient and Indoor Air Quality in the Building Built on the Former Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Ithnin; Nazipah Zakaria; Nor Azura Sulong; Shamrul Aizam Abd. Rahman; Normah Awang; Nurul Farahana Kamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The air quality study of PPR Taman Wahyu II, Selayang, Selangor was a residential project that was built on the former landfill site. The landfill site will produce landfill gases which can influence the air quality level in and outside the building. Approach: This air quality study also involving PPR Intan Baiduri, Batu Caves, Selangor as a control building. The air quality parameters chosen were physical, chemical and biological. Instruments used were HVS, Biogas Analyzer...

  12. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... the original air quality criteria document (DHEW, 1969; 36 FR 8186, April 30, 1971). The reference... plans for the next periodic review of the air quality criteria and NAAQS for PM (62 FR 55201, October 23... respect to visual air quality. The EPA solicits comment on all aspects of the proposed secondary...

  13. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... the original air quality criteria document (DHEW, 1969; 36 FR 8186, April 30, 1971). The reference... review of the air quality criteria and NAAQS for PM (62 FR 55201, October 23, 1997). After CASAC and... the 24-hour PM 2.5 standard at a level of 35 g/m\\3\\. The EPA is revising the Air Quality Index...

  14. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  16. The Relationship between Odour Annoyance Scores and Modelled Ambient Air Pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Odwa Atari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in “Chemical Valley”, Sarnia, Ontario (Canada. Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774; and respondents’ exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were estimated using land use regression (LUR models. The associations were examined by univariate analysis while multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of odour annoyance. The results showed that odour annoyance was significantly correlated to modelled pollutants at the individual (NO2, r = 0.15; SO2, r = 0.13 and census tract (NO2, r = 0.56; SO2, r = 0.67 levels. The exposure-response relationships show that residents of Sarnia react to very low pollution concentrations levels even if they are within the Ontario ambient air quality criteria. The study found that exposure to high NO2 and SO2 concentrations, gender, and perception of health effects were significant determinants of individual odour annoyance reporting. The observed association between odour annoyance and modelled ambient pollution suggest that individual and census tract level annoyance scores may serve as proxies for air quality in exposed communities because they capture the within area spatial variability of pollution. However, questionnaire-based odour annoyance scores need to be validated longitudinally and across different scales if they are to be adopted for use at the national level.

  17. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  18. Exergy Analysis of the Revolving Vane Compressed Air Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Subiantoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analysis was applied to a revolving vane compressed air engine. The engine had a swept volume of 30 cm3. At the benchmark conditions, the suction pressure was 8 bar, the discharge pressure was 1 bar, and the operating speed was 3,000 rev·min−1. It was found that the engine had a second-law efficiency of 29.6% at the benchmark conditions. The contributors of exergy loss were friction (49%, throttling (38%, heat transfer (12%, and fluid mixing (1%. A parametric study was also conducted. The parameters to be examined were suction reservoir pressure (4 to 12 bar, operating speed (2,400 to 3,600 rev·min−1, and rotational cylinder inertia (0.94 to 2.81 g·mm2. The study found that a higher suction reservoir pressure initially increased the second-law efficiency but then plateaued at about 30%. With a higher operating speed and a higher cylinder inertia, second-law efficiency decreased. As compared to suction pressure and operating speed, cylinder inertia is the most practical and significant to be modified.

  19. EMRP JRP MetNH3: Towards a Consistent Metrological Infrastructure for Ammonia Measurements in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Gieseking, Bjoern; Hieta, Tuomas; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Pogány, Andrea; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In addition to its acidifying effect on natural waters and soils and to the additional nitrogen input to ecosystems, ammonia is an important precursor for secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation regarding certified reference material (CRM), applicable analytical methods, measurement uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. As shown in a key comparison in 2007, there are even discrepancies between reference materials provided by European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) at amount fraction levels up to three orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air), a three-year project that started in June 2014 in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), aims to reduce the gap between requirements set by the European emission regulations and state-of-the-art of analytical methods and reference materials. The overarching objective of the JRP is to achieve metrological traceability for ammonia measurements in ambient air from primary certified reference material CRM and instrumental standards to the field level. This requires the successful completion of the three main goals, which have been assigned to three technical work packages: To develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods Realisation and characterisation of traceable preparative calibration standards (in pressurised cylinders as well as mobile generators) of ammonia amount fractions similar to those in ambient air based on existing methods for other reactive analytes. The

  20. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009-2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0-3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  1. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  2. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  3. Estimating domestic wood burning emissions in Nordic countries using ambient air observations, receptor and dispersion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Karl, M.; Laupsa, H.; Johansson, C.; Pohjola, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major emission sources of primary PM2.5 in Nordic countries during winter is wood burning from domestic heating. In Norway alone it is estimated that 80% of PM2.5 is emitted through this source. Though direct measurements of wood burning emissions are possible under controlled conditions, emission inventories for domestic heating are difficult to calculate. Emissions vary from stove to stove as well as wood type, wood condition and burning habits. The consumption rate of wood burning is also strongly dependent on meteorological as well as societal conditions. As a result the uncertainty in wood burning emission inventories used in dispersion modelling is considered to be quite high. As an alternative method for estimating the emissions resulting from wood burning for domestic heating this paper combines ambient air measurements, chemical analysis of filter samples, receptor models, dispersion models, and simple inverse modelling methods to infer emission strengths. The methodology is applied in three Nordic cities, notably Oslo (Norway), Helsinki (Finland) and Lycksele (Sweden). In these cities daily filter samples over several months have been collected. The filter samples have been chemically analysed for a range of elemental and specific markers including OC/EC and Levoglucosan. The chemical analysis has been used as input for a range of receptor models, including UNMIX, PMF, PMF-2 and COPREM. From these calculations the source contributions at the measurement sites, with particular emphasis on wood burning, have been estimated. Though the receptor models have a common basis their application method varies, and as a result the number of identifiable sources and their contributions may differ. For the application here the contribution of wood burning was not found to vary significantly, irrespective of the model or user. It was also found that Levoglucosan as a wood burning tracer was essential for the identification of the wood burning sources. Source

  4. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptoms of asthma in Seattle-area children enrolled in the CAMP study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, O.; Sheppard, L; Lumley, T.; Koenig, J Q; Shapiro, G G

    2000-01-01

    We observed a panel of 133 children (5-13 years of age) with asthma residing in the greater Seattle, Washington, area for an average of 58 days (range 28-112 days) during screening for enrollment in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study. Daily self-reports of asthma symptoms were obtained from study diaries and compared with ambient air pollution levels in marginal repeated measures logistic regression models. We defined days with asthma symptoms as any day a child reported at ...

  5. REVIEW OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) - EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the review process, a CO Exposure Analysis will also be conducted to assess the extent of human exposure posed by current ambient CO concentrations and, upon meeting the current CO NAAQS. The results of this analysis will be incorporated into the Staff Paper. (This w...

  6. PERSONAL AND AMBIENT EXPOSURES TO AIR TOXICS IN CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The investigators reported that one of the neighborhoods, Waterfront South, had consistently higher ambient concentrations than the other, Copewood–Davis, of PM2.5, toluene, xylenes, and PAHs. Thus, by the investigators’ original definition of a hot spot (i.e., ...

  7. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new PM 2.5 equivalent method is an automated...-195, ``Grimm Technologies, Inc. Model EDM 180 PM 2.5 Monitor,'' light scattering continuous ambient... the Grimm Technologies, Inc. Model EDM 180 Operation and Instruction Manual. The optional...

  8. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate...

  9. Understanding urban vehicular pollution problem vis-a-vis ambient air quality--case study of a megacity (Delhi, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Ghatge, S V; Nema, P; M Tamhane, S

    2006-08-01

    Air pollution has become a growing problem in megacities and large urban areas through out the globe, and transportation is recognized as the major source of air pollution in many cities, especially in developing countries. Contribution of automobiles is reported in the range of 40 to 80% of the total air pollution. The challenge facing megacities is how to reduce the adverse environmental impacts and other negative effects of transportation without giving up the benefits of mobility. The dilemma becomes most pressing under conditions of rapid urban growth, which is likely to increase travel demand significantly. The paper is aimed at understanding the problem of vehicular pollution vis-a-vis ambient air quality for a highly traffic affected megacity, Delhi, wherein, the contribution of transport sector was estimated to be as high as 72%. An effort has been made to review and evaluate the benefits (in terms of improved air quality) of the technological interventions/policies adopted for vehicular pollution control in Delhi. It also highlights the outcome of the efforts and suggests further improvements thereon. The importance of public participation and awareness are also discussed. The paper focuses on deriving the benefits of the implementation of management strategies, supported by scientific and technical data/interpretation, so that the people can realize and participate in the government's endeavor for clean city drive in a more effective manner. PMID:16741810

  10. Indirect air cooling techniques for control rod drives in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 deg. C and thermal power of 30 MW. Sixteen pairs of control rods are employed for controlling the reactivity change of the HTTR. Each standpipe for a pair of the control rods, which is placed on the top head dome of the reactor pressure vessel, contains one control rod drive mechanism. The control rod drive mechanism may malfunction because of reduction of the electrical insulation of the electromagnetic clutch when the temperature exceeds 180 deg. C. Because 31 standpipes stand close together in the standpipe room, 16 standpipes for the control rods, which are located at the center, should be cooled effectively. Therefore, the control rod drives are cooled indirectly by forced air circulation through a pair of ring-ducts with proper air outlet nozzles and inlets. Based on analytical results, a pair of the ring-ducts was installed as one of structures in the standpipe room. Evaluation results through the rise-to-power test of the HTTR showed that temperatures of the electromagnetic clutch and the ambient helium gas inside the control rod standpipe should be below the limits of 180 and 75 deg. C, respectively, at full power operation and at the scram from the operation.

