WorldWideScience

Sample records for amazonian plant species

  1. Extinction risks of Amazonian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Silman, Miles R

    2009-07-28

    Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by approximately 12-24%, resulting in 5-9% of species becoming "committed to extinction," significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes. PMID:19617552

  2. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  3. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  4. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego; Lara González-Segura; Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares; Patricia L. Howard; José Luis Molina; Victoria Reyes-García

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in ho...

  5. Amazonian Dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa Lima, A.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; Teixeira, W.G.; Tsai, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil whe

  6. Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amanda A; Segovia, Jorge FO; Sousa, Vespasiano YK; Mata, Elida CG; Gonçalves, Magda CA; Bezerra, Roberto M; Junior, Paulo OM; Kanzaki, Luís IB

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aqueous extracts of currently utilized Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed in vitro searching for antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Medium resuspended lyophilized aqueous extracts of different organs of Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed by in vitro screening for antimicrobial activity. ATCC and standardized microorganisms obtained from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazil were individually and homogeneously grown in agar plat...

  7. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.;

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree...

  8. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  9. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    H. ter Steege; Pitman, NC; Killeen, TJ; Laurance, WF; Peres, CA; Guevara, JE; Salomão, RP; Castilho, CV; Amaral, IL; de Almeida Matos, FD; de Souza Coelho, L; Magnusson, WE; Phillips, OL; de Andrade Lima Filho, D; de Jesus Veiga Carim, M

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened ...

  10. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  11. Flooding effects on plant physiology and VOC emissions from Amazonian tree species from two different flooding environments: Varzea and Igapo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho Nunez, A.; Knothe, N.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    A land area of 300.000 km² in the Amazon basin is subjected to a continuous flooding pulse, being flooded for 210 days a-1 on an average (Junk et al. 1993). To survive the flooding period vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies to mitigate the produced stress due to root anoxia. One of the strategies is fermentation of sucrose in the roots to comply with the energy demand under anoxia. The resulting toxic metabolite ethanol is transported through the transpiration stream to the leaves and can be directly emitted into the atmosphere or converted to acetaldehyde and/or acetate, still volatile enough to be partly released. We investigated short-term and long-term flooding effects on physiology and VOC emission by plant species from várzea and igapó and observed ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from the várzea species Vatairea guianensis after one day of flooding, which decreased considerably within the next three days. The same species from igapó showed no acetaldehyde emission and much lower emission rates of ethanol, than the várzea species. In contrast Hevea spruceana from both várzea and igapó showed no ethanol or acetaldehyde emissions. After long term flooding (2 months) we did not find any emissions of acetaldehyde or ethanol from all plant species investigated. However, isoprene and monoterpene emissions were clearly affected, showing a significant decrease. Carbon dioxide assimilation was not affected by short term flooding, but declined after two months root anoxia in the case of Hevea spruceana.

  12. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Colares Ioni G.; Colares Elton P.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the...

  13. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  14. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Peres, Carlos A; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P; Castilho, Carolina V; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G W; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Comiskey, James A; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Jimenez, Eliana M; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I A; Vos, Vincent A; Zent, Eglée L; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world's >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  15. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Stevenson

    Full Text Available Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  16. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated. PMID:6677821

  17. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon. PMID:25580947

  18. Notes on Amazonian Bittacidae (Mecoptera with the descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Penny

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available New species of Issikiella and Nannobittacus are described and notes are presented on other Amazonian species of Mecoptera.Nova espécie de Issikiella e Nannobittacus são descritas e notas são apresentadas para outras espécies de Mecopteros da Amazônia.

  19. Biotransformations of terpenes by fungi from Amazonian citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rueda, Maria Gabriela; Guerrini, Alessandra; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Medici, Alessandro; Grandini, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pedrini, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The biotransformations of (RS)-linalool (1), (S)-citronellal (2), and sabinene (3) with fungi isolated from the epicarp of fruits of Citrus genus of the Amazonian forest (i.e., C. limon, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, and C. paradisiaca) are reported. The more active strains have been characterized, and they belong to the genus Penicillium and Fusarium. Different biotransformation products have been obtained depending on fungi and substrates. (RS)-Linalool (1) afforded the (E)- and (Z)-furanlinalool oxides (7 and 8, resp.; 39 and 37% yield, resp.) with Fusarium sp. (1D2), 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one (4; 49%) with F. fujikuroi, and 1-methyl-1-(4-methypentyl)oxiranemethanol (6; 42%) with F. concentricum. (S)-Citronellal (2) gave (S)-citronellol (12; 36-76%) and (S)-citronellic acid (11; 5-43%) with Fusarium species, while diastereoisomeric p-menthane-3,8-diols 13 and 14 (20 and 50% yield, resp.) were obtained as main products with Penicillium paxilli. Finally, both Fusarium species and P. paxilli biotransformed sabinene (3) to give mainly 4-terpineol (19; 23-56%), and (Z)- and (E)-sabinene hydrates (17 (3-21%) and 18 (11-17%), resp.). PMID:24130034

  20. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  1. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  2. Alluvial deposits and plant distribution in an Amazonian lowland megafan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, H.; Rossetti, D.; Cremon; Cohen, M.; Pessenda, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    A large volume of sandy alluvial deposits (> 1000 km2) characterizes a flat wetland in northern Amazonia. These have been recently described as the sedimentary record of a megafan system, which have a distinct triangular shape produced by highly migratory distributary rivers. The vegetation map suggests that this megafan is dominated by open vegetation in sharp contact with the surround rainforest. Understanding the relationship between geomorphological processes and vegetation distribution is crucial to decipher and conserve the biodiversity in this Amazonian ecosystem. In this study we interpret plant dynamics over time, and investigate its potential control by sedimentary processes during landscape evolution. The study area is located in the Viruá National Park. Two field campaigns were undertaken in the dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 and the sampling sites were selected by combining accessibility and representativeness. Vegetation contrasts were recorded along a transect in the medial section of the Viruá megafan. Due to the absence of outcrops, samples were extracted using a core device, which allowed sampling up to a depth of 7.5 m. All cores were opened and described in the field, with 5 cm3 samples collected at 20 cm intervals. The δ13C of organic matter was used as a proxy to distinguish between C3 and C4 plant communities. The chronology was established based on radiocarbon dating. The results suggest that the cores from forested areas show the most depleted values of δ13C, ranging from -32.16 to -27.28‰. The δ13C curve in these areas displays typical C3 land plant values for the entire record, which covers most of the Holocene. This finding indicates that either the vegetation remained stable over time or the sites were dominated by aquatic environments with freshwater plants before forest establishment. The cores from the open vegetation areas show a progressive upward enrichment in δ13C values, which range from -28.50 to -19.59‰. This trend is

  3. The reproductive phenology of an Amazonian ant species reflects the seasonal availability of its nest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2006-09-01

    In saturated tropical ant assemblages, reproductive success depends on queens locating and competing for scarce nest sites. Little is known about how this process shapes the life histories of tropical ants. Here I investigate the relationship between nest site availability and an important life history trait, reproductive phenology, in the common Amazonian ant species Allomerus octoarticulatus. A. octoarticulatus is a plant-ant that nests in the hollow, swollen stem domatia on Cordia nodosa. I provide evidence that nest sites are limiting for A. octoarticulatus. Most queens produced by A. octoarticulatus colonies died before locating suitable host plants, and most queens that located hosts died before founding colonies, probably from intraspecific competition among queens for control of host plants. I further show that the reproductive phenology of A. octoarticulatus closely matches the seasonal availability of its nest sites, domatia-bearing C. nodosa saplings. Both the production and flight of A. octoarticulatus reproductives, and the number of C. nodosa saplings available for colonization by ants, peaked from March to May. There was correlative evidence that A. octoarticulatus colonies use temperature as a cue to synchronize their reproduction to the availability of C. nodosa saplings: both the production of reproductives by ant colonies and the number of C. nodosa saplings available for colonization were correlated with temperature, and not with rainfall. All of these results suggest that nest site limitation constrains the reproductive phenology of A. octoarticulatus. PMID:16758217

  4. Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens.

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    Emilio M Bruna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used empirical data and inverse modeling--a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal--to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp. that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means

  5. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4’-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  6. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  7. Effects of dam-induced landscape fragmentation on amazonian ant-plant mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Carine; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto

    2013-08-01

    Mutualistic networks are critical to biological diversity maintenance; however, their structures and functionality may be threatened by a swiftly changing world. In the Amazon, the increasing number of dams poses a large threat to biological diversity because they greatly alter and fragment the surrounding landscape. Tight coevolutionary interactions typical of tropical forests, such as the ant-myrmecophyte mutualism, where the myrmecophyte plants provide domatia nesting space to their symbiotic ants, may be jeopardized by the landscape changes caused by dams. We analyzed 31 ant-myrmecophyte mutualistic networks in undisturbed and disturbed sites surrounding Balbina, the largest Central Amazonian dam. We tested how ant-myrmecophyte networks differ among dam-induced islands, lake edges, and undisturbed forests in terms of species richness, composition, structure, and robustness (number of species remaining in the network after partner extinctions). We also tested how landscape configuration in terms of area, isolation, shape, and neighborhood alters the structure of the ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands. Ant-myrmecophytic networks were highly compartmentalized in undisturbed forests, and the compartments had few strongly connected mutualistic partners. In contrast, networks at lake edges and on islands were not compartmentalized and were negatively affected by island area and isolation in terms of species richness, density, and composition. Habitat loss and fragmentation led to coextinction cascades that contributed to the elimination of entire ant-plant compartments. Furthermore, many myrmecophytic plants in disturbed sites lost their mutualistic ant partners or were colonized by opportunistic, nonspecialized ants. Robustness of ant-myrmecophyte networks on islands was lower than robustness near lake edges and in undisturbed forest and was particularly susceptible to the extinction of plants. Beyond the immediate habitat loss caused by the building of large dams

  8. Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Goncalo; Russell, Gareth J; Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Pimm, Stuart L; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2003-11-25

    In the face of worldwide habitat fragmentation, managers need to devise a time frame for action. We ask how fast do understory bird species disappear from experimentally isolated plots in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, central Amazon, Brazil. Our data consist of mist-net records obtained over a period of 13 years in 11 sites of 1, 10, and 100 hectares. The numbers of captures per species per unit time, analyzed under different simplifying assumptions, reveal a set of species-loss curves. From those declining numbers, we derive a scaling rule for the time it takes to lose half the species in a fragment as a function of its area. A 10-fold decrease in the rate of species loss requires a 1,000-fold increase in area. Fragments of 100 hectares lose one half of their species in <15 years, too short a time for implementing conservation measures. PMID:14614134

  9. Colour forms of Amazonian cichlid fish represent reproductively isolated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, J S; Sampaio, I; Schneider, H; Vinson, C; Dos Santos, T; Turner, G F

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory mate choice experiments have confirmed species status for cichlid fish in the African Great Lakes that differ in colour and little else. Colour differences between allopatric populations of the South American cichlid genus Apistogramma are known for many species, yet the status of such populations has not been previously tested. Analysis of the genetic relationships and mate choice characteristics of populations previously described as Apistogramma caetei from eastern Amazonia indicates genetic differentiation into at least three allopatric lineages, which also show strong prezygotic isolation through female mate choice, confirming them as Biological species. If future studies confirm that this result is indicative of a general trend, the species richness of the South American cichlid fishes may presently be seriously underestimated. PMID:16780514

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; dos Santos Alves, Camilla Filippi; Schneider, Taiane; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Aurich, Carlos; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Brandelli, Adriano; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo

    2012-03-01

    The Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the primary bacterial pathogen of honeybee brood and the causative agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB). One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control of this disease is essential oils. In this study in vitro antimicrobial activity of Andiroba and Copaíba essential oils against Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth by the microdilution method was assessed. Andiroba registered MIC values of 1.56-25%, while the MICs values obtained for Copaíba oil were of 1.56-12.5%. In order to determine the time-response effect of essential oils on P. larvae, this microorganism was exposed to the oils for up to 48 h. After 24 h treatment with Andiroba oil and after 48 h treatment with Copaíba oil no viable cells of P. larvae ATCC 9545 were observed. The possible toxic effect of essential oils were assessed by the spraying application method of the same concentrations of MICs. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with Andiroba oil and the Copaíba oil shows no toxic effects after 10 days of observation. Taking together ours results showed for the first time that these oils presented a high activity against Paenibacillus species showing that Copaíba oil may be a candidate for the treatment or prevention of AFB. PMID:22200645

  11. Effects of plant diversity on plant biomass production and soil macrofauna in Amazonian pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Barot, Sébastien; Carvalho, D; Desjardins, Thierry; Lavelle, Patrick; Martins, M.; Mitja, Danielle; Rendeiro, A. C.; Rousseau, G.; Sarrazin, Max; Velasquez, Elena; Grimaldi, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of plant diversity on plant production and soil macrofauna density and diversity. Four plants species (Arachis pintoi, an herbaceous legume; Brachiaria brizantha, a perennial grass; Leucaena leucocephala, a legume shrub; Solanum rugosum, a non-legume shrub) were used in a field experiment and communities of all combinations of one, two, three or four species were established. Plant diversity neither significantly affected density and diversity of soil macrofauna nor tot...

  12. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  13. Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants respond to Pleistocene climatic change as species, not as associations or biomes. This has been demonstrated unequivocally by paleobotanical data for temperate latitudes. In the far richer vegetations of the tropics species populations also fluctuated independently in response to climatic forcing, from their longlasting glacial states to the patterns of brief interglacials like the present and back again. We use pollen data to reconstruct the vegetation of the Amazon basin in oxygen isotope stages 3 and 2 of the last glaciation in order to measure how the plant populations of the Amazon responded to the global warming at the onset of the Holocene. We find that plant communities of the neotropics vent copious pollen to lake sediments and that this pollen yields powerful signals for community composition. Three continuous sedimentary records reaching through oxygen isotope stage 2 are available from the Amazon lowlands, those from Carajas, Lake Pata and marine deposits off the mouth of the Amazon River. All three records yield pollen histories of remarkable constancy and stability. By comparing them with deposits of equal antiquity from the cerrado (savanna) of central Brazil, we show that most of the Amazon lowlands remained under forest throughout a glacial cycle. This forest was never fragmented by open vegetation as postulated by the refugia hypothesis. Instead the intact forest of glacial times included significant populations of plants that are now montane, suggesting that the global warming of the early Holocene resulted in the expulsion of heat intolerant plants from the lowland forest. Pollen data from the Amazonian flank of the Andes and from Pacific Panama provide evidence that populations of these heat intolerant plants survive the heat of interglacials in part by maintaining large populations at cooler montane altitudes. Our conclusion that the Amazon lowlands were forested in glacial times specifically refutes the hypothesis of Amazonian glacial

  14. Patterns of energy allocation to reproduction in three Amazonian fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo N. dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study considered the influence of the hydrological cycle and gonadal development on the accumulation and use of energy in three fish species from an Amazonian flooded area. Fishes were sampled over a 24 hour period at monthly intervals between July 2004 and June 2005 using gillnets of different mesh sizes. Body cavity fat and gonadosomatic indices were determined, as well as energy content of gonads and muscles. Amongst the studied species, different means of energy allocation for reproduction were found: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris allocate energy from body cavity fat to its gonads; Pygocentrus nattereri uses mainly energy accumulated in the muscles for the process of gonadal maturation; and Hoplosternum littorale uses energy accumulated in their muscles and body cavity fat for reproductive processes. It is quite clear that the flood pulse regulates the gain and use of the energy reserves in fishes from the Amazonian floodplain.O presente estudo considerou a influência do ciclo hidrológico e maturação gonadal no acúmulo e utilização da energia em três espécies de peixes, numa área de planície de inundação amazônica. As amostras foram obtidas mensalmente durante o período de julho de 2004 a junho de 2005, utilizando redes de emalhar com vários tamanhos de malhas, durante 24 horas. O índice de gordura cavitária, índice gonadossomático, e teor energético dos músculos e gônadas foram analisados. Dentre as espécies analisadas, foram detectados diferentes padrões de alocação de energia: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris aloca energia das reservas de gordura cavitária para as gônadas; Pygocentrus nattereri utiliza energia dos músculos para este fim e Hoplosternum littorale, além da gordura cavitária, utiliza também energia acumulada nos músculos para realização dos processos reprodutivos. Ficou evidente que o pulso de inundação exerce forte influência no acúmulo e utilização das reservas energéticas dos

  15. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae, based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo H°urková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the same chelonid from Amazonian Brazil.

  16. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M; De Souza, M C

    2008-12-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo Hůrková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the some chelonid from Amazonian Brazil. PMID:19202760

  17. How plants shape the ant community in the Amazonian rainforest canopy: the key role of extrafloral nectaries and homopteran honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüthgen, N; Verhaagh, M; Goitía, W; Jaffé, K; Morawetz, W; Barthlott, W

    2000-10-01

    Ant-plant interactions in the canopy of a lowland Amazonian rainforest of the upper Orinoco, Venezuela, were studied using a modified commercial crane on rails (Surumoni project). Our observations show a strong correlation between plant sap exudates and both abundance of ants and co-occurrence of ant species in tree canopies. Two types of plant sap sources were compared: extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) and honeydew secretions by homopterans. EFNs were a frequent food source for ants on epiphytes (Philodendron spp., Araceae) and lianas (Dioclea, Fabaceae), but rare on canopy trees in the study area, whereas the majority of trees were host to aggregations of homopterans tended by honeydew-seeking ants (on 62% of the trees examined). These aggregations rarely occurred on epiphytes. Baited ant traps were installed on plants with EFNs and in the crowns of trees from three common genera, including trees with and without ant-tended homopterans: Goupia glabra (Celastraceae), Vochysia spp. (Vochysiaceae), and Xylopia spp. (Annonaceae). The number of ant workers per trap was significantly higher on plants offering one of the two plant sap sources than on trees without such resources. Extrafloral nectaries were used by a much broader spectrum of ant species and genera than honeydew, and co-occurrence of ant species (in traps) was significantly higher on plants bearing EFNs than on trees. Homopteran honeydew (Coccidae and Membracidae), on the other hand, was mostly monopolised by a single ant colony per tree. Homopteran-tending ants were generally among the most dominant ants in the canopy. The most prominent genera were Azteca, Dolichoderus (both Dolichoderinae), Cephalotes, Pheidole, Crematogaster (all Myrmicinae), and Ectatomma (Ponerinae). Potential preferences were recorded between ant and homopteran species, and also between ant-homopteran associations and tree genera. We hypothesize that the high availability of homopteran honeydew provides a key resource for ant mosaics

  18. Amazonian Plant Natural Products: Perspectives for Discovery of New Antimalarial Drug Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio H. Freitas-Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria parasites are now resistant, or showing signs of resistance, to most drugs used in therapy. Novel chemical entities that exhibit new mechanisms of antiplasmodial action are needed. New antimalarials that block transmission of Plasmodium spp. from humans to Anopheles mosquito vectors are key to malaria eradication efforts. Although P. vivax causes a considerable number of malaria cases, its importance has for long been neglected. Vivax malaria can cause severe manifestations and death; hence there is a need for P. vivax-directed research. Plants used in traditional medicine, namely Artemisia annua and Cinchona spp. are the sources of the antimalarial natural products artemisinin and quinine, respectively. Based on these compounds, semi-synthetic artemisinin-derivatives and synthetic quinoline antimalarials have been developed and are the most important drugs in the current therapeutic arsenal for combating malaria. In the Amazon region, where P. vivax predominates, there is a local tradition of using plant-derived preparations to treat malaria. Here, we review the current P. falciparum and P. vivax drug-sensitivity assays, focusing on challenges and perspectives of drug discovery for P. vivax, including tests against hypnozoites. We also present the latest findings of our group and others on the antiplasmodial and antimalarial chemical components from Amazonian plants that may be potential drug leads against malaria.

  19. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments. PMID:24730040

  20. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  1. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  2. Species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil

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    Rose B. Rodrigues Trindade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of fruit flies (Tephritidae were surveyed in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in the district of Clevelândia do Norte, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil. This study describes the diversity of fruit fly species sampled inside this transect (2.2 linear km. Eleven McPhail traps were serviced weekly from June 2002 to June 2003. A total of 55 samples were obtained, totaling 125 specimens of Tephritidae. Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 was the most abundant and diverse genus, with 18 species caught. Two new species, A. oiapoquensis Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011 and A. siculigera Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011, were discovered in this survey. Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, 1993 (n = 40 was the most abundant species. Six species, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. duckei Lima, 1934, A. flavipennis Greene, 1934, A. minensis Lima, 1937, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873, and A. submunda Lima, 1937, are recorded for the first time from Amapá. Three of them, A. minensis, A. pseudoparallela, and A. submunda, are reported for the first time from northern Brazil. This paper updates to 36 the number of frugivorous species of Tephritidae in Amapá.

  3. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

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    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As volatile organic compounds (VOCs significantly affect atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects, emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic VOC emission strengths are important. The aim of this work was to achieve a description of VOC emissions from poorly described tropical vegetation to be compared with the quite well investigated and highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. For this task, common plant species of both ecosystems were investigated. Sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area, which is known for its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species, were chosen. In contrast, little information is currently available regarding emissions of VOCs from tropical tree species at the leaf level. Twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin, i.e. Terra firme, Várzea and Igapó, were screened for emission of VOCs at leaf level with a branch enclosure system. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was quantitatively the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene > limonene > sabinene > β-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes, whereas in the case of plants from the Amazon region no sesquiterpenes were detected probably due to a lack of sensitivity in the measuring systems. On the other hand methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous

  4. Alien plant species in Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Roalsø, Erik Roall

    2012-01-01

    Increased introductions combined with favorable growing conditions may enhance the presence and increase the success of alien plant species in High Arctic settlements. With global warming, the presence and success of alien plants in Polar Regions might expand beyond the confinement of human settlements and cause problems for native species and ecosystems. Presence and abundance of alien and native vascular plant species were recorded, from chosen study sites, in the Svalbard settlements of Ba...

  5. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira; Ana Lucia Basilio Carneiro; Glaucia Socorro de Barros Cauper; Adrian Martin Pohlit

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's) Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil) were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion), methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction) and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one f...

  6. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not easily detected by flux measurements, give reason to perform more screening at leaf level and, whenever possible, within the forests under ambient conditions.

  7. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests. PMID:25402015

  8. Species diversity and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder Wilkie, Kari T; Mertl, Amy L; Traniello, James F A

    2010-01-01

    Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth. Although their species richness appears to be greatest in the New World tropics, global patterns of ant diversity and distribution are not well understood. We comprehensively surveyed ant diversity in a lowland primary rainforest in Western Amazonia, Ecuador using canopy fogging, pitfall traps, baits, hand collecting, mini-Winkler devices and subterranean probes to sample ants. A total of 489 ant species comprising 64 genera in nine subfamilies were identified from samples collected in only 0.16 square kilometers. The most species-rich genera were Camponotus, Pheidole, Pseudomyrmex, Pachycondyla, Brachymyrmex, and Crematogaster. Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex were most diverse in the canopy, while Pheidole was most diverse on the ground. The three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis and Pyramica. Crematogaster carinata was the most abundant ant species in the canopy; Wasmannia auropunctata was most abundant on the ground, and the army ant Labidus coecus was the most abundant subterranean species. Ant species composition among strata was significantly different: 80% of species were found in only one stratum, 17% in two strata, and 3% in all three strata. Elevation and the number of logs and twigs available as nest sites were significant predictors of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Canopy species richness was not correlated with any ecological variable measured. Subterranean species richness was negatively correlated with depth in the soil. When ant species were categorized using a functional group matrix based on diet, nest-site preference and foraging ecology, the greatest diversity was found in Omnivorous Canopy Nesters. Our study indicates ant species richness is exceptionally high at Tiputini. We project 647-736 ant species in this global hotspot of biodiversity. Considering the relatively small area surveyed, this region of western

  9. Species composition and reproductive modes of anurans from a transitional Amazonian forest, Brazil

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    Youszef O. C. Bitar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the species composition and reproductive modes of an anuran community from a transition area between the Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. Data were collected in habitats exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic degradation. The community (35 species identified during the present study presented a larger number of reproductive modes when compared with those from Cerrado communities, but smaller than those of other sites in the Amazon. While all nine modes were recorded in the gallery forests of local rivers and streams, anthropogenic habitats (rubber tree orchards and soybean fields were occupied only by species adapted to environments where humidity is low, typical of the Cerrado. Overall, the anuran fauna of the study area was characterized by species that depend on access to water bodies for their reproduction, with only a few specialized species able to reproduce in dry environments.

  10. Ion and acid-base balance in three species of Amazonian fish during gradual acidification of extremely soft water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W; Wood, C M; Gonzalez, R J; Patrick, M L; Bergman, H L; Narahara, A; Val, A L

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to acid water was assessed in three species of Amazonian fish that encounter naturally acidic blackwaters to differing degrees in the wild: tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), matrincha (Brycon erythropterum), and tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale), in decreasing order of occurrence in blackwater. Fish were exposed to a graded reduction in water pH, from pH 6 to 5 to 4 to 3.5, followed by return to pH 6. Fish were exposed to each new pH for 24 h. During these exposures, net transfers of ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, and Ca2+) and acid-base equivalents to and from the external water were used as physiological indicators of acid tolerance. Exposure to pH 5 had a minimal effect on net ion fluxes. Significant net losses of all ions (except Ca2+) were recorded in all three species during the first few hours of exposure to pH 4. However, ion balance was usually restored within 18 h at pH 4. Exposure to pH 3.5 caused even greater ion losses in all three species and proved to be acutely lethal to tamoatá. Matrincha sustained irreversible physiological damage at pH 3.5, as ion fluxes did not recover following return to pH 6 and there was some mortality. Tambaqui suffered the least ionoregulatory disturbances at pH 3.5 and was the only species to make a full recovery on return to pH 6. In all species, there was a tendency for ammonia excretion to increase at low water pH, but even at pH 3.5, there was no significant net uptake of acid from the water. Overall, there was a strong relationship between the magnitude of ionic disturbances and the lethality of exposure to low pH. The relative insensitivity of the ionoregulatory system of tambaqui to low pH indicates that this is a feature of fish native to blackwater systems rather than one that is common to all Amazon fish. PMID:10222322

  11. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. PMID:27370313

  12. Possible mechanisms for the coexistence of congeneric (Pourouma, Cecropiaceae) Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magård, Else

    2002-01-01

    The distribution, architecture, and foliar pest damage of ten species of Pourouma (Cecropiaceae) were investigated in a 50-ha plot of old-growth tropical rainforest in the Yasuní National Park, Ecuador. Individuals were censused and ecological and architectural data recorded along three 500 x 20 ......-dependent herbivory probably both contribute to the coexistence of the studied Pourouma species in the 50-ha plot in Yasuní....

  13. Fallen leaves on the water-bed: diurnal camouflage of three night active fish species in an Amazonian streamlet

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    Ivan Sazima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resemblance to dead leaves is a well known type of camouflage recorded for several small vertebrates that dwell in the leaf and root litter on the ground. We present here instances of such resemblance in three species of nocturnal fishes (Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes that spend the daytime among submersed root-tangle with leaf litter in Amazonian streams. All three species are very difficult to spot visually, due both to their shape and colors which blend with the substrate, as well as to the heterogeneous nature of their cover. Two species were recorded to lie on their sides, which adds to their resemblance to dead leaves. When disturbed, one species may drift like a waterlogged leaf, whereas another moves upwards the root-tangle, exposing its fore body above the water surface. We regard their leaf-like shapes, cryptic colors, and escape movements as a convergence in defensive responses to visually hunting aquatic vertebrates, most likely diurnal predaceous fishes.Semelhança com folhas mortas é um tipo bem conhecido de camuflagem, presente em diversos pequenos vertebrados que vivem em meio à serapilheira do chão da floresta. Apresentamos aqui exemplos deste tipo de semelhança em três espécies de peixes de hábitos noturnos (Siluriformes e Gymnotiformes que permanecem durante o dia em meio a aglomerados de raízes e folhas submersas em igarapés amazônicos. As três espécies são difíceis de localizar visualmente, tanto devido ao formato e cores, que se confundem com o substrato, como pela heterogeneidade estrutural dos seus abrigos. Duas espécies foram observadas deitadas de lado durante o dia, o que aumenta sua semelhança com folhas mortas. Quando perturbada, uma das espécies deixa-se levar à deriva como uma folha semi-encharcada, ao passo que outra espécie se desloca para cima, nos aglomerados de raízes, expondo a porção anterior do corpo acima da superfície da água. Consideramos o formato semelhante a uma folha, as

  14. A new species of Microcaecilia Taylor, 1968 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Jared, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia butantan sp. nov., is described based on four specimens from Belterra, in the State of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all other Microcaecilia in having a combination of more than 135 primary annuli and long premaxillary-maxillary tooth series that extend posteriorly beyond the choanae. Some specimens were dug from soil in a cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) plantation suggesting that this form of agriculture provides an environment suitable for at least some caecilians. PMID:25661220

  15. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

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    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  16. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish. PMID:26205230

  17. Behavioral profile of constituents in ayahuasca, an Amazonian psychoactive plant mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, C S; Mansbach, R S

    1999-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant mixture typically composed of the beta-carboline-rich Banisteriopsis caapi vine and the hallucinogenic plant Psychotria viridis. Ayahuasca has long been used by aboriginal populations for its putative spiritual and medicinal benefits. Although the presumed primary chemical constituents of ayahuasca have been identified, little is known about the basic in vivo pharmacology of the extract. Two principal constituents of ayahuasca, the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) were selected for detailed study in mice using the Functional Observational Battery (FOB). The B. caapi extract was then examined alone and in combination with DMT. Harmine and the B. caapi extract produced similar effects in the FOB, particularly in the open field. Clonic and tonic motor movements were augmented by DMT administration. Harmine and B. caapi decreased acoustic startle amplitude without significantly affecting prepulse inhibition. DMT appeared to attenuate startle-decreasing effects of harmine and B. caapi, although these effects fell just short of significance. These results suggest that the behavioral effects of B. caapi in mice may be attributed in large part to its principal alkaloid species, harmine, and related beta-carbolines in the extract. Hence, the presence of the banisteriopsis vine in the admixture may directly contribute to the unique subjective effects of ayahuasca. PMID:10372792

  18. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lainson R; Da Silva F.M.M.; Franco C.M.; De Souza M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the ...

