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Sample records for amazonian manatee trichechus

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

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    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens.

  2. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E;

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition......, the fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant...

  3. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

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    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  4. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

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    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  5. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

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    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of androgens in male Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis): biologic validation.

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    Amaral, Rodrigo de Souza; Rosas, Fernando Cesar Weber; Viau, Priscila; d'Affonsêca Neto, José Anselmo; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; de Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is endemic in the Amazonian basin and is the only exclusively fresh water sirenian. Historically hunted on a large scale, this species is now considered endangered, and studies on the reproductive physiology are critical for the improvement of reproductive management of captive and wild populations of manatees. The aim of this study was to verify the viability of androgen measurement in saliva, lacrimal, urine, and fecal samples of the Amazonian manatee by conducting a hormone challenge. Two adult male manatees (A-1 and A-2) were submitted to an experimentation protocol of 12 day (D1 to D10). On D0, the animals received an intramuscular injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-analogue. Salivary, lacrimal, urinary, and fecal samples were collected daily (between 0800 hours and 0900 hours) and frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Fecal samples were lyophilized, extracted with 80% methanol, and diluted in buffer before the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urine samples underwent acid hydrolysis and were diluted in depleted bovine serum. Salivary and lacrimal samples were assayed without the extraction step. Hormonal assays were conducted with a commercial testosterone RIA kit. An androgen peak (> median + 2 interquartile range [IQR]) was observed in all matrices of both animals, although it was less prominent in the lacrimal samples of A-2. However, the fecal androgen peak (A-1 peak = 293.78 ng/g dry feces, median [IQR] = 143.58 [32.38] ng/g dry feces; A-2 peak = 686.72 ng/g dry feces, median [IQR] = 243.82 [193.16] ng/g dry feces) occurred later than urinary (A-1 peak = 648.16 ng/mg creatinine [Cr], median [IQR] = 23.88 [30.44] ng/mg Cr; A-2 peak = 370.44 ng/mg Cr, median [IQR] = 113.87 [117.73] ng/mg Cr) and salivary (A-1 peak = 678.89 pg/ml, median [IQR] = 103.69 [119.86] pg/ml; A-2 peak = 733.71 pg/ml, median [IQR] = 262.92 [211.44] pg/ml) androgen peaks. These intervals appear to be correlated with the long digesta

  7. Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

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    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2013-11-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia), a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin, is the only sirenian that lives exclusively in fresh water. Information about the reproductive endocrinology of the Amazonian manatee is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor salivary progesterone and estradiol patterns during the ovarian cycle in T. inunguis. Salivary samples were collected daily during a 12-week period of two consecutive years from two captive adult females. The salivary estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The results were analyzed in an iterative process of excluding values that were higher than the mean plus 2 standard deviations until the basal values were determined. The interval between two peaks of salivary estradiol followed by a rise of progesterone was considered as one complete cycle for the calculation of the cycle length. We observed only three complete cycles in all samples analyzed. The cycle length ranged from 42 to 48 days (mean of 44.67 days). We also observed two distinct salivary estradiol peaks during all cycles analyzed, with the first peak occurring before the rise in salivary progesterone and the second occurred followed by a return to basal progesterone levels. This is the first in-depth study of the ovarian cycle in Amazonian manatees. Our results demonstrate that salivary samples can be a useful tool in the endocrine monitoring of this species and suggest that T. inunguis shows a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle, a finding that may have physiological and ecological significance in the reproductive strategy of these animals.

  8. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

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    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (Pmanatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.

  9. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

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    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  10. Seasonal variations in blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis

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    Elton P. Colares

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in body weight, food consumption and blood glucose, total lipids, urea, total proteins, albumin and globulins of captive Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis, were determined. Body weight changed significantly along the year, increasing from autumn to spring and decreasing in summer. The mean daily food intake of paragrass remained almost unchanged along the year. Paragrass administered to the manatees showed important variations in crude protein and lipid content along the year. No significant differences in blood parameters were registered between males and females in all seasons. Further, there were no significant differences in blood total proteins, albumin and globulins along the year. On the other hand, significant differences in the mean blood glucose, lipids and urea were registered. An increase in the blood glucose in the spring and summer was observed. Blood urea and lipids levels were positively related to paragrass protein and lipids content. These two correlations suggested that these blood parameters are good indicators of the animal nutritional status in the Amazonian manatee.Variações sasonais no peso do corpo, consumo de alimento e glicose, lípides totais, uréia, proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas do sangue de Peixes bois cativos, Trichechus inunguis, foram determinadas. Houve diferença significativa no peso dos animais ao longo do ano, sendo este aumento entre o outono e a primavera e decresce no verão. O consumo de capim colônia não variou ao longo do ano. A composição de proteína bruta e lipídeos totais de capim colônia dado aos animais mostrou importante variação ao longo do ano. Não foi verificado nenhuma variação nas concentrações dos parâmetros sagüíneos estudados entre os sexos em todas as estações. Também não foi verificado diferenças significativas nas concentrações sangüíneas de proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas ao longo do ano. Por outro lado

  11. Acoustical and anatomical determination of sound production and transmission in West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees.