  11. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  12. Air fuel ratio detector corrector for combustion engines using adaptive neurofuzzy networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Arora; Swati Mehta

    2013-01-01

    A perfect mix of the air and fuel in internal combustion engines is desirable for proper combustion of fuel with air. The vehicles running on road emit harmful gases due to improper combustion. This problem is severe in heavy vehicles like locomotive engines. To overcome this problem, generally an operator opens or closes the valve of fuel injection pump of locomotive engines to control amount of air going inside the combustion chamber, which requires constant monitoring. A model is proposed ...

  13. DESIGN OF SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM AND THERMAL MODELS FOR TRIPLE SPOOL JET ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Caty, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with the understanding of the secondary air system of athree spool turbofan. The main purpose is the creation of secondary air systemand thermal models to evaluate the behavior of this kind of engine architectureand estimate the pros and cons in comparison with a typical two spool turbofan. Afinite element model of the secondary air system of the engine has been designedbased on the experience of typical jet engines manufactured by Snecma. Theinner thermodynamic patte...

  14. Quantification Method for Electrolytic Sensors in Long-Term Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Masson; Ricardo Piedrahita; Michael Hannigan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional air quality monitoring relies on point measurements from a small number of high-end devices. The recent growth in low-cost air sensing technology stands to revolutionize the way in which air quality data are collected and utilized. While several technologies have emerged in the field of low-cost monitoring, all suffer from similar challenges in data quality. One technology that shows particular promise is that of electrolytic (also known as amperometric) sensors. These sensors pro...

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  16. The effect of ambient air condition on heat transfer of hot steel plate cooled by an impinging water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Pil Jong; Choi, Hae Won [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Hong [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    It has been observed that the cooling capacity of an impinging water jet is affected by the seasonal conditions in large-scale steel manufacturing processes. To confirm this phenomenon, cooling experiments utilizing a hot steel plate cooled by a laminar jet were conducted for two initial ambient air temperatures (10 .deg. C and 40 .deg. C) in a closed chamber, performing an inverse heat conduction method for quantitative comparison. This study reveals that the cooling capacity at an air temperature of 10 .deg. C is lower than the hear extracted at 40 .deg. C. The amount of total extracted heat at 10 .deg. C is 15% less than at 40 .deg. C. These results indicate the quantity of water vapor, absorbed until saturation, affects the mechanism of boiling heat transfer.

  17. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of...... identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  18. Depicting the Dependency of Isoprene in Ambient Air and from Plants on Temperature and Solar Radiation by Using Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2016-07-01

    Among all sources of volatile organic compounds, isoprene emission from plants is an important part of the atmospheric hydrocarbon budget. In the present study, isoprene emission capacity at the bottom of the canopies of plant species viz. Dalbergia sissoo and Nerium oleander and in ambient air at different sites selected on the basis of land use pattern viz. near to traffic intersection with dense vegetation, away from traffic intersection with dense vegetation under floodplain area (Site I) and away from traffic intersection with dense vegetation under hilly ridge area (Site II) during three different seasons (monsoon, winter and summer) in Delhi were measured. In order to find out the dependence of isoprene emission rate on temperature and solar radiation, regression analysis has been performed. In case of dependency of isoprene in ambient air on temperature and solar radiation in selected seasons it has been found that high isoprene was found during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon seasons. Thus, positive linear relationship gives the best fit between temperature, solar rdaiation and isoprene during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon season. On the other hand, in case of isoprene emission from selected plant species, it has been found that high temperature and solar radiation promotes high isoprene emission rates during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon seasons in D. sissoo. Thus, positive linear relationship gives the best fit between temperature, solar radiation and isoprene emission rate during summer season as compared to winter and monsoon season. In contrast, in case of Nerium oleander, no such appropriate relationship was obtained. The study concludes that in ambient air, isoprene concentration was found to be high during summer season as compared to other seasons and gives best fit between temperature, solar radiation and isoprene. In case of plants, Dalbergia sissoo comes under high isoprene emission category

  19. Interface engineering of hybrid perovskite solar cells with poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Arnab; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-04-21

    The properties of methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells with poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (P3TAA) as a hole transporting material (HTM) and a dense layer of ZnO nanoparticle film as an electron transporting material (ETM) are described using the conventional ZnO (n)/perovskite (i)/P3TAA (p) (n-i-p) architecture. The FT-IR spectra of a MAPbI3/P3TAA mixture indicate a shift of the N-H stretching and the abolition of the N-H bending peak indicating the interaction between the components. UV-Vis spectra of the mixture exhibit a large red shift of the π-π* transition peak of the conjugated chain arising from the interaction causing an increase of the conjugation length. The cross-sectional SEM image of the device shows the sequence of the individual layers of ZnO, MAPbI3, P3TAA and Ag, respectively. The current density (J)-voltage (V) curves obtained upon illumination with a light of 100 mW cm(-2) indicate the average PCE to be 7.38 ± 0.59% under ambient conditions. The IPCE values of these cells reach about 63% across a broad range of wavelength (300-800 nm). The HOMO and the LUMO of P3TAA are measured using cyclic voltammetry and the optical band gap and the relative energy level of the components explain the operation of photocurrent in the cell. For comparison purposes a device using poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) as the HTM is fabricated under similar conditions and it exhibits a lower PCE (5.85 ± 0.51%) than that of the P3TAA based device. The longevity of the P3TAA based cell is also found to be better than that of the P3HT based cell for storing in air. The UV-Vis and impedance spectral results clearly explain the above results, signifying the influence of the interface on the performance of hybrid solar cells. PMID:27020145

  20. Thermodynamic study of the effects of ambient air conditions on the thermal performance characteristics of a closed wet cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic model was developed and used to assess the sensitivity of thermal performance characteristics of a closed wet cooling tower to inlet air conditions. In the present study, three cases of different ambient conditions are considered: In the first case, the average mid-winter and mid-summer conditions as well as the extreme case of high temperature and relative humidity, in Athens (Greece) during summer are considered according to the Greek Regulation for Buildings Energy Performance. In the second case, the varied inlet air relative humidity while the inlet air dry bulb temperature remains constant were taken into account. In the last case, the effects on cooling tower thermal behaviour when the inlet air wet bulb temperature remains constant were examined. The proposed model is capable of predicting the variation of air thermodynamic properties, sprayed water and serpentine water temperature inside the closed wet cooling tower along its height. The reliability of simulations was tested against experimental data, which were obtained from literature. Thus, the proposed model could be used for the design of industrial and domestic applications of conventional air-conditioning systems as well as for sorption cooling systems with solid and liquid desiccants where closed wet cooling towers are used for precooling the liquid solutions. The most important result of this theoretical investigation is that the highest fall of serpentine water temperature and losses of sprayed water are observed for the lowest value of inlet wet bulb temperature. Hence, the thermal effectiveness, which is associated with the temperature reduction of serpentine water as well as the operational cost, which is related to the sprayed water loss due to evaporation, of a closed wet cooling tower depend predominantly on the degree of saturation of inlet air.

  1. Impact of Oxygen Enriched Air Intake on the Exhaust of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, K; Govindarajan, P

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The objective of the research is to investigate the effect of using oxygen enriched air on Diesel engine exhaust emission. Approach: In the present experimental work a computerized Single cylinder Diesel engine with data acquisition system was used to study the effects of oxygen enriched air intake on Exhaust emissions. Engine test has been carried out in the above said engine for different loads and Exhaust Emissions like CO, CO2, NOx and HC with respec...

  2. Determination of Glycol Ethers in Ambient Air by Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis: Performance Evaluation and Field Application

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Baek, Sung-Ok

    2012-01-01

    Some of glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) are known to be toxic and classified as hazardous air pollutants in USA, Japan and Germany. In Korea, however, there has been no study conducted so far for these compounds in ambient air. In addition, no clear methodologies for the measurement of glycol ethers have been yet established. We carried out this study to evaluate a sampling and analytical method for the determination of glycol ethers, in ambient air s...