  19. Length-weight relationships for five cladoceran species in an Amazonian lake

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    Paulina Maria Maia-Barbosa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the length-weight regressions established for the five most frequent and abundant cladoceran species (Bosmina hagmanni, Bosminopsis deitersi, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Diaphanosoma birgei, and Moina minuta in two stations at Lake Batata. This lake has received for 10 years very fine bauxite processing tailings, which is responsible for the thick layer over the natural sediment still observed in its western section (impacted station. The individuals were separated into size classes, the dry weight values were determined for each class and were used for establishing weight-length equations. Bosminopsis deitersi and Ceriodaphnia cornuta were the species showing the smallest size in the two sampled areas (0.152 to 0.322 mm and Diaphanosoma birgei was the largest (0.284 to 0.722 mm. In the natural station, Moina minuta and Bosminopsis deitersi were the lightest species (0.174 to 0.334 and 0.074 to 0.278 µg, respectively and in the impacted station, Bosmina hagmanni and Moina minuta were the lightest (0.248 to 1.555 and 0.210 to 0.566 µg, respectively. In general, individuals from the impacted station exhibited smaller body sizes (0.152- 0.684 mm and higher weight (0.208 - 1.983 mm, which can be explained by the ingestion of tailing particles. The equations established were shown to be adequate for weight estimates of the analyzed species since the differences found between the observed and estimated weights values were not statistically significant.Este trabalho apresenta as regressões peso-comprimento estabelecidas pela primeira vez, para algumas espécies de cladóceros do Brasil, e para as cinco mais freqüentes e abundantes de duas estações do lago Batata (Bosmina hagmanni, Bosminopsis deitersi, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Diaphanosoma birgei, Moina minuta. Este lago recebeu por 10 anos rejeito de fina granulometria resultante do processamento da bauxita, e que ainda hoje forma uma espessa camada sobre o sedimento natural da por

  20. On the Amazonian species of the genus Scytodes Latreille (Arachnida, Araneae, Scytodidae

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    Cristina A. Rheims

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Scytodes Latreille, 1804 are newly described: Scytodes iara sp. nov. and S. caure sp. nov. from Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. from Amazonas and Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. from Amazonas and Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. from Roraima; and S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. and S. caipora sp. nov. from Acre. In addition, the female of S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 is described and new records are presented for S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 and S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.Oito novas espécies de Scytodes Latreille, 1804 são descritas: Scytodes iara sp. nov. e S. caure sp. nov. do Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. de Roraima; e S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. e S. caipora sp. nov. do Acre. A fêmea de S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 é descrita e novos registros são apresentados para S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 e S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.

  1. Conservation and the Colombian Amazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia is a special country in terms of its biological wealth, for it has been classified it as one of the three countries of the world with more biodiversity after Brazil and Indonesia; in the number of species of organisms that they are inside the national limits and it surpasses to gigantic countries as Canada, the United States and Russia. Colombia, for its characteristic biotic, is in the entire world the first one in number of species of birds, of frogs and of orchids and probably second in the world (after Brazil) in the number of species of plants superiors (angiosperms) and species of palms; also, worldwide it is classified to the country among the first ones in the number of species of mammals, reptiles, fish of fresh water and insects. This article, it seeks to discuss the problem of the conservation in the Colombian Amazonian, evaluating the necessities for the future and pointing out some of the current problems that impede a healthy conservation

  2. Seed germination and seedling development in response to submergence in tree species of the Central Amazonian floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Risolandia Bezerra; Franco, Augusto César; Silva, Clovis Oliveira; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Ferreira, Cristiane Silva

    2015-01-01

    Successful germination and seedling establishment are crucial steps for maintenance and expansion of plant populations and recovery from perturbations. Every year the Amazon River and its tributaries overflow and flood the adjacent forest, exerting a strong selective pressure on traits related to seedling recruitment. We examined seed characteristics, stored reserves, germination, seedling development and survival under water of eight representative tree species from the lower portions of the flood-level gradient to identify adaptive strategies that contribute to their regeneration in this extreme ecosystem. Submerged seedlings were assessed for longevity and survival until they showed symptoms of injury. At this point, the remaining healthy seedlings were planted in unsaturated soil to monitor recovery after re-exposure to air over 30 days. All small (seed mass ≤0.17 g) seeds had epigeal phanerocotylar-type germination, a trait that would allow plants to acquire light and CO2 in the shortest time. Cell wall storage polysaccharide was a major component of all seeds, suggesting plant investment in structural reserves. Seven of the eight species germinated and formed healthy seedlings under water that endured submersion without any apparent injury for periods of 20-115 days, depending on the species. Seedlings of some species changed the direction of root growth and grew towards the surface of the water, which might have increased the uptake of oxygen to the tissues. Only one of the seven species did not survive re-exposure to air. Species able to germinate and produce seedlings under submersion, which subsequently are able to establish in aerated soils, would have more time available for terrestrial growth. This is critical for colonization of lower portions of the flood-level gradient where establishment is constrained by the short terrestrial phase that precedes the next flood. PMID:25922297

  3. Extracts from Amazonian plants have inhibitory activity against tyrosinase: an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daclé Juliani Macrini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological disorders related to pigmentation result in tenuous hyper or hypopigmentation Cosmetic and pharmaceutical products containing depigmenting substances are used in the treatment of patients who have high pigmentation disorders, such as melasma or chloasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, senile lentigo and ephelides. Skin lightening agents are not yet totally effective or safe and therefore intensive research for the discovery of new agents is continuous. Enzyme inhibitors involved in melanogenesis, such as tyrosinase, have been discovered in Asian countries, including those isolated from plant extracts. The Brazilian flora has the highest species diversity in the world, and the chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic potential for the discovery of new skin whitening agents is in proportion with this biodiversity. For these reasons, 25 aqueous and 24 organic extracts obtained from 19 plants native to the Amazon rain forest and to the Atlantic forest, belonging to 11 different families, were evaluated as tyrosinase inhibitors. Nine out of 49 extracts showed inhibitory activity in the screening process. The 50% inhibitory activity (IA50 was calculated, revealing that the most active extracts were the organic extracts from the leaves and stem of Ruprechtia sp. (IA50 33.76 mg.mL-1 and the organic extract from the aerial organs of Rapanea parviflora (IA50 64.19 mg.mL-1.Problemas dermatológicos relacionados com a pigmentação resultam em hiperpigmentações ou hipopigmentação cutâneas. Produtos cosméticos e farmacêuticos com atividade despigmentante são utilizados para o tratamento de pacientes que apresentam distúrbios de hiperpigmentação, tais como melasma ou cloasma, hiperpigmentação pós-inflamatória, lentigem senil e efélides. Os despigmentantes atualmente utilizados não são totalmente eficazes ou seguros, razão pela qual há intensa pesquisa, principalmente em países asiáticos, com a finalidade de se obter

  4. GROWTH OF AMAZON NATIVE SPECIES SUBMITTED TO THE PLANTATION IN THE RORAIMA STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; Moisés Mourão Cordeiro de Oliveira Junior; Dalton Schwengber

    2009-01-01

    An important forest research challenge in the Amazonian is finding forms of reforesting degraded areas with the use of a larger number of native species and identify tropical species commercially attractive adapted to clear-cut areas. This work had as objectives to evaluate the initial growth in diameter and height of six native Amazonian species in a preliminary species trial. The data were obtained from measures of 72 trees 9 years after planting. The selected species for this study were cu...

  5. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ► Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ► Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ► Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ► The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  6. Humic substances and crude oil induce cytochrome P450 1A expression in the Amazonian fish species Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Aline Y O; Woodin, Bruce R; Reddy, Christopher M; Val, Adalberto L; Stegeman, John J

    2006-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is used widely as a biomarker of exposure to pollutants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, yet CYP1A inducibility has been characterized in few tropical fish. Using Western blot analysis, catalytic assay, and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated CYP1A induction in an Amazonian fish (tambaqui; Colossoma macropomum) acclimated to humic substances (HS) and acutely exposed to crude oil. HS are ubiquitous in Amazonian waters, and they are known to affect the bioavailability of pollutants. CYP1A activity was also measured in fish exposed for 10 days to a range of concentrations of HS from both natural and commercial sources. Crude oil induced CYP1A expression in tambaqui, as expected. Exposure to both HS and crude oil resulted in greater levels of CYP1A expression relative to that in fish exposed to petroleum alone. Interestingly, CYP1A induction was also observed in fish exposed to HS alone. Induction by HS was concentration-dependent, and activity was higher in fish exposed to HS from the commercial source than in fish exposed to the HS from the natural source. The use of CYP1A as a biomarker of exposure to pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons in fish living in environments rich in humic substances should be considered with caution given that HS themselves induce CYP1A expression. Our results suggest that there may be as yet unknown CYP1A inducing components (aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists) in humic substances. PMID:16683634

  7. Molecular and morphological differentiation between two Miocene-divergent lineages of Amazonian shrimps, with the description of a new species (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Palaemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Palaemon carteri (Gordon, 1935 and P. ivonicus (Holthuis, 1950 are morphologically similar species of South American freshwater shrimps. Past studies have questioned the taxonomic status of both species, which are supposed to have partially sympatric geographic distributions in the Amazon basin. We analyzed a 550 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from these Amazonian Palaemon species as well as from 11 palaemonids as the outgroup. Additionally, we checked diagnostic characters of the genus and family as well as other morphological characters that have been little explored before. Palaemon carteri and P. ivonicus are allocated in two sister lineages, with wide genetic divergence and little morphological differentiation. The divergence time between these lineages was estimated as approximately 10 million years ago. Both molecular and morphological data support the taxonomic validity of both Palaemon carteri and P. ivonicus, refuting the hypothesis of synonymy. In addition, a new species, Palaemon yuna sp. n., closely related to P. ivonicus, is described. Our findings indicate that these species can be differentiated using the projection of the anterolateral margin and anterolateral spine of the first antennular segment, shape of the rostrum, and relative size of the appendix masculina.

  8. In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum by substances isolated from Amazonian antimalarial plants

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    Valter F de Andrade-Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a quassinoid, neosergeolide, isolated from the roots and stems of Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae, the indole alkaloids ellipticine and aspidocarpine, isolated from the bark of Aspidosperma vargasii and A. desmanthum (Apocynaceae, respectively, and 4-nerolidylcatechol, isolated from the roots of Pothomorphe peltata (Piperaceae, all presented significant in vitro inhibition (more active than quinine and chloroquine of the multi-drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Neosergeolide presented activity in the nanomolar range. This is the first report on the antimalarial activity of these known, natural compounds. This is also the first report on the isolation of aspidocarpine from A. desmanthum. These compounds are good candidates for pre-clinical tests as novel lead structures with the aim of finding new antimalarial prototypes and lend support to the traditional use of the plants from which these compounds are derived.

  9. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  10. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  11. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel,Julien; Petronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few â € hyperdominantâ €™ species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the mos...

  12. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  13. Environmental integrity and damselfly species composition in Amazonian streams at the "arc of deforestation" region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Investigated how the loss of environmental integrity affects damselfly species composition in nine sites with different levels of environmental integrity in a Cerrado-Amazon transition region known as "arc of deforestation" in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We also tested the influence of environmental variables on species composition. METHODS: We collected in transects of 100 m and used ordination (PCoA and simple linear regression. RESULTS: Species composition was strongly influenced by the environmental quality of sites, and the best model to explain species composition included variables related to channel morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results are connected to the environmental homogenization and loss of environmental integrity as a result of extensive agricultural practices which alter stream communities of dragonflies in this region.

  14. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Invasive plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive plant species are the plants introduced or imported, which spread spontaneously in the territory and penetrate into the original plant associations (they mostly fill in the free niches or they penetrate into the relatively undisturbed sites and push out the original species). These are the plant species, which accommodate in natural or semi-natural ecosystems where they cause their change and threaten the original biodiversity. Some of these introduced species tend to remain in a limited number of localities or they disappear after some time. Other start immediately or later to behave aggressively and enter the original associations. In some case they create monocultures. They are the species, mapping of which is important, not only for knowing them but also for the sake of protection of the original plant associations. Veronica filiformis - species native of Caucasus first spotted in Europe in 1780. In Slovakia it grows above all in north-eastern part of the territory where it spreads along the larger streams. It grows in humid gardens, orchards, rural lawns, goose pastures and not mown fallows below 1,300 m above sea level. Impatiens glandulifera - decorative species native of India. It is grown in gardens since the beginning of the 20th century as the decorative plant, and it progressively spread along the water streams and edges of alluvial forest, it prefers the humid to wet environment and soils rich in nutrients. Echinocystis lobata - climbing plant related to cucumbers and pumpkins, native of the eastern and central parts of the USA. Imported to Europe as decorative plant. It was grown in Slovakia, went wild and spread along the water streams. Mimulus guttatus - native of the western part of the Northern America. Imported to Europe as decorative plant mainly for its conspicuous yellow flowers with red pattern. It occurs abundantly in Slovakia in the southern part of the Slovenske rudohorie Mts. and in the upper part of the Ipel basin. It grows in

  16. Plant species richness and floristic composition change along a rice-pasture sequence in subsistence farms of Brazilian Amazon, influence on the fallows biodiversity (Benfica, State of Para)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja, Danielle; Miranda, L. D. S.; Velasquez, Elena; Lavelle, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Along the Amazonian pioneer front in the Brazilian state of Pari, smallholder farmers manually clear primary rain forest every year to grow rice prior to sowing pastures that they will use for 5-20 years. Species richness and floristic composition of the weedy species were studied in 20 plots along a farming succession, from rice fields, to 1-year-old, 4-8-year-old and over 10-year-old pastures planted to Brachiaria brizantha. In the early phases of the farming cycle reduction in the average ...

  17. Apoplasmic barriers and oxygen transport properties of hypodermal cell walls in roots from four amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Oliviero; Haase, Karen; Müller, Ewald; Junk, Wolfgang J; Hartmann, Klaus; Schreiber, Lukas; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    The formation of suberized and lignified barriers in the exodermis is suggested to be part of a suite of adaptations to flooded or waterlogged conditions, adjusting transport of solutes and gases in and out of roots. In this study, the composition of apoplasmic barriers in hypodermal cell walls and oxygen profiles in roots and the surrounding medium of four Amazon tree species that are subjected to long-term flooding at their habitat was analyzed. In hypodermal cell walls of the deciduous tree Crateva benthami, suberization is very weak and dominated by monoacids, 2-hydroxy acids, and omega-hydroxycarboxylic acids. This species does not show any morphological adaptations to flooding and overcomes the aquatic period in a dormant state. Hypodermal cells of Tabernaemontana juruana, a tree which is able to maintain its leaf system during the aquatic phase, are characterized by extensively suberized walls, incrusted mainly by the unsaturated C(18) omega-hydroxycarboxylic acid and the alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid analogon, known as typical suberin markers. Two other evergreen species, Laetia corymbulosa and Salix martiana, contained 3- to 4-fold less aliphatic suberin in the exodermis, but more than 85% of the aromatic moiety of suberin are composed of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, suggesting a function of suberin in pathogen defense. No major differences in the lignin content among the species were observed. Determination of oxygen distribution in the roots and rhizosphere of the four species revealed that radial loss of oxygen can be effectively restricted by the formation of suberized barriers but not by lignification of exodermal cell walls. PMID:12746526

  18. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower O3 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O3 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between gs, restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in gs

  19. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  20. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oduor, Ayub M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Strong competition from invasive plant species often leads to declines in abundances and may,in certain cases, cause localized extinctions of native plant species. Nevertheless, studies have shown that certain populations of native plant species can co-exist with invasive plant species, suggesting the possibility of adaptive evolutionary responses of those populations to the invasive plants. Empirical inference of evolutionary responses of the native plant species to invasive plants has invol...

  1. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

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    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  2. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Quintero Barrera; Marisol Cudris García; Martha Cecilia Giraldo; Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  3. Genomic Basis of Plant Pathogen Suppression by Biocontrol Pseudomonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various plant commensal bacterial species, which naturally colonize the plant rhizosphere, are able to suppress fungal, bacterial, viral and even insect plant pathogens. These biocontrol activities are elicited primarily through the production of secreted exoenzymes and secondary metabolites that ma...

  4. Endangered plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are represented by taxons, existence of which in the localities are threatened directly or indirectly by a wide range of, above all, anthropic factors (complete liquidation of sites in the consequence of construction activities and extraction of minerals and organogenic raw material such as peat or by gathering of individual plants). Many of the threatened species grow in small number of localities and in small populations. Asplenium adulterinum - is a slim fern linked to ultra-basic rocks with higher magnesium contents. In Slovakia it grows on chloritic phyllites and gneiss. Slovak localities are situated in the eastern boundary of its area. This legally protected species is threatened in Slovakia and it is simultaneously included in the world red list. Small populations are threatened by succession, collecting, and mechanical destruction of soil substratum (in the consequence of extraction and transport of timber). Veronica agrestis - annual field weed, which accompanies cereals and root crops. It prefers light nutritious soils, rich in humus and nitrogen, humid and slightly acid soils poor in calcium, and altitudes below 700 m a. s. l. Affected by agro-technical interference it joined the rare and threatened taxons of Slovak's flora. Alyssum desertorum - is the typical species of psammophyte associations with high carbonate content. It grows on sites with discovered sandy surface. The species is threatened by destruction of its sites by economic activities such as extraction of sand. It is legally protected Hippuris vulgaris - water herb growing in stationary or slowly flowing waters, water reservoirs and canals with sandy bottom. It requires water high in nutrient and calcium content. It is threatened by control of water streams, disappearance of dead or blind arms of the rivers and melioration. It is threatened and legally protected species. (authors)

  5. Geological control of floristic composition in Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna; Llerena, Nelly; Cardenas, Glenda; Phillips, Oliver L; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Räsänen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Aim Conservation and land-use planning require accurate maps of patterns in species composition and an understanding of the factors that control them. Substantial doubt exists, however, about the existence and determinants of large-area floristic divisions in Amazonia. Here we ask whether Amazonian forests are partitioned into broad-scale floristic units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. Location Western and central Amazonia. Methods We used Landsat imagery and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data to identify a possible floristic and geological discontinuity of over 300 km in northern Peru. We then used plant inventories and soil sampling to document changes in species composition and soil properties across this boundary. Data were obtained from 138 sites distributed along more than 450 km of road and river. On the basis of our findings, we used broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics to identify similar patterns across western and central Amazonia. Results The discontinuity identified in Landsat and SRTM data corresponded to a 15-fold change in soil cation concentrations and an almost total change in plant species composition. This discontinuity appears to be caused by the widespread removal of cation-poor surface sediments by river incision to expose cation-rich sediments beneath. Examination of broad-scale Landsat and SRTM mosaics indicated that equivalent processes have generated a north–south discontinuity of over 1500 km in western Brazil. Due to similarities with our study area, we suggest that this discontinuity represents a chemical and ecological limit between western and central Amazonia. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that Amazonian forests are partitioned into large-area units on the basis of geological formations and their edaphic properties. The evolution of these units through geological time may provide a general mechanism for biotic diversification in Amazonia. These compositional

  6. Meaningful traits for grouping plant species across arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär Lamas, Marlene Ivonne; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2016-05-01

    Grouping species may provide some degree of simplification to understand the ecological function of plants on key ecosystem processes. We asked whether groups of plant species based on morpho-chemical traits associated with plant persistence and stress/disturbance resistance reflect dominant plant growth forms in arid ecosystems. We selected twelve sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia. At each site, we identified modal size plants of each dominant species and assessed specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, seed mass, N and soluble phenol concentration in green and senesced leaves at each plant. Plant species were grouped according with plant growth forms (perennial grasses, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs) and plant morphological and/or chemical traits using cluster analysis. We calculated mean values of each plant trait for each species group and plant growth form. Plant growth forms significantly differed among them in most of the morpho-chemical traits. Evergreen shrubs were tall plants with the highest seed mass and soluble phenols in leaves, deciduous shrubs were also tall plants with high SLA and the highest N in leaves, and perennial grasses were short plants with high SLA and low concentration of N and soluble phenols in leaves. Grouping species by the combination of morpho-chemical traits yielded 4 groups in which species from one growth form prevailed. These species groups differed in soluble phenol concentration in senesced leaves and plant height. These traits were highly correlated. We concluded that (1) plant height is a relevant synthetic variable, (2) growth forms adequately summarize ecological strategies of species in arid ecosystems, and (3) the inclusion of plant morphological and chemical traits related to defenses against environmental stresses and herbivory enhanced the potential of species grouping, particularly within shrubby growth forms. PMID:26897637

  7. Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Scherber, Christoph; Heimann, Juliane; Köhler, Günter; Mitschunas, Nadine; Weisser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The resistance of a plant community against herbivore attack may depend on plant species richness, with monocultures often much more severely affected than mixtures of plant species. Here, we used a plant–herbivore system to study the effects of selective herbivory on consumption resistance and recovery after herbivory in 81 experimental grassland plots. Communities were established from seed in 2002 and contained 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 plant species of 1, 2, 3 or 4 functional groups. In 2004, ...

  8. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants. PMID:21429923

  9. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies. PMID:25563448

  10. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C.; Laurance, Susan G.W.; Laurance, William F.; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W.; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Salomão, Rafael P.; Comiskey, James A.; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G.A.; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N. Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A.; Almeida, Everton C.; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.; Erwin, Terry L.; Morandi, Paulo S.; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B.X.; Zagt, Roderick J.; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J.; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K.; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J.; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A.; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A.; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L.; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ≈1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region. PMID:25919449

  11. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

  12. The bad biodiversity: alien plant species in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, SC; Corlett, RT

    2002-01-01

    The flora of Hong Kong has been well-surveyed since the mid nineteenth century and has had a long history of alien plant invasions. To the present day, more than 2130 wild plant species have been recorded, including 238 species that are probably naturalized alien species. Among them, Mikania micrantha, Ipomoea cairica, Eupatorium catarium, and Panicum maximum are most abundant. Naturalized alien plants are most prominent in human-disturbed habitats, such as abandoned farmland, wasteland and r...

  13. Initial Survey Instructions for Invasive Plant Species Mapping and Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for invasive plant species mapping and monitoring at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Due to invasive species mapping and...

  14. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hwa Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  15. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  16. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abad-Franch; Fernando A Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus). The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens) and Amazonian (pictipes) species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group) and r...

  17. Changes in Amazonian forest biomass, dynamics, and composition, 1980-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L.; Higuchi, Niro; Vieira, Simone; Baker, Timothy R.; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Lewis, Simon L.

    respiration (temperature), higher mortality (drought), or compositional change (functional shifts toward lighterwooded plants). Even a modest switch from carbon sink to source for Amazonian forests would impact global climate, biodiversity, and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions of thousands of plant and millions of animal species.

  18. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong HUANG; Jian-Hua CHEN; Jun-Sheng YING; Ke-Ping MA

    2011-01-01

    We compiled and identified a list of Chinese. endemic seed plant species based on a large number of published References and expert reviews. The characters of these seed plant species and their distribution patterns were described at length. China is rich in endemic seed plants, with a total of 14 939 species (accounting for 52.1%of its total seed plant species) belonging to 1584 genera and 191 families. Temperate families and genera have a significantly higher proportion of endemism than cosmopolitan and tropical ones. The most primitive and derived groups have significantly higher endemism than the other groups. The endemism of tree, shrub, and liana or vine is higher than that of total species; in contrast, the endemism of herb is lower than that of total species. Geographically,these Chinese endemic plants are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, southwest China. Species richness and proportion of these endemic plants decrease with increased latitude and have a unimodal response to altitude. The peak value of proportion of endemism is at higher altitudes than that of total species and endemic species richness. The proportions of endemic shrub, liana or vine, and herb increase with altitude and have a clear unimodal curve. In contrast, the proportion of tree increases with altitude, with a sudden increase at~4000 m and has a completely different model. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive list of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their basic composition and distribution features.

  19. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation. PMID:26322577

  20. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered. PMID:22678109

  1. Plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, E P; Jacobsen, T D; Aronis, J M

    1996-08-01

    Plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. AAPCC TESS data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to establish a frequency distribution in the US. Aggregate national data was also tabulated. A total of 912,534 plant exposures were analyzed to tabulate the top 30 plant exposures for each state. Philodendron species were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia species, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Capsicum annuum and Ilex species. There were considerable differences between states relating to indoor vs outdoor plants and native vs introduced varieties. Plant exposures are common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort to manage them and to enhance public awareness. Recognition of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can be a basis for staff education and the development of appropriate poison prevention education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center's resources. PMID:8829350

  2. Root carbohydrate storage in young saplings of an Amazonian tidal várzea forest before the onset of the wet season Armazenamento de carboidratos antecedendo à estação chuvosa em raízes de plantas jovens em floresta de várzea de estuário amazônico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rubio Scarano; José Henrique Cattânio; Robert M.M. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    Root starch and glucose content were measured for young saplings of 18 Amazonian tidal várzea tree species during a dry season. The pattern of carbohydrate storage depended on the type of plant involved and soil topography which is directly linked to flood regime. Most plants showed high root carbohydrate content at this point in the dry season, however, several typically flood-tolerant species (particularly palm trees) presented a low root carbohydrate content, suggesting a strategy of acqui...

  3. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert; Tereza Cristina Giannini

    2012-01-01

    Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees det...

  4. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  5. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Niche modelling of salt marsh plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to extend the niche model of Spartina anglica to other salt marsh species, and to include tidal submergence in the models. The method used and preliminary data analysis are described. Tidal level and submergence niche models are examined, and niche width, niche overlap and species interaction are considered. Tidal level models and submergence niche models are compared for the 5 most common species. (UK)

  7. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  8. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Z.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 2 (2014), s. 377-388. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal plants * frequency * plant communities of Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  9. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  10. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  11. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries ...

  12. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driscoll, D. A.; Catford, J.A.; Barney, J. N.; Hulme, P. E.; Inderjit, Dr.; Martin, T. G.; Pauchard, A.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Riley, S.; Visser, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 46 (2014), s. 16622-16627. ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * pasture * breeding Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  13. Globalization effects on common plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Graham, J.

    Ed. 2. Waltham : Academic Press Inc, 2013 - (Levin, S.), s. 700-706 ISBN 978-0-12-384719-5. - (vol. 6) Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * trade * species dispersal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  15. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. What is the "real" impact of invasive plant species?

    OpenAIRE

    J. N. Barney; D. R. Tekiela; E. S. J. Dollete; B. J. Tomasek

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plant species should be evaluated and prioritized for management according to their impacts, which include reduction in native diversity, changes to nutrient pools, and alteration of fire regimes. However, the impacts of most invasive species have not been quantified and, when measured, those impacts are based on a limited number of response metrics. As a result, invasion ecology has been overwhelmed by speculation and bias regarding the ecological consequences of invasive plants. We...

  17. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Sat Gungor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC. Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L. G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest coverabundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  18. Global response patterns of terrestrial plant species to nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2008-07-01

    Better understanding of the responses of terrestrial plant species under global nitrogen (N) enrichment is critical for projection of changes in structure, functioning, and service of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, a meta-analysis of data from 304 studies was carried out to reveal the general response patterns of terrestrial plant species to the addition of N. Across 456 terrestrial plant species included in the analysis, biomass and N concentration were increased by 53.6 and 28.5%, respectively, under N enrichment. However, the N responses were dependent upon plant functional types, with significantly greater biomass increases in herbaceous than in woody species. Stimulation of plant biomass by the addition of N was enhanced when other resources were improved. In addition, the N responses of terrestrial plants decreased with increasing latitude and increased with annual precipitation. Dependence of the N responses of terrestrial plants on biological realms, functional types, tissues, other resources, and climatic factors revealed in this study can help to explain changes in species composition, diversity, community structure and ecosystem functioning under global N enrichment. These findings are critical in improving model simulation and projection of terrestrial carbon sequestration and its feedbacks to global climate change, especially when progressive N limitation is taken into consideration. PMID:19086179

  19. Endemic plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemits are the taxons, which occur exclusively in certain territory. In the broader sense of the word, 220 taxons of Slovakia are considered endemits. Occurrence of the presented taxons is linked only to the area of the Western Carpathians, or their smaller part. Onosma tornensis - endemit of the Slovensky kras Mts. growing on rocky limestone hillsides in several localities in wider environs of Turnianske Podhradie. It is critically threatened, rare and legally protected species. Daphne arbuscula - rare Tertiary relict, endemit of the Muranska planina plateau growing on the steep rock slopes, rock edges, crests, and terraces on limestone substratum at the altitude ranging between 590 - 1,330 m above sea level. It is considered the most important and best known endemit of Slovak's flora. This endangered, rare, and legally protected species is included in the World Red Book of Endangered Species along with Onosma tornensis. Hieracium rohacsense - endemit of the Western Carpathians linked to dwarf pine woods and grass associations of sub-alpine positions. The centre of its distribution is in the Zapadne Tatry Mts. (it also occurs in the Polish part of the range), western part of the Nizke Tatry Mts., and the southern part of the Velka Fatra Mts. It also grows in the Vysoke Tatry Mts. and the Zapadne Beskydy Mts. It reproduces apomictically. Pulsatilla slavica - is the West Carpathian endemit growing on the shrubby and grassy hillsides, on limestone and dolomite rocks and its spreading ranges from hills to mountains. Outside Slovakia it grows only in one locality of the Polish part of the Zapadne Tatry Mts. It is conspicuous above all in time of blooming. The species is legally protected while damage to localities (quarries) and collectors threaten it above all. Erysimum wahlenbergii - endemit of the central mountain ranges of the Western Carpathians, it occurs only in the Belianske Tatry and Velka Fatra mountain ranges. Species with yellow flowers grows on limestone

  20. Metabolism of acetochlor herbicide in tolerant and sensitive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl(-N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide was traced in tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both resistant and susceptible plant species were found to be able to metabolize acetochlor absorbed. However, a faster metabolism of the herbicide was observed in the tolerant plants. (author)

  1. Metabolism of acetochlor herbicide in tolerant and sensitive plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonkai, I.; Dutka, F.