  3. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tianfeng He; Zuyao Yang; Tao Liu; Yueping Shen; Xiaohong Fu; Xujun Qian; Yuelun Zhang; Yong Wang; Zhiwei Xu; Shankuan Zhu; Chen Mao; Guozhang Xu; Jinling Tang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  4. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Act concerning CASAC review of air quality criteria. See 71 FR 61144, 61148 (October 17, 2006) (final... supplement the pertinent air quality criteria so the studies can be taken into account (58 FR at 13013-13014... average, and 35 ppm, as a 1-hour average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186)....

  5. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... parts per million (ppm) (53 ppb), annual average (36 FR 8186). EPA completed reviews of the air quality criteria and NO 2 standards in 1985 and 1996 with decisions to retain the standard (50 FR 25532, June 19, 1985; 61 FR 52852, October 8, 1996). EPA initiated the current review of the air quality criteria...

  6. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... other supporting measurements. Accompanying the pollutant concentration data are quality assurance... area's (e.g., county, city, neighborhood) air quality in comparison with the established health or... requested in this ICR submit these data electronically to the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS)...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be approved as part of the annual monitoring network plan required in 40 CFR 58.10. 1 Daily or with... Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) levels and forms are defined in 40 CFR part 50. 4 These minimum...) The PM2.5 NAAQS, specified in 40 CFR part 50, provides State and local air monitoring agencies with...

  8. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collecte...... found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.......BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected...

  10. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Nosal, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)]. E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Krupa, S.V. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO {sub x} ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O{sub 3} concentrations and SO{sub 2} and NO {sub x} exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O{sub 3}) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner.

  11. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS)IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGDaren; LIUBing; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured.The sample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up elution through a silica gel column was optimized.The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows:resin weight was 1.5g,ultrasonic extraction time 20min,volume of extraction solvent 100 ml and extraction operation times 2-3.The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to next step of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and a mixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3(v/v).The PAHs fractions in the real samples from Changzhou,China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of mass spectra,retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of the standards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as “priority pollutants” of the environment. The pretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for PAHs is proved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs in atmospheric environment.

  12. The effects of electron thermal radiation on laser ablative shock waves from aluminum plasma into ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Shiva, S.; Leela, Ch.; Prem Kiran, P.; Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of electron thermal radiation on 7 ns laser ablative shock waves from aluminum (Al) plasma into an ambient atmospheric air has been numerically investigated using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion, and radiation) radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI. The governing equations in Lagrangian form are solved using an implicit scheme for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The shockwave velocities (Vsw) obtained numerically are compared with our experimental values obtained over the intensity range of 2.0 × 1010 to 1.4 × 1011 W/cm2. It is observed that the numerically obtained Vsw is significantly influenced by the thermal radiation effects which are found to be dominant in the initial stage up to 2 μs depending on the input laser energy. Also, the results are found to be sensitive to the co-ordinate geometry used in the simulation (planar, cylindrical, and spherical). Moreover, it is revealed that shock wave undergoes geometrical transitions from planar to cylindrical nature and from cylindrical to spherical nature with time during its propagation into an ambient atmospheric air. It is also observed that the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma electron and ion parameters such as temperature, specific energy, pressure, electron number density, and mass density were found to be modified significantly due to the effects of electron thermal radiation.

  13. Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd : glass laser pulse (λ = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ηbw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (λ = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ηLSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ηbw/ηLSD≈90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case. (paper)

  14. Environmental impact of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment; Impacto ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire tipo cuarto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [OLADE, Quito (Ecuador)

    2002-09-01

    The present article approaches in a general way the relation that exists between the environment and the saving of electrical energy, especially in the Programs of Demand Side Management (DSM). In particular form the potential environmental impacts are described, derived of the use and the discard of the room type air conditioning equipment, goes deep into the characteristics of their cooling fluids, as well as in the relation that these keep with the protocols of Montreal and Kyoto. Finally, this article comments the incidence which have, the manufacturers as the institutions that implement DSM programs, on the environmental part of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment. In addition it is briefly described, the pilot program developed by Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) as a successful case. [Spanish] En forma general, el presente articulo aborda la relacion que existe entre el medio ambiente y el ahorro de energia electrica, especialmente en los Programas de Administracion por el Lado de la Demanda (ALD). En forma particular se describen los impactos ambientales potenciales, derivados del uso y desecho de los equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto, se ahonda en las caracteristicas de sus refrigerantes, asi como en la relacion que estos guardan con los protocolos de Montreal y Kioto. Finalmente, se comenta la incidencia que tienen, tanto los fabricantes como las instituciones que implementan programas de ALD, sobre la parte ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto. Ademas se describe brevemente, el programa piloto desarrollado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) como un caso exitoso.

  15. Comparison of regional air dispersion simulation and ambient air monitoring data for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Cryer, S A; de Cirugeda Helle, O; Li, C; Driver, J H

    2016-11-01

    SOFEA v2.0 is an air dispersion modeling tool used to predict acute and chronic pesticide concentrations in air for large air sheds resulting from agronomic practices. A 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) air monitoring study in high use townships in Merced County, CA, logged 3-day average air concentrations at nine locations over a 14.5month period. SOFEA, using weather data measured at the site, and using a historical CDPR regulatory assumption of a constant 320m mixing height, predicted the general pattern and correct order of magnitude for 1,3-D air concentrations as a function of time, but failed to estimate the highest observed 1,3-D concentrations of the monitoring study. A time series and statistical comparison of the measured and modeled data indicated that the model underestimated 1,3-D concentrations during calm periods (wind speed density was also found to have an effect on the modeled 1,3-D concentration PDF, and a 50×50 receptor grid in the nine township domain captured the measured 1,3-D concentration distribution much better than a 3×3 receptor grid (i.e., simulated receptors at the nine monitoring locations). Comparison of the monitored and simulated PDF for 72-h 1,3-D concentrations indicated that SOFEA slightly over predicts the 1,3-D concentration distribution at all percentiles below the 99th with slight under prediction of the 99-100th percentile values. This suggests that without further refinement, the SOFEA2 model, based upon field validation observations, will result in representative but conservative estimates of lifetime exposure to 1,3-D for bystanders in 1,3-D use areas. PMID:27376915

  16. Influence of ambient air pressure on impact pressure caused by breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moutzouris, C.

    1979-01-01

    Engineers are interested in the dynamics of the interface waterstructure. In case of breaking of water waves on a structure high positive and sometimes negative pressures of very short duration occur. Not only the maxima and minima of the pressures on the structure are important to a designing engin

  17. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007–2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12–3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30–5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42–4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0–15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02–9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03–19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67–22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou.

  18. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007-2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30-5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42-4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0-15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02-9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03-19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67-22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou. PMID:27195597

  19. Electrochemical performance of mixed carbon material with waterproof membrane for lithium air battery in the ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waterproof membrane made in-house is applied on the lithium air battery, which can effectively block the water molecules and carbon dioxide in the air, so as to reduce the occurrence of the side reaction, e.g. lithium ions react with water or carbon dioxide to form lithium hydroxide or lithium carbonate. Physicochemical analyses are conducted via XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and LSV (linear sweep voltammetry) test. Under different hydrothermal reaction time and temperatures, α-MnO2 specific surface area, pore size distribution and catalytic properties are evaluated. The first and second discharge capacities are 649.5 mA h/g and 775.4 mA h/g, respectively. The relationship between the air electrode with graphite mixed Super P and α-MnO2 is evaluated as well as the relationship between pore size distribution and the battery discharge performance. An air electrode structure model is also established. - Highlights: • All electrochemistry characterizations were achieved in the ambient atmosphere. • A first made waterproof membrane can reduce the occurrence of the side reaction. • A cathodal structure model was constructed

  20. Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems used to monitor the six criteria air pollutants (Lead [Pb], Carbon Monoxide [CO], Sulfur Dioxide [SO2], Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2], Ozone [O3], Particulate Matter [PM]) to determine if an...

  1. Seasonal variation of 7Be and 3H in Korean ambient air and rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seasonal variation of the 7Be activities in air was monitored by a continuous sampling with a high volume air dust sampler. And also, 7Be and 3H activities in precipitation were determined. The activity level of 7Be in air was ranged from 1.94 to 47.2 Bq/m3. And 7Be in the precipitation was separated using cation exchange resin and the monthly average activity level was ranged from 0.29 to 4.77 Bq/L. 3H was analyzed using electrolytic enrichment method and activity ranged from 0.27 to 2.22 Bq/L. (author)

  2. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Matsuda

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature.Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area.Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1 and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1 were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student's t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23-37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001. The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%, the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11% and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%. A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively.High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated with decrease of IL-5 and IL-10 levels

  3. Ambient air particle transport into the effluent of a cold atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet investigated by molecular beam mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air species, which are transported into the active effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet result in highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Especially for the envisaged application field of plasma medicine, these RONS are responsible for strong biological responses. In this work, the effect of ambient air transport into the effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma argon jet on the on-axis densities of nitrogen, oxygen and argon was investigated by means of absolutely calibrated molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). According to biomedical experiments a (bottomless) Petri dish was installed in front of the MBMS. In the following, the near flow field is referring to the region close to the nozzle exit and the far flow field is referring to the region beyond that. The absolute on-axis densities were obtained by three different methods, for the near flow field with VUV-absorption technique, for the far flow field with the MBMS and the total flow field was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results of the ambient air particle densities of all independent methods were compared and showed an excellent agreement. Therefore the transport processes of ambient air species can be measured for the whole effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. Additionally, with the validation of the simulation it is possible in future to calculate the ambient species transport for various gas fluxes in the same turbulent flow regime. Comparing the on-axis densities obtained with an ignited and with a non-ignited plasma jet shows that for the investigated parameters, the main influence on the ambient air species transport is due to the increased temperature in the case when the jet is switched on. Moreover, the presence of positive ions (e.g. ArN2+) formed due to the interaction of plasma-produced particles and ambient air species, which are transported into the effluent, is shown. (paper)

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air

  5. Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Salem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, H2S and NH3 of two Kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, Fahaheel and Al-Riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1 the exceedances of the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA air quality limits, (2 primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3 diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4 the "weekend effect"on O3 levels. High O3 levels, above the threshold limit for human health, were observed in both urban areas. CO, NOx and NO levels in Fahaheel were higher than in Al-Riqa. Combustion sources (which exist close to Fahaheel drive both NOx and NO diurnal patterns in both areas. Emissions from downstream facilities and the activity of Fahaheel highway affect the CO levels in the areas. Concentration roses were plotted for annual durations to examine the primary dominant sources of air pollution in both study areas. By establishing a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB model around the two receptor points in both areas, it was revealed that the downstream facilities sector was the main contributor of air pollutants in Fahaheel. CMB model gave a 70% average contribution of the sector to the Fahaheel receptor point. However, 70% of the total contribution of the studied sources in Al-Riqa urban area was from the traffic and line sources side. The examination of the rate of O3 accumulation, during the high O3 period in Kuwait (April-October, revealed the occurrence of two phases, a fast and a slow one, with different durations in each urban area. Regression equations were used to study the midweek effect of O3 levels. This study supports the hypothesis that O3 weekend variation is due to an NOx emission difference between weekends and weekdays and VOCs sensitivity.

  6. A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of air pollution on low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants, preterm delivery (PTD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was conducted. Twelve epidemiologic investigations that addressed the impact of air pollution on four pregnancy outcomes were identified. Results were analyzed separately for each perinatal outcome because of differences in pathogenic mechanisms. Effects of air pollution were apparent on PTD and IUGR, but not on LBW. Most of the associations reported were rather small. The estimation of summary effects was not meaningful because of the heterogeneity of the effect estimates arising from differences in the measurements of outcome, exposure, and confounders and the small number of studies per outcome (four studies for PTD and six for IUGR). Current scientific knowledge on the impact of air pollution on fetal growth is still limited; thus, several issues should be examined further

  7. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo;

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  8. Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    House, Kurt Zenz; Baclig, Antonio C.; Ranjan, Manya; van Nierop, Ernst A.; Wilcox, Jennifer; Herzog, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (“air capture”) in an industrial process has been proposed as an option for stabilizing global CO2 concentrations. Published analyses suggest these air capture systems may cost a few hundred dollars per tonne of CO2, making it cost competitive with mainstream CO2 mitigation options like renewable energy, nuclear power, and carbon dioxide capture and storage from large CO2 emitting point sources. We investigate the thermodynamic efficiencies of comm...

  9. Sources and Perceptions of Indoor and Ambient Air Pollution in Rural Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Desirae; LEWIS, JOHNNYE; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were di...

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Evelyn O Talbott; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ≤ 10, 2.5 μm) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMB...

  11. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual le...

  12. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  13. Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Kurt Zenz; Baclig, Antonio C; Ranjan, Manya; van Nierop, Ernst A; Wilcox, Jennifer; Herzog, Howard J

    2011-12-20

    Capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ("air capture") in an industrial process has been proposed as an option for stabilizing global CO(2) concentrations. Published analyses suggest these air capture systems may cost a few hundred dollars per tonne of CO(2), making it cost competitive with mainstream CO(2) mitigation options like renewable energy, nuclear power, and carbon dioxide capture and storage from large CO(2) emitting point sources. We investigate the thermodynamic efficiencies of commercial separation systems as well as trace gas removal systems to better understand and constrain the energy requirements and costs of these air capture systems. Our empirical analyses of operating commercial processes suggest that the energetic and financial costs of capturing CO(2) from the air are likely to have been underestimated. Specifically, our analysis of existing gas separation systems suggests that, unless air capture significantly outperforms these systems, it is likely to require more than 400 kJ of work per mole of CO(2), requiring it to be powered by CO(2)-neutral power sources in order to be CO(2) negative. We estimate that total system costs of an air capture system will be on the order of $1,000 per tonne of CO(2), based on experience with as-built large-scale trace gas removal systems. PMID:22143760

  14. Sources and perceptions of indoor and ambient air pollution in rural Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-08-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were disseminated within seven communities in rural Alaska. The surveys focused on understanding the demographics, home heating practices, indoor activities, community/outdoor activities, and air quality perceptions within each community. Results from these surveys showed that there is elevated potential for PM10/PM2.5 exposures in rural Alaska communities. Top indoor air quality concerns included mold, lack of ventilation or fresh air, and dust. Top outdoor air pollution concerns identified were open burning/smoke, road dust, and vehicle exhaust (e.g., snow machines, ATVs, etc.). These data can now be used to seek additional funding for interventions, implementing long-term, sustainable solutions to the identified problems. Further research is needed to assess exposures to PM10/PM2.5 and the associated impacts on respiratory health, particularly among susceptible populations such as young children. PMID:23526077

  15. Establishment of ambient air quality trends using historical monitoring data from Edmonton and Fort McKay, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air trends were assessed using data collected over an 8 year period from monitoring stations in Edmonton and Fort McKay, Alberta. In particular, the study evaluated the short term trends in the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5) in Edmonton, as well as the NO2, O3, PM2.5, and total hydrocarbons in Fort McKay. In order to evaluate the ambient air trends, this study examined the changes in concentrations of these pollutants between the 50 - 90 percentiles of concentration distributions for a calendar year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study and fitted using simple linear regression. Hypothesis tests were performed to determine if the slopes of the best-fit lines were greater or less than zero. There was no indication of a statistically significant short-term trend for NO2 and O3 for the city of Edmonton. However, statistically pronounced decreasing trends were noted for CO and PM2.5. There was no indication of statistically significant trend for any of the pollutants examined at Fort McKay over the study period. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends. However, the results suggest that air quality has remained unchanged during the last 6 to 8 years, despite increased economic development in Edmonton and continued oil sands development in Fort McKay

  16. Ambient particulate air pollution induces oxidative stress and alterations of mitochondria and gene expression in brown and white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkema Jack R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. Methods Male ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- mice inhaled concentrated fine ambient PM (PM 2.5 or filtered air (FA for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 months. We examined superoxide production by dihydroethidium staining; inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry; and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE-/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. Results Exposure to PM2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brown adipose depots. Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT and brown adipose tissues (BAT, while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. In BAT, PM2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure triggers oxidative stress in BAT, and results in key alterations in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial alterations that are pronounced in BAT. We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction.

  17. Estimating Modal Parameters of Civil Engineering Structures subject to Ambient and Harmonic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Ventura, Carlos;

    In this paper addresses the problems of separating structural modes and harmonics arising from sinusoidal excitation. Though the problem is mostly know in mechanical engineering applications such as rotating machinery, some civil engineering applications experiences the same challenges. A robust...... and fast harmonic detection procedure is presented and illustrated on a civil engineering case....