    1985-05-16

    Metabolism of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl(-N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide was traced in tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both resistant and susceptible plant species were found to be able to metabolize acetochlor absorbed. However, a faster metabolism of the herbicide was observed in the tolerant plants. (author). 5 refs.

  2. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly;

    2016-01-01

    abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and...... vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this...... early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically...

  3. Rare vascular plant species at risk : recovery by seeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegtel, Dick M.

    1998-01-01

    . Rare vascular plant species are endangered worldwide. Population losses are most commonly caused by human-related factors. Conservation management seeks to halt this adverse trend and if possible, to enhance long-lasting self-sustainable populations. In general, rare species are poorly recruited f

  4. Flower Visitors of 32 Plant Species in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Makoto; ICHINO, Takao; HOTTA, Mitsuru; Abbas, Idrus; Okada, Hiroshi; カトウ, マコト; イチノ, タカオ; ホッタ, ミツル; オカダ, ヒロシ

    1989-01-01

    We recorded flower visitors of 32 plant species belonging to 14 families: Annonaceae (1), Cruciferae (1), Leguminosae (1), Melastomataceae (1), Balsaminaceae (7), Verbenaceae (3), Gesneriaceae (3), Rubiaceae (2), Compositae (2), Musaceae (4), Zingiberaceae (4), Palmae (1), Pandanaceae (1) and Araceae (1) (number of species studied being in parenthesis) in West Sumatra.

  5. Alien plant species along watercourses in the Natura 2000 network

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Aimont, Hélène; Mahy, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Natura 2000 is the centerpiece of EU nature and biodiversity policy. It is a European wide network of nature protection areas aiming at assuring the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats. However, alien plants do not stop their spread at the border of protection areas and invasive plants are reported to threaten aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Our study aimed at assessing the plant invasion threat along watercourses within the Natura 2000 in Sout...

  6. Widespread native and alien plant species occupy different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pouteau, Robin; Hulme, P. E.; Duncan, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Theories to explain the success of alien species often assume that they are inherently different from native species. Although there is an increasing body of evidence showing that alien plants tend to dominate in highly human-modified environments, the underlying reasons why widespread natives might differ in their habitat distribution have rarely been addressed. We used species distribution models to quantify the dominant environmental axes shaping the habitat of 95 widespread native and ali...

  7. Intraspecific genetic variation and species coexistence in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Bodil K; Damgaard, Christian F; Laroche, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Many studies report that intraspecific genetic variation in plants can affect community composition and coexistence. However, less is known about which traits are responsible and the mechanisms by which variation in these traits affect the associated community. Focusing on plant-plant interactions, we review empirical studies exemplifying how intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits impacts plant coexistence. Intraspecific variation in chemical and architectural traits promotes species coexistence, by both increasing habitat heterogeneity and altering competitive hierarchies. Decomposing species interactions into interactions between genotypes shows that genotype × genotype interactions are often intransitive. The outcome of plant-plant interactions varies with local adaptation to the environment and with dominant neighbour genotypes, and some plants can recognize the genetic identity of neighbour plants if they have a common history of coexistence. Taken together, this reveals a very dynamic nature of coexistence. We outline how more traits mediating plant-plant interactions may be identified, and how future studies could use population genetic surveys of genotype distribution in nature and methods from trait-based ecology to better quantify the impact of intraspecific genetic variation on plant coexistence. PMID:26790707

  8. Passipassalus brevicornis n. sp.: a New Passalidae (Coleoptera) from Brazilian Amazonian, with a Key to the Species of Passipassalus Reyes-Castillo & Fonseca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferbans, L; Reyes-Castillo, P; da Fonseca, C R V

    2016-06-01

    Passipassalus brevicornis n. sp. is described from two specimens from Tefé and Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. This species represents the fifth species recognized of Passipassalus and differs from the other species of the genus mainly by having an apex of central tubercle of median frontal structure not free, frontal fossae with some scarce setae, metasternal fossae with scarce setae, humeri fully pubescent, and marginal groove over anterior ventral edge of femur I marked and complete. Additionally, a key to the species of Passipassalus is given. PMID:26957087

  9. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jill T.; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S.; Pendergast, Thomas H.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, litt...

  10. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  11. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  12. Phosphatidylinositol species of suspension cultured plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, S.; Wagner, K.G.

    Suspension cultured Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cells were labeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, the phospholipid fraction extracted and separated by thin layer chromatography. Three different solvent systems and reference compounds were used to assign the different /sup 3/H-labeled species by autoradiography. The ratio of (/sup 3/H)inositol incorporation into PI, PIP and PIP/sub 2/ was found to be 95:4:1; with some preparations a lyso-PI band was obtained which incorporated about a tenth of the label of the PIP band. With Catharanthus roseus cells a very faint band between PI and lyso-PI was detected which could not be assigned to a reference compound.

  13. Badister Clairville, 1806: A new species and new continental record for the nominate subgenus in Amazonian Perú (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Licinini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Badister (Badister amazonus sp. n. is described from Perú, Loreto, 1.0 km SW Boca del Rio Samiria, Vigilante Post 1, 130m, “04°40.5`S, 074°18.9`W" its type locality. It is known also from two other localities in Loreto Department, Perú, in both the Varzea and Igapó river systems. This new species is sufficiently different that a new informal higher taxon, the amazonus species complex, is recognized. An updated key to the Western Hemisphere species of subgenus Badister is provided.

  14. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  15. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  16. Plant mortality varies with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species identities in a self-thinning population

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Because arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species differ in stimulating the growth of particular host plant species, AMF species may vary in their effects on plant intra-specific competition and the self-thinning process. We tested this hypothesis using a microcosm experiment with Medicago sativa L. as a model plant population and four AMF species. Our results showed that the AMF species Glomus diaphanum stimulated host plant growth more than the other three AMF species did when the plants ...

  17. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  18. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have long understood that differences between species in traits such as bill shape or rooting depth can maintain diversity in communities by promoting specialization and reducing competition. Here we test the assumption that phenotypic differences drive the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Using advances in ecological theory and detailed experiments we quantify average fitness and stabilizing niche differences between 102 plant species pairs and relate these ...

  19. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; Fernanda de Oliveira DEMITTO; Renata Claro Ribeiro do AMARAL; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Lilian Cristiane BAEZA; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from...

  20. Effects of Natural Hybridization on Plant Species Survival and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Shi-jun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Natural hybridization is a common phenomenon, and the action of human being is accelerating the happenness of natural hybridization, non-natural hybridization caused by human disturbance has great negative effects on species survival and evolution. We summarize the progress of hybridization and introgression based on the papers issused in recent years in this article. Hybridization not only affects species survival and evolution, but also bring some challenges to theory and practice of plant conservation. Hybridization and introgression has the potential to improve the genetic diversity, and can provide materials for species evolution, improve valuable variation for adaptation, and even lead to the formation of new ecotype or new species. But, small populations have tendency to go extinction when they hybridize with another species in greater amount. Natural hybridization challenges the definition of species concept.Hybridization can blur species boundary and promote the formation of “difficult冶 taxa in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. Natural hybridization can promote evolutionary divergence between taxa by reinforcement of reproductive isolation, it can also lead to the break down of reproductive isolation and species mergence, and hence decrease the species diversity. We conclude that we should focus on the studies of isolation mechanisms, mechanisms of introgression, and how to prevent the negative effects of hybridization and introgression in the background of high rate of species invasion and extinction."

  1. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  2. Long-term impacts of selective logging on two Amazonian tree species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics: inferences from Eco-gene model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M; Williams, T C R; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-08-01

    The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree that occurs at high densities. Microsatellite multilocus genotypes of the pre-logging populations were used as data inputs for the Eco-gene model and post-logging genetic data was used to verify the output from the simulations. Overall, under current Brazilian forest management regulations, there were neither short nor long-term impacts on J. copaia. By contrast, D. odorata cannot be sustainably logged under current regulations, a sustainable scenario was achieved by increasing the minimum cutting diameter at breast height from 50 to 100 cm over 30-year logging cycles. Genetic parameters were only slightly affected by selective logging, with reductions in the numbers of alleles and single genotypes. In the short term, the loss of alleles seen in J. copaia simulations was the same as in real data, whereas fewer alleles were lost in D. odorata simulations than in the field. The different impacts and periods of recovery for each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information are essential at species, ecological guild or reproductive group levels to help derive sustainable management scenarios for tropical forests. PMID:24424164

  3. Multiple strategies for drought survival among woody plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Pivovaroff, AL; Pasquini, SC; De Guzman, ME; Alstad, KP; Stemke, JS; Santiago, LS

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 British Ecological Society Drought-induced mortality and regional dieback of woody vegetation are reported from numerous locations around the world. Yet within any one site, predicting which species are most likely to survive global change-type drought is a challenge. We studied the diversity of drought survival traits of a community of 15 woody plant species in a desert-chaparral ecotone. The vegetation was a mix of chaparral and desert shrubs, as well as endemic species that only occ...

  4. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  5. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from 8 to 15 per park. An assessment of the risk of invasive species was made for three national parks based on an invasive species assessment protocol. Examples of highly invasive species were Chromolaena odorata and Mimosa diplotricha in Cat Ba National Park (island evergreen secondary forest over limestone; Mimosa pigra, Panicum repens and Eichhornia crassipes in Tram Chim National Park (lowland wetland forest dominated by melaleuca; and C. odorata, Mikania micrantha and M. diplotricha in Son Tra Nature Conservation area (peninsula evergreen secondary forest. Strategies to monitor and manage invasive weeds in forests and national parks in Vietnam are outlined.

  6. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  7. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2011), s. 1931-1944. ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species distribution * Old and New World Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2011

  8. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  9. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago. PMID:27071805

  10. Accumulation of K+ and Cs+ in Tropical Plant Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of K+ and 137Cs+ in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia were measured both by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, aiming to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in plants as well as its capability to store these elements. In contrast to K+,Cs+ ions are not essential elements to plants, what might explain the difference in bioavailability. However, our results have shown that 137Cs+ is positively correlated to 40K+ concentration within tropical plant species, suggesting that these elements might be assimilated in a similar way, and that they pass through the biological cycle together. A simple mathematical model was also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibited close agreement with the 40K experimental results in the fruit ripening processes of lemon trees.

  11. ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF PLANT SPECIES OF HALOPHILOUS HYDROMORPHIC ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Speranza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands are very special environments, characterized by soils permanently or seasonally saturated by salt or brackish water. They host microorganisms and plants able to adapt to anoxic conditions. This paper proposes a review of recent scientific papers dealing with the study of coastal wetlands from different points of view. Some studies examine the species composition and the pattern of the spatial distribution of plant communities, depending on the depth of the salt water table, as well as on other related factors. A significant number of studies analyse instead the coastal wetlands in their ability for the phytoremediation (phytostabilisation and/or phytoextraction and highlight the importance of interactions between the rhizosphere of the halophytes and the physical environment. Finally, more recent studies consider the plant species of the coastal wetlands as a source of useful products (food, feed, oils and expose the results of promising researches on their cultivation.

  12. Reduced plant-soil feedback of plant species expanding their range as compared to natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. As a result of global warming, species may spread into previously cool regions. Species that disperse faster than their natural enemies may become released from top-down control. We investigated whether plants originating from southern Europe and recently established in north-western Europe exper

  13. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

  14. The cobblers stick to their lasts : pollinators prefer native over alien plant species in a multi-species experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chrobock, Thomas; Winiger, Pius; Fischer, Markus; van Kleunen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The majority of plant species rely, at least partly, on animals for pollination. Our knowledge on whether pollinator visitation differs between native and alien plant species, and between invasive and non-invasive alien species is still limited. Additionally, because numerous invasive plant species are escapees from horticulture, the transition from human-assisted occurrence in urbanized habitats to unassisted persistence and spread in (semi-)natural habitats requires study. To address whethe...

  15. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  16. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  17. Tree growth, wood and bark water content of 28 Amazonian tree species in response to variations in rainfall and wood density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias DP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pole diameter and wood density are variables commonly used in allometric equations to estimate tree biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. The effect of variations in tree water content on pole diameters is often disregarded in allometric equations. This study aimed to determine the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth, stem wood and bark water content and to assess the relationship between water content and wood density (dry mass to fresh mass volume ratio in 120 trees from 28 species in a terra-firme rain forest in the central Amazon. In 2006, stem wood and bark water content were gravimetrically determined in the dry season (August-September and rainy season (April-May. In the same year, growth in diameter was measured at monthly intervals in the 120 trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm with dendrometric bands previously adapted to the tree. Mean wood water content was lower in the dry season than the rainy season. On the contrary, bark water content was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Wood densities higher than 0.75 g cm-3 were found in 64.3% of the trees. Trees with denser woods grew slower and had lower stem water content. Monthly rainfall did not affect tree growth in diameter, which was contrary to our initial expectation on the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth in central Amazonia. This finding supports the hypothesis that in central Amazonia, the mild dry season is not long enough to deplete soil water beyond the reach of the root system, which allows the trees to grow at quite constant rates over the year.

  18. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malyshev, Andrey; Arfin Kahn, Mohammed A.S.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl;

    2016-01-01

    biodiversity change and to project future species distributions using models. We present a direct comparison of among- versus within-species variation in response to three of the main stresses anticipated with climate change: drought, warming, and frost. Two earlier experiments had experimentally induced (i......) summer drought and (ii) spring frost for four common European grass species and their ecotypes from across Europe. To supplement existing data, a third experiment was carried out, to compare variation among species from different functional groups to within-species variation. Here, we simulated (iii......) winter warming plus frost for four grasses, two nonleguminous, and two leguminous forbs, in addition to eleven European ecotypes of the widespread grass Arrhenatherum elatius. For each experiment, we measured: (i) C/N ratio and biomass, (ii) chlorophyll content and biomass, and (iii) plant greenness...

  19. INAA of microelements in plant species from the Danube floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was developed and implemented in the Danube floodplain, as a part of a program dealing with biogeochemistry of metals, to assess the possibility of using the ubiquitous plant species in the soil pollution monitoring activity. The Danube River is heavily polluted by the input from a catchment, which includes 12 countries. Even if the concentrations in the Danube water and sediments reach acute values only in some hot spots, due to the dilution effect, they could have negative consequences by phenomena of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration. The content of Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V and Zn in Bidens tripartita, Rubus caesius, Stachys palustris and Xanthium strumarium ubiquitous plant species, collected from two areas located on different regularly flooded islands of the Danube river was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis method at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. From the statistical point of view, three groups of elements present highly correlated concentrations in the investigated plant samples (p(0.05))//. The first one includes Al, As, Ce, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Th and V, the second one Au, Ca, Cu and Sr, and the third one Br, Cr, Na and Mn. For the elements of the first group, the elemental concentrations are found to be in similar ratios in the species investigated, namely: Xanthium s. < Rubus c. < Bidens t. < Stachys p. as well as for the third group: Bidens t. < Rubus c. < Stachys p. < Xanthium s, suggesting that physiological features of the species could be responsible for the observed patterns of distribution. The soil and dominating plant species were analysed for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Zr by the X-ray fluorescence method at the Institute for Geological Explorations, Bucharest. The elemental content in soil is reflected in the analysed plants for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, but not for Mn. This could be explained by the redox

  20. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar. PMID:21565777

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions. PMID:19750940

  2. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  3. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and ...

  4. Plant cell walls: New insights from ancient species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Willats, William George Tycho

    2008-01-01

    ¿4)-linked ß-D-Glcp are joined by occasional (1¿3)-linkages. This mixed linkage glucan (MLG) has been the subject of extensive research because of the economic importance of several Poales species including rice, barley and wheat and because MLG has proven health benefits. The recent discovery of MLG......-D-glucan is not unique to the Poales and is an abundant component of Equisetum arvense cell walls. Plant J 2008; 54:510-21....

  5. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  6. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective ...

  7. Second floor, please: the fish fauna of floating litter banks in Amazonian streams and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelia Nobre Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Floating litter banks are an ephemeral habitat consisting of branches, twigs, flowers, seeds, and fruits that are trapped on the stream water surface by a variety of retention mechanisms. These heterogeneous materials form a deep layer of dead plant matter that is colonized by a variety of organisms, including fish that forage on the aquatic macroinvertebrates found in this unique habitat. In this study, we aimed to characterize which fish species occupy the floating litter banks and their trophic characteristics, as well as determine if fish assemblage composition and species richness can be predicted by the size of the floating litter banks. Fish sampling was conducted in five rivers located in the Amazon basin. Of the 31 floating litter banks sampled that contained fish, 455 individuals were recorded and were distributed within 40 species, 15 families and five orders. Siluriformes were the most representative order among the samples and contained the largest number of families and species. The fish fauna sampled was mainly composed of carnivorous species that are typically found in submerged litter banks of Amazonian streams. The fish assemblage composition in the kinon can be predicted by the volume of the floating litter banks using both presence/absence and abundance data, but not its species richness. In conclusion, kinon banks harbor a rich fish assemblage that utilizes this habitat for shelter and feeding, and may function as a refuge for the fishes during the peak of the flooding season.

  8. Constrained preferences in nitrogen uptake across plant species and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Macko, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of determining factors for nitrogen uptake preferences and how they are modified in changing environments are critical to understand ecosystem nitrogen cycling and to predict plant responses to future environmental changes. Two ¹⁵N tracer experiments utilizing a unique differential labelled nitrogen source were employed in both African savannas and greenhouse settings. The results demonstrated that nitrogen uptake preferences were constrained by the climatic conditions. As mainly indicated by root δ¹⁵N signatures at 1:1 ammonium/nitrate ratio, in the drier environments, plants preferred nitrate and in the wetter environments they preferred ammonium. Nitrogen uptake preferences were different across different ecosystems (e.g. from drier to wetter environments) even for the same species. More significantly, our experiments showed that the plant progeny continued to exhibit the same nitrogen preference as the parent plants in the field, even when removed from their native environment and the nitrogen source was changed dramatically. The climatic constraint of nitrogen uptake preference is likely influenced by ammonium/nitrate ratios in the native habitats of the plants. The constancy in nitrogen preference has important implications in predicting the success of plant communities in their response to climate change, to seed bank use and to reforestation efforts. PMID:21118424

  9. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Reactive oxygen species, essential molecules, during plant-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, Daymi; Guzmán-Cedeño, Ángel; Moreno, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continually generated as a consequence of the normal metabolism in aerobic organisms. Accumulation and release of ROS into cell take place in response to a wide variety of adverse environmental conditions including salt, temperature, cold stresses and pathogen attack, among others. In plants, peroxidases class III, NADPH oxidase (NOX) locates in cell wall and plasma membrane, respectively, may be mainly enzymatic systems involving ROS generation. It is well documented that ROS play a dual role into cells, acting as important signal transduction molecules and as toxic molecules with strong oxidant power, however some aspects related to its function during plant-pathogen interactions remain unclear. This review focuses on the principal enzymatic systems involving ROS generation addressing the role of ROS as signal molecules during plant-pathogen interactions. We described how the chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes perceive the external stimuli as pathogen invasion, and trigger resistance response using ROS as signal molecule. PMID:26950921

  11. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR ALIEN PLANT SPECIES DETECTION AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dvořák

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV. We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid. Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded. The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  13. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  14. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; do Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  15. Chemical recognition of partner plant species by foundress ant queens in Macaranga-Crematogaster myrmecophytism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Y; Itioka, T; Murase, K; Yamaoka, R; Itino, T

    2001-10-01

    The partnership in the Crematogaster-Macaranga ant-plant interaction is highly species-specific. Because a mutualistic relationship on a Macaranga plant starts with colonization by a foundress queen of a partner Crematogaster species, we hypothesized that the foundress queens select their partner plant species by chemical recognition. We tested this hypothesis with four sympatric Macaranga species and their Crematogaster plant-ant species. We demonstrated that foundress Crematogaster queens can recognize their partner Macaranga species by contact with the surface of the seedlings, that they can recognize compounds from the stem surface of seedlings of their partner plant species, and that the gas chromatographic profiles are characteristic of the plant species. These findings support the hypothesis that foundress queens of the Crematogaster plant-ant species select their partner Macaranga species by recognizing nonvolatile chemical characteristics of the stem surfaces of seedlings. PMID:11710609

  16. Plants go with the flow : predicting spatial distribution of plant species in the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Zinko, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to study if a topographic wetness index (TWI) could be used as a tool for predicting the spatial distribution of vascular plant species richness in the boreal forest as well as to study congruence in species richness between vascular plants, liverworts, mosses and lichens. A wetness index ln(a/tanβ) based on topography was used to assign a specific TWI-value to every 20 x 20m grid in two 25 km2 boreal forest landscapes (differing in average soil pH) in n...

  17. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  18. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Schlinkert

    Full Text Available Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground, the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness. We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their

  19. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  20. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from early-stage ex-arable fields to examine how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks affect the performance of 10 conditioning species and the focal species, Jacobaea vulgaris. Plants were grown alon...

  1. Endophytic fungi from the Amazonian plant Paullinia cupana and from Olea europaea isolated using cassava as an alternative starch media source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, José Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium. PMID:25674409

  2. Plant-associated bacterial populations on native and invasive plant species: comparisons between 2 freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade, Ola A; Pung, Kayleigh

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial interactions have been well studied because of the ecological importance of such relationships in aquatic systems. However, general knowledge regarding the composition of these biofilm communities is still evolving, partly as a result of several confounding factors that are attributable to plant host properties and to hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrences of various bacterial phylogenetic taxa on 2 native plants, i.e., mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum Bartram), and on an invasive species, i.e., garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande), were quantitatively examined using nucleic acid staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The plants were incubated in triplicates for about a week within the Kalamazoo River and Pierce Cedar Creek as well as in microcosms. The bacterial groups targeted for enumeration are known to globally occur in relatively high abundance and are also ubiquitously distributed in freshwater environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the bacterioplankton assemblages revealed that the majority of bacterial cells that hybridized with the different probes were similar between the 2 sites. In contrast, the plant-associated populations while similar on the 3 plants incubated in Kalamazoo River, their representations were highest on the 2 native plants relative to the invasive species in Pierce Cedar Creek. Overall, our results further suggested that epiphytic bacterial assemblages are probably under the influences of and probably subsequently respond to multiple variables and conditions in aquatic milieus. PMID:22625420

  3. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we...

  4. Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    En-Rong Yan; Xiao-Dong Yang; Chang, Scott X.; Xi-Hua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivar...

  5. Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binutu, O A; Lajubutu, B A

    1994-09-01

    The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed. It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins. The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses. PMID:7604753

  6. Mineral contents from some fabaceous plant species of Rajasthan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mineral contents from three selected plant species of Fabaceae family growing in arid region of Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea collected from two different areas Chhatargarh area (Bikaner district and Ratangarh area (Churu district were analysed for mineral contents. The maximum Calcium (3.86%, Phosphorus (0.48%, Potassium (0.92% and Sodium (1.08% contents were found in roots and shoots of Grewia tenax collected from study area.

  7. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Quirk, H.; Oakley, S.; Ostle, N.J.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and det

  8. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  9. Chloroplastid pigment contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Amazonian tropical three species Concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e fluorescência da clorofila a em espécies arbóreas tropicais da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ribeiro de Morais

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants react to changes in light and hydrological conditions in terms of quantity and composition of chloroplastidic pigments, which affects the photosynthetic properties and consequently the accumulation of plant biomass. Thus, the chloroplastidic pigment concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence of three Amazonian species (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata were investigated in sun and shade leaves form the tree crown collected during two distinct periods of precipitation (dry and rainy seasons. Pigment contents were determined by spectrophotometry and fluorescence variables were determined using a portable fluorometer. The results demonstrated that the species showed high concentrations of Chl a, Chl b e Chl total during the wet season in relation to the dry season, especially in shade leaves. A higher concentration of carotenoids was found in B. excelsa, when compared with leaves of C. guianensis and D. odorata. In leaves of B. excelsa and D. odorata no significant difference was found in relation to the photochemistry of photosystem II (Fv/Fm between the wet and dry seasons. In conclusion, the three species react differently to variations in the light and precipitation conditions regarding light capture, aspects that might be considered in the management of forest plantations.As plantas respondem a mudanças nas condições de luz e na disponibilidade hídrica em termos da quantidade e composição dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos, o que afeta as propriedades fotossintéticas e, conseqüentemente, o acúmulo de biomassa das espécies. Assim, a concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e a fluorescência da clorofila a de três espécies arbóreas (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata da Amazônia foi investigada em folhas sombreadas e não-sombreadas da copa das árvores e em dois períodos distintos de precipitação (chuvoso e seco. As concentrações de pigmentos foram determinadas por

  10. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Eleres Soares; Tiago Octavio Begot Ruffeil; Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag

    2013-01-01

    The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ) in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to l...

  11. Emission of isoprene from common Indian plant species and its implications for regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Singh, Abhai Pratap; Singh, M P; Kumar, Animesh; Varshney, C K

    2008-09-01

    Isoprene is most dominant volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by many plants. In this study 40 common Indian plant species were examined for isoprene emission using dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. Isoprene emission rates of plants species were found to vary from undetectable to 69.5 microg g(-1) h(-1) (Madhuca latifolia). Besides, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitability of 80 common Indian plant species for planting programmes. Out of 80 species, 29 species were moderate to high emitters (10 to < or =25 microg g(-1) h(-1)), 12 species were low emitter emitters (1 to < or =10 microg g(-1) h(-1)) and remaining 39 species were found to be negligible or non emitters (<1 microg g(-1) h(-1)) of isoprene. About 50% plant species selected for planting programmes in India were found to be moderate to high emitters of isoprene. PMID:17952698

  12. The effect of isolation and history on colonization patterns of plant species in secondary woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashof-Bokdam, C.J.; Geertsema, W.

    1998-01-01

    Colonization success of woodland originating after 1850 was determined for seventeen forest plant species having different dispersal strategies. Colonization rate of the studied endo- and exozoochorous species apparently was considerable higher than that of species having short distance dispersal li

  13. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  14. Phytogeographically important plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrence of phyto-geographically important plant species reaches the geographic boundary of the overall or partial area or it is limited to certain part of Slovak's territory. Lathyrus transsilvanicus - perennial herb growing on the edges of oak-beech woods or mixed forests, in orchard grass on the soils rich in humus. It is also spread in hill zone in the altitude of 200 - 415 m a. s. l. The northern and western boundaries of the area pass through Slovakia. It is threatened and legally protected species. Lathyrus laevigatus - is spread only in the eastern part of the territory of Slovakia (Bukovske vrchy Mts., Vihorlat Mts., and rarely in the Nizke Beskydy Mts.), in broad-leaved forests prevailingly in beech woods or oak-horn-beam woods with admixture of beech. It is phyto-geographically significant species, part of the western boundary of the area passes through Slovakia. It is threatened and legally protected species. Cardamine matthioli - is one of the Cardamine pratensis agg. polyploid complex. It grows on the moderately humid, flooded, but also on dryer meadows from the plain (lowland) to submontane zones. It is the Central European species spread as far as the northern Italy and the northern part of the Balkans. The northern boundary of its area passes through Slovakia. Cardamine amara subsp. opicii - subspecies accompanying small brooks and springs in mountainous or subalpine zones, rarely occurring in the alpine zone. Its area is limited to higher positions of the Carpathians. Reseda phyteuma - annual weed of abandoned fields, vineyards and roadsides, which likes well-aired, dry, warm stony, sandy or loess substratum. It grows in plain and hilly zones below 500 m a. s. l. The part of the northern boundary of its area passes through the south-western Slovakia. Threatened and rare species. Teucrium scorodonia - perennial herb. Its original area in Slovakia is only in the Tribec Mts. Occurrence of the species is linked to quartzite base. It prefers acid

  15. Efeito da inundação de longa duração sob o crescimento de Pouteria glomerata (Sapotaceae, uma arbórea da várzea da Amazônia Central Growth of Pouteria glomerata (Sapotaceae, a tree species from the Central Amazonian floodplain, under long-term flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maurenza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Para entender a ocorrência de P. glomerata na várzea amazônica, investigamos as respostas morfo-fisiológicas a longo período de inundação. Durante seis meses, plântulas de P. glomerata foram submetidas a dois tratamentos de inundação (parcial e total para análise da assimilação fotossintética líquida (A, eficiência quântica do fotosistema II (referido como Fv/Fm, altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do colo do caule (DCC, área foliar e biomassa da planta. Encontramos um decréscimo da atividade de trocas gasosas, das taxas de crescimento e danos foliares com o aumento do nível de inundação. Após seis meses de experimento, a área foliar, a biomassa dos órgãos vegetativos (raiz, caule e folha e a biomassa total das plântulas inundadas foram menores que das plântulas controle, plântulas não-inundadas. De acordo com o aumento do nível de inundação, a biomassa fotoassimilada foi alocada principalmente para o caule. Somente área foliar específica, razão raiz / parte aérea e massa seca de raiz não apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. As plântulas totalmente inundadas foram fortemente comprometidas, demonstrando ser esta à condição mais crítica para a manutenção do metabolismo fisiológico. P. glomerata foi afetada pelo longo período de inundação, no entanto a espécie revela adaptações morfo-fisiologica que justifica a sua ocorrência em florestas de várzea.To understand the occurrence of P. glomerata in the Amazonian várzea we investigated the morpho-physiological responses to long-term flooding. Seedlings of P. glomerata were subjected to two flooding treatments (partial and total for six months. Following flooding treatments, we examined light-saturated photosynthesis (A, the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (inferred as the Fv/Fm ratio, height, number of leaves (NF, stem diameter at the base of the plant (DCC, leaf area and plant biomass. We found a decrease in gas exchange

  16. Effect of plant species on nitrogen recovery in aquaponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen transformations in aquaponics with different edible plant species, i.e., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pak choi (Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis) were systematically examined and compared. Results showed that nitrogen utilization efficiencies (NUE) of tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems were 41.3% and 34.4%, respectively. The abundance of nitrifying bacteria in tomato-based aquaponics was 4.2-folds higher than that in pak choi-based aquaponics, primarily due to its higher root surface area. In addition, tomato-based aquaponics had better water quality than that of pak choi-based aquaponics. About 1.5-1.9% of nitrogen input were emitted to atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N2O) in tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems, respectively, suggesting that aquaponics is a potential anthropogenic source of N2O emission. Overall, this is the first intensive study that examined the role plant species played in aquaponics, which could provide new strategy in designing and operating an aquaponic system. PMID:25650140

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  18. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  19. Reactive oxygen species in response of plants to gravity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers can induce stress response of plants. Thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) can function as sensors and transmitters of the ROS in stress signaling and antioxidant response. 12-14 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 10 and 20 g during 30 and 90 min and than intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence (SChL/ROS content), Trx and Prx activities were determined. All experiments were repeated from 3 to 5 times and the obtained data were statistically treated. In the tissue culture under development of the stress there were an increase in intensity of SChL and Trx and Prx activities. Thus, under hypergravity stress in the plant occurred early increase in the ROS level and the ROS induced the increase in the Trx and Prx activities. Prx and Trx can also participate in the formation of stress respons as acceptors and transducers of the redox signals. Increase in the activity of these enzymes primarily aimed at increasing of the total antioxidant activity in the cells to prevent of the plant to development of oxidative degradation by ROS.