  18. The burden of COPD mortality due to ambient air pollution in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Jun; Song, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ping-Yan; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality fraction attributable to air pollution and modification by individual characteristics of air pollution effects. We applied distributed lag non-linear models to assess the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality in 2007–2011 in Guangzhou, China, and the total COPD mortality fraction attributable to air pollution was calculated as well. We found that an increase of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with a 1.58% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12–3.06%), 3.45% (95% CI: 1.30–5.66%) and 2.35% (95% CI: 0.42–4.32%) increase of COPD mortality over a lag of 0–15 days, respectively. Greater air pollution effects were observed in the elderly, males and residents with low educational attainment. The results showed 10.91% (95% CI: 1.02–9.58%), 12.71% (95% CI: 5.03–19.85%) and 13.38% (95% CI: 2.67–22.84%) COPD mortality was attributable to current PM10, SO2 and NO2 exposure, respectively. In conclusion, the associations between air pollution and COPD mortality differed by individual characteristics. There were remarkable COPD mortality burdens attributable to air pollution in Guangzhou. PMID:27195597

  19. A combined air cycle used for IC engine supercharging based on waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A combined air cycle is proposed for IC engine supercharging based on WHR. • Cycle efficiency and energy recovery efficiency depend largely on working pressure. • Exhaust gas pressure of IC engine with combined air cycle is reduced largely. • IC engine fuel efficiency can be increased by 4.1% points at most. - Abstract: A combined air cycle is designed for internal combustion (IC) engine supercharging, which consists of IC engine working cycle and bottom cycle of waste heat recovery (WHR). The bottom cycle uses IC engine exhaust gas as cycle heat source, and its output power is used to drive the gas compressor. Both the heat transfer and thermodynamic processes of combined air cycle were investigated by numerical calculation under various cycle parameters and IC engine operating conditions. On this basis, the performances of combined air cycle and the improvement to IC engine performances were analyzed. Results show that, the cycle efficiency and exhaust gas energy recovery efficiency depend largely on the working pressure, and their maximum values appear at the working pressure of 0.35 MPa and 0.2 MPa, respectively. Compared with the naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharging engine, this approach can make the fuel utilization efficiency of IC engine increase by 8.9% points and 4.1% points at most, respectively, due to the reduction of exhaust gas pressure. All these demonstrate that the proposed concept is a potentially useful approach for IC engine energy saving

  20. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  2. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air; Estudio sobre las Incertidumbres Asociadas al Metodo de Determinacion de PAC's Seleccionados en Muestras de Aire Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM{sub 1}0, PM{sub 2}.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM{sub 1}0/PM{sub 2}.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A.; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). Objectives: We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. Methods: We used an energy supply–driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. Results: In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. Conclusions: PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed. Citation: Chafe ZA, Brauer M, Klimont Z, Van Dingenen R, Mehta S, Rao S, Riahi K, Dentener F, Smith KR. 2014. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to

  4. Aportes para el debate. Instrumentos de gestión ambiental en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Una mirada interdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Clara María Minaverry; Verónica Lucía Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    El artículo recupera reflexiones de dos investigaciones que siguieron una metodología cualitativa. Contribuye al conocimiento sobre los instrumentos de gestión ambiental en una jurisdicción particular de Argentina: la provincia de Buenos Aires (PBA). Tiene como punto de partida el reconocimiento de la importancia del trabajo interdisciplinar en la reflexión sobre la problemática ambiental y centra la atención por un lado, en las herramientas de gestión ambiental propuestas en dos campos de...

  5. Exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate air pollution does not influence vascular function or inflammatory pathways in young healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzents Peter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events although the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of controlled exposure to ambient air fine and ultrafine particles on microvascular function and biomarkers related to inflammation, haemostasis and lipid and protein oxidation. Methods Twenty-nine subjects participated in a randomized, two-factor crossover study with or without biking exercise for 180 minutes and with 24 hour exposure to particle rich (number concentrations, NC: 11600 ± 5600 per cm3, mass concentrations: 13.8 ± 7.4 μg/m3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 μg/m3 for PM10-2.5 and PM2.5, respectively or particle filtered (NC: 555 ± 1053 per cm3 air collected above a busy street. Microvascular function was assessed non-invasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone following arm ischemia. Biomarkers included haemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation factors, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α, lag time to copper-induced oxidation of plasma lipids and protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma. Results No statistically significant differences were observed on microvascular function or the biomarkers after exposure to particle rich or particle filtered air. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to air pollution particles at outdoor concentrations is not associated with detectable systemic inflammation, lipid or protein oxidation, altered haemostasis or microvascular function in young healthy participants.

  6. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  7. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h-1 in 2012, 34 nGy h-1 in 2013 and 29 nGy h-1 in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for 134Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg-1 and for 137Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg-1. All the values have decreased every year. (authors)

  8. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year. PMID:26246583

  9. Ambient Air Pollution and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Kyun; Wang, Weiye

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested air pollution as a new risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies on the association of air pollution with T2DM and related outcomes published by December 2013. We identified 22 studies: 6 prospective studies on incident T2DM; 2 prospective study on diabetes mortality; 4 cross-sectional studies on prevalent T2DM; 7 ecological studies on mortality or morbidity from d...

  10. Evaluation of ambient air pollution effects on three cultivars of sesame (sesamum indicum L.) by using ethylene diurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study was conducted in the suburbs of Lahore city of Pakistan to ascertain the protective effects of ethylene diurea (EDU) on three cultivars of sesame plants against ambient air pollutants. Seasonal mean 10 hr pollution levels at the site remained very high (O/sub 3/ : 91 ppb; NO 2: 38 ppb; SO/sub 2/: 10 ppb). It was found that plants treated with highest EDU concentration (500 ppm) showed increases in stomatal conductance (52%), transpiration rate (53%) and net photosynthesis rate (61%) compared with non-EDU treated plants. EDU treated plants depicted luxurious vegetative growth with reduced rate of leaf senescence compared to control plants. EDU protection was remarkable on different biochemical attributes with increases recorded in total chlorophyll by 31%, carotenoids by 15%, protein by 62%, and ascorbic acid by 65%. Total dry biomass was increased from 147-197% and root/shoot ratio from 29-37% in EDU-treated plants compared to plant in non-EDU. Seed yield was greater by 33-43% in different sesame cultivars treated with highest EDU concentration than non-EDU plants demonstrating the efficacy of EDU in preventing air pollutants induced yield losses. The results have wider implications in understanding the injurious effects of air pollutants on agroeconomic husbandry in Pakistan. (author)

  11. Retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Antonio; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscollà, Clara

    2016-04-01

    A new methodology for the retrospective screening of pesticide metabolites in ambient air was developed, using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), including two systematic workflows (i) post-run target screening (suspect screening) and (ii) non-target screening. An accurate-mass database was built and used for the post-run screening analysis. The database contained 240 pesticide metabolites found in different matrixes such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and humans. For non-target analysis, a "fragmentation-degradation" relationship strategy was selected. The proposed methodology was applied to 31 air samples (PM10) collected in the Valencian Region (Spain). In the post-target analysis 34 metabolites were identified, of which 11 (3-ketocarburan, carbofuran-7-phenol, carbendazim, desmethylisoproturon, ethiofencarb-sulfoxide, malaoxon, methiocarb-sulfoxide, N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-L-alanine, omethoate, 2-hydroxy-terbuthylazine, and THPAM) were confirmed using analytical standards. The semiquantitative estimated concentration ranged between 6.78 and 198.31 pg m(-3). Likewise, two unknown degradation products of malaoxon and fenhexamid were elucidated in the non-target screening. PMID:26838378

  12. The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, Steven T.; Sudo, Kengo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Bergmann, Daniel; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Cionni, Irene; Doherty, Ruth M.; Eyring, Veronika; Josse, Beatrice; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Plummer, David; Righi, Mattia; Stevenson, David S.; Strode, Sarah; Szopa, Sophie; Zengast, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air-pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths year-1), likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from 382 000 (121 000 to 728 000) deaths year-1 in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths year-1 in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. PM2.5 concentrations decrease relative to 2000 in all scenarios, due to projected reductions in emissions, and

  13. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elcoroaristizabal Martin, Saioa

    2015-01-01

    250 p. + anexos Este proyecto de Tesis Doctoral se inició en marzo de 2011 gracias a la becapredoctoral otorgada por la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), a través delprograma de ¿Formación de Personal Investigador¿, para trabajar en el Grupo deInvestigación Atmosférica (GIA) del Departamento de Ingeniería Química y del MedioAmbiente de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Bilbao (Universidad delPaís Vasco, UPV/EHU). Asimismo, parte de este trabajo de investigación se hadesarrol...

  14. Sources of PM(10) and PM (2.5) in Cairo's ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2007-10-01

    A source attribution study was performed to assess the contributions of specific pollutant source types to the observed particulate matter (PM) levels in the greater Cairo Area using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Three intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 21-March 3, 1999, October 27-November 27, 1999, and June 8-June 26, 2002. PM(10), PM(2.5), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. Major contributors to PM(10) included geological material, mobile source emissions, and open burning. PM(2.5) tended to be dominated by mobile source emissions, open burning, and secondary species. This paper presents the results of the PM(10) and PM(2.5), source contribution estimates. PMID:17268919

  15. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: A review of the literature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobák, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2005), s. 375-382. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution * pregnancy outcome * low birth weight Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.342, year: 2005

  16. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPROVE samplers were developed for use in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments... during air pollution episodes (see § 51.152 of this chapter) the measurement method must be: 5.1.1Either... pollution episode concentration of PM10, 5.1.2.2Which has a sample period appropriate for short-term...

  17. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR 8186). In 1982, EPA published Air Quality Criteria Document for... received on the proposal (61 FR 52852; October 8, 1996). While the primary NO 2 standard was revised in... NAAQS for SO 2 in April 1971 (36 FR 8186). The secondary standards included a standard set at 0.02...

  18. Variation in Parameters of Ambient Air Quality in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Anunay A. Gour; Singh, Santosh K.; Sushil K. Tyagi; Anubha Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Air Pollution is an escalating problem worldwide fuelled by increasing anthropogenic activities, speedy development, rapid industrialization, transportation, superfluous use of fossil fuel consumption, increasing global power needs, etc. Also the diverse meteorological factors influence our environment to a great extent. Population explosion has led to remarkable increase in vehicular population. The use solely depends upon the lifestyle of the citizen. Any change in th...

  19. Instrument for measuring total alpha particle energies of alpha emitters in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.; Cummings, B.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Horne, S

    2000-11-11

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of a self-reading, carbon fiber, electrometer-type instrument. It is used for measuring the total energy of alpha particles emitted in air by progenies of {sup 222}Rn ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi), and sometimes by other types of alpha emitters (e.g. {sup 212}Pb, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu). The purpose of these measurements is to assess the energy delivered by alpha emission from these sources to the lung tissue. A sample (charged progenies attached to aerosols) is collected on filter paper from a known volume of air and placed on the instrument. The discharge rate indicates the alpha energy in MeV l{sup -1} of air per min that is produced by the alpha emitters. The calibration procedure shows that the instrument has an energy sensitivity for alpha particles of 800.5 MeV/scale unit. The range of the readout scale is 30 units. Measurements of alpha contamination in air were made using this instrument in buildings, private homes and in a standard chamber. The value of the radon concentration in this chamber is traceable back to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  20. The application of an improved gas and aerosol collector for ambient air pollutants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huabin; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    An improved Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC) equipped with a newly designed aerosol collector and a set of dull-polished wet annular denuder (WAD) was developed by Peking University based on a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) sampler. Combined with Ion Chromatography (IC) the new sampler performed well in laboratory tests with high collection efficiencies for SO2 (above 98 %) and particulate sulfate (as high as 99.5 %). An inter-comparison between the GAC-IC system and the filter-pack method was performed and the results indicated that the GAC-IC system could supply reliable particulate sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and ammonium data in field measurement with a much wider range of ambient concentrations. From 2008 to 2015, dozens of big field campaigns (rural and coastal sites) were executed in different parts of China, the GAC-IC system took the chance having its field measurement performance checked repeatedly and provided high quality data in ambient conditions either under high loadings of pollutants or background area. Its measurements were highly correlated with data by other commercial instruments such as the SO2 analyzer, the HONO analyzer, a filter sampler, Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), etc. over a wide range of concentrations and proved particularly useful in future intensive campaigns or long-term monitoring stations to study various environmental issues such as secondary aerosol and haze formation. During these years of applications of GAC-IC in those field campaigns, we found some problems of several instruments running under field environment and some interesting results could also be drew from the large amount of data measured in near 20 provinces of China. Detail results will be demonstrated on the poster afterwards.

  1. Measurements and source apportionment of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Collett, Jeffrey; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Pasha, Mohammad J.

    2016-07-01

    Ambient air samples were obtained in Riyadh, the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, during two measurement campaigns spanning September 2011 to September 2012. Sixteen particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were quantified in 167 samples. Pyrene and fluoranthene were the most abundant PAH, with average of 3.37 ± 14.01 ng m-3 and 8.00 ± 44.09 ng m-3, respectively. A dominant contribution from low molecular weight (LMW) PAH (MW industrial emissions on PAH concentrations. Monte Carlo source apportionment using diagnostic ratios showed that 80 ± 10% of the average LMW PAH concentrations were contributed by petroleum vapor emissions, while 53 ± 19% of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH were from solid fuel combustion emissions. The positive matrix factorization model estimated that oil combustion emissions dominated total PAH concentrations, accounting for on average 96%, likely due to widespread use of oil fuels in energy production (power plants and industries). Our results demonstrate the significant influence of petroleum product production and consumption on particulate-phase PAH concentrations in Riyadh, but also point to the importance of traffic and solid fuel burning, including coke burning and seasonal biomass burning, especially as they contribute to the ambient levels of HMW PAH.

  2. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  3. Permanent hydrophilization of outer and inner surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes using ambient air plasma generated by surface dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavliňák, D.; Galmiz, O.; Zemánek, M.; Brablec, A.; Čech, J.; Černák, M., E-mail: cernak@physics.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 60200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-13

    We present an atmospheric pressure ambient air plasma technique developed for technically simple treatment of inner and/or outer surfaces of plastic tubes and other hollow dielectric bodies. It is based on surface dielectric barrier discharge generating visually diffuse plasma layers along the treated dielectric surfaces using water-solution electrodes. The observed visual uniformity and measured plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures of 333 K and 2350 K indicate that the discharge can be readily applied to material surface treatment without significant thermal effect. This is exemplified by the obtained permanent surface hydrophilization of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes related to the replacement of a high fraction (more than 80%) of the surface fluorine determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A tentative explanation of the discharge mechanism based on high-speed camera observations and the discharge current and voltage of measurements is outlined.

  4. Volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres: Long-term measurements of ambient air concentrations in differently loaded regions of Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.; Engewald, W. [University of Leipzig, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    For the comprehensive characterization of ambient air concentrations of a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) an analytical method is described, consisting of adsorptive enrichment, thermal desorption without cryofocusing, and capillary gas chromatographic separation. The method was applied during two-week measuring campaigns in winter and summer 1995, and in the winter of 1996. Long-term sampling was carried out at sampling points in residential areas in the suburbs and near the city center of Leipzig. About 70 VOCs - mainly hydrocarbons from propene to hexadecane - were identified both by GC-MS and chromatographic retention data and quantified after external calibration. Mean values of VOC concentrations obtained during the sampling periods are reported and discussed with regard to the topographical location of the sampling points in the Leipzig area, seasonal variations, and possible emission sources. (orig.) With 7 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  5. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic finding...

  6. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN). The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth

  7. Research Update: Direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Jagdish, E-mail: narayan@ncsu.edu; Bhaumik, Anagh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Centennial Campus, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We report a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by nanosecond laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa. Using nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to formation of super undercooled BN (Q-BN). The c-BN phase is nucleated from Q-BN depending upon the time allowed for nucleation and growth.

  8. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  9. Effects of increased biomass pellet combustion on ambient air quality in residential areas - a parametric dispersion modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden's goals of contemporaneously reducing CO2 emissions and phasing out nuclear power will require a maximum utilization of biomass fuels. This would imply a significant shift from electricity and fuel oil to biomass generated heat, but must also be accomplished without a deterioration of the local air quality. The most suitable energy carrier seems to be pelletized biomass fuels with their associated low emissions and considerable residential conversion potential. Using an underlying statistical design, a parametric dispersion modeling study was performed to estimate and illustrate the combined effects of source-specific, meteorological and modeling variables on the ambient air quality in a typical residential area for different conversion scenarios. The work nicely illustrated the benefits of combining statistical designs with model calculations. It further showed that the concentration of combustion related ambient THC was strongly related to conditions affecting the source strength, but only weakly to the dispersion conditions and model variables. Time of year (summer or winter); specific emission performance; extent of conversion from electricity; conversion from wood log combustion; and specific efficiency of the pellet appliances showed significant effects in descending order. The effects of local settings and model variables were relatively small, making the results more generally applicable. To accomplish the desired conversion to renewable energy in an ecologically and sustainable way, the emissions would have to be reduced to a maximum advisable limit of 25±7 mgTHC/MJfuel (given as CH4). Further, the results showed the potential positive influence by conversion from wood log to low emission pellet combustion. (author)

  10. Quantification of Alkyl Nitrates in Ambient Air by Thermal Dissociation Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy with Preconcentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C. Z.; Osthoff, H. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Pak, J. K.; Saowapon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates (AN, molecular formula RONO2) play a crucial role in the troposphere as temporary reservoirs of nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO +NO2) and by acting as chain terminators in the photochemical production of ozone. Mixing ratios of AN in ambient air are commonly quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD or GC-MS) coupled to purge-and-trap preconcentration, usually on Tenax sorbent, to improve the detection limits. The analysis, however, is quite laborious as there are many alkyl nitrates that are low in individual abundance (often less than 1 parts-per-trillion by volume, pptv) and that exhibit different instrumental response factors. An alternative method is to determine alkyl nitrates as a sum (ΣAN) by thermal dissociation (TD) to a common fragment (NO2), which can then be quantified with a uniform response factor by optical absorption, for example by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). However, the determination of ΣAN by TD-CRDS is hampered by its relatively high detection limits (several 100 pptv) and secondary chemistry following TD that results in both negative and positive interferences and depends on the composition of the ambient air sampled. In this work, a TD-CRDS equipped with a Tenax preconcentration unit is described. Matrix effects are minimized by desorbing the samples from the Tenax in a background of nitrogen. The performance of the instrument, in particular the recovery from the Tenax sorbent, was evaluated by sampling laboratory-generated mixtures of alkyl and peroxyacyl nitrates. Field data from a coastal site collected during the Ozone-depleting reactions in a coastal atmosphere (ORCA) campaign, which took place at the Amphitrite Point Observatory in Ucluelet, BC, from July 6 - 31, 2015, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method are discussed.