  20. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard;

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  1. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  2. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected.

  3. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  4. Reciprocal effects of litter from exotic and congeneric native plant species via soil nutrients.

    OpenAIRE

    Annelein Meisner; Wietse de Boer; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive exotic plant species are often expected to benefit exclusively from legacy effects of their litter inputs on soil processes and nutrient availability. However, there are relatively few experimental tests determining how litter of exotic plants affects their own growth conditions compared to congeneric native plant species. Here, we test how the legacy of litter from three exotic plant species affects their own performance in comparison to their congeneric natives that co-occur in the...

  5. Species composition of alien plants in the built-up area of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Juanjuan Zhao; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hua Zheng; Weihua Xu; Xiaoke Wang; Yongming Ni

    2010-01-01

    The widely-used practice of planting alien plant species has become a major concern in Chinese urban management. It is imperative to investigate the composition of alien plant species in urban areas forplant diversity protection and green space management. In this study, we investigated 1050 tree plots, 797 shrub plots and 2,228 herbaceous plots based on stratified random selection, within the fifth ring road area of Beijing. The results revealed the following: (1) There were 324 plant specie...

  6. Impacts of forest logging on the species diversity of endemic seed plants from Hainan Island

    OpenAIRE

    Han Xu; Yide Li; Tushou Luo; Dexiang Chen; Mingxian Lin; Huai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Endemic seed plants are important floral components in tropical rainforests, and are often sensitive to human disturbance. However, few reports exist of the impacts of forest logging on these species. In this study, based on surveys of 164 quadrats of 25 m×25 m in Jianfengling, Hainan Island, the species composition and relationships between species richness of Hainan endemic seed plants and the total plant species richness were analyzed. Each of the 164 quadrats was grouped into one of three...

  7. Food preference of the amazonian manatee in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Pinto Colares; Ioni Gonçalves Colares

    2011-01-01

    Studies on one endangered species´ feeding contribute to the more complex knowledge about its ecology, as also its preservation and/or management. By this means, aiming to obtain one better development and food supply for the animals kept in captivity in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, one experiment was conducted to verify their food preferences. Aiming to observe the Amazonian manatee´s feeding behavior, eight animals were used kept inside one pool with 28,26 m2 and 1,0 m de...

  8. Biological activity of neosergeolide and isobrucein B (and two semi-synthetic derivatives isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen CC Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro techniques were used to investigate a range of biological activities of known natural quassinoids isobrucein B (1 and neosergeolide (2, known semi-synthetic derivative 1,12-diacetylisobrucein B (3, and a new semi-synthetic derivative, 12-acetylneosergeolide (4. These compounds were evaluated for general toxicity toward the brine shrimp species Artemia franciscana, cytotoxicity toward human tumour cells, larvicidal activity toward the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, haemolytic activity in mouse erythrocytes and antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against all the tumor cells tested (IC50 = 5-27 µg/L and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum K1 strain (IC50 = 1.0-4.0 g/L and 3 was only cytotoxic toward the leukaemia HL-60 strain (IC50 = 11.8 µg/L. Quassinoids 1 and 2 (LC50 = 3.2-4.4 mg/L displayed greater lethality than derivative 4 (LC50 = 75.0 mg/L toward A. aegypti larvae, while derivative 3 was inactive. These results suggest a novel application for these natural quassinoids as larvicides. The toxicity toward A. franciscana could be correlated with the activity in several biological models, a finding that is in agreement with the literature. Importantly, none of the studied compounds exhibited in vitro haemolytic activity, suggesting specificity of the observed cytotoxic effects. This study reveals the biological potential of quassinoids 1 and 2 and to a lesser extent their semi-synthetic derivatives for their in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities.

  9. Positive Effects of Plant Genotypic and Species Diversity on Anti-Herbivore Defenses in a Tropical Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on

  10. Positive effects of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses in a tropical tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xoaquín Moreira

    Full Text Available Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves. We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer

  11. Positive effects of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses in a tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on

  12. Antinociceptive activity of Amazonian Copaiba oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Niele Matos; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fontes, Silvia Paredes; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2007-02-12

    Copaiba oil resins are extensively commercialized in Brazil as capsules or crude oil and used as anti-inflammatory and anti-septic. Comparative pharmacological studies between different species of Copaiba oils are scarce. In the present work we compared the antinociceptive activity of two Amazonian Copaiba oils (Copaifera multijuga Hayne and Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) administered by oral route using peripheral (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin), spinal (tail flick) and supra-spinal (hot plate) models. Results demonstrated that the Copaiba oils did not develop toxic effects. Doses ranging from 30 to 150 mg/kg were enough to significantly develop peripheral antinociceptive effect. All Copaiba oils demonstrate central activity but with less effect on supra-spinal regions of the brain. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by both Copaiba oils. Our results indicate that Copaiba oils demonstrate peripheral and central antinociceptive effect. This new comprobate effect may be useful in the treatment of algesic disorders. PMID:17029841

  13. Chemical species injection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample preparation device is disposed to injection pipelines of each system of a BWR type power plant, and a control device is connected to an electrolysis device and the sample preparation device respectively. An injection water analyzing device is connected to the exit of the sample preparation device, a sampling pipeline is connected to a reactor coolant cleanup system or a reactor recycling system, and a reactor water analyzing rack is connected to the sampling pipeline. The reactor water analyzing rack is connected to a signal processing system from a radiation concentration measuring device in reactor water, and the output of the signal processing system is connected to the control device. Chemical species for controlling water quality are formed from metal or metal compounds in a water solution by electrolysis. The concentration of each of the products is controlled and injected from a primary system or accompanied sampling systems of a reactor to the reactor. Parameters such as injection system concentration, reactor primary system concentration, radiation concentration in reactor water and corrosion potential are measured, to control injection, an amount of electrolysis or an injection concentration for the species. (N.H.)

  14. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate protective action. (v) Assisting recovery teams, as appropriate, in preparing species recovery... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals....

  15. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  16. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  17. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  18. Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

  19. Evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emissions across 202 tropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Elodie A.; Dexter, Kyle G; Paine, Charles Eliot Timothy; Stien, Didier; Engel, Julien; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    International audience Plant responses to natural enemies include formation of secondary metabolites acting as direct or indirect defenses. Volatile terpenes represent one of the most diverse groups of secondary metabolites. We aimed to explore evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emission. We measured the composition of damage-induced volatile terpenes from 202 Amazonian tree species, spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. Volatile terpenes were extracted with solid-phase micro extractio...

  20. Plant species distribution along environmental gradient: do belowground interactions with fungi matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc ePellissier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of plants along environmental gradients is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Cumulative evidence attests of the impact of abiotic factors on plant distributions, but only few studies discuss the role of belowground communities. Soil fungi, in particular, are thought to play an important role in how plant species assemble locally into communities. We first review existing evidence, and then test the effect of the number of soil fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs on plant species distributions using a recently collected dataset of plant and metagenomic information on soil fungi in the Western Swiss Alps. Using species distribution models, we investigated whether the distribution of individual plant species is correlated to the number of OTUs of two important soil fungal classes known to interact with plants: the Glomeromycetes, that are obligatory symbionts of plants, and the Agaricomycetes, that may be facultative plant symbionts, pathogens, or wood decayers. We show that including the fungal richness information in the models of plant species distributions improves predictive accuracy. Number of fungal OTUs is especially correlated to the distribution of high elevation plant species. We suggest that high elevation soil show greater variation in fungal assemblages that may in turn impact plant turnover among communities. We finally discuss how to move beyond correlative analyses, through the design of field experiments manipulating plant and fungal communities along environmental gradients.

  1. Getting the Right Traits: Reproductive and Dispersal Characteristics Predict the Invasiveness of Herbaceous Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the effect of species traits on plant invasion, we collected comparative data on 20 reproductive and dispersal traits of 93 herbaceous alien species in the Czech Republic, central Europe, introduced after 1500 A. D. We explain plant invasion success, expressed by two measures: invasiveness, i.e. whether the species is naturalized but non-invasive, or invasive; and dominance in plant communities expressed as the mean cover in vegetation plots. We also tested how important ...

  2. Low genetic diversity despite multipleintroductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Brunet, Jörg; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2015-01-01

    Background Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species’ ...

  3. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde B De Deyn

    Full Text Available Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C- translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13C-CO(2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts of the recently assimilated (13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13C in the respired CO(2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased

  4. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  5. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose. PMID:25806436

  6. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J. Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A.; Lundholm, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Methods Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Key Results Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Conclusions Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further

  7. Reciprocal effects of litter from exotic and congeneric native plant species via soil nutrients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelein Meisner

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic plant species are often expected to benefit exclusively from legacy effects of their litter inputs on soil processes and nutrient availability. However, there are relatively few experimental tests determining how litter of exotic plants affects their own growth conditions compared to congeneric native plant species. Here, we test how the legacy of litter from three exotic plant species affects their own performance in comparison to their congeneric natives that co-occur in the invaded habitat. We also analyzed litter effects on soil processes. In all three comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had the highest respiration rates. In two out of the three exotic-native species comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations than their native congener, which was likely due to higher initial litter quality of the exotics. When litter from an exotic plant species had a positive effect on itself, it also had a positive effect on its native congener. We conclude that exotic plant species develop a legacy effect in soil from the invaded range through their litter inputs. This litter legacy effect results in altered soil processes that can promote both the exotic plant species and their native congener.

  8. Soil microbial community structure of range-expanding plant species differs from co-occurring natives

    OpenAIRE

    Morrien, E.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    1. Due to global warming and other changes in the environment, many native and exotic plant species show range expansion from lower to higher latitudes. In the new range, the (in)ability of range-expanding plants to establish associations with local soil microbes can have important consequences for plant abundance; however, very little information exists on rhizosphere communities of range-expanding plant species. Here, we examine the rhizosphere microbial community composition of range-expan...

  9. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  10. Species diversity of vascular plants in Si Phang-nga National Park, Phangnga Province

    OpenAIRE

    Leeratiwong, C.; Jornead, S.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of the vascular plants in Si Phang-nga National Park, Phangnga Province, was conducted from September 2002 to August 2003. Five hundred and forty three species of 287 genera and 111 families were collected. The most diverse family was Rubiaceae, 53 species. Four species of these collected plants are endemic to Thailand, Argostemma lobulatum, Aristolochia helix, Crinum thaianum and Mallotus hymenophyllus) and three species, Hedyotis hedyotidea, Lipocarpha microcephala and Pterolobium ...

  11. Species diversity of vascular plants in Si Phang-nga National Park, Phangnga Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeratiwong, C.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the vascular plants in Si Phang-nga National Park, Phangnga Province, was conducted from September 2002 to August 2003. Five hundred and forty three species of 287 genera and 111 families were collected. The most diverse family was Rubiaceae, 53 species. Four species of these collected plants are endemic to Thailand, Argostemma lobulatum, Aristolochia helix, Crinum thaianum and Mallotus hymenophyllus and three species, Hedyotis hedyotidea, Lipocarpha microcephala and Pterolobium intergum are newly recorded for southern Thailand.

  12. Reactive oxygen species mediate growth and death in submerged plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka eSteffens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic plants are well adapted to survive partial or complete submergence which is commonly accompanied by oxygen deprivation. The gaseous hormone ethylene controls a number of adaptive responses to submergence including adventitious root growth and aerenchyma formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as signaling intermediates in ethylene-controlled submergence adaptation and possibly also independent of ethylene. ROS levels are controlled by synthesis, enzymatic metabolism and nonenzymatic scavenging. While the actors are by and large known, we still have to learn about altered ROS at the subcellular level and how they are brought about, and the signaling cascades that trigger a specific response. This review briefly summarizes our knowledge on the contribution of ROS to submergence adaptation and describes spectrophotometrical, histochemical and live cell imaging detection methods that have been used to study changes in ROS abundance. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy is introduced as a method that allows identification and quantification of specific ROS in cell compartments. The use of advanced technologies such as EPR spectroscopy will be necessary to untangle the intricate and partially interwoven signaling networks of ethylene and ROS.

  13. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  14. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves. PMID:27326373

  15. Ethnobotanical inventory and medicinal uses of some important woody plant species of Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; MuhammadArshad

    2014-01-01

    To document ethnobotanical informations of useful woody plant species in the region of Kotli, Azad Kashmir. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Kotli. Data were collected by interview and semi structured questionnaire from selected local informants and traditional practitioners as well as by field assessment. Results: The present study documented the etnobotanical uses of 33 woody plant species. Most of the species have been used for dual purpose. Only 5 species are used for one purpose. Study revealed all species have medicinal value, among which 21 were used as fuel wood species, 16 as fodder species, 4 as timber wood species, 12 as edible fruit species, 6 as fence or hedge plant, 7 as ornamental species and 12 species had other uses. Conclusions: Medicinal plants are still widely used for health care by locals of Kotli. Some species of woodlands seem to be vulnerable to overcollection and deforestation. As the young generation is diverted toward allelopathic medicines, ethnobotanical knowledges of important medicinal plants are restricted to the old people only. It is suggested to close the forest of district Kotli for next two to three decades for the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  16. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  17. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.;

    2002-01-01

    species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed....... For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution...

  18. Fruit Plants Species along Corridor in Kopendukuh Village as a Resource for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kristiyanti Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify fruit plants species which is potential for tourism attraction, spatially describes fruit plants distribution and identify local people’s response for fruit plants as tourims attraction in Kopendukuh village, Banyuwangi. Survey was done along the villages corridors. The fruit plant species along corridors was identified and mapped using GPS. Furthermore, semi-structural interview was used to gain informations of local people response about fruit plants as tourism attraction. There were about 18 species and 162 individuals were found along corridor of Kopendukuh village. Fruit plants always found in local home gardens along rural corridor. Local peoples argue that fruit planst s important for numerous purposes. Local people support tourism development in rural area which based on the fruit plants richness (i.e. agrotourism. Keywords: fruit plants, mapping, corridor, rural tourism.

  19. Floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian rainforest bryophytes in the state of Acre, Brazil Composição florística e diversidade de briófitas em floresta no estado do Acre, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Pinheiro da Costa

    2003-01-01

    Bryophyte diversity in Amazonian Brazil is high, presently recorded at 514 species distributed among 36 families and 89 genera. Comparisions of species richness among the Amazonian states of Brazil suggests that the bryoflora of Acre is still underestimated, presently recorded at 106 species distributed among 33 families and 63 genera. After two field trips, the diversity increased 50% showing that the bryoflora is still poorly known. Collection data and comments on morphology, ecology and di...

  20. Multitrophic interactions on a range-expanding plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna, T.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the ecological impacts of exotic invasive plants have mainly focused on inter-continental invasions. However due to global environmental changes, a rapid increase in intra-continental range-expanding plants has been observed. In this context, multitrophic interactions between exotic plants, native herbivores and their natural enemies have been largely ignored. This thesis aimed at examining how an exotic range-expanding plant interacts with aboveground insect herbivores and their n...

  1. Investigating Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a field study project that explores factors influencing forest community structure and lifts the veil off of "plant blindness." This ecological study consists of three laboratories: (1) preliminary field trip to the study site; (2) plant survey; and (3) analyzing plant community structure with descriptive…

  2. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  3. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  4. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  5. The occurrence of alien plant species in field margins in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jauni, Miia; Hyvönen, Terho

    2009-01-01

    The results suggest that alien plant species comprise an important part of the biodiversity of Finnish field margins and semi-natural agricultural habitats. The role of field margins as dispersal corridors for invasive alien plants is limited for certain species.

  6. Ecological niche and species traits: key drivers of regional plant invader assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Gassó, Núria; Pino, Joan; Vilà, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Linking species traits to niche properties is fundamental to understand the spatial structure of invasive species assemblages and the invasion process itself. Using information on 74 invasive species in Spain, the aims of this paper are to (1) test whether invasive plant species assemblages follow a nested pattern at the regional scale, (2) inspect the relationship between range size and niche properties (position and breadth) of invasive species to test whether the nested pattern is a produc...

  7. Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Humair

    Full Text Available Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N = 625 to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species.

  8. Discriminating plant species across California's diverse ecosystems using airborne VSWIR and TIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerdink, S.; Roberts, D. A.; Roth, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is required for many research and management agendas that track ecosystem health. Because of this, there is continuous development of research focused on remotely-sensed species classifications for many diverse ecosystems. While plant species have been mapped using airborne imaging spectroscopy, the geographic extent has been limited due to data availability and spectrally similar species continue to be difficult to separate. The proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) space-borne mission, which includes a visible near infrared/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared (TIR) multi-spectral imager, would present an opportunity to improve species discrimination over a much broader scale. Here we evaluate: 1) the capability of VSWIR and/or TIR spectra to discriminate plant species; 2) the accuracy of species classifications within an ecosystem; and 3) the potential for discriminating among species across a range of ecosystems. Simulated HyspIRI imagery was acquired in spring/summer of 2013 spanning from Santa Barbara to Bakersfield, CA with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) instruments. Three spectral libraries were created from these images: AVIRIS (224 bands from 0.4 - 2.5 µm), MASTER (8 bands from 7.5 - 12 µm), and AVIRIS + MASTER. We used canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) as a dimension reduction technique and then classified plant species using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Our results show the inclusion of TIR spectra improved species discrimination, but only for plant species with emissivities departing from that of a gray body. Ecosystems with species that have high spectral contrast had higher classification accuracies. Mapping plant species across all ecosystems resulted in a classification with lower accuracies than a single ecosystem due to the complex nature of

  9. Simulated geographic variations of plant species richness, evenness and abundance using climatic constraints on plant functional diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most pronounced large-scale geographic patterns of plant biodiversity are the increase in plant species richness towards the tropics, a more even distribution of the relative abundances of plant species in the tropics, and a nearly log-normal relative abundance distribution. Here we use an individual-based plant diversity model that relates climatic constraints to feasible plant growth strategies to show that all three basic diversity patterns can be predicted merely from the climatic constraints acting upon plant ecophysiological trade-offs. Our model predicts that towards objectively 'harsher' environments, the range of feasible growth strategies resulting in reproductive plants is reduced, thus resulting in lower functional plant species richness. The reduction of evenness is attributed to a more rapid decline in productivity from the most productive to less productive plant growth strategies since the particular setup of the strategy becomes more important in maintaining high productivity in harsher environments. This approach is also able to reproduce the increase in the deviation from a log-normal distribution towards more evenly distributed communities of the tropics. Our results imply that these general biodiversity relationships can be understood primarily by considering the climatic constraints on plant ecophysiological trade-offs.

  10. Simulated geographic variations of plant species richness, evenness and abundance using climatic constraints on plant functional diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Axel; Pavlick, Ryan; Reu, Bjoern [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Postfach 100164, 07701 Jena (Germany); Adams, Jonathan [Department of Biological Science, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ (United States)], E-mail: akleidon@bgc-jena.mpg.de

    2009-01-15

    Among the most pronounced large-scale geographic patterns of plant biodiversity are the increase in plant species richness towards the tropics, a more even distribution of the relative abundances of plant species in the tropics, and a nearly log-normal relative abundance distribution. Here we use an individual-based plant diversity model that relates climatic constraints to feasible plant growth strategies to show that all three basic diversity patterns can be predicted merely from the climatic constraints acting upon plant ecophysiological trade-offs. Our model predicts that towards objectively 'harsher' environments, the range of feasible growth strategies resulting in reproductive plants is reduced, thus resulting in lower functional plant species richness. The reduction of evenness is attributed to a more rapid decline in productivity from the most productive to less productive plant growth strategies since the particular setup of the strategy becomes more important in maintaining high productivity in harsher environments. This approach is also able to reproduce the increase in the deviation from a log-normal distribution towards more evenly distributed communities of the tropics. Our results imply that these general biodiversity relationships can be understood primarily by considering the climatic constraints on plant ecophysiological trade-offs.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of plants alters the effect of species richness on invertebrate herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Dinnage

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing ecological theory proposes that diverse communities of plants should experience a decrease in herbivory. Yet previous empirical examinations of this hypothesis have revealed that plant species richness increases herbivory in just as many systems as it decreases it. In this study, I ask whether more insight into the role of plant diversity in promoting or suppressing herbivory can be gained by incorporating information about the evolutionary history of species in a community. In ...

  12. Screening of radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content of Bulgarian plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Nikolova

    2011-01-01

    Background: Discovery of new plant species with antioxidant properties is a priority of many research teams. Most of the species included in this study are unstudied for antioxidant properties, but they are taxonomically related to reference plants with well-documented antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Free radical scavenging activity of plant extracts was evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. An aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoid d...

  13. Determination of plant species for the phytoremediation of carbofuran residue in rice field soils

    OpenAIRE

    Alissara Reungsang; Mullika Teerakun

    2005-01-01

    This study searched for plant species suitable for accumulating carbofuran residue in rice field soil. Three groups of plant, i.e. grass crops, upland crops, and vegetable crops, were grown in 8 inches diameter plastic pots filled with soil containing 5 mg/kg carbofuran. Parts of plants (stems and leaves, roots, fruits) were harvested at day 120 and analyzed for carbofuran residue using HPLC. The results indicated that Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) was the most suitable species for phytore...

  14. The effects of foundation species on community assembly : a global study on alpine cushion plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Brooker, Robin W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Callaway, Ragan M.; CAVIERES, LOHENGRIN A.; Cook, Bradley J; Lortie, Christopher J.; Michalet, Richard; Francisco I. Pugnaire; Xiao, Sa; Anthelme, Fabien; Björk, Robert G.; Cranston, Brittany H; Gavilán, Rosario G.; Kanka, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    Foundation species can change plant community structure by modulating important ecological processes such as community assembly, yet this topic is poorly understood. In alpine systems, cushion plants commonly act as foundation species by ameliorating local conditions. Here, we analyze diversity patterns of species' assembly within cushions and in adjacent surrounding open substrates (83 sites across five continents) calculating floristic dissimilarity between replicate plots, and using linear...

  15. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Willie L.; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between spec...

  16. Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species

    OpenAIRE

    Gubsch, M.; Buchmann, N.; Schmid, B.; Schulze, E.; Lipowsky, A.; Roscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional trait differences and trait adjustment in response to influences of the biotic environment could reflect niche partitioning among species. In this study, we tested how variation in above-ground plant traits, chosen as indicators for light and nitrogen acquisition and use, differs among taxonomically closely related species (Poaceae) to assess their potential for niche segregation at increasing plant diversity.Methods Traits of 12 grass species were measured in e...

  17. Rhizosphere microbial community and its response to plant species and soil history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; van Elsas, J. D.; van Veen, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The plant rhizosphere is a dynamic environment in which many parameters may influence the population structure, diversity and activity of the microbial community. Two important factors determining the structure of microbial community present in the vicinity of plant roots are plant species and soil

  18. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  19. Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…

  20. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  1. Gloger's rule in plants: The species and ecosystem levels

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-01-01

    Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geog...

  2. Unveiling cryptic species diversity of flowering plants: successful biological species identification of Asian Mitella using nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyama Yudai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic perennial lineage of Mitella (Asimitellaria; Saxifragaceae. We performed artificial cross experiments for 43 pairs of ten taxonomic species, and examined their F1 hybrid pollen fertility in vitro as a quantitative measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Results A nonlinear, multiple regression analysis indicated that the nuclear ribosomal DNA distances are sufficient to explain the observed pattern of F1 hybrid pollen fertility, and supplementation with chloroplast DNA distance data does not improve the explanatory power. Overall, with the exception of a recently diverged species complex with more than three biological species, nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences successfully circumscribed ten distinct biological species, of which two have not been described (and an additional one has not been regarded as a distinct taxonomic species to date. Conclusion We propose that nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences contribute to reliable identification of reproductively isolated and cryptic species of Mitella. More comparable studies for other plant groups are needed to generalize our findings to flowering plants.

  3. The effects of foundation species on community assembly: a global study on alpine cushion plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Brooker, Robin W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Callaway, Ragan M; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Cook, Bradley J; Lortie, Christopher J; Michalet, Richard; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Xiao, Sa; Anthelme, Fabien; Björk, Robert G; Cranston, Brittany H; Gavilan, Rosario G; Kanka, Robert; Lingua, Emanuele; Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Noroozi, Jalil; Parajuli, Rabindra; Phoenix, Gareth K; Reid, Anya; Ridenour, Wendy M; Rixen, Christian; Schöb, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Foundation species can change plant community structure by modulating important ecological processes such as community assembly, yet this topic is poorly understood. In alpine systems, cushion plants commonly act as foundation species by ameliorating local conditions. Here, we analyze diversity patterns of species' assembly within cushions and in adjacent surrounding open substrates (83 sites across five continents) calculating floristic dissimilarity between replicate plots, and using linear models to analyze relationships between microhabitats and species diversity. Floristic dissimilarity did not change across biogeographic regions, but was consistently lower in the cushions than in the open microhabitat. Cushion plants appear to enable recruitment of many relatively stress-intolerant species that otherwise would not establish in these communities, yet the niche space constructed by cushion plants supports a more homogeneous composition of species than the niche space beyond the cushion's influence. As a result, cushion plants support higher α-diversity and a larger species pool, but harbor assemblies with lower β-diversity than open microhabitats. We conclude that habitats with and without dominant foundation species can strongly differ in the processes that drive species recruitment, and thus the relationship between local and regional species diversity. PMID:26405732

  4. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  5. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but also the entire metabolome. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are constrained by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from three closely related Pinus species with distant coevolutionary histories with the caterpillar of the processionary moth respond similarly to its attack. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of terpenes were in the attacked trees supporting the hypothesis that herbivores avoid plant individuals with higher concentrations. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution. PMID:27386082

  6. Stability of modularity and structural keystone species in temporal cumulative plant- flower-visitor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2012-01-01

    all flowering plants and flower-visiting insect species throughout the flowering season at three dry heathland sites in Denmark. For each site, we constructed cumulative networks every 0.5 months, resulting in series of 10–12 networks per site. Numbers of interactions, and plant and insect species...... around one or two hubs. These hub species encompassed a small number of plant species, many of which acted as hubs at several study sites and throughout most of their flowering season. Thus, these plants become of key importance in maintaining the structure of their pollination network. We conclude that...... investigated the stability of modular organization of pollination networks to temporal scaling. To test for modularity, we used the method ‘functional cartography by simulated annealing’ (Guimera` and Amaral, 2005a,b), a stochastic optimization technique. Modules are detected, and species classified into three...

  7. PGPR BACILLUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM TOMATO PLANT –A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COCONUT WATER ENRICHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    OS Aysha, P Vinothkumar*, S Vasuki, S Valli, P Nirmala, A Reena

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria that colonize plant roots, they promote plant growth and reduce disease or insect damage. PGPR have been identified within many different bacterial taxa, most commercially developed PGPR for agricultural crops are species of Bacillus which form endospores that confer population stability during formulation and storage of products. Here the rhizobacteria Bacillus sp has been isolated from tomato plant and characterized with routine bioch...

  8. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  9. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  10. Impacts of alien plant invasions on biodiversity and evolutionary responses of native species

    OpenAIRE

    Yanbao Lei; Haifeng Xiao; Yulong Feng

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of invasive alien species on the genetic diversity and evolutionary responses of native species are poorly understood. Accumulating evidence shows that invasive plant species can lead to genetic erosion of natives directly through hybridization and gene infiltration, or even affect genetic diversity of natives through creation of new “genotypes”. Exotic species can also alter genetic diversity of natives indirectly through habitat fragmentation and modification, processes which in...

  11. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species...

  12. Value of small patches in the conservation of plant-species diversity in highly fragmented rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Pineda, Eduardo; Escobar, Federico; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the importance of small (Tuxtlas, Mexico. We analyzed the density of plant species (number of species per 0.1 ha) in 45 forest patches of different sizes (1-700 ha) in 3 landscapes with different deforestation levels (4, 11, and 24% forest cover). Most of the 364 species sampled (360 species, 99%) were native to the region, and only 4 (1%) were human-introduced species. Species density in the smallest patches was high and variable; the highest (84 species) and lowest (23 species) number of species were recorded in patches of up to 1.8 ha. Despite the small size of these patches, they contained diverse communities of native plants, including endangered and economically important species. The relationship between species density and area was significantly different among the landscapes, with a significant positive slope only in the landscape with the highest deforestation level. This indicates that species density in a patch of a given size may vary among landscapes that have different deforestation levels. Therefore, the conservation value of a patch depends on the total forest cover remaining in the landscape. Our findings revealed, however, that a great portion of regional plant diversity was located in very small forest patches (<5 ha), most of the species were restricted to only a few patches (41% of the species sampled were distributed in only 1-2 patches, and almost 70% were distributed in 5 patches) and each landscape conserved a unique plant assemblage. The conservation and restoration of small patches is therefore necessary to effectively preserve the plant diversity of this strongly deforested and unique Neotropical region. PMID:19040651

  13. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  14. Nutrition or Detoxification: Why Bats Visit Mineral Licks of the Amazonian Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Christian C.; Capps, Krista A.; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Michener, Robert H.; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Many animals in the tropics of Africa, Asia and South America regularly visit so-called salt or mineral licks to consume clay or drink clay-saturated water. Whether this behavior is used to supplement diets with locally limited nutrients or to buffer the effects of toxic secondary plant compounds remains unclear. In the Amazonian rainforest, pregnant and lactating bats are frequently observed and captured at mineral licks. We measured the nitrogen isotope ratio in wing tissue of omnivorous sh...

  15. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães; Ricardo Antonio Marenco; Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2014-01-01

    Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to ...

  16. Spatial patterns of grasses influence soil macrofauna biodiversity in Amazonian pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, J.; Grimaldi, Michel; Jouquet, Pascal; Rouland, Corinne; Lavelle, Patrick; Desjardins, Thierry; Rossi, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Grasslands are often characterized by small-scale spatial heterogeneity due to the juxtaposition of grass tufts and bare ground. Although the mechanisms generating plant spatial patterns have been widely studied, few studies concentrated on the consequences of these patterns on belowground macrofauna. Our objective was to analyze the impact of grass tuft (Brachiaria bryzantha cv. marandu) spatial distribution on soil macrofauna diversity in Amazonian pastures, at a small scale (less than 9 m(...

  17. Root uptake of organic contaminants into plants: Species differences

    OpenAIRE

    Orita, Naho

    2012-01-01

    Trace amounts of xenobiotic organic contaminants have been frequently identified in the environment, including surface water and wastewater streams, and some are even in drinking water. The concern of unintended ingestion by humans or wildlife of such compounds resulting from the uptake by plants has risen in recent years. Although the uptake of a variety of xenobiotic organic contaminants by plants has been reported and the contaminants are found in the fruits in some cases, the differences ...

  18. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenglei; Howard Ferris

    2006-01-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63±0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47±0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45±0.30 to 5.43±0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting.The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  19. The importance of species phylogenetic relationships and species traits for the intensity of plant-soil feedback

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Šurinová, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2015), s. 1-16. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phylogenetic relationships * species traits * plant-soil feedback Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2014

  20. Activity of phenolic compounds from plant origin against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and other Candida species have been highly associated with several opportunistic fungal infections. Their ability to develop host infections is incited by different determinants, being virulence factors the most highlighted. Molecular targets of the antifungal drugs are crucial components for determination of yeast survival. Ergosterol, nucleic acids and glucan are the most studied molecular targets to destroy Candida species, being considered the basis of the development of ...

  1. OCCURRENCE OF Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards, 1867 (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, PORTUNIDAE IN AN AMAZONIAN ESTUARY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Batista Bentes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time specimens of Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards 1867, an Indo Pacific specie, were caught in Amazon estuary, Bragança, Pará, North of Brazil. Palavras-chave: Crustacea, Charybdis hellerii , Amazonian Estuary. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p181-184

  2. Biologia reprodutiva de Cattleya eldorado, uma espécie de Orchidaceae das campinas amazônicas Reproductive biology of Cattleya eldorado, a species of Orchidaceae from the Amazonian white sand campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Orchidaceae são muito apreciadas por suas flores exóticas e exuberantes. É a maior família de plantas apresentando mais de 24000 espécies, o que denota uma alta diversidade de formas e adaptações a diferentes ambientes, como também para atração, engano e manipulação de visitantes na realização da polinização cruzada. Cattleya eldorado ocorre em áreas de campinas, que são formações vegetais típicas da região amazônica, que se encontram sob forte ação antrópica. Este trabalho tem como um de seus principais objetivos conhecer parte dos processos biológicos de C. eldorado fornecendo subsídios para conservá-la e manejá-la em seu habitat natural. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Biológica de Campina, de 2000 a 2006, durante a sua floração. C. eldorado é uma espécie epifítica que apresenta a síndrome de melitofilia, estando adaptada ao seu polinizador, a abelha Eulaema mocsaryi, que reconhece suas flores pelo odor e pelo estímulo visual através de sua coloração e reflexão de luz ultravioleta. C. eldorado é uma espécie autocompatível, embora necessite de um agente polinizador para a transferência do polinário até sua deposição na cavidade estigmática da flor.The orchid plants are highly prized for their lush exotic flowers. It is the largest plant family with more than 24000 species, which indicates a high diversity of forms and adaptations to different environments, including the capacity to attract, deceive and manipulate visitors involved in cross-pollination. Cattleya eldorado occurs in areas of white sand campinas, a typical vegetation type of the Amazon region, which is under strong anthropogenic pressure. This work's main objectives to know the biological processes of C. eldorado providing subsidies to maintain and manage it in its natural habitat. This study was conducted from 2000 to 2006 in the Campina Biological Reserve, during its flowering period. C. eldorado is an epiphytic

  3. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Willie L; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L

    2010-12-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between species. Three S. purpurea populations were examined with 10 primer sets which showed within population variability. PMID:21170168

  5. Do competitive interactions in dry heathlands explain plant abundance patterns and species coexistence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ransijn, Johannes; Damgaard, Christian; Schmidt, Inger K

    2015-01-01

    Plant community patterns in space and time may be explained by the interactions between competing plant species. The presented study investigates this in a nutrient and species poor ecosystem. The study presents a methodology for inferring competitive interactions from yearly vegetation inventories...... by initial dominance of D. flexuosa. The observed inter-annual variability in climatic conditions (summer precipitation and soil water content) affected both species in a similar way and did not substantially alter the competitive balance between the species. Our study supports the “successional mosaic...

  6. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  7. Site fidelity by bees drives pollination facilitation in sequentially blooming plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Thomson, James D

    2016-06-01

    Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed. To test this, we manipulated the placement and timing of two plant species, Delphinium barbeyi and later-blooming Gentiana parryi. We recorded the responses of individually marked bumble bee pollinators. About 63% of marked individuals returned repeatedly to the same areas to forage on Delphinium. When Delphinium was experimentally taken out of bloom, most of those site-faithful individuals (78%) stayed and switched to Gentiana. Consequently, Gentiana flowers received more visits in areas where Delphinium had previously flowered, compared to areas where Delphinium was still flowering or never occurred. Gentiana stigmas received more pollen in areas where Delphinium disappeared than where it never bloomed, indicating that Delphinium increases the pollination of Gentiana when they are separated in time. Overall, we show that individual bumble bees are often site-faithful, causing one plant species to increase the pollination of another even when separated in time, which is a novel mechanism of pollination facilitation. PMID:27459775

  8. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P 2) = 47.42, P models can be highly useful tools for guiding invasive species monitoring, and we

  9. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  10. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant’s growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species. PMID:26974817

  11. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  12. Final critical Habitat for 60 Plant Species from the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 60 listed plant species known historically from the islands of Maui and...

  13. Final Critical Habitat for 83 Plant Species From the island of Kauai, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 83 listed plant species known historically from the island of Kauai. A total of...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for 99 Plant Species From the Island of Oahu, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 99 listed plant species known historically from the island of Oahu. A total of...

  15. Final Critical Habitat for 46 Plant Species From the Island of Hawaii, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 41 listed plant species known historically from the island of Hawaii. A total of...

  16. Final critical Habitat for 41 Plant Species from the island of Molokai, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 41 listed plant species known historically from the island of Molokai. A total of...

  17. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto; Helm, Aveliina; Honnay, Olivier; Krauss, Jochen; Kühn, Ingolf; Lindborg, Regina; Pärtel, Meelis; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in...... regions distributed over four countries in Central and Northern Europe. Methods Our dataset was composed of primary data from studies on the distribution of plant communities in 300 grassland fragments in five regions. The regional datasets were consolidated by standardizing nomenclature and species life-history...... traits and by recalculating standardized landscape measures from the original geographical data. We assessed the responses of plant species richness to habitat area, connectivity, plant life-history traits and their interactions using linear mixed models. Results We found that the negative effect of...

  18. Optimal Photosynthetic Characteristics of Individual Plants in Vegetation Stands and Implications for Species Coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    • Aims This paper reviews the way optimization theory has been used in canopy models to analyse the adaptive significance of photosynthesis-related plant characteristics and their consequences for the structure and species composition of vegetation stands.

  19. Plant Trait Assembly Affects Superiority of Grazer's Foraging Strategies in Species-Rich Grasslands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mládek, J.; Mladonický, P.; Hejcmanová, P.; Dvorský, M.; Pavlů, V.; de Bello, Francesco; Duchoslav, M.; Hejcman, M.; Pakeman, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), e69800. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species-rich grasslands * plant functional traits * grazing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  20. Final Critical Habitat for 3 Plant Species From the Island of Lanai, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat occurs for 99 listed plant species known historically from the island of Lanai. The three...

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence of green plants. I - A technique for the remote detection of plant stress and species differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Wood, F. M., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Newcomb, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of green plants was evaluated as a means of remotely detecting plant stress and determining plant type. Corn and soybeans were used as representatives of monocots and dicots, respectively, in these studies. The fluorescence spectra of several plant pigments was excited with a nitrogen laser emitting at 337 nm. Intact leaves from corn and soybeans also fluoresced using the nitrogen laser. The two plant species exhibited fluorescence spectra which had three maxima in common at 440, 690, and 740 nm. However, the relative intensities of these maxima were distinctly different for the two species. Soybeans had an additional slight maxima at 525 nm. Potassium deficiency in corn caused an increase in fluorescence at 690 and 740 nm. Simulated water stress in soybeans resulted in increased fluorescence at 440, 525, 690, and 740 nm. The inhibition of photosynthesis in soybeans by 3-(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1-1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) gave incresed fluorescence primarily at 690 and 740 nm. Chlorosis as occurring in senescent soybean leaves caused a decrease in fluorescence at 690 and 740 nm. These studies indicate that LIF measurements of plants offer the potential for remotely detecting certain types of stress condition and also for differentiating plant species.

  2. The nectar secretion of some cultivated and spontaneous plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica JULA

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of our researches on the nectar secretion of the following species: Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch., Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth., Salvia verticillata L., Trifolium hybridum L. and Trifolium repens L., under the environmental conditions of the Cluj region. The obtained results show that the highest amount of nectar in one flower in 24 hours was produced by Phacelia tanacetifolia (0,173 mg and Trifolium hybridum (0,164 mg. The amount of nectar produced by the other species was smaller (table 2.

  3. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Brygadyrenko; Sergii Nazimov

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbia ...

  4. Effects of Drought on Plant Species Diversity and Productivity in the Oak Forests of Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Pourbabaei; Verya Rahimi; Mohammad Naghi Adel

    2014-01-01

    A severe drought in 2008 extensively damaged a variety of economic, social, agricultural and natural resources in Iran. This study investigated the effects of the 2008 drought on plant species composition, diversity and productivity in Western Iran. To this end, plant species diversity in the drought year (2008) was compared to pre-drought (2007) and post-drought (2009) diversity. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Margalef richness index had significant differences between years, dec...

  5. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITINASE GENE FROM THE UNTRADITIONAL PLANT SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Ďurechová; Ildikó Matušíková; Jana Moravčíková; Martin Jopčík; Jana Libantová

    2013-01-01

    Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) from Droseraceae family belongs among a few plant species with strong antifungal potential. It was previously shown that chitinases of carnivorous plant species may play role during the insect prey digestion, when hard chitin skeleton is being decomposed. As many phytopathogenic fungi contain chitin in their cell wall our attention in this work was focused on isolation and in silico characterization of genomic DNA sequence of sundew chitinase gene. ...

  6. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats.

  7. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats

  8. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  9. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Wallinger

    Full Text Available Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae, the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  10. Subtropical reservoir shorelines have reduced plant species and functional richness compared with adjacent riparian wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam construction has large negative effects on biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems worldwide. This study aimed to determine whether reservoir shorelines had lower plant species diversity and functional diversity than unregulated or lightly regulated riparian wetlands and to examine the responses of plant diversity and functional traits to reservoir shoreline environmental gradients. We surveyed 146, 44, and 67 plots on reservoir shorelines and in mainstem and tributary riparian wetlands, respectively, in a subtropical river–reservoir system. Species richness, functional richness, evenness, and divergence were calculated to reflect the species and functional diversity of plant communities. Environmental factors including elevation above water level, slope, landform type, substrate, disturbance, and cover were measured. The results showed that both species and functional richness were significantly lower on reservoir shorelines than in riparian wetlands. The relative species number of clonal plants and relative cover of annual plants were both negatively related to slope and elevation. Structural equation modeling and other statistical analyses indicated that most environmental factors had significant effects on species and functional richness on reservoir shorelines but had no significant effect on functional evenness and divergence. Our findings suggest that reservoir shoreline wetlands formed by damming rivers and inundating pre-existing riparian wetlands can be a biodiversity coldspot in regulated rivers at the plot level. Topographic factors are important in determining the plant diversity and vegetation establishment on reservoir shorelines in the Yangtze River basin. (letter)

  11. Validation of the ITS2 Region as a Novel DNA Barcode for Identifying Medicinal Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilin; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Liu, Chang; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Gao, Ting; Pang, Xiaohui; Luo, Kun; Li, Ying; Li, Xiwen; Jia, Xiaocheng; Lin, Yulin; Leon, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL + matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, ycf5, ITS2, and ITS) from medicinal plant species. Our ranking criteria included PCR amplification efficiency, differential intra- and inter-specific divergences, and the DNA barcoding gap. Our data suggest that the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA represents the most suitable region for DNA barcoding applications. Furthermore, we tested the discrimination ability of ITS2 in more than 6600 plant samples belonging to 4800 species from 753 distinct genera and found that the rate of successful identification with the ITS2 was 92.7% at the species level. Conclusions The ITS2 region can be potentially used as a standard DNA barcode to identify medicinal plants and their closely related species. We also propose that ITS2 can serve as a novel universal barcode for the identification of a broader range of plant taxa. PMID:20062805

  12. Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, ycf5, ITS2, and ITS from medicinal plant species. Our ranking criteria included PCR amplification efficiency, differential intra- and inter-specific divergences, and the DNA barcoding gap. Our data suggest that the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA represents the most suitable region for DNA barcoding applications. Furthermore, we tested the discrimination ability of ITS2 in more than 6600 plant samples belonging to 4800 species from 753 distinct genera and found that the rate of successful identification with the ITS2 was 92.7% at the species level. CONCLUSIONS: The ITS2 region can be potentially used as a standard DNA barcode to identify medicinal plants and their closely related species. We also propose that ITS2 can serve as a novel universal barcode for the identification of a broader range of plant taxa.

  13. Molecular species composition of plant cardiolipin determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yonghong; Peisker, Helga; Dörmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), an anionic phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, provides essential functions for stabilizing respiratory complexes and is involved in mitochondrial morphogenesis and programmed cell death in animals. The role of CL and its metabolism in plants are less well understood. The measurement of CL in plants, including its molecular species composition, is hampered by the fact that CL is of extremely low abundance, and that plants contain large amounts of interfering compounds including galactolipids, neutral lipids, and pigments. We used solid phase extraction by anion exchange chromatography to purify CL from crude plant lipid extracts. LC/MS was used to determine the content and molecular species composition of CL. Thus, up to 23 different molecular species of CL were detected in different plant species, including Arabidopsis, mung bean, spinach, barley, and tobacco. Similar to animals, plant CL is dominated by highly unsaturated species, mostly containing linoleic and linolenic acid. During phosphate deprivation or exposure to an extended dark period, the amount of CL decreased in Arabidopsis, accompanied with an increased degree in unsaturation. The mechanism of CL remodeling during stress, and the function of highly unsaturated CL molecular species, remains to be defined. PMID:27179363

  14. Screening of radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content of Bulgarian plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nikolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discovery of new plant species with antioxidant properties is a priority of many research teams. Most of the species included in this study are unstudied for antioxidant properties, but they are taxonomically related to reference plants with well-documented antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Free radical scavenging activity of plant extracts was evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. An aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoid determination. The amount of phenolic compounds in the extracts was estimated by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: As a result of screening, it was found that the significant antioxidant properties possess several unstudied until now plant species (Veronica bellidioides L., V. kellereri Deg. et Urm, V. vindobonensis (M. Fisher M. Fisher, V. beccabunga L., V. rhodopaea L., V. austriaca (Velen. Degen., Clinopodium vulgare L., Stachys recta L., Clematis vitalba L., and Xeranthemum annum L.. The antioxidant potential of the new species is comparable to that of reference medicinal plants. Conclusions: The existing data presented here provide new information for antioxidant potential of plant species that have not been traditionally used as medicinal plants.

  15. Evidence of qualitative differences between soil-occupancy effects of invasive vs. native grassland plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Diversified grasslands that contain native plant species are being recognized as important elements of agricultural landscapes and for production of biofuel feedstocks as well as a variety of other ecosystem services. Unfortunately, establishment of such grasslands is often difficult, unpredictable, and highly vulnerable to interference and invasion by weeds. Evidence suggests that soil-microbial "legacies" of invasive perennial species can inhibit growth of native grassland species. However, previous assessments of legacy effects of soil occupancy by invasive species that invade grasslands have focused on single invasive species and on responses to invasive soil occupancy in only a few species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that legacy effects of invasive species differ qualitatively from those of native grassland species. In a glasshouse, three invasive and three native grassland perennials and a native perennial mixture were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in soils with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Native species differed categorically from invasives in their response to soil conditioning by native or invasive species, but these differences depended on the presence of AMF. When AMF were present, native species largely had facilitative effects on invasive species, relative to effects of invasives on other invasives. Invasive species did not facilitate native growth; neutral effects were predominant, but strong soil-mediated inhibitory effects on certain native species occurred. Our results support the hypothesis that successful plant invaders create biological legacies in soil that inhibit native growth, but suggest also this mechanism of invasion will have nuanced effects on community dynamics, as some natives may be unaffected by such legacies. Such native species may be valuable as nurse plants that provide cost-effective restoration of

  16. Distribution of Vascular Plant Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in the Dongling Mountains, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness and determining the processes that give rise to these patterns are core problems In blodlveralty theory. The aim of the present paper was to more accurately detect patterns of vascular species richness at different scales along altitudinal gradients in order to further our understanding of biodlverslty patterns and to facilitate studies on relationships between biodiversity and environmental factors. Species richness patterns of total vascular plants species, including trees, shrubs, and herbs, were measured along an altitudinal gradient on one transect on a shady slope in the Dongling Mountains, near Beijing,China. Direct gradient analysis, regression analysis, and geostatistics were applied to describe the spatial patterns of species richness. We found that total vascular species richness did not exhibit a linear pattern of change with altitude, although species groups with different ecological features showed strong elevational patterns different from total species richness. In addition to total vascular plants, analysis of trees, shrubs, and herbs demonstrated remarkable hierarchical structures of species richness with altitude (i.e. patchy structures at small scales and gradients at large scales). Species richness for trees and shrubs had similar spatial characteristics at different scales, but differed from herbs. These results indicated that species groups with similar ecological features exhibit similar biodlveraity patterns with altitude, and studies of biodiversity based on species groups with similar ecological properties or life forms would advance our understanding of variations in species diversity. Furthermore, the gradients or trends appeared to be due mainly to local variations in species richness means with altitude. We also found that the range of spatial scale dependencies of species richness for total vascular plants, trees, shrubs, and herbs was relatively large. Thus, to detect the

  17. Different spatial organisation strategies of woody plant species in a montane cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Alicia; Montes, Fernando; Condés, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of a high number of species in the forest is a central issue in tropical ecology. In this paper, we aim to characterise the spatial pattern of woody species in an Andean montane cloud forest to determine whether differences exist among the species in terms of spatial organization and if so, whether these differences are related to the life-form, primary dispersal mode, shade tolerance or the diameter distribution of the species. For this purpose, we analysed the spatial pattern of each species as well as the spatial relationships between young and adult individuals. Almost all the analysed species showed a cluster pattern, followed by a random pattern at larger distances. The cluster size is more evident for the young trees whereas adult trees tended to be more randomly distributed. The shade-tolerant species showed greater distances of aggregation than gap or medium-shade-tolerant species. Species primarily dispersed by wind and small birds showed larger distances of aggregation than species dispersed by mammals or big birds. All the under-story woody plants showed a notable cluster pattern, whereas canopy trees showed a variety of spatial patterns, with clustering at small scales being the most frequent. In the case of emergent trees, association was found between young and adult individuals on a large scale. Positive associations between young and adult individuals predominate at small scales for medium and shade tolerant species and at larger scales for bird-dispersed species whereas negative spatial associations at smaller scales were found for shade tolerant species and wind dispersed species. Our study confirms that conspecific organization varies among the woody plants in the analysed forest, and that the spatial pattern of woody plants is partially linked to shade tolerance, primary dispersal mode and life form of the species.

  18. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. . PMID:27008777

  19. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant-frugivore interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, D Matthias; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-27

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant-bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  20. A retrospective analysis of pollen host plant use by stable and declining bumble bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijn, David; Raemakers, Ivo

    2008-07-01

    Understanding population declines has been the objective of a wide range of ecological studies. When species have become rare such studies are complicated because particular behavior or life history traits may be the cause but also the result of the decline of a species. We approached this problem by studying species' characteristics on specimens that were collected before the onset of their decline and preserved in natural history museums. In northwestern Europe, some bumble bee species declined dramatically during the 20th century whereas other, ecologically similar, species maintained stable populations. A long-standing debate focuses on whether this is caused by declining species having stricter host plant preferences. We compared the composition of pollen loads of five bumble bee species with stable populations and five with declining populations using museum specimens collected before 1950 in Belgium, England, and The Netherlands. Prior to 1950, the number of plant taxa in pollen loads of declining species was almost one-third lower than that in stable species even though individuals of stable and declining species generally originated from the same areas. There were no systematic differences in the composition of pollen loads between stable and declining species, but the plant taxa preferred by declining species before 1950 had experienced a stronger decline in the 20th century than those preferred by stable species. In 2004 and 2005, we surveyed the areas where bumble bees had been caught in the past and compared the composition of past and present pollen loads of the stable, but not of the by now locally extinct declining species. The number of collected pollen taxa was similar, but the composition differed significantly between the two periods. Differences in composition reflected the major changes in land use in northwestern Europe but also the spread of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera. The main question now is why declining species

  1. Inferring phylogeny and speciation of Gymnosporangium species, and their coevolution with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Liu, Fang; Li, Ying-Ming; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Gymnosporangium species (Pucciniaceae, Pucciniales) cause serious diseases and significant economic losses to apple cultivars. Most of the reported species are heteroecious and complete their life cycles on two different plant hosts belonging to two unrelated genera, i.e. Juniperus and Malus. However, the phylogenetic relationships among Gymnosporangium species and the evolutionary history of Gymnosporangium on its aecial and telial hosts were still undetermined. In this study, we recognized species based on rDNA sequence data by using coalescent method of generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP) models. The evolutionary relationships of Gymnosporangium species and their hosts were investigated by comparing the cophylogenetic analyses of Gymnosporangium species with Malus species and Juniperus species, respectively. The concordant results of GMYC and PTP analyses recognized 14 species including 12 known species and two undescribed species. In addition, host alternations of 10 Gymnosporangium species were uncovered by linking the derived sequences between their aecial and telial stages. This study revealed the evolutionary process of Gymnosporangium species, and clarified that the aecial hosts played more important roles than telial hosts in the speciation of Gymnosporangium species. Host switch, losses, duplication and failure to divergence all contributed to the speciation of Gymnosporangium species. PMID:27385413

  2. Soil microbial community structure of range-expanding plant species differs from co-occurring natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morriën, W.E.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2013-01-01

    1. Due to global warming and other changes in the environment, many native and exotic plant species show range expansion from lower to higher latitudes. In the new range, the (in)ability of range-expanding plants to establish associations with local soil microbes can have important consequences for

  3. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  4. Soil microbial community variation correlates most strongly with plant species identity, followed by soil chemistry, spatial location and plant genus

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jean H.; Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Burke, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil ecologists have debated the relative importance of dispersal limitation and ecological factors in determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Recent evidence suggests that ‘everything is not everywhere’, and that microbial communities are influenced by both dispersal limitation and ecological factors. However, we still do not understand the relative explanatory power of spatial and ecological factors, including plant species identity and even plant relatedness, for different...

  5. Distribution fitting 12. Sampling distribution of compounds abundance from plant species measured by instrumentation. Application to plants metabolism classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacă, Sorana D.; Sestraş, Radu E.

    2011-01-01

    A series of ten plant species belonging to Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons class were analyzed in terms of chemical compounds distribution of abundance, starting from the assumption that these distributions should give a picture of similarities and differences between plants metabolism. From a pool of theoretical distributions, log-normal distribution was selected giving the best accuracy with the modeled phenomena and agreement with the observed data. From obtained lognormal distributions stati...

  6. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  7. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  8. Danger to biodiversity of High Tatras by spreading of invasive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our work was to analyze the current status of invasive plant species - their generic representation and current extension (horizontal and vertical extension). The authors used the method of inventory of species richness. Sites were recorded on a tourist map and GPS (Garmin).

  9. Effects of plant species identity, diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyelami, A.O.; Okere, U.V.; Orwin, K.; Deyn, de G.B.; Jones, K.C.; Semple, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper investigated the effects of plant species composition, species diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene in soil. The two soils used were of contrasting fertility, taken from long term unfertilised and fertilised grassland, showing difference

  10. Comparison of nutrient acquisition in exotic plant species and congeneric natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, A.; Boer, de W.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    1. The ability of exotic plant species to establish and expand in new areas may be enhanced by a relatively high ability to acquire soil nutrients. To test this hypothesis, we predicted that the capacity for nutrient acquisition would be higher in seedlings of exotic species than in seedlings of nat

  11. Comparison of nutrient acquisition in exotic plant species and congeneric natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, A.; De Boer, W.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    1.The ability of exotic plant species to establish and expand in new areas may be enhanced by a relatively high ability to acquire soil nutrients. To test this hypothesis, we predicted that the capacity for nutrient acquisition would be higher in seedlings of exotic species than in seedlings of nati

  12. Plant Species Diversity along an Altitudinal Gradient of Bhabha Valley in Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Chawla; S. Rajkumar; K.N. Singh; Brij Lal; R.D. Singh; A. K. Thukral

    2008-01-01

    The present study highlights the rich species diversity of higher plants in the Bhabha Valley of western Himalaya in India. The analysis of species diversity revealed that a total of 313 species of higher plants inhabit the valley with a charactersfic of moist alpine shrub vegetation. The herbaceous life forms dominate and increase with increasing altitude. The major representations are from the families Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae, suggesting thereby the alpine meadow nature of the study area. The effect of altitude on species diversity displays a hump-shaped curve which may be attributed to increase in habitat diversity at the median ranges and relatively less habitat diversity at higher altitudes. The anthropogenic pressure at lower altitudes results in low plant diversity towards the bottom of the valley with most of the species being exotic in nature. Though the plant diversity is less at higher altitudinal ranges, the uniqueness is relatively high with high species replacement rates. More than 90% of variability in the species diversity could be explained using appropriate quantitative and statistical analysis along the altitudinal gradient. The valley harbours 18 threatened and 41 endemic species, most of which occur at higher altitudinal gradients due to habitat specificity.

  13. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  14. 76 FR 49201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Four Foreign Parrot Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... remaining parrot species for which a 90-day finding was made on July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957) in subsequent... Federal Regulations (50 CFR 424.14(a)). On July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957), we published a 90-day finding in... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Four Foreign Parrot Species; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  15. Plant species first recognised as naturalised for New South Wales over the period 2000–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 40 species of naturalised or naturalising plants newly recorded for New South Wales during the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2001. These species are: Abrus precatorius subsp. precatorius, Acacia pulchella var. pulchella, Agave vivipara, Alnus glutinosa, Berberis thunbergii, Bryophyllum daigremontianum x Bryophyllum delagoense, Callisia fragrans, Celtis sinensis, Chamaesyce ophthalmica, Cotoneaster ?horizontalis, Cupressus ariz...

  16. Sleep in an Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M; Lyamin, O I; Chetyrbok, I S; Vassilyev, A A; Diaz, R P

    1992-04-15

    For the first time, sleep was studied in a representative of the order of Sirenia. Slow wave sleep occupied 27%, and paradoxical sleep 1% of the total recording time in the Amazonian manatee. Trichechus inunguis. The circadian rhythmicity of sleep was pronounced. During the sleep period, the manatee woke up for a short time for each respiratory act. Interhemispheric asynchrony of the electrocortical slow wave activity was found. PMID:1582500

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicles for alien plant species detection and monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, Jana; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, Josef

    Göttingen: Copernicus GmbH, 2015 - (Armenakis, C.), s. 83-90 ISSN 2194-9034. [International Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Geomatics - UAV-g 2015. Toronto (CA), 30.08.2015-02.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020455 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : automated processing * remote sensing * invasive species Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  18. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Naim Berisha; Fadil Millaku; Elez Krasniqi; Bekim Gashi

    2014-01-01

    Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are cha...