  11. Engineering professor wins $100,000 Air Force Young Investigator Award

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research has awarded Shashank Priya, associate professor of mechanical engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, a $100,000, three-year renewable grant to conduct basic research in the area of high-frequency electronic components, titled Domain Engineered Magnetoelectric Thin Films for High Sensitivity Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors.

  12. Optimal Area Profiles for Ideal Single Nozzle Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of cross-sectional area variation on idealized Pulse Detonation Engine performance are examined numerically. A quasi-one-dimensional, reacting, numerical code is used as the kernel of an algorithm that iteratively determines the correct sequencing of inlet air, inlet fuel, detonation initiation, and cycle time to achieve a limit cycle with specified fuel fraction, and volumetric purge fraction. The algorithm is exercised on a tube with a cross sectional area profile containing two degrees of freedom: overall exit-to-inlet area ratio, and the distance along the tube at which continuous transition from inlet to exit area begins. These two parameters are varied over three flight conditions (defined by inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure and ambient static pressure) and the performance is compared to a straight tube. It is shown that compared to straight tubes, increases of 20 to 35 percent in specific impulse and specific thrust are obtained with tubes of relatively modest area change. The iterative algorithm is described, and its limitations are noted and discussed. Optimized results are presented showing performance measurements, wave diagrams, and area profiles. Suggestions for future investigation are also discussed.

  13. Potential industrial applications of the one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma operating in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of industrial plasma processing is conducted with glow discharges at pressures below 10 Torr. This tends to limit such applications to high value workpieces, as a result of the high capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharges would play a much larger industrial role if they could be generated at 1 atm and in air. The one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP registered ) has these capabilities. As a normal glow discharge, the OAUGDP registered can operate with maximum electrical efficiency at the Stoletow point, where the energy input per ion-electron pair is a minimum. This paper will survey exploratory investigations at the University of Tennessee's Plasma Sciences Laboratory of seven potential industrial applications of the OAUGDP registered which can be conducted at 1 atm and at room temperature with air as the working gas

  14. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of selected nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) associated with atmospheric particulate matter has been investigated at an urban site and at a semi-rural site. For this purpose an analysis method based on gas chromatography and tandem ion trap mass spectrometry has...... been developed and applied. The nitro-PAK levels have been compared with levels of other air pollutants including unsubstituted PAHs, inorganic gases and particulate matter, as well as with meteorological parameters. Correlations and concentration ratios suggest that the dominant source of 9...... contribution of the OH initiated formation is estimated to be in the range of 90-100%. However, under wintertime conditions with cloudy weather implying low OH radical production, NO3 radicals may also be important as initiators of nitro-PAH formation. Samples influenced by transport of polluted air masses...

  15. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.; Skov, H.

    2001-01-01

    been developed and applied. The nitro-PAK levels have been compared with levels of other air pollutants including unsubstituted PAHs, inorganic gases and particulate matter, as well as with meteorological parameters. Correlations and concentration ratios suggest that the dominant source of 9......-nitroanthracene at the urban site is direct emissions, whereas at the semirural site its dominant source is atmospheric formation. The atmospheric formation of 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene generally seems to be initiated by OH radicals during the day rather than by NO3 radicals at night. The average...... contribution of the OH initiated formation is estimated to be in the range of 90-100%. However, under wintertime conditions with cloudy weather implying low OH radical production, NO3 radicals may also be important as initiators of nitro-PAH formation. Samples influenced by transport of polluted air masses...

  16. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  17. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Ralph J.; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S.; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000)....

  18. A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; LYLES, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 1993–1999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved ...

  19. Influence of PAHs in ambient air on chromosomal aberrations in exposed subjects: International study - EXPAH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Židzik, J.; Kalina, I.; Šalagovič, J.; Šrám, Radim; Rössner st., Pavel; Popov, T.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 41-48. ISSN 0027-5107 Grant ostatní: EU(GB) 2000-00091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * DNA damage * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  20. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Gong; Zhu, T.; M. Hu; L. W. Zhang; Cheng, H.; L. Zhang; Tong, J; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's...

  1. Association of stillbirth with ambient air pollution in a California cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rochelle; Sarovar, Varada; Malig, Brian; Basu, Rupa

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between air pollution and stillbirth. In this California study, we examined the records of 13,999 stillbirths and 3,012,270 livebirths occurring between 1999 and 2009. Using a retrospective cohort design and logistic regression models, we calculated the odds of stillbirth associated with each pollutant exposure by trimester and throughout the entire pregnancy. Covariates considered in the model included infant sex, maternal demographic characteristics, season of last menstrual period, apparent temperature, air basin of mother's residence, and year of conception. In single-pollutant models, we found that a 10-µg/m(3) increase in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.13) and a 10-ppb increase in nitrogen dioxide (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.13) during the entire pregnancy were associated with stillbirth. A 10-ppb increase in ozone exposure during the third trimester was also associated with a slightly elevated risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). These ozone and nitrogen dioxide findings were fairly stable after adjustment in 2-pollutant models. However, adjustment for nitrogen dioxide attenuated the full-pregnancy-particulate matter relationship. No significant associations were found for sulfur dioxide or carbon monoxide. These findings support growing evidence of an association between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25861815

  2. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Amelija; Ristić Goran; Živković Nenad; Todorović Branimir; Hristov Slađan; Milošević Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution). The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the in...

  3. Direct and rapid determination of elements in the ambient air and in human expiration using the electrostatic precipitation of aerosols in the graphite atomizer of a Zeeman spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a new Zeeman spectrometer with the electrostatic precipitation of aerosols in the graphite furnace of the atomizer for the direct and rapid determination of aerosols in the ambient air and in the air expired by human beings is presented. The results are given for the comparative determination of elements (Cd, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Se, Fe) in the laboratory air by the electrostatic precipitation and with the filter accumulation of aerosols. A correlation is found between the concentration of Se in the expiratory air and its concentration in the examinee's blood

  4. Color change of Blue butterfly wing scales in an air – Vapor ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric nanocomposites, which have photonic band gaps that forbid the propagation of light within certain frequency ranges. The optical response of such nanoarchitectures on chemical changes in the environment is determined by the spectral change of the reflected light, and depends on the composition of the ambient atmosphere and on the nanostructure characteristics. We carried out reflectance measurements on closely related Blue lycaenid butterfly males possessing so-called “pepper-pot” type photonic nanoarchitecture in their scales covering their dorsal wing surfaces. Experiments were carried out changing the concentration and nature of test vapors while monitoring the spectral variations in time. All the tests were done with the sample temperature set at, and below the room temperature. The spectral changes were found to be linear with the increasing of concentration and the signal amplitude is higher at lower temperatures. The mechanism of reflectance spectra modification is based on capillary condensation of the vapors penetrating in the nanostructure. These structures of natural origin may serve as cheap, environmentally free and biodegradable sensor elements. The study of these nanoarchitectures of biologic origin could be the source of various new bioinspired systems.

  5. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJimpsey, E L; Steele, P T; Coffee, K R; Fergenson, D P; Riot, V J; Woods, B W; Gard, E E; Frank, M; Tobias, H J; Lebrilla, C

    2006-03-16

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described.

  6. Detection of biological particles in ambient air using Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system is an instrument used for the real time detection and identification of biological aerosols. Particles are drawn from the atmosphere directly into vacuum and tracked as they scatter light from several continuous wave lasers. After tracking, the fluorescence of individual particles is excited by a pulsed 266nm or 355nm laser. Molecules from those particles with appropriate fluorescence properties are subsequently desorbed and ionized using a pulsed 266nm laser. Resulting ions are analyzed in a dual polarity mass spectrometer. During two field deployments at the San Francisco International Airport, millions of ambient particles were analyzed and a small but significant fraction were found to have fluorescent properties similar to Bacillus spores and vegetative cells. Further separation of non-biological background particles from potential biological particles was accomplished using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This has been shown to enable some level of species differentiation in specific cases, but the creation and observation of higher mass ions is needed to enable a higher level of specificity across more species. A soft ionization technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is being investigated for this purpose. MALDI is particularly well suited for mass analysis of biomolecules since it allows for the generation of molecular ions from large mass compounds that would fragment under normal irradiation. Some of the initial results from a modified BAMS system utilizing this technique are described

  7. Characterization of stable brush-shaped large-volume plasma generated at ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brush-shaped, large-volume plasma was generated at ambient pressure with a dc power supply and flowing argon gas, as well as a narrow outlet slit. Based on the V-I curve and emission profiles obtained in our experiment, the plasma shows some typical glow discharge characteristics. The electron density in the positive column close to the anode is about 1.4x1014cm-3 high, which is desirable for generating abundant amounts of reactive species in the plasma. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicates that many reactive species, such as excited argon atoms, excited oxygen atoms, excited nitrogen molecules, OH and C2 radicals, etc., generated within the plasma are distributed symmetrically and uniformly, which is preferable to some chemical reactions in practical applications. Spectral measurement also shows that the concentration of some excited argon atoms increases with the argon flow rate when the applied voltage is unvaried, while that of these excited argon atoms declines with the discharge current in the normal/subnormal glow discharge mode with the argon flow rate fixed. The plasma size is about 15 mm x 1 mm x 19 mm (L, W, H), when 38-W of discharge power is used. Such a laminar brush-shaped large-volume plasma device ensures not only efficient utilization of the plasma gas, but also effective processing of objects with large volume and complicated structure that are susceptible to high temperatures.