  19. Spatial proximity between two host plant species influences oviposition and larval distribution in a leaf beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Conconi, Davide; Gateff, Sophie; Rahier, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Everything else being equal, insect herbivores can be expected to oviposit on host plants that provide the qualitatively and quantitatively best food for larvae. However, the selection of a plant for oviposition may be influenced by such ecological factors as natural enemies, host distribution, host patch size or host patch density. We performed a field study to test whether spatial proximity between two host plant species influences the oviposition patterns and larval distribution of the alp...

  20. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea form...

  1. Impact of Plant Species and Site on Rhizosphere-Associated Fungi Antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-01-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulte...

  2. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Anjos Souza; Fernando Angelo Piotto; Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol; Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group a...

  3. The effect of plant growth regulators on morphogenesis in tissue culture of some agriculture species

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2015-01-01

    The vegetative propagation of the plants in in vitro conditions enables to abbreviate the process of selection, enhance the genetic stability of plants and improve the production of healthy plants free of viruses. In this paper the results of our experimental work for determination of the potential of in vitro morphogenesis and micropropagation of some agricultural species are presented (Apium graviolens L., Daucus carota subsp. sativus L., Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica, ...

  4. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  5. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  6. Plant species provide vital ecosystem functions for sustainable agriculture, rangeland management and restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Eviner, Valerie; CHAPIN, F. STUART

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to and change their environments, actively altering factors such as soil stability, nutrient and water availability, and the distribution of pests and beneficial organisms. By identifying the functions associated with different species and the effects they have on their ecosystems, managers can use plants as tools in agriculture, range management and restoration, since they will be able to choose plants more effectively and anticipate unintended consequences of vegetation chang...

  7. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Tanu Sharma; Sidhu, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the ph...

  8. Biotic interactions overrule plant responses to climate, depending on the species' biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Welk

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental approach to assess the relative importance of climatic and biotic factors as determinants of species' geographical distributions. We asked to what extent responses of grassland plant species to biotic interactions vary with climate, and to what degree this variation depends on the species' biogeography. Using a gradient from oceanic to continental climate represented by nine common garden transplant sites in Germany, we experimentally tested whether congeneric grassland species of different geographic distribution (oceanic vs. continental plant range type responded differently to combinations of climate, competition and mollusc herbivory. We found the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate to vary between the different components of plant performance. While survival and plant height increased with precipitation, temperature had no effect on plant performance. Additionally, species with continental plant range type increased their growth in more benign climatic conditions, while those with oceanic range type were largely unable to take a similar advantage of better climatic conditions. Competition generally caused strong reductions of aboveground biomass and growth. In contrast, herbivory had minor effects on survival and growth. Against expectation, these negative effects of competition and herbivory were not mitigated under more stressful continental climate conditions. In conclusion we suggest variation in relative importance of climate and biotic interactions on broader scales, mediated via species-specific sensitivities and factor-specific response patterns. Our results have important implications for species distribution models, as they emphasize the large-scale impact of biotic interactions on plant distribution patterns and the necessity to take plant range types into account.

  9. Influence of habitat, litter type, and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Laurance, William F

    2005-07-01

    Amazonian forest fragments and second-growth forests often differ substantially from undisturbed forests in their microclimate, plant-species composition, and soil fauna. To determine if these changes could affect litter decomposition, we quantified the mass loss of two contrasting leaf-litter mixtures, in the presence or absence of soil macroinvertebrates, and in three forest habitats. Leaf-litter decomposition rates in second-growth forests (>10 years old) and in fragment edges (edge) did not differ from that in the forest interior (>250 m from the edges of primary forests). In all three habitats, experimental exclusion of soil invertebrates resulted in slower decomposition rates. Faunal-exclosure effects were stronger for litter of the primary forest, composed mostly of leaves of old-growth trees, than for litter of second-growth forests, which was dominated by leaves of successional species. The latter had a significantly lower initial concentration of N, higher C:N and lignin:N ratios, and decomposed at a slower rate than did litter from forest interiors. Our results indicate that land-cover changes in Amazonia affect decomposition mainly through changes in plant species composition, which in turn affect litter quality. Similar effects may occur on fragment edges, particularly on very disturbed edges, where successional trees become dominant. The drier microclimatic conditions in fragment edges and second-growth forests (>10 years old) did not appear to inhibit decomposition. Finally, although soil invertebrates play a key role in leaf-litter decomposition, we found no evidence that differences in the abundance, species richness, or species composition of invertebrates between disturbed and undisturbed forests significantly altered decomposition rates. PMID:15942762

  10. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species.

  11. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Hapsari; Abdul Basith; Hari Rusdwi Novitasiah

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species w...

  12. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. PMID:26312742

  13. Richness of Ancient Forest Plant Species Indicates Suitable Habitats for Macrofungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Dvořák, D.; Beran, M.; Deckerová, H.; Burel, J.; Kříž, M.; Borovička, Jan; Běťák, J.; Vašutová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2014), s. 2015-2031. ISSN 0960-3115 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/146/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : diversity * forest continuity * forest management * Herb-layer plant species * red-listed species * species richness * surrogacy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (GLU-S); EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  14. Impact of grazing on vegetation and on selected plant species of calcareous fens

    OpenAIRE

    Stammel, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous fens are traditionally mown in autumn, which maintains species rich vegetation types (Caricion davallianae, Molinion caeruleae). Nowadays, abandonment due to changes in agriculture causes a decline of many characteristic plant species of fen meadows due to litter accumulation and dominance of few competitive species. The aim of this study is to evaluate grazing as an alternative management tool to mowing. The impact of grazing and mowing on the vegetation of calcareous fens in the ...

  15. Comment on "Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species' optimum elevations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Crimmins et al. (Reports, 21 January 2011, p. 324) attributed an apparent downward elevational shift of California plant species to a precipitation-induced decline in climatic water deficit. We show that the authors miscalculated deficit, that the apparent decline in species' elevations is likely a consequence of geographic biases, and that unlike temperature changes, precipitation changes should not be expected to cause coordinated directional shifts in species' elevations.

  16. Germination response of five eastern Mediterranean woody species to smoke solutions derived from various plants

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATAV, Şükrü Serter; BEKAR, İsmail; ATEŞ, Büşra Seda; ERGAN, Gökhan; OYMAK, Funda; ÜLKER, Elif Deniz; TAVŞANOĞLU, Çağatay

    2012-01-01

    The role of smoke as a fire-related germination cue is well known in many parts of the world, including Mediterranean-type ecosystems; however, it has been neglected in the Mediterranean Basin (MB). We studied the germination response of 5 woody species found in the eastern MB (south-western Turkey) to smoke solutions derived from different plant species. Of the 5 species examined, 2 [Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach and Satureja thymbra L.] showed significant increments in germination perce...

  17. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  18. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasof, Safaa; Lenoir, Jonathan; Aarrestad, Per Arild;

    2015-01-01

    disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological...... between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time - at least on time scales 104 years or less - seems......Aim: Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been...

  19. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  20. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  1. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies. PMID:24824586

  2. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.;

    2013-01-01

    ,000 plant species across the New World. We assess prominent hypothesised range-size controls, finding that plant range sizes are codetermined by habitat area and long- and short-term climate stability. Strong short- and long-term climate instability in large parts of North America, including past...... concerns over the potential effects of future climate change and habitat loss on biodiversity.......Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85...

  3. World-wide every fifth vascular plant species is or was used as medicinal or aromatic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Rüdiger; Dingermann, Theo; Sieglstetter, Robert; Xie, Yingzhong; Thiombiano, Adjima; Hahn, Karen

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that plants have been the world-wide most important source of medicines and that they still play this role in developing countries. However, up to now, complete lists of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) exist for comparatively few countries. A review of all lists know to the authors reveals the following results: A total of 20.7 % of the plant species analyzed by either publications or own research are or were used as MAP. However, regarding single countries, the dif...

  4. Fruit anatomy of some Apiaceae plant species Aladağlar/ Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şükran Kültür 2, Ebru Özdemir1,

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical characters are very important to distinguish between closely related species and genera, especially in the family Apiaceae. Anatomy of Apiaceae fruits varies strongly, even among closely related species in the same genus. An ethnobotanical study was conducted between 2004 and 2005 in order to determine wild used plants in West part of Niğde-Aladağlar. According the data of this study’s, 3 plant species belong to Apiaceae family sold to different tea companies by local people. Anato...

  5. A simple and efficient method for isolating small RNAs from different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Folter Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Conclusion Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays.

  6. Comparative studies on plant range size: Linking reproductive and regenerative traits in two Ipomoea species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astegiano, Julia; Funes, Guillermo; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-09-01

    Reproductive and regenerative traits associated with colonization and persistence ability may determine plant range size. However, few comparative studies on plant distribution have assessed these traits simultaneously. Pollinator richness and frequency of visits, autonomous self-pollination ability, reproductive output (i.e., reproductive traits), seed bank strategy and seedling density (i.e., regenerative traits) were compared between the narrowly distributed Ipomoea rubriflora O'Donnell (Convolvulaceae) and its widespread congener Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. The narrowly distributed species showed higher ecological specialization to pollinators and lower autonomous self-pollination ability. Frequency of visits, natural seed/ovule ratio and fruit set, and total fruit production did not differ between species. However, the number of seeds produced per fruit was lower in the narrowly distributed species, translating into lower total seed production per plant. Indeed, I. rubriflora formed smaller transient and persistent seed banks and showed lower seedling density than the widespread I. purpurea. These reproductive and regenerative trait results suggest that the narrowly distributed species may have lower colonization and persistence ability than its widespread congener. They further suggest that the negative effects of lower fecundity in the narrowly distributed species might persist in time through the long-lasting effects of total seed production on seed bank size, reducing the species' ability to buffered environmental stochasticity. However, other regenerative traits, such as seed size, and processes such as pre- and post-dispersal seed predation, might modulate the effects of plant fecundity on plant colonization and persistence ability and thus range size.

  7. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  8. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...... desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an...

  9. Stimulation of flower nectar replenishment by removal: A survey of eleven animal-pollinated plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between reward-seeking flower feeding animals and plants requires consideration of the dynamic nature of nectar secretion. Studies on several plants suggest that nectar secretion may increase in response to its removal, but it is not clear whether the phenomenon is widespread. We determined whether 11 species of Colorado mountain wildflowers showed removal-enhanced nectar replenishment (RENR. We measured floral phenology, nectar volumes, rate of replenishment, and compared the cumulative nectar produced following five hourly removals with that accumulated after five hours. Nectar replenishment occurred rapidly, within minutes; statistically significant RENR was observed in 9 of our 11 study species, with the strongest effects in bee-pollinated species. We discuss the implications of RENR in plant species on the measurement of nectar, the adaptive advantage of RENR, and the energetic costs of RENR.

  10. Ecological modules and roles of species in heathland plant-insect flower visitor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2009-01-01

    1.  Co-existing plants and flower-visiting animals often form complex interaction networks. A long-standing question in ecology and evolutionary biology is how to detect nonrandom subsets (compartments, blocks, modules) of strongly interacting species within such networks. Here we use a network...... analytical approach to (i) detect modularity in pollination networks, (ii) investigate species composition of modules, and (iii) assess the stability of modules across sites. 2.  Interactions between entomophilous plants and their flower-visitors were recorded throughout the flowering season at three...... module was dominated by one or few insect groups. This pattern was consistent across sites. 6.  Our study adds support to the conclusion that certain plant species and flower-visitor groups are nonrandomly and repeatedly associated. Within a network, these strongly interacting subgroups of species may...

  11. Isotopes reveal contrasting water use strategies among coexisting plant species in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Dawson, Todd E; Nicolás, Emilio; Querejeta, José Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    Variation in the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition (δ13C, Δ18O) of co-occurring plant species may reflect the functional diversity of water use strategies present in natural plant communities. We investigated the patterns of water use among 10 coexisting plant species representing diverse taxonomic groups and life forms in semiarid southeast Spain by measuring their leaf δ13C and Δ18O, the oxygen isotope ratio of stem water and leaf gas exchange rates. Across species, Δ18O was tightly negatively correlated with stomatal conductance (gs), whereas δ13C was positively correlated with intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). Broad interspecific variation in Δ18O, δ13C and WUEi was largely determined by differences in gs, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between leaf δ13C and Δ18O across species The 10 co-occurring species segregated along a continuous ecophysiological gradient defined by their leaf δ13C and Δ18O, thus revealing a wide spectrum of stomatal regulation intensity and contrasting water use strategies ranging from 'profligate/opportunistic' (high gs, low WUEi) to 'conservative' (low gs, high WUEi). Coexisting species maintained their relative isotopic rankings in 2 yr with contrasting rainfall, suggesting the existence of species-specific 'isotopic niches' that reflect ecophysiological niche segregation in dryland plant communities. PMID:22913668

  12. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  13. Joint simulation of carbon and tree diversity dynamics in an Amazonian forest succession using TROLL, an individual-based forest dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Isabelle; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Amazonian forests are critical for biogeochemical cycles and provide also key ecosystem services. One approach for modelling forest vegetation dynamics is to parameterize species using field-measured plant traits in individual-based forest growth simulators, a method that has been successfully implemented in temperate forests. Here we extend this approach to the tropics. We parameterized the forest dynamics simulator TROLL over a hundred species and simulated the first decades of an ecological succession with tree species encountered in the coastal zone of French Guiana. The model reproduced well the empirically measured values of gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP, obtained from eddy-flux measurements) as well as canopy structure (obtained from aerial LiDAR scanning). Modelled species trajectories compared well with empirically measured ones at a clear-cut site for the past four decades. Modelled carbon accumulation curves show that forests are not mature even after 100 years of regeneration. Finally, we discuss how plant hydrology and responses to drought can be integrated into this modelling scheme using data from leaf water potential at wilting point.

  14. Soil seed banks in plant invasions: promoting species invasiveness and long-term impakt on plant community dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Moravcová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2012), s. 327-350. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil seed bank * plant invasions * species invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  15. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  16. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  17. Landscaping and performance of some aesthetic plant species in hot,arid conditions of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Pradeep Chaudhry; Rameshwar Lal Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Establishment of ornamental and aesthetic plants in hot,arid conditions of India is difficult due to the prevailing climatic,edaphic and biotic factors.Effect of turfgrass on the growth of ornamental plants in hot arid conditions has not been studied so far anywhere in the world.A study was conducted on the campus of Arid Forest Research Institute,Jodhpur,India to assess the performance of a few ornamental plant species in combination with turfgrass and without turfgrass with respect to different soil tilling intervals.Growth of plants was better with turfgrass than without turfgrass.We suggest adopting a soil tilling interval of 30 days to achieve optimum growth of ornamental plant species in terms of height and crown diameter.Our results can help reduce labor costs and achieving better landscapes in fewer days in hot urban conditions of Indian sub continent.

  18. Plant species dominance shifts across erosion edge-meadow transects in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Corinne; Körner, Christian; Hiltbrunner, Erika

    2013-03-01

    While exerting no obvious function under "average" environmental conditions, the presence of certain plant specialists becomes crucial in the event of a complete failure of a community due to severe disturbance such as landslides. Plants capable of growing at erosion edges may act as potential edge-engineers by coping with unstable ground and stabilizing the soil with their roots. We hypothesized that life conditions at erosion edges select for a particular set of specialists or species with specific traits, the identification of which was the aim of the study. Across 17 small-scale transects (0.40 × 1.60 m) from intact meadows to landslide edges (Ursern Valley, Swiss Alps, c. 1,600 m a.s.l.), we quantified plant species abundance by the point intercept method and characterized growth conditions based on Landolt's indicator values, leaf δ(13)C, and volumetric soil moisture in the uppermost soil layers. We observed a clear change of plant species composition and relative abundance from the meadow to the edge, presumably induced by the 25 % lower soil moisture and microclimatic exposure. Species richness at the edge was two-thirds of that in the meadow, but was positively correlated with species richness of the adjacent meadow. Species with "edge-preference" had either (1) rolled or festucoid leaves like Festuca spp., Avenella flexuosa and Nardus stricta, or (2) small, scleromorphic leaves like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Thymus ssp. Graminoids with rolled/festucoid leaves were found to be the most dominant edge-specialists. The grass Festuca valesiaca s.l. emerged as the most dominant plant species at the edge, having an 11-times higher cover at the edge than in the meadow. In this montane grassland, a single species contributes to the stabilization of erosion edges and may be regarded as a potential keystone species for slope stability and regeneration after landslides even its role has not so far been established. PMID:23337968

  19. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Costion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70% and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  20. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  1. Phytotoxicity of sulfamethazine soil pollutant to six legume plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Michalczyk, Dariusz J

    2010-01-01

    The effect of traces of sulfamethazine (SMZ) in soil (0.01, 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 15, and 20 mM) on cellular distribution of cytochrome c oxidase activity, shoot and root growth, and leachate electroconductivity was analyzed in germinating seeds of yellow lupin, pea, lentil, soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa. Results showed that a high activity of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria correlated with high seed vigor and viability. The appearance of necroses and root decay was associated with a decrease in the activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase but was accompanied by an increase in cytosolic cytochrome c oxidase activity. A short exposure period of seeds (3 and 6 d) to sulfamethazine did not influence germination. Elongation of roots and stems was more sensitive than germination rate as an indicator of soil contamination by sulfamethazine. Among all tested leguminous plants, yellow lupin was the most reliable bioindicator of SMZ contaminated soil. PMID:20706947

  2. Engineered Rhizosphere: the Trophic Bias Generated by Opine-Producing Plants Is Independent of the Opine Type, the Soil Origin, and the Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Hounayda; Petit, Annik; Oger, Phil; Dessaux, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that transgenic Lotus plants producing opines (which are small amino acid and sugar conjugates) specifically favor growth of opine-degrading rhizobacteria. The opine-induced bias was repeated and demonstrated with another soil type and another plant species (Solanum nigrum). This phenomenon is therefore independent of both soil type and plant species.

  3. Plant uptake and determination of arsenic species in soil solution under flooded conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onken, B.M.; Hossner, L.R. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Previous studies have not identified the different As species present in soil systems and determined if effective differences exist between As species with respect to plant parameters such as growth rate and As uptake. This study determined the species and concentrations of As present in soil solution of flooded soils and correlated them to As concentration, P concentration, an growth rate of plants grown in treated soils. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown in two soils treated with 0, 5, 25, 35, and 45 mg As kg{sup -1} soil added as either Na-arsenate or Na-arsenite. Soil solution samples and plant samples were collected over a period of 60 d. The As concentration of rice plants best correlated to the mean soil solution arsenate concentration in a Beaumont clay (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Entic Pelludert) and to the mean soil solution arsenite concentration in a Midland silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Ochraqualf). In both soils, plant P concentration was best correlated to the amount of As added to the soil rather than any soil solution As concentration. Plant weight was best correlated to the mean soil solution arsenate concentration in both soils. The rate of As uptake by plants increased as the rate of plant growth increased. Plants grown in soils treated with As had higher rates of As uptake for similar rates of growth when compared with plants in untreated soils. However, growth per unit of As uptake was higher for plants in untreated soils than plants in As treated soils. 31 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  5. Effects of Previous Land-Use on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Mediterranean Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Yacine; Martínez-García, Felipe; de Frutos, Ángel; Alados, Concepción L

    2015-01-01

    At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices (including livestock grazing) provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. Our study investigated the consequences of historical "land management" practices on present-day Mediterranean forests by comparing species assemblages and the diversity of (i) all plant species and (ii) each ecological group defined by species' habitat preferences and successional status (i.e., early-, mid-, and late-successional species). We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity (namely, species richness and evenness) of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species. PMID:26397707

  6. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  7. The interaction between iron nutrition, plant species and soil type shapes the rhizosphere microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pii, Youry; Borruso, Luigimaria; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Crecchio, Carmine; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2016-02-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms can stimulate plants growth and influence both crops yield and quality by nutrient mobilization and transport. Therefore, rhizosphere microbiome appears to be one of the key determinants of plant health and productivity. The roots of plants have the ability to influence its surrounding microbiology, the rhizosphere microbiome, through the creation of specific chemical niches in the soil mediated by the release of phytochemicals (i.e. root exudates) that depends on several factors, such as plants genotype, soil properties, plant nutritional status, climatic conditions. In the present research, two different crop species, namely barley and tomato, characterized by different strategies for Fe acquisition, have been grown in the RHIZOtest system using either complete or Fe-free nutrient solution to induce Fe starvation. Afterward, plants were cultivated for 6 days on two different calcareous soils. Total DNA was extracted from rhizosphere and bulk soil and 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to V1-V3 16S rRNA gene region. Approximately 5000 sequences were obtained for each sample. The analysis of the bacterial population confirmed that the two bulk soils showed a different microbial community. The presence of the two plant species, as well as the nutritional status (Fe-deficiency and Fe-sufficiency), could promote a differentiation of the rhizosphere microbiome, as highlighted by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis. Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloracidobacteria, Thermoleophilia, Betaproteobacteria, Saprospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria were the most represented classes in all the samples analyzed even though their relative abundance changed as a function of the soil, plant species and nutritional status. To our knowledge, this research demonstrate for the first time that different plants species with a diverse nutritional status can promote the development of a peculiar

  8. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  9. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  10. Characteristics of plant calcium fractions for 25 species in Tengger Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to plant calcium fractions in the desert.To address the characteristic of the calcium fractions of desert plants,we collected 25 plant species in Tengger Desert,observed the calcium crystals using an optical microscope and determined water soluble calcium,acetic acid soluble calcium,and hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.To do so,we used sequential fractionation procedures to probe the relationships among different functional groups,different growth forms,or different successional stages.The results showed that the psammophyte,the late successional plants,and the drought-resistant shrub and semi-shrub all held considerable calcium oxalate crystal compared to the grassland plants,the early successional plants,and the perennial herb.With the proceeding succession,the acetic acid soluble calcium decreased gradually,and the hydrochloric acid soluble calcium increased gradually.The perennial herb had more water soluble calcium,while shrub held greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.The grassland plants held more water soluble calcium,while psammophyte had greater hydrochloric acid soluble calcium.This implies that the plants that are relatively sensitive to drought hold more calcium ion,while the drought-resistance plants hold more calcium oxalate.Thus,the plant calcium components are in close relation to plant drought-resistance,and of important significance in plant physiology of the desert.

  11. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  12. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass......–clover mixture (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P < 0.005), and independent of species BH rate...

  13. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  14. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  15. Species Structure of Plants in the Báb Forest Clearcuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilková Ivana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the Báb forest (Veľký Báb, Nitra upland. The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the Báb forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also two invasive woody Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia plants documented. During the summer reports, three new woody plants Clematis vitalba, Lonicera caprifolium, Ulmus minor appeared in the herb layer. Herbs are represented during the spring reports by typical spring ephemeroids, geophytes and forest herbs presenting the spring synusia. During the summer reports, ephemeroids are absent and there were new species, mainly Alliaria petiolata, Convallaria majalis, Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Melica nutans of forest herbs reported. In the clearcut areas also clearcut, synanthropic, mainly Cirsium vulgare, Lamium purpureum, Sambucus ebulus, Serratula tinctoria, Torilis japonica and invasive species Aster lanceolatus, A. novi-belgii agg., Erigeron annuus ssp. annuus, Impatiens parviflora occurred. Generally, we can state that the diversity of clearcut plant taxa is high. Taxa are represented by forest woody plants, woody plants of clearcuts, forest open parts and forest edges. Within clearcut herbs, there are typical forest species of oak-hornbeam forests represented, species of clearcuts and human-influenced posts and there are also invasive taxa found

  16. Effects of plant species identity, diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this paper investigated the effects of plant species composition, species diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene in soil. The two soils used were of contrasting fertility, taken from long term unfertilised and fertilised grassland, showing differences in total nitrogen content (%N). Plant communities consisted of six different plant species: two grasses, two forbs, and two legume species, and ranged in species richness from 1 to 6. The degradation of 14C-phenanthrene was evaluated by measuring indigenous catabolic activity following the addition of the contaminant to soil using respirometry. Soil fertility was a driving factor in all aspects of 14C-phenanthrene degradation; lag phase, maximum rates and total extents of 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation were higher in improved soils compared to unimproved soils. Plant identity had a significant effect on the lag phase and extents of mineralisation. Soil fertility was the major influence also on abundance of microbial communities. - Highlights: ► Two grassland soils of contrasting fertility showing differences in total nitrogen content (%N) were used in this study. ► The effects of individual plant species and plant diversity on mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene in soil were investigated. ► Soil fertility was the major influence on mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene, and abundance of microbial community. ► The presence of a specific plant plays a role in the extent of mineralisation of phenanthrene in soil. - Soil management was the main driver for the mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene in soil.

  17. Characteristics of Four Plant Species Used for Soil Bioengineering Techniques in River Bank Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Gao, J. R.; Lou, H. P.; Zhang, J. R.; Rauch, H. P.

    2010-05-01

    Use the potential values of soil bioengineering techniques are important for the wide attention river ecological restoration works in Beijing. At first, demand for basic knowledge of the technical and biological properties of plants is essential for development of such techniques. Species for each chosen plant material type should be selected with an emphasis on the following: suitability for anticipated environment conditions, reasonable availability in desired quantity and probability of successful establishment. Account on these criteria, four species which used as live staking and rooted cutting techniques were selected, namely, Salix X aureo-pendula, Salix cheilophila, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and Amorpha fruticosa L.. And monitoring work was performed on three construction sites of Beijing. Various survival rates and morphological parameters data were collected. Concerning plants hydraulic and hydrological behavior, bending tests were used to analysis the flexibility of each plant species. The results from rate and morphological parameters monitoring show that: Salix cheilophila performed the best. Other three plants behaved satisfactorily in shoots or roots development respectively. In the bending test mornitoring, Salix cheilophila branch had the least broken number. Then were Salix X aureo-pendula and Amorpha fruticosa L.. Vitex negundo var. branch had the highest broken number, but it tolerated the highest amount of stress. All plant species should be considered in the future scientific research and construction works in Beijing. Keywords: River bank stabilization, live staking, rooted cutting

  18. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection Caracterización por isoenzimas de accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la colección amazónica Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo Luz Marina; Giraldo Martha Cecilia; García Marisol Cudris; Quintero Barrera Lorena

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi) and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST), peroxidase (PRX), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), aspartate amino transferase (GOT), and malic enzyme (ME). Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA) the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species...

  19. Progress Towards an Interdisciplinary Science of Plant Phenology: Building Predictions Across Space, Time and Species Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has brought renewed interest in the study of plant phenology - the timing of life history events. Data on shifting phenologies with warming have accumulated rapidly, yet research has been comparatively slow to explain the diversity of phenological responses observed across latitudes, growing seasons and species. Here, we outline recent efforts to synthesize perspectives on plant phenology across the fields of ecology, climate science and evolution. We highlight three major axes that vary among these disciplines: relative focus on abiotic versus biotic drivers of phenology, on plastic versus genetic drivers of intraspecific variation, and on cross-species versus autecological approaches. Recent interdisciplinary efforts, building on data covering diverse species and climate space, have found a greater role of temperature in controlling phenology at higher latitudes and for early-flowering species in temperate systems. These efforts have also made progress in understanding the tremendous diversity of responses across species by incorporating evolutionary relatedness, and linking phenological flexibility to invasions and plant performance. Future research with a focus on data collection in areas outside the temperate mid-latitudes and across species' ranges, alongside better integration of how risk and investment shape plant phenology, offers promise for further progress.

  20. Mycorrhizal status of plant species in the Chaco Serrano Woodland from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracchia, Sebastian; Aranda, Adriana; Gopar, Analia; Silvani, Vanesa; Fernandez, Laura; Godeas, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    We examined the mycorrhizal type of 128 plant species in two patches of native vegetation of the Chaco Serrano Woodland, central Argentina, the largest dry forest area in South America. Of the 128 plant species investigated (belonging to 111 genera in 53 families), 114 were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), orchid mycorrhizal associations were present in the five terrestrial orchid species analyzed, one ectomycorrhiza was only present in Salix humboldtiana Willd., and 96 harbored a dark septate endophyte (DSE) association. Co-occurrence of AM and DSE was observed in 88 plant species. We determine morphological types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Arum, Paris, and intermediate AM structures) and report the mycorrhizal status in 106 new species, 12 of which are endemic to central Argentina and two, Aa achalensis Schltr. and Buddleja cordobensis Griseb., are declared to be vulnerable species. Root colonization in the Chaco Serrano Woodland is widespread and should be considered in revegetation programs due to the deterioration of this particular ecosystem. Considering the predominance of AM and DSE associations and the various potential benefits that these associations may bring to plant establishment, they should receive special attention in conservation and reforestation of these woodlands. PMID:19184128

  1. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Martínez

    Full Text Available The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  2. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. PMID:26197473

  3. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands. PMID:26483077

  4. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  5. Using phylogenetic and ionomic relationships to predict the uptake of radionuclides by any plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not practical to empirically derive soil-to-plant TFs for all soil-plant combinations that are important in radiological assessments, so predictions for a range of species on different soils types are frequently impossible because TFs are unknown. This severely hampers predictions of both doses to biota and of the contamination of a variety of food chains with radioisotopes. Compilations of TFs in themselves provide no fundamental understanding of the plant factors that control the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and thus no method of prediction. We have developed methods for the meta-analyses of radionuclide transfer data that can be used to make predictions of the transfer of radionuclides into any plants species for which TFs do not exist based on an understand of the plant factors that control radionuclide uptake. There is no reason a priori to think that variation in TF should be constrained by species. The species is, essentially, a reproductive unit and variation in many plant traits, some of which might control radionuclide uptake, occurs at taxonomic levels above the species. In the last 15 years genomic information has transformed the understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the living world so that new 'trees of life' (phylogenies) are now available. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood modeling procedure to compile a significant proportion of all existing TF data onto a single scale, we here present a synthesis of the influence of phylogeny on variation in soil-to-plant TFs for radioisotopes of Cs, Sr, Co, I, Tc, and S. We show that a significant proportion of variation in TF is associated with major branches of the phylogeny of angiosperms (flowering plants) so that knowledge of a species' position on the phylogeny can be used to make predictions of transfer relative to other species. These phylogenetically-based predictions of relative transfer to any species can be used to make absolute predictions to any species in a given

  6. Using phylogenetic and ionomic relationships to predict the uptake of radionuclides by any plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, Neil J.; Siasou, Eleni [Centre for Research In Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    It is not practical to empirically derive soil-to-plant TFs for all soil-plant combinations that are important in radiological assessments, so predictions for a range of species on different soils types are frequently impossible because TFs are unknown. This severely hampers predictions of both doses to biota and of the contamination of a variety of food chains with radioisotopes. Compilations of TFs in themselves provide no fundamental understanding of the plant factors that control the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides and thus no method of prediction. We have developed methods for the meta-analyses of radionuclide transfer data that can be used to make predictions of the transfer of radionuclides into any plants species for which TFs do not exist based on an understand of the plant factors that control radionuclide uptake. There is no reason a priori to think that variation in TF should be constrained by species. The species is, essentially, a reproductive unit and variation in many plant traits, some of which might control radionuclide uptake, occurs at taxonomic levels above the species. In the last 15 years genomic information has transformed the understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the living world so that new 'trees of life' (phylogenies) are now available. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood modeling procedure to compile a significant proportion of all existing TF data onto a single scale, we here present a synthesis of the influence of phylogeny on variation in soil-to-plant TFs for radioisotopes of Cs, Sr, Co, I, Tc, and S. We show that a significant proportion of variation in TF is associated with major branches of the phylogeny of angiosperms (flowering plants) so that knowledge of a species' position on the phylogeny can be used to make predictions of transfer relative to other species. These phylogenetically-based predictions of relative transfer to any species can be used to make absolute predictions to any species

  7. Mapping Amazonian Canopy Foliar Traits with Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C. B.; Knapp, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal information on plant functional traits is lacking in ecology, which limits our understanding of how plant communities and ecosystems are changing. This problem is acute in remote tropical regions such as in Andean and Amazonian forests, where information on plant functional traits is difficult to ascertain. We used Carnegie Airborne Observatory visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to assess the chemical composition of tropical forests along a 3000 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to the Andean treeline. We calibrated and validated the retrieval of 15 canopy foliar chemicals and leaf mass per area (LMA) in 81 one-hectare field plots using a new VSWIR-LiDAR fusion approach. Remotely sensed estimates of elevational changes in forest foliar pigments, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, soluble and total carbon, cellulose and LMA were similar to those derived via laborious field survey and laboratory analysis. This new airborne approach addresses the inherent limitations and sampling biases associated with field-based studies of forest functional traits, particularly in structurally and floristically complex tropical canopies.

  8. Non-woody life-form contribution to vascular plant species richness in a tropical American forest

    OpenAIRE

    Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Cardona, Victor; Hennig, Ernest; Hensen, Isabell; Hoffmann, Doreen; Lendzion, Jasmin; Soto, Daniel; Herzog, Sebastian; Kessler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We provide total vascular plant species counts for three 1-ha plots in deciduous, semi-deciduous and evergreen forests in central Bolivia. Species richness ranged from 297 species and 22,360 individuals/ha in the dry deciduous forest to 382 species and 31,670 individuals/ha in the evergreen forest. Orchidaceae, Pteridophyta and Leguminosae were among the most species-rich major plant groups in each plot, and Peperomia (Piperaceae), Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) and Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), al...

  9. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Anjos Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group are not good biomass producers and grow more slowly than most species; thus, they have an important role in helping scientists understand the mechanisms involved in accumulating high amounts of heavy metals without developing symptoms or dying. However, because of their slow growth, it is not practical to use these species for phytoextraction. An alternative approach is to use non-hyperaccumulator plants assisted by chelating agents, which may improve the ability of plants to accumulate more heavy metals than they would naturally. Chelating agents can be synthetic or organic acids, and the advantages and disadvantages of their use in improving the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants are discussed in this article. We hope to draw attention to ways to improve the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants that produce a large amount of biomass and to stimulate more research on phytoextraction-inducing substances.

  10. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  11. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  12. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient. PMID:26846194

  13. Large variation in whole-plant water-use efficiency among tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Aranda, Jorge; Marshall, John D; Winter, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that whole-plant water-use efficiency (transpiration efficiency of carbon gain, TE(C)) varies among plant species with different photosynthetic pathways. However, less is known of such variation among tree species within the C(3) group. Here we measured the TE(C) of seven C(3) tropical tree species. Isotopic analyses (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, and delta(15)N) and elemental analyses (carbon and nitrogen) were undertaken to provide insight into sources of variation in TE(C). Plants were grown over several months in approx. 80% full sunlight in individual 38-l containers in the Republic of Panama. Soil moisture content was nonlimiting. Significant variation was observed in TE(C) among the C(3) tree species. Values ranged from 1.6 mmol C mol(-1) H(2)O for teak (Tectona grandis) to 4.0 mmol C mol(-1) H(2)O for a legume, Platymiscium pinnatum. Variation in TE(C) was correlated with both leaf N concentration, a proxy for photosynthetic capacity, and oxygen-isotope enrichment, a proxy for stomatal conductance. The TE(C) varied with C-isotope discrimination within species, but the relationship broke down among species, reflecting the existence of species-specific offsets. PMID:17204076

  14. In silico identification of conserved microRNAs in large number of diverse plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in gene expression, specifically at the post-transcriptional level in plants and animals. Identification of miRNAs in large number of diverse plant species is important to understand the evolution of miRNAs and miRNA-targeted gene regulations. Now-a-days, publicly available databases play a central role in the in-silico biology. Because, at least ~21 miRNA families are conserved in higher plants, a homology based search using these databases can help identify orthologs or paralogs in plants. Results We searched all publicly available nucleotide databases of genome survey sequences (GSS, high-throughput genomics sequences (HTGS, expressed sequenced tags (ESTs and nonredundant (NR nucleotides and identified 682 miRNAs in 155 diverse plant species. We found more than 15 conserved miRNA families in 11 plant species, 10 to14 families in 10 plant species and 5 to 9 families in 29 plant species. Nineteen conserved miRNA families were identified in important model legumes such as Medicago, Lotus and soybean. Five miRNA families – miR319, miR156/157, miR169, miR165/166 and miR394 – were found in 51, 45, 41, 40 and 40 diverse plant species, respectively. miR403 homologs were found in 16 dicots, whereas miR437 and miR444 homologs, as well as the miR396d/e variant of the miR396 family, were found only in monocots, thus providing large-scale authenticity for the dicot- and monocot-specific miRNAs. Furthermore, we provide computational and/or experimental evidence for the conservation of 6 newly found Arabidopsis miRNA homologs (miR158, miR391, miR824, miR825, miR827 and miR840 and 2 small RNAs (small-85 and small-87 in Brassica spp. Conclusion Using all publicly available nucleotide databases, 682 miRNAs were identified in 155 diverse plant species. By combining the expression analysis with the computational approach, we found that 6 miRNAs and 2

  15. 77 FR 69993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... Dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria), an invasive, nonnative plant that may prevent germination of Siskiyou... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing...

  16. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... encroachment by nonnative plant and animal species. Oahu Ecosystems The seven Oahu ecosystems that support the... ecosystem, but may include some specialized plants and animals such as nesting seabirds and the rare native... extinction of plant species that currently have fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the wild on...

  17. Species diversity of plant communities from territories with natural origin radionuclides contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since plants dominate every landscape, the impact of any environmental stressor on plants can directly affect the structure and function of an ecosystem, resulting in decreased primary productivity and degradation of wildlife habitat. The investigation goal of the present research was to study how vascular plant species' composition at a former radium mining site could be related to i) soil contamination with heavy metals and uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides and ii) soil agrochemical properties. Between the 1930's and 1950's, the commercial extraction of radium, storage of the uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, together with deactivation of the site with a mixture of sand and gravel completely destroyed plant communities in the vicinity of Vodny settlement (Komi Republic, Russia). The plant cover recovery started more than 60 years ago, and resulted in overgrowing with common grassland plant species. Three meadow sites were investigated, one with low contamination (on the territory of former radium production plant), one with high contamination (waste storage cell) and a reference sites out of the radiochemical plant zone of influence, but with similar natural conditions. Geo-botanical descriptions revealed 134 vascular plant species from 34 families in the meadow communities studied. The greatest richness was seen for Poaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae families; others had 1-5 species. The highest richness in diversity was seen at reference sites with 95 vascular plant species. 87 species were registered on low contaminated sites and 75 species on high contaminated. Perennial herbs were the dominant life form on all the studied meadow communities. Arboreal species expansion in vegetation was noted at both experimental and reference sites. Shannon index calculations indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in species diversity on sample areas of the highly contaminated radioactive waste storage cell. Mean values of the index

  18. Species diversity of plant communities from territories with natural origin radionuclides contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneva, A.V.; Belykh, E.S.; Maystrenko, T.A.; Grusdev, B.I.; Zainullin, V.G.; Vakhrusheva, O.M. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of RAS, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Oughton, D. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Since plants dominate every landscape, the impact of any environmental stressor on plants can directly affect the structure and function of an ecosystem, resulting in decreased primary productivity and degradation of wildlife habitat. The investigation goal of the present research was to study how vascular plant species' composition at a former radium mining site could be related to i) soil contamination with heavy metals and uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides and ii) soil agrochemical properties. Between the 1930's and 1950's, the commercial extraction of radium, storage of the uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, together with deactivation of the site with a mixture of sand and gravel completely destroyed plant communities in the vicinity of Vodny settlement (Komi Republic, Russia). The plant cover recovery started more than 60 years ago, and resulted in overgrowing with common grassland plant species. Three meadow sites were investigated, one with low contamination (on the territory of former radium production plant), one with high contamination (waste storage cell) and a reference sites out of the radiochemical plant zone of influence, but with similar natural conditions. Geo-botanical descriptions revealed 134 vascular plant species from 34 families in the meadow communities studied. The greatest richness was seen for Poaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae families; others had 1-5 species. The highest richness in diversity was seen at reference sites with 95 vascular plant species. 87 species were registered on low contaminated sites and 75 species on high contaminated. Perennial herbs were the dominant life form on all the studied meadow communities. Arboreal species expansion in vegetation was noted at both experimental and reference sites. Shannon index calculations indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in species diversity on sample areas of the highly contaminated radioactive waste storage cell. Mean values

  19. Methanotrophic community abundance and composition in plateau soils with different plant species and plantation ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) play an important role in mitigating the methane emission in soil ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, the impact of plant species and plantation ways on the distribution of MOB remains unclear. The present study investigated MOB abundance and structure in plateau soils with different plant species and plantation ways (natural and managed). Soils were collected from unmanaged wild grassland and naturally forested sites, and managed farmland and afforested sites. A large variation in MOB abundance and structure was found in these studied soils. In addition, both type I MOB (Methylocaldum) and type II MOB (Methylocystis) were detected in these soils, while type II MOB usually outnumbered type I MOB. The distribution of soil MOB community was found to be collectively regulated by plantation way, plant species, the altitude of sampling site, and soil properties. PMID:26142389

  20. Quantitative Assessment on Endangerment Degree of Rare Animal and Plant Species in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ke; ZHONG Xianghao; LIU Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    It is of profound theoretical and practical significance to study endangerment status of rare species in Tibet. Index system is firstly set down for quantitative assessment of rare animal and plant species, then endangerment degree of wildlife under special state protection are calculated, which is expressed by value E. The results reveal that Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) and Gigantic Cypress (Cupressus gigantea) have the highest E respectively in animals and plants. According to value E, all species are categorized into 4 ranks: critically endangered(0.6-0.8), endangered (0.4-0.6), vulnerable (0.2-0.4) and lower risk (E≤ 0.2). By comparison of the first five animals and plants of the highest E, each sub-ecozone bears a distinct identity.

  1. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christian P; King, George; Plocher, Milt; Storm, Marjorie; Pokhrel, Lok R; Johnson, Mark G; Rygiewicz, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 ) or nano-cerium oxide (nCeO2 ) (0 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, and 1000 μg/mL) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. The authors modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to 2 common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2 , and 5 species responded to nCeO2 . Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain the developmental effects of these 2 ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, with unknown effects at later stages of the life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2223-2229. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26773270

  2. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingmao, E-mail: ma@engr.siu.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Gurung, Arun [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Deng, Yang [Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, NJ 07403 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids × Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0–1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (> 200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. - Highlights: ► nZVI may exert phytotoxic effects on plants at concentrations (> 200 mg/L) often encountered in site remediation practices. ► nZVI deposits on plant root surface as aggregates and some could internalize in plant root cells. ► Plant uptake and accumulation of nZVI are plant species-dependent. ► Upward transport from roots to shoots was not observed.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing tools for quantifying plant litter and invasive species in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Sridhar, B.B. Maruthi; Olsson, Aaryn Dyami; Glenn, Edward P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Green vegetation can be distinguished using visible and infrared multi-band and hyperspectral remote sensing methods. The problem has been in identifying and distinguishing the non-photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) landscape components, such as litter and soils, and from green vegetation. Additionally, distinguishing different species of green vegetation is challenging using the relatively few bands available on most satellite sensors. This chapter focuses on hyperspectral remote sensing characteristics that aim to distinguish between green vegetation, soil, and litter (or senescent vegetation). Quantifying litter by remote sensing methods is important in constructing carbon budgets of natural and agricultural ecosystems. Distinguishing between plant types is important in tracking the spread of invasive species. Green leaves of different species usually have similar spectra, making it difficult to distinguish between species. However, in this chapter we show that phenological differences between species can be used to detect some invasive species by their distinct patterns of greening and dormancy over an annual cycle based on hyperspectral data. Both applications require methods to quantify the non-green cellulosic fractions of plant tissues by remote sensing even in the presence of soil and green plant cover. We explore these methods and offer three case studies. The first concerns distinguishing surface litter from soil using the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), as applied to no-till farming practices where plant litter is left on the soil after harvest. The second involves using different band combinations to distinguish invasive saltcedar from agricultural and native riparian plants on the Lower Colorado River. The third illustrates the use of the CAI and NDVI in time-series analyses to distinguish between invasive buffelgrass and native plants in a desert environment in Arizona. Together the results show how hyperspectral imagery can be applied to

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITINASE GENE FROM THE UNTRADITIONAL PLANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Ďurechová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L. from Droseraceae family belongs among a few plant species with strong antifungal potential. It was previously shown that chitinases of carnivorous plant species may play role during the insect prey digestion, when hard chitin skeleton is being decomposed. As many phytopathogenic fungi contain chitin in their cell wall our attention in this work was focused on isolation and in silico characterization of genomic DNA sequence of sundew chitinase gene. Subsequently this gene was fused to strong constitutive CaMV35S promoter and cloned into the plant binary vector pBinPlus and tested in A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for its stability. Next, when transgenic tobacco plants are obtained, increasing of their antifungal potential will be tested.

  5. Co-existing ericaceous plant species in a subarctic mire community share fungal root endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    the fungal composition in roots of co-existing ericaceous plants is scarce. In the present paper, the fungal community in roots of four ericaceous plant species, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium uliginosum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea which often dominate subarctic heaths and mires......, was studied. From each of these plants, in each of five plots, clone libraries were established using fungal specific ITS-PCR followed by cloning, PCR–RFLP and sequencing. The clone libraries were dominated by potential ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, particularly Rhizoscyphus ericae, fungi belonging...... to the Sebacinales group B, and Capronia-like fungi. Additionally, the results showed that while ericaceous plant species growing within the same 15 × 15 cm blocks shared a common fungal community, plots just 2–3 m away harboured a significantly different fungal community. The possible functional implications of co...

  6. Sampling Plant Diversity and Rarity at Landscape Scales: Importance of Sampling Time in Species Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott E.; Grainger, Tess N.; Kohler, Monica; Chipchar, Tim; Farr, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting and estimating species richness at regional or landscape scales has been a major emphasis for conservation efforts, as well as for the development and testing of evolutionary and ecological theory. Rarely, however, are sampling efforts assessed on how they affect detection and estimates of species richness and rarity. In this study, vascular plant richness was sampled in 356 quarter hectare time-unlimited survey plots in the boreal region of northeast Alberta. These surveys consisted of 15,856 observations of 499 vascular plant species (97 considered to be regionally rare) collected by 12 observers over a 2 year period. Average survey time for each quarter-hectare plot was 82 minutes, ranging from 20 to 194 minutes, with a positive relationship between total survey time and total plant richness. When survey time was limited to a 20-minute search, as in other Alberta biodiversity methods, 61 species were missed. Extending the survey time to 60 minutes, reduced the number of missed species to 20, while a 90-minute cut-off time resulted in the loss of 8 species. When surveys were separated by habitat type, 60 minutes of search effort sampled nearly 90% of total observed richness for all habitats. Relative to rare species, time-unlimited surveys had ∼65% higher rare plant detections post-20 minutes than during the first 20 minutes of the survey. Although exhaustive sampling was attempted, observer bias was noted among observers when a subsample of plots was re-surveyed by different observers. Our findings suggest that sampling time, combined with sample size and observer effects, should be considered in landscape-scale plant biodiversity surveys. PMID:24740179

  7. Soil-to-plant transfer of uranium and its distribution between plant parts in four boreal forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium (U) can be released to the environment through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. U uptake by plants is an important process for possible adverse effects in ecosystems. The soil-to-plant transfer of natural U and its distribution across plant parts were investigated in May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Concentration ratios (CR) between plant and soil were calculated. The CRs for roots were higher than those for the above-ground parts of the plants. Soil pH was the only soil parameter showing an effect on CRs. No significant differences were noticed between species. The CRs observed were consistent with those reported previously in other forest types. The pooled values of 0.06 for roots and 0.005 for stems/petioles and leaves/needles can be considered as good estimates of CR values to be used in modelling the U uptake in boreal forest species. (orig.)

  8. Reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species: impact of successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species was investigated with respect to successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size. in the psammosere succession (dune succession), the reproductive effort (RE) of Cressa cretica and A triplex griffithii was significantly greater in the early stage compared to that in late succession. Likewise, in relation to lithosere succession, Sporobolus arabicus. Pluchea lanceolata and Vernonia cenerescens all showed high reproductive effort in early part of succession compared to that of late succession. The annuals (S. arabicus and P lance/ala) exhibited greater reproductive effort compared to the perennial species Vernonia cinerescens. Examination of the Impact of site differences on reproductive effort showed that four grasses including Selaria intermedia, Chioris harbata, Cenchrus hiflorus, and Eragroslis pilosa were found to have significantly (P<0.05) greater reproductive effort in site 1 (near cultivated field), compared to site 2 (a vacant lot), which had low nutrient level compared to site 1. The reproductive effort of Sonclius asper (a composite) did not exhibit significant difference between sites. The investigation of relationships between plant size (volume) and reproductive effort of Solanuin forskalii, Senna holosericea and Heliolropium ophioglossum showed positive correlations between plant size and reproductive effort. Solanum forskalii and Senna holosericca, in particular, exhibited a close association in this respect. It is concluded that: 1) RE is greater in early compared to late succession, 2) RE changes with the habitat and 3) there seems to be a direct relationship between RE and plant size. (author)

  9. Occurrence and distribution of special status plant species on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.C.; Cypher, B.L.; Holmstead, G.L.; Hammer, K.L.; Frost, N.

    1994-10-01

    Several special status plant species occur or potentially occur at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). Special status species are defined as those species that are either federally listed as endangered or threatened, or candidate taxa. Candidate species are classified as Category 1 or Category 2. Category 1 taxa are those species for which there is sufficient evidence to support listing, while Category 2 taxa are those species for which listing may possibly be appropriate, but for which sufficient data are lacking to warrant immediate listing. Determining the presence and distribution of these species on NPRC is necessary so that appropriate conservation or protection measures can be implemented. In the spring of 1988, a survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) was conducted to determine the occurrence of Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri), Kern Mallow (Eremalche kemensis), San Joaquin wooly-threads (Lembertia congdonii), and California jewelflower (Caulanthus califonicus), all listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as Category 2 species at that time. Of the four species, only Hoover`s wooly-star was found. It was concluded that Kern mallow and San Joaquin wooly-threads could potentially be found on NPR-1, but habitat for California jewelflower did not occur on NPR-1 and its occurrence was unlikely. As part of an ongoing effort to document the presence or absence of sensitive plant species on NPRC, surveys for species other than Hoover`s wooly-star were conducted in the spring of 1993. Abundant spring rains in 1993 created favorable growing conditions for annual forbs. Surveys in 1993 focused on potential habitat of several endangered and candidate species. The results of those surveys are presented in this report.

  10. Danger to biodiversity of High Tatras by spread of invasive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our work was to analyze the current status of invasive plant species - their generic representation of a current extension (horizontal and vertical extension). We have been working method inventory of species richness. Site was recorded on a tourist map and a GPS (Garmin). Populations of invasive plants are studied localities mostly small (a few individuals to hundreds of individuals), but at the high anthropogenic impacts (construction activity, excessive tourist traffic), by synantropization of habitats and concurrently with the impacts of climate change here can create important focal point of the country and pose a serious threat to biodiversity is very valuable ecosystems.

  11. Validation of the ITS2 Region as a Novel DNA Barcode for Identifying Medicinal Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shilin Chen; Hui Yao; Jianping Han; Chang Liu; Jingyuan Song; Linchun Shi; Yingjie Zhu; Xinye Ma; Ting Gao; Xiaohui Pang; Kun Luo; Ying Li; Xiwen Li; Xiaocheng Jia; Yulin Lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcod...

  12. Species Structure of Plants in the Báb Forest Clearcuts

    OpenAIRE

    Pilková Ivana

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the Báb forest (Veľký Báb, Nitra upland). The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the Báb forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also t...

  13. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates. PMID:12564789

  14. Relationship between Invasive Plant Species and Forest Fauna in Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Hayes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plant species have long been known to cause extensive damage, both economically and ecologically, to native ecosystems. They have historically been introduced by the public, both intentional and not, for a variety of reasons. Many of the woody shrubs, such as Lonicera maackii and Rosa multiflora were introduced for wildlife cover, forage, and ornamental value. These invasives have quickly out-competed native flora, in many cases drastically impacting and changing the environment they inhabit. In this review, chosen species characteristics have been described, their pathway to invasion explained, and their impacts to native wildlife highlighted. Based on a review of the scientific literature, we determined that not all effects by invasive plants are negative. Many positive impacts can be seen throughout the literature, such as native frogs utilizing Microstegium vimineum for cover and nesting habitat. However, some important invasive plant species were not included in this review due to a lack of literature on the subject of the effects on fauna. While much is known about their economic impact and the impact on native plant species, additional work needs to be done in the field of wildlife research to determine current impacts and future implications of non-native, invasive plants on native fauna.

  15. Effects of elevated soil copper on phenology, growth and reproduction of five ruderal plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibiting effects of soil build-up of copper differed among the five species of plants examined. - The repeated use of copper (Cu) fungicides to control vine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, has been responsible for the heavy increase of Cu concentration in the upper layers of vineyard soils. To determine the effects of elevated soil Cu on plant development, we created an artificial soil gradient with Cu enrichments ranging from 0 to 400 mg kg-1. On this gradient, and for five ruderal plant species commonly found in vineyards in southern France (Poa annua L., Dactylis glomerata L., Senecio vulgaris L., Hypochoeris radicata L., and Andryala integriflolia L.), we quantified survival, growth, and reproduction throughout one flowering season. High concentrations of Cu in the soil resulted in low survival, low total plant biomass, delay in flowering and fruiting, and low seed set. However, the effects differed among species. Furthermore, high soil Cu concentrations had contrasting effects on patterns of resource allocation depending on the plant species

  16. Effects of elevated soil copper on phenology, growth and reproduction of five ruderal plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, L.A.; Le Corff, J.; Maillet, J

    2003-04-01

    The inhibiting effects of soil build-up of copper differed among the five species of plants examined. - The repeated use of copper (Cu) fungicides to control vine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, has been responsible for the heavy increase of Cu concentration in the upper layers of vineyard soils. To determine the effects of elevated soil Cu on plant development, we created an artificial soil gradient with Cu enrichments ranging from 0 to 400 mg kg{sup -1}. On this gradient, and for five ruderal plant species commonly found in vineyards in southern France (Poa annua L., Dactylis glomerata L., Senecio vulgaris L., Hypochoeris radicata L., and Andryala integriflolia L.), we quantified survival, growth, and reproduction throughout one flowering season. High concentrations of Cu in the soil resulted in low survival, low total plant biomass, delay in flowering and fruiting, and low seed set. However, the effects differed among species. Furthermore, high soil Cu concentrations had contrasting effects on patterns of resource allocation depending on the plant species.

  17. Ethnomedicinal values of some selected plant species in Fed-eral College of Wildlife Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osunsina IOO; Ogunjinmi AA; Ajani MO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The objective of this study was to identify the ethno-medicinal values of some selected plant species in Federal College of Wildlife Management,New Bussa,Niger state,Nigeria.Methods:Three methods of da-ta collection were employed:(1)reconnansance survey of the College Estate was carried out to identify some selected medicinal plants found within the area;(2)field observations alongside personal recognition of some of these plant species were carried out and (3)interview was also carried out in three villages around the Col-lege Estate to determine the plants being utilized by the villagers.The villages were Kere,Labararu and Pop-poi.The various uses of the identified plants and their parts used for the said purposes were recorded.One hundred people were interviewed altogether in these villages.Recorded information gathered on the medicinal uses of plants includes the type of plants,the part used to cure sickness,preparation of concoction,and the type of sickness cured.The data gathered were presented and analyzed using tables.Results:The results re-vealed that the identified plant species were being used in curing various diseases such as dysentery,fever, stomach pains,cough,malaria,yellow fever,diarrhea,gonorrhea,pile,body pains and other diseases.Con-clusion:The study concluded that since the vast numbers of species in the study area possess medicinal values, there is need to conserve and protect the vegetation of the area from unsustainable exploitations which are the common features of vegetation in the surrounding land uses.

  18. Chemical Composition and Seasonality of Aromatic Mediterranean Plant Species by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Scognamiglio; Brigida D’Abrosca; Assunta Esposito; Antonio Fiorentino

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomic approach has been applied to analyse seven aromatic Mediterranean plant species used in traditional cuisine. Based on the ethnobotanical use of these plants, the approach has been employed in order to study the metabolic changes during different seasons. Primary and secondary metabolites have been detected and quantified. Flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives) and phenylpropanoid derivatives (e.g., chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid) are the main id...

  19. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Cli...

  20. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Braz; Luciana G. Wolf; Lopes, Gisely C.; João C.P. Mello

    2012-01-01

    The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) that are commonly sold by...

  1. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-01-01

    The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez') grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon') and a cereal plant o...

  2. The distribution of selected alien invasive plant species along the river Dreta

    OpenAIRE

    Obojnik, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the occurrence, distribution and frequency of alien invasive plants along the river Dreta. Of interest were also the effects of environmental factors on the occurrence of invasive species. In the 2010 growing season, the state of the wider aquatic environment was examined, the invasive species along Dreta were surveyed, their phenological phases were identified, and their phytosociological classes and occurrence in different parts of the watercourse were...

  3. The effect of impatiens extracts on growth and development of selected plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Podboj, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the allelophatic effect of three different species of touch-me-not growing in Slovenia. We prepared watter extracts from the roots and leaves of himalayan balsam (I. glandulifera), small balsam (I. parviflora) and touch-me-not plant (I. noli-tangere) that were tested on corn seeds (Zea mays) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus). The main interest was to determine the differences in inhibitory effect between all three species, the diferences between root and leaf extracts ...

  4. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Padmanaba; Corlett, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical prod...

  5. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 5. Species names for pome fruit crops

    OpenAIRE

    Меженський, В. М.

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the modern classification and nomenclature of species of pome fruit crops which varieties are listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of both species and garden crops. Results. Fruit cultivars and most apple clonal rootstocks belong to Malus pumila, and ornamental cultivars belong to Malus gloriosa. The most common scientific name of the cultivated apple, especially among horti...

  6. The Impact of Root Temperature on Photosynthesis and Isoprene Emission in Three Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Medori; Lucia Michelini; Isabel Nogues; Francesco Loreto; Carlo Calfapietra

    2012-01-01

    Most of the perennial plant species, particularly trees, emit volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene and monoterpenes, which in several cases have been demonstrated to protect against thermal shock and more generally against oxidative stress. In this paper, we show the response of three strong isoprene emitter species, namely, Phragmites australis, Populus x euramericana, and Salix phylicifolia exposed to artificial or natural warming of the root system in different conditions. T...

  7. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on typ...

  8. Effect of Three Plant Species on Population Densities of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Laura L.

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Xiphinema americanum species complex has necessitated a reexamination of the host range of species in the complex before recommendations can be made with confidence on the likelihood that specific crops will be damaged. Toward this end, populations of X. americanum and X. rivesi collected from apple orchards in eastern and western New York state were evaluated after 3 months in pots planted with cucumber, apple, or dandelion seedlings. Eastern and western New York ...

  9. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus jap...

  10. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly diffe...

  11. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Salces-Castellano, A.; Paniw, M.; Casimiro-Soriguer, R.; Ojeda, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyte Drosophyllum lusitan...

  12. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J.; van Bodegom, P.; Dam, J. V.; Aerts, R.