  8. Comparison Based on Exergetic Analyses of Two Hot Air Engines: A Gamma Type Stirling Engine and an Open Joule Cycle Ericsson Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Houda Hachem; Marie Creyx; Ramla Gheith; Eric Delacourt; Céline Morin; Fethi Aloui; Sassi Ben Nasrallah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of exergetic models between two hot air engines (a Gamma type Stirling prototype having a maximum output mechanical power of 500 W and an Ericsson hot air engine with a maximum power of 300 W) is made. Referring to previous energetic analyses, exergetic models are set up in order to quantify the exergy destruction and efficiencies in each type of engine. The repartition of the exergy fluxes in each part of the two engines are determined and represented in Sankey di...

  9. Ambient air monitoring with Auto-gas chromatography running in trigger mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Yousheng; Hazlett, Pamela D; Matherne, Valerie

    2007-07-16

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOC), either as ozone precursors or air toxics in the air, are commonly monitored by triggered canister method or continuous ozone precursor analyzer (commonly known as Auto-gas chromatography (GC)) method. In the triggered canister method, a canister sample is collected when a total non-methane organic compound (TNMOC) concentration exceeds a pre-determined trigger level. The canister sample is then analyzed in a lab in a later time. In the Auto-GC method, an online GC runs in a "continuous" mode with a sampling and analysis cycle of 1 h. Within the cycle hour, samples are collected only during the first 40 min. A new approach of Auto-GC running in trigger mode is developed in this study. This new approach uses Auto-GC but operates it in a trigger mode similar to the triggered canister sampling method. Compared to the triggered canister sample method, this system provides near real-time speciated VOC data, which are critical for responding to a high VOC concentration episode. Although the canister system generally costs less, its cost advantage may diminish if trigger events are frequent and the monitoring duration is long. Compared to continuous Auto-GC, triggered GC has its niche--it is better for capturing transient plumes with a small footprint. The continuous GC either misses a transient plume if the plume does not arrive at the sampling site during the sampling cycle or flattens the plume concentration peak by dilution with non-plume air sample. Field experience with this system for fenceline VOC monitoring is presented. The sampling and calibration strategy for trigger mode operation is described. The chromatograph retention time drift issues are discussed. The system performance is evaluated, including the method detection limit, precision and accuracy. The trigger mode configuration for VOC fenceline or near source monitoring in this work proved effective for local and transient plume identification. PMID:17616253

  10. Levels of selected metals in ambient air PM10 in an urban site of Zaragoza (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Callén, M S; Murillo, R; García, T; Navarro, M V; de la Cruz, M T; Mastral, A M

    2005-09-01

    An assessment of the air quality of Zaragoza (Spain) was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne PM10 in a sampling campaign from July 2001 to July 2002. Samples were collected in a heavy traffic area with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 cutoff inlet. The levels of 16 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were quantified after collecting the PM10 on Teflon-coated glass fiber filters (GFF). Regarding the PM10, 32% exceedance of the proposed PM10 daily limit was obtained, some of them corresponding to summer and autumn periods. The limit values of toxic trace elements from US-EPA, WHO, and EC were not exceeded, considering Zaragoza as a moderately polluted city under the current air quality guidelines. The contribution of anthropogenic sources to atmospheric elemental levels was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Zn, Pb, and Cu compared to the average crustal composition. Statistical analyses also determined the contribution of different sources to the PM10, finding that vehicle traffic and anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and industrial processes were the main pollutant sources as well as natural sources associated with transport of dust from Africa for specific dates. Regarding the influence of meteorological conditions on PM10 and trace elements concentrations, it was found that calm weather conditions with low wind speed favor the PM10 collection and the pollution for trace elements, suggesting the influence of local sources. PMID:16053928

  11. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  12. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  13. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)

  14. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals

  15. Autonomous remote gas sensor network platforms with applications in landfill, wastewater and ambient air quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Eoghan; Nardi Pinto, Camila; Collins, Fiachra; Fay, Cormac; Fregonezi Paludetti, Lizandra; Zanoni Nubiato, Keni; Xavier Costa, Ernane; Morgado, Marcelo; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are produced by anaerobes on decaying matter. This gas production is present in landfill sites and in anaerobic lagoons in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Monitoring gas production is important as CO2 can collect in low lying areas and asphyxiates, CH4 is flammable in the 5%-15% v/v gas/air region. Both CO2 and CH4 are greenhouse gases, CH4 having 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. At landfill site perimeters, CO2 and CH4 must not exceed ...

  16. Optimization Study on a Single-cylinder Compressed Air Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qihui; CAI Maolin; SHI Yan; XU Qiyue

    2015-01-01

    The current research of compressed air engine (CAE) mainly focused on simulations and system integrations. However, energy efficiency and output torque of the CAE is limited, which restricts its application and popularization. In this paper, the working principles of CAE are briefly introduced. To set a foundation for the study on the optimization of the CAE, the basic mathematical model of working processes is set up. A pressure-compensated valve which can reduce the inertia force of the valve is proposed. To verify the mathematical model, the prototype with the newly designed pressure-compensated intake valve is built and the experiment is carried out, simulation and experimental results of the CAE are conducted, and pressures inside the cylinder and output torque of the CAE are obtained. Orthogonal design and grey relation analysis are utilized to optimize structural parameters. The experimental and optimized results show that, first of all, pressure inside the cylinder has the same changing tendency in both simulation curve and experimental curve. Secondly, the highest average output torque is obtained at the highest intake pressure and the lowest rotate speed. Thirdly, the optimization of the single-cylinder CAE can improve the working efficiency from an original 21.95% to 50.1%, an overall increase of 28.15%, and the average output torque increases also increases from 22.047 5 N • m to 22.439 N • m. This research designs a single-cylinder CAE with pressure-compensated intake valve, and proposes a structural parameters design method which improves the single-cylinder CAE performance.

  17. Optimization study on a single-cylinder compressed air engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qihui; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Xu, Qiyue

    2015-11-01

    The current research of compressed air engine (CAE) mainly focused on simulations and system integrations. However, energy efficiency and output torque of the CAE is limited, which restricts its application and popularization. In this paper, the working principles of CAE are briefly introduced. To set a foundation for the study on the optimization of the CAE, the basic mathematical model of working processes is set up. A pressure-compensated valve which can reduce the inertia force of the valve is proposed. To verify the mathematical model, the prototype with the newly designed pressure-compensated intake valve is built and the experiment is carried out, simulation and experimental results of the CAE are conducted, and pressures inside the cylinder and output torque of the CAE are obtained. Orthogonal design and grey relation analysis are utilized to optimize structural parameters. The experimental and optimized results show that, first of all, pressure inside the cylinder has the same changing tendency in both simulation curve and experimental curve. Secondly, the highest average output torque is obtained at the highest intake pressure and the lowest rotate speed. Thirdly, the optimization of the single-cylinder CAE can improve the working efficiency from an original 21.95% to 50.1%, an overall increase of 28.15%, and the average output torque increases also increases from 22.047 5 N • m to 22.439 N • m. This research designs a single-cylinder CAE with pressure-compensated intake valve, and proposes a structural parameters design method which improves the single-cylinder CAE performance.

  18. Attenuation factors in terms of air kerma to ambient dose equivalent and effective dose for diagnostic X rays rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the attenuation of the quantities fluence and air kerma free-in-air by various layers of lead was compared with that of the quantities effective dose, E, and ambient dose equivalent, H*(d). This work aims to calculate the attenuation factors from 50 kV, 125 kV and 150 kV of X ray beams used for medical diagnostic, after transmission through barriers of lead. The X ray qualities used were those recommended by the Birch and Marshall for primary diagnostic X rays. Several lead layers were irradiated with a 50 cm x 50 cm field of primary X ray spectra. The transmitted spectra were calculated to obtain the attenuation factors for beams found in radiodiagnostic services. The calculations were done using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code and voxel model MAX. The values obtained were compared with data derived from the literature. In addition, attenuation factors for X ray qualities after penetration of lead layers were studied to get data which might be of interest in shielding of diagnostic rooms. (author)

  19. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study on splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplets in air. • Oxidation and temperature effects of droplets on flow impact dynamics were disclosed. • Distinctions between metal and water flow dynamics were comparatively investigated. • Results are critical for liquid metal spraying cooling and printed electronics etc. - Abstract: In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet striking onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was systematically investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and transient flow behavior were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from the instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. According to the energy analysis, it was disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc

  20. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)