    2010-12-01

    With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. The consequences of climate change for our natural environment are among the most pressing issues of our time. The international research community is beginning to realise that climate extremes may be more powerful drivers of vegetation change and species extinctions than slow-and-steady climatic changes, but the causal mechanisms of such changes are presently unknown. The roles of amplitudes in water availability as drivers of vegetation change have been particularly elusive owing to the lack of integration of the key variables involved. Here we show that the combined effect of increased rainfall variability, temperature and atmospheric CO2-concentration will lead to an increased variability in both wet and dry extremes in stresses faced by plants (oxygen and water stress, respectively). We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. In order to quantify oxygen and water stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to

  13. Transgenic plants and hairy roots: exploiting the potential of plant species to remediate contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Sabrina; Talano, Melina; Ontañon, Ornella; Suman, Jachym; Medina, María I; Macek, Tomas; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-09-25

    Phytoremediation has emerged as an attractive methodology to deal with environmental pollution, which is a serious worldwide problem. Although important advances have been made in this research field, there are still some drawbacks to become a widely used practice, such as the limited plant's metabolic rate and their difficulty to break down several organic compounds or to tolerate/accumulate heavy metals. However, biotechnology has opened new gateways in phytoremediation research by offering the opportunity for direct gene transfer to enhance plant capabilities for environmental cleanup. In this context, hairy roots (HRs) have emerged as an interesting model system to explore the potential of plants to remove inorganic and organic pollutants. Besides, their use in rhizoremediation studies has also been explored. In this minireview we will discuss the most recent advances using genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation capabilities of plants and HRs. PMID:26703807

  14. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature), studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g., calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones, and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide. PMID:26941757

  15. Teor de umidade e densidade básica da madeira de nove espécies comerciais amazônicas Moisture content and basic wood density of nine commercial Amazonian tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Helena Carrera Silveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo agrupar espécies com características de teor de umidade e densidade básica da madeira semelhantes para compor cargas mistas de espécies para secagem em câmaras industriais de secagem da madeira. Foram amostradas nove espécies em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central com três repetições por espécie. Em todas as espécies os teores de umidade não diferiram entre base e topo do tronco, o que confere estabilidade da madeira durante o processo de secagem. Os valores de densidade básica variaram de 0,561 a 0,904 g cm-3. A partir do presente estudo foi possível separar as espécies em três grupos com base na densidade básica e teor de umidade, o primeiro com as espécies Minquartia guianensis, Lecythis poiteaui, Mezilaurus itauba, Manilkara huberi e Brosimum rubescens que são consideradas madeiras pesadas (densidade variando de 0,835 a 0,904 g cm-3 , de secagem mais lenta ou difícil. O segundo grupo contem as espécies Clarisia racemosa e Ocotea rubra (densidade média de 0,665 e 0,720 g cm-3, respectivamente e o terceiro grupo com as espécies Parkia paraensis e Brasimum parinarioides que apresentam densidade média e secagem rápida (densidade de 0,561 e 0,588 g cm-3, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to group species with similar moisture content and basic wood density in order to compose mixed species loads for industrial kiln drying. Nine tree species with three repetitions each were sampled at an Upland Forest in Central Amazonia. For all the species the moisture content was the same for top and base portions of the trunk, which gives stability during wood drying processes. The basic wood density values varied from 0,561 to 0,904 g cm-3. The species were divided in three groups based on basic density and moisture content; the first one included the species Minquartia guianensis, Lecythis poiteaui, Mezilaurus itauba, Manilkara huberi and Brosimum rubescens which are considered

  16. Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Cregger, Melissa [ORNL; Campany, Courtney E [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change depend on soil ecosystem dynamics. Soil ecosystems can directly and indirectly respond to climate change. For example, warming directly alters microbial communities by increasing their activity. Climate change may also alter plant community composition, thus indirectly altering the microbial communities that feed on their inputs. To better understand how climate change may directly and indirectly alter soil ecosystem functioning, we investigated old-field plant community and soil ecosystem responses to single and combined effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and water availability. Specifically, we collected soils at the plot level (plant community soils), and beneath dominant plant species (plant-specific soils). We used microbial enzyme activities and soil nematodes as indicators for soil ecosystem functioning. Our study resulted in two main findings: 1) Overall, while there were some interactions, water, relative to increases in [CO2] and warming, had the largest impact on plant community composition, soil enzyme activities, and soil nematodes. Multiple climate change factors can interact to shape ecosystems, but in this case, those interactions were largely driven by changes in water availability. 2) Indirect effects of climate change, via changes in plant communities, had a significant impact on soil ecosystem functioning and this impact was not obvious when looking at plant community soils. Climate change effects on enzyme activities and soil nematode abundance and community structure strongly differed between plant community soils and plant-specific soils, but also within plant-specific soils. In sum, these results indicate that accurate assessments of climate change impacts on soil ecosystem functioning require incorporating the concurrent changes in plant function and plant community composition. Climate change-induced shifts in plant community composition will likely modify or counteract the direct

  17. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursapastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  18. Plant nutrient acquisition strategies in tundra species: at which soil depth do species take up their nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique; Nauta, Ake; van Huissteden, Corine; van Rijssel, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is warming at unprecedented rates. Increased thawing of permafrost releases nutrients locked up in the previously frozen soils layers, which may initiate shifts in vegetation composition. The direction in which the vegetation shifts will co-determine whether Arctic warming is mitigated or accelerated, making understanding successional trajectories urgent. One of the key factors influencing the competitive relationships between plant species is their access to nutrients, in particularly nitrogen (N). We assessed the depth at which plant species took up N by performing a 15N tracer study, injecting 15(NH4)2SO4 at three depths (5, 15, 20 cm) into the soil in arctic tundra in north-eastern Siberia in July. In addition we explored plant nutrient acquisition strategy by analyzing natural abundances of 15N in leaves. We found that vascular plants took up 15N at all injection depths, irrespective of species, but also that species showed a clear preference for specific soil layers that coincided with their functional group (graminoids, dwarf shrubs, cryptogams). Graminoids took up most 15N at 20 cm depth nearest to the thaw front, with grasses showing a more pronounced preference than sedges. Dwarf shrubs took up most 15N at 5 cm depth, with deciduous shrubs displaying more preference than evergreens. Cryptogams did not take up any of the supplied 15N . The natural 15N abundances confirmed the pattern of nutrient acquisition from deeper soil layers in graminoids and from shallow soil layers in both deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs. Our results prove that graminoids and shrubs differ in their N uptake strategies, with graminoids profiting from nutrients released at the thaw front, whereas shrubs forage in the upper soil layers. The above implies that graminoids, grasses in particular, will have a competitive advantage over shrubs as the thaw front proceeds and/or superficial soil layers dry out. Our results suggest that the vertical distribution of nutrients

  19. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  20. Interactions between environment, species traits, and human uses describe patterns of plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu; Procheş, Serban; Wilson, John R U

    2006-07-01

    Although invasive alien species (IAS) are a major threat to biodiversity, human health, and economy, our understanding of the factors controlling their distribution and abundance is limited. Here, we determine how environmental factors, land use, life-history traits of the invaders, residence time, origin, and human usage interact to shape the spatial pattern of invasive alien plant species in South Africa. Relationships between the environmental factors and the extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of species were investigated using RLQ analysis, a multivariate method for relating a species-attribute table to an environmental table by way of a species presence/absence table. We then clustered species according to their position on the RLQ axes, and tested these groups for phylogenetic independence. The first three axes of the RLQ explained 99% of the variation and were strongly related to the species attributes. The clustering showed that, after accounting for environmental factors, the spatial pattern of IAS in South Africa was driven by human uses, life forms, and reproductive traits. The seven clusters of species strongly reflected geographical distribution, but also intrinsic species attributes and patterns of human use. Two of the clusters, centered on the genera Acacia and Opuntia, were phylogenetically non-independent. The remaining clusters comprised species of diverse taxonomic affinities, but sharing traits facilitating invasion in particular habitats. This information is useful for assessing the extent to which the potential spread of recent introductions can be predicted by considering the interaction of their biological attributes, region of origin, and human use. PMID:16922325

  1. The effect of fertilizer applications on 137Cs uptake by different plant species and vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial carried out in a greenhouse over a two-year period is discussed. The effects on 137Cs concentration in plants, roots and soil have been investigated versus the grassland species composition (legume, grass and mixture) and eight combinations of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The results indicate: (a) the effect of K fertilizer in reducing 137Cs plant absorption; (b) the effect of N fertilizer in favouring grass growth and radiocaesium absorption; (c) for all fertilizer combinations, a higher 137Cs storage in the root system of the legumes and a lower 137Cs absorption in the plants. (author)

  2. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of construction of dams or holding areas for uranium mill tailings is relatively new in India and to date there is only one such facility being maintained by Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) at Jaduguda in Jharkhand. Due to the residual nature of radionuclides, chiefly uranium and its daughter products, special emphasis is given to the engineering aspects of the mill tailings ponds so as to ensure safety to general public for at least 200 years. Once a mill tailings pond reaches to its full capacity, creation of barrier layers over the mill tailings to prevent seepage of rain water and also erosion of mill tailings due to wind and water are advocated and a number of procedures are followed worldwide. Taking the extraordinary period of public safety to be assured, providing soil covers along with contouring and appropriate slopes over which vegetation is grown is gaining popularity. The vegetation not only reduces the impact of rain water hitting the soil cover, thereby reducing the soil erosion, but also lowers the moisture in the soil cover by extensive evapotranspiration, ensuring long term hydrological separation of the mill tailings underneath. Based on set criteria, applicable to the field scenario of mill tailings, a screening experiment was conducted under pot culture conditions to evaluate the survival and growth of different plant species. The plants after germination and hardening were transplanted into beakers containing mill tailings and periodical measurements on appropriate morphological characteristics such as plant height, length of twiners, number of tillers and number of leaves were recorded and evaluated. Of the twenty species tested in mill tailings, significant differences were noticed in the vigour of growth and several plant species could indeed establish well completing their life cycle including flowering and seed setting. Further, several leguminous species could also produce root nodules. It appears that the

  3. Plant species diversity affects soil-atmosphere fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, Pascal A; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck; Buchmann, Nina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Weigelt, Alexandra; Barnard, Romain L

    2016-07-01

    Plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning can potentially interact with global climate by altering fluxes of the radiatively active trace gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). We studied the effects of grassland species richness (1-16) in combination with application of fertilizer (nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium = 100:43.6:83 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) on N2O and CH4 fluxes in a long-term field experiment. Soil N2O emissions, measured over 2 years using static chambers, decreased with species richness unless fertilizer was added. N2O emissions increased with fertilization and the fraction of legumes in plant communities. Soil CH4 uptake, a process driven by methanotrophic bacteria, decreased with plant species numbers, irrespective of fertilization. Using structural equation models, we related trace gas fluxes to soil moisture, soil inorganic N concentrations, nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activity, and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and denitrifiers (quantified by real-time PCR of gene fragments amplified from microbial DNA in soil). These analyses indicated that plant species richness increased soil moisture, which in turn increased N cycling-related activities. Enhanced N cycling increased N2O emission and soil CH4 uptake, with the latter possibly caused by removal of inhibitory ammonium by nitrification. The moisture-related indirect effects were surpassed by direct, moisture-independent effects opposite in direction. Microbial gene abundances responded positively to fertilizer but not to plant species richness. The response patterns we found were statistically robust and highlight the potential of plant biodiversity to interact with climatic change through mechanisms unrelated to carbon storage and associated carbon dioxide removal. PMID:27038993

  4. Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Quero, José L.; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Eldridge, David J.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Valencia, Enrique; Berdugo, Miguel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Gómez, Miguel; Escudero, Adrián; Prina, Aníbal; Alfonso, Graciela; Arredondo, Tulio; Bran, Donaldo; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Chaieb, Mohamed; Contreras, Jorge; Derak, Mchich; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Muro, Victoria García; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gómez-González, Susana; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L.; Hughes, Frederic Mendes; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Muchane, Muchai; Naseri, Kamal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Raveh, Eran; Romão, Roberto L.; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, José Pablo; Wang, Deli; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Aim Geographic, climatic, and soil factors are major drivers of plant beta diversity, but their importance for dryland plant communities is poorly known. This study aims to: i) characterize patterns of beta diversity in global drylands, ii) detect common environmental drivers of beta diversity, and iii) test for thresholds in environmental conditions driving potential shifts in plant species composition. Location 224 sites in diverse dryland plant communities from 22 geographical regions in six continents. Methods Beta diversity was quantified with four complementary measures: the percentage of singletons (species occurring at only one site), Whittake’s beta diversity (β(W)), a directional beta diversity metric based on the correlation in species occurrences among spatially contiguous sites (β(R2)), and a multivariate abundance-based metric (β(MV)). We used linear modelling to quantify the relationships between these metrics of beta diversity and geographic, climatic, and soil variables. Results Soil fertility and variability in temperature and rainfall, and to a lesser extent latitude, were the most important environmental predictors of beta diversity. Metrics related to species identity (percentage of singletons and β(W)) were most sensitive to soil fertility, whereas those metrics related to environmental gradients and abundance ((β(R2)) and β(MV)) were more associated with climate variability. Interactions among soil variables, climatic factors, and plant cover were not important determinants of beta diversity. Sites receiving less than 178 mm of annual rainfall differed sharply in species composition from more mesic sites (> 200 mm). Main conclusions Soil fertility and variability in temperature and rainfall are the most important environmental predictors of variation in plant beta diversity in global drylands. Our results suggest that those sites annually receiving ~ 178 mm of rainfall will be especially sensitive to future climate changes. These

  5. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Castellano, A; Paniw, M; Casimiro-Soriguer, R; Ojeda, F

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyteDrosophyllum lusitanicum(Drosophyllaceae), which has been described as an autogamous selfing species but produces large, yellow flowers. Using a flower removal and a pollination experiment, we assessed, respectively, whether large flowers in this species may serve as an attracting device to prey insects or whether previously reported high selfing rates for this species in peripheral populations may be lower in more central, less isolated populations. We found no differences between flower-removed plants and intact, flowering plants in numbers of prey insects trapped. We also found no indication of reduced potential for autogamous reproduction, in terms of either seed set or seed size. However, our results showed significant increases in seed set of bagged, hand-pollinated flowers and unbagged flowers exposed to insect visitation compared with bagged, non-manipulated flowers that could only self-pollinate autonomously. Considering that the key life-history strategy of this pyrophytic species is to maintain a viable seed bank, any increase in seed set through insect pollinator activity would increase plant fitness. This in turn would explain the maintenance of large, conspicuous flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant. PMID:26977052

  6. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Castellano, A.; Paniw, M.; Casimiro-Soriguer, R.; Ojeda, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyte Drosophyllum lusitanicum (Drosophyllaceae), which has been described as an autogamous selfing species but produces large, yellow flowers. Using a flower removal and a pollination experiment, we assessed, respectively, whether large flowers in this species may serve as an attracting device to prey insects or whether previously reported high selfing rates for this species in peripheral populations may be lower in more central, less isolated populations. We found no differences between flower-removed plants and intact, flowering plants in numbers of prey insects trapped. We also found no indication of reduced potential for autogamous reproduction, in terms of either seed set or seed size. However, our results showed significant increases in seed set of bagged, hand-pollinated flowers and unbagged flowers exposed to insect visitation compared with bagged, non-manipulated flowers that could only self-pollinate autonomously. Considering that the key life-history strategy of this pyrophytic species is to maintain a viable seed bank, any increase in seed set through insect pollinator activity would increase plant fitness. This in turn would explain the maintenance of large, conspicuous flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant. PMID:26977052

  7. A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Kunfang; Ma, Wenzhang; Rowe, Nick; Raphaëlle , Leclerc; Clément , Gadenne; Stokes, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, ro...

  8. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Felipe A. M.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Barros, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources.

  9. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources. (letter)

  10. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  11. Identification and analysis of copine/BONZAI proteins among evolutionarily diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baohong; Hong, Xuexue; Ding, Yuan; Wang, Xiang; Liu, He; Hua, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Copines are evolutionarily conserved calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins with potentially critical biological functions. In plants, the function of these proteins has not been analyzed except for in Arabidopsis thaliana where they play critical roles in development and disease resistance. To facilitate functional studies of copine proteins in crop plants, genome-wide identification, curation, and phylogeny analysis of copines in 16 selected plant species were conducted. All the identified 32 plant copines have conserved features of the two C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and the von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain. Different from animal and protozoa copines, plant copines have glycine at the second residue potentially acquiring a unique protein myristoylation modification. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that copine was present as one copy when evolving from green algae to basal flowering plants, and duplicated before the divergence of monocots and dicots. In addition, gene expression and protein localization study of rice copines suggests both conserved and different properties of copines in dicots and monocots. This study will contribute to uncovering the role of copine genes in different plant species. PMID:27484220

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of pollen identifies plant species and genus as well as environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. METHODOLOGY: The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids. RESULTS: The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.

  13. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  14. Ethanol Metabolism in Calluses of Several Selected Plant Species on Two Typical Plant-Growth-Regulator Balanced Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For investigation on the characteristics of ethanol metabolism in tissues of different plant species,calluses from eight selected plant species were cultured on medium supplemented with ethanol in tightly sealed culture flasks. Changes of the ethanol level were detected by gas chromatography. During the culture period, the calluses of tobacco, potato and petunia were able to catabolize exogenous ethanol, resulting in the prominent decline of the ethanol level in the medium. The calluses of melon and peanut were also able to ca-tabolize ethanol but with lower efficiency. The other three calluses of carrot, soybean and rice did not catabo-lize ethanol but instead produced small to large amount of ethanol, resulting in the increase of the ethanol level in the media. It was also found that changing the balance between auxin and cytokinin could influence only the ethanol metabolism efficiency but could not change the metabolism patterns on ethanol of the cul-tured calluses. It can be concluded that, ethanol metabolism pattern of calluses in cultures is an innate physi-ological characteristic of the respective plant species.

  15. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  16. A DNA barcoding approach to identify plant species in multiflower honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, I; Galimberti, A; Caridi, L; Scaccabarozzi, D; De Mattia, F; Casiraghi, M; Labra, M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the ability of DNA barcoding to identify the plant origins of processed honey. Four multifloral honeys produced at different sites in a floristically rich area in the northern Italian Alps were examined by using the rbcL and trnH-psbA plastid regions as barcode markers. An extensive reference database of barcode sequences was generated for the local flora to determine the taxonomic composition of honey. Thirty-nine plant species were identified in the four honey samples, each of which originated from a mix of common plants belonging to Castanea, Quercus, Fagus and several herbaceous taxa. Interestingly, at least one endemic plant was found in all four honey samples, providing a clear signature for the geographic identity of these products. DNA of the toxic plant Atropa belladonna was detected in one sample, illustrating the usefulness of DNA barcoding for evaluating the safety of honey. PMID:25306350

  17. Positive indirect interactions between neighboring plant species via a lizard pollinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dennis M; Kiesbüy, Heine C; Jones, Carl G; Müller, Christine B

    2007-04-01

    In natural communities, species are embedded in networks of direct and indirect interactions. Most studies on indirect interactions have focused on how they affect predator-prey or competitive relationships. However, it is equally likely that indirect interactions play an important structuring role in mutualistic relationships in a natural community. We demonstrate experimentally that on a small spatial scale, dense thickets of endemic Pandanus plants have a strong positive trait-mediated indirect effect on the reproduction of the declining endemic Mauritian plant Trochetia blackburniana. This effect is mediated by the endemic gecko Phelsuma cepediana moving between Pandanus thickets, a preferred microhabitat, and nearby T. blackburniana plants, where it feeds on nectar and pollinates the plants. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering plant-animal interactions such as pollination at relatively small spatial scales in both basic ecological studies and applied conservation management. PMID:17262697

  18. Photosynthate consumption and carbon turnover in the rhizosphere depending on plant species and growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root tissue which can be isolated from soils represents only part of the total plant carbon incorporation. Between 20 and 40% of the photosynthetic production of plants is expended for root growth and root metabolism. This indicates a striking turnover of energy in the rhizosphere, because relatively litle root-derived organic matter remains there until harvest time. Plant species and variety, soil conditions and temperature were shown to be the most decisive factors governing the assimilate consumption of plant root systems. A special technique is described which enables to study how this extensive turnover affects the surrounding soil depending on its proximity to the roots. Plant-derived carbon can be detected up to 20mm away from the roots. A priming effect has been found on the decomposition of soil organic matter. This explains why, in spite of the rhizo-deposition mentioned, no net-accumulation of carbon in the rhizosphere has been found. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of hyperaccumulator plant species grown in metalliferous sites in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.

  20. 78 FR 70103 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... the U.S. are or will be managed for the benefit of P. stellaris by removing invasive, nonnative plants... invasive, nonnative plants has been addressed. We have no information as to the degree nonnative plants are... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing...

  1. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants used in Czechia with special reference to non-native species

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild food plants used in human consumption within the present borders of Czechia. Thirty-seven freely available publications documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 175 vascular plant species (approximately 5% of native and naturalized flora of the Czech Republic), 3 lichens and 1 bryophyte has been reported. A list of species, plant parts used, use category and mode of consumption is presented in Appendix. Most reported ...

  2. Rainfall exclusion in an eastern Amazonian forest alters soil water movement and depth of water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Nepstad, Daniel C

    2005-03-01

    Deuterium-labeled water was used to study the effect of the Tapajós Throughfall Exclusion Experiment (TTEE) on soil moisture movement and on depth of water uptake by trees of Coussarea racemosa, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, and Eschweilera pedicellata. The TTEE simulates an extended dry season in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, a plausible scenario if the El Niño phenomenon changes with climate change. The TTEE excludes 60% of the wet season throughfall from a 1-ha plot (treatment), while the control 1-ha plot receives precipitation year-round. Mean percolation rate of the label peak in the control plot was greater than in the treatment plot during the wet season (0.75 vs. 0.07 m/mo). The rate was similar for both plots during the dry season (ca. 0.15 m/mo), indicative that both plots have similar topsoil structure. Interestingly, the label peak in the control plot during the dry season migrated upward an average distance of 64 cm. We show that water probably moved upward through soil pores-i.e., it did not involve roots (hydraulic lift)-most likely because of a favorable gradient of total (matric + gravitational) potential coupled with sufficient unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Water probably also moved upward in the treatment plot, but was not detectable; the label in this plot did not percolate below 1 m or beyond the depth of plant water uptake. During the dry season, trees in the rainfall exclusion plot, regardless of species, consistently absorbed water significantly deeper, but never below 1.5-2 m, than trees in the control plot, and therefore may represent expected root function of this understory/subcanopy tree community during extended dry periods. PMID:21652421

  3. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fyllas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma, leaf nitrogen (NL and phosphorus (PL content and wood density (DW used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG and net (ΠN primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU. Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  4. Effects of herbivory by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae on four woody ornamental plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cliff G; Mannion, Catharine; Schaffer, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that herbivory by Diaprepes root weevil larvae reduces leaf gas exchange and biomass was tested on buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), and pond apple (Annona glabra L). For Surinam cherry, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration (collectively referred to as leaf gas exchange values), were 7-32% higher in noninfested than infested plants. For buttonwood, all four gas exchange values were 10-54% higher for noninfested than infested plants 3 h after infestation with large, seventh-instar larvae. However, by 4 wk after this infestation, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration, were 11-37% higher for infested than for noninfested plants. For mahogany and pond apple, there were few or no significant differences in leaf gas exchange values between infested and noninfested plants. For all species, mean shoot and root fresh and dry weights were higher for noninfested than infested plants, with the differences most significant for buttonwood (37-85% higher), followed by Surinam cherry (37-143% higher), mahogany (49-84% higher), and pond apple (24-46% higher), which had no significant differences. There were significant differences among plant species in mean head capsule widths, thus larval instars, of larvae recovered from soil with the largest larvae from Surinam cherry (2.59 +/- 0.19 mm) and the smallest from mahogany (2.29 +/- 0.06 mm). Based on differences in leaf gas exchange and plant biomass between infested and noninfested plants of the four species tested, buttonwood and Surinam cherry are the most vulnerable to feeding by Diaprepes larvae followed by mahogany then pond apple. PMID:19610430

  5. An assessment of alien invasive plant species in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, D.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of alien plant species in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. We focused on two main habitat types, namely riparian areas of the major rivers and dry land areas. Sampling was carried out from 42 sampling plots in both habitat types. Variables studied incl

  6. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. PMID:27114578

  7. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  8. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

  9. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431. ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  10. Aliens in Transylvania: risk maps of invasive alien plant species in Central Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Zimmermann; Jacqueline Loos; Henrik von Wehrden; Joern Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Using the MAXENT algorithm, we developed risk maps for eight invasive plant species in southern Transylvania, Romania, a region undergoing drastic land-use changes. Our findings show that invasion risk increased with landscape heterogeneity. Roads and agricultural areas were most prone to invasion, whereas forests were least at risk.

  11. Simulating direct and indirect effects of climatic changes on rare perennial plant species in fragmented landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, K.; Treydte, A.C.; Burkart, M.; Jeltsch, F.

    2010-01-01

    Question: How does climate change influence plant species population dynamics, their time to extinction, and proportion of occupied habitats in a fragmented landscape? Location: Germany and Central European lowland. Methods: We apply a mechanistic general simulation model to test the response of pla

  12. Restoration of Ecosystems Destroyed by the Fly Ash Dump Using Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The leguminous plants was studied at experimental variants on fly ash dump: sown species of Onobrichys viciifolia and invasive colonies of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, and yellow sweet (Melilotus officinalis. Six experimental variants were studied in three replicates each: untreated fly ash, fly ash amended with unmodified/modified volcanic rock and fly ash treated with unmodified/modified volcanic rock (indigenous volcanic tuff mixed with organic fertilizer, anaerobically stabilized municipal sludge type. The characteristics of topsoil was assessed in toxic metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni content and the characteristics of plants was assessed in terms: height, shoot and roots dry weight, root and shoot ratio, root length density, the aspect plant and competitive ability of this species to dominate in sown habitat. Invasive plants (Lotus corniculatus and Melilotus officinalis have colonized up to 38 - 43 % and max 5 % respectively, treated experimental variants fly ash with organic fertilizer mixed with unmodified/modified volcanic tuff. The proposed strategy with sown leguminous species led to improved conditions for installation of more and resistant invasive species. Furthermore ecological restoration is increasing with effective fly ash dump stabilization.

  13. A proposal to rationalize within-species plant virus nomenclature: benefits and implications of inaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger A C; Kehoe, Monica A

    2016-07-01

    Current approaches used to name within-species, plant virus phylogenetic groups are often misleading and illogical. They involve names based on biological properties, sequence differences and geographical, country or place-association designations, or any combination of these. This type of nomenclature is becoming increasingly unsustainable as numbers of sequences of the same virus from new host species and different parts of the world increase. Moreover, this increase is accelerating as world trade and agriculture expand, and climate change progresses. Serious consequences for virus research and disease management might arise from incorrect assumptions made when current within-species phylogenetic group names incorrectly identify properties of group members. This could result in development of molecular tools that incorrectly target dangerous virus strains, potentially leading to unjustified impediments to international trade or failure to prevent such strains being introduced to countries, regions or continents formerly free of them. Dangerous strains might be missed or misdiagnosed by diagnostic laboratories and monitoring programs, and new cultivars with incorrect strain-specific resistances released. Incorrect deductions are possible during phylogenetic analysis of plant virus sequences and errors from strain misidentification during molecular and biological virus research activities. A nomenclature system for within-species plant virus phylogenetic group names is needed which avoids such problems. We suggest replacing all other naming approaches with Latinized numerals, restricting biologically based names only to biological strains and removing geographically based names altogether. Our recommendations have implications for biosecurity authorities, diagnostic laboratories, disease-management programs, plant breeders and researchers. PMID:27101071

  14. Aliens in Transylvania: risk maps of invasive alien plant species in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Zimmermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the MAXENT algorithm, we developed risk maps for eight invasive plant species in southern Transylvania, Romania, a region undergoing drastic land-use changes. Our findings show that invasion risk increased with landscape heterogeneity. Roads and agricultural areas were most prone to invasion, whereas forests were least at risk.

  15. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  16. Phylogenetic structure of plant species pools reflects habitat age on the geological time scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Šmarda, P.; Chytrý, M.; Purschke, O.; Pyšek, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Tichý, L.; Winter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2015), s. 1080-1089. ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant communities * phylogenetic diversity * species pool Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  17. Why would plant species become extinct locally if growing conditions improve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing season

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Involved in Plant Defense against a Gall Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in plant defense against pathogens, but evidence for their role in defense against insects is still preliminary and inconsistent. In this study, we examined the potential role of ROS in defense of wheat and rice against Hessian fly (Mayetiola destruct...

  19. [Effect zone of forest road on plant species diversity in Great Hing 'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Chang, Yu; Li, Xiu-zhen; Bu, Ren-cang; Hu, Chang-he; Wang, Chun-lin

    2010-05-01

    Forest road has far-reaching effects on plant species diversity across varying scales, and the estimation of its effect distance and effect zone is a key issue to integrate the road effect and ecological processes in forest area. In this paper, ten transects, 2 m wide and extending 50 m from varying grade roads including main road, main line for wood transportation, and secondary line for wood transportation in Huzhong forest area of Great Hing' an Mountains were set. The plant composition was investigated in twenty-five 2 m x 2 m plots of each transect. The road-effect distance on plant species diversity identified by moving window analysis in terms of the important value of each plot. The results showed that in study area, the effect distance reached up to 20-34 m, regardless of the roads grade. The plant species diversity of shrub stratum and herb stratum within the effect zone was greater than that in adjacent habitat, with the Shannon-Weiner index increased by 21% and 60%, respectively. The response of shrub stratum to the road effect was more stable than herb stratum, but no significant change was observed in tree stratum. Chamaenerion angustifolium was the indicative species of road-effect zone communities. Based on the estimation of road-effect distance, the road area in Huzhong Forestry Bureau and Great Hing' an Mountains occupied about 0.10%, and its effect zone on vegetation occupied 1.79% and 1.53%, respectively. PMID:20707089

  20. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae)on four host plant species under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development, survival and reproduction of the papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on three ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha sp. and Plumeria sp.) and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) were investigated. Papaya mealybug was able t...