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    Landrau-Giovannetti, Nelmarie; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2014-10-01

    West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees are vocal mammals, with most sounds produced for communication between mothers and calves. While their hearing and vocalizations have been well studied, the actual mechanism of sound production is unknown. Acoustical recordings and anatomical examination were used to determine the source of sound generation. Recordings were performed on live captive manatees from Puerto Rico, Cuba and Colombia (T. manatus) and from Peru (T. inunguis) to determine focal points of sound production. The manatees were recorded using two directional hydrophones placed on the throat and nasal region and an Edirol-R44 digital recorder. The average sound intensity level was analyzed to evaluate the sound source with a T test: paired two sample for means. Anatomical examinations were conducted on six T. manatus carcasses from Florida and Puerto Rico. During necropsies, the larynx, trachea, and nasal areas were dissected, with particular focus on identifying musculature and soft tissues capable of vibrating or constricting the airway. From the recordings we found that the acoustical intensity was significant (P manatees in the ventral throat region compared to the nasal region. From the dissection we found two raised areas of tissue in the lateral walls of the manatee's laryngeal lumen that are consistent with mammalian vocal folds. They oppose each other and may be able to regulate airflow between them when they are adducted or abducted by muscular control of arytenoid cartilages. Acoustic and anatomical evidence taken together suggest vocal folds as the mechanism for sound production in manatees.

  12. Changes in the blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis after long-distance transportation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.20081

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    Talita Laurie Lustosa do Carmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters in a juvenile male Amazonian manatee measured before transport, immediately after transport, and during adaptation to a new facility. The animal was transported from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, to São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, (2,733 km within 6 hours. Among all blood parameters analyzed, we observed obvious neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increases in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, but these parameters subsequently returned to normal. These results suggest that transport and changes in the environment are temporary stressful events for Amazonian manatees. We, therefore, recommend monitoring the hematological and biochemical parameters before and after translocation to minimize the effects of handling stressors in this species

  13. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

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    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.

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    Satizábal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Duchêne, Sebastián; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M; García-Dávila, Carmen R; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  15. Mycobacteriosis in two captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

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    Sato, Tsuneo; Shibuya, Hisashi; Ohba, Shigeo; Nojiri, Toshio; Shirai, Wataru

    2003-06-01

    Two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) died at the marine aquarium in Inagi City, Tokyo, Japan. Acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated in tuberculoid nodules in the lungs from both manatees. Mycobacterium marinum and M. fortuitum were isolated from one manatee; M. marinum and M. kansasii were cultured from the second animal. This report confirms the pathogenicity and potentially fatal outcome of mycobacterial infection in manatees. In addition, the pathologic response to infection with these mycobacteria in manatees is similar to that associated with Mycobacterium spp. in other animals.

  16. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

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    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were inc...

  17. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus).

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    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal E; Hall, Jeffery O; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A; Bonde, Robert K; Heard, Darryl

    2013-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

  18. Viral papillomatosis in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

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    Bossart, Gregory D; Ewing, Ruth Y; Lowe, Mark; Sweat, Mark; Decker, Susan J; Walsh, Catherine J; Ghim, Shin-je; Jenson, A Bennett

    2002-02-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in American coastal waters. Naturally resistant to infectious disease, the manatee immune system appears highly developed to protect it against the harsh marine environment and the effects of human-related injury. In 1997, seven captive Florida manatees developed multiple, cutaneous, pedunculated papillomas over a period of 6 months. Approximately 3 years later, four of the seven manatees developed multiple, cutaneous, sessile papillomas topically and clinically distinct from the initial lesions, some of which are still present. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features indicated that the two distinct phenotypic lesions were caused by papillomaviruses (PVs). Preliminary immunologic data correlated with daily clinical observations suggested that the manatees were immunologically suppressed and that the papillomas were caused by activation of latent PV infections and reinoculation from active infections. The emergence of PV-induced papillomas in captive manatees, the possibility of activation of latent infection or transmission of active infection to free-ranging manatees, and the underlying cause of immune suppression predisposing manatees to develop viral papillomatosis are serious concerns for the future management of this highly endangered species.

  19. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus in South America.

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    Paula Satizábal

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  20. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus)

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    Siegal-Willott, J.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ≤ 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

  1. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

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    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  2. Echocardiographic evaluation of clinically healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

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    Gerlach, Trevor J; Estrada, Amara H; Sosa, Ivan S; Powell, Melanie; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; de Wit, Martine; Ball, Ray L; Walsh, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    Antemortem studies pertaining to the manatee cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems are limited despite reports of cardiac disease in postmortem specimens. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for echocardiography in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Because of their unique anatomy, a ventral approach was employed by use of an echocardiography table designed specifically for this study. Fourteen clinically healthy, free-ranging and captive Florida manatees underwent echocardiography between the fall of 2011 and winter of 2012. Eight females and six males of various age categories were included in the study. Clear visualization of all valves and chambers was accomplished, and length and width measurements of the left atrium, peak aortic flow velocity, and ejection fraction percentage were calculated in most animals. Abnormalities observed during the study included atrioventricular regurgitation and severe right-atrial enlargement. Based on the results of this study, echocardiography in the Florida manatee is possible, which has both clinical and research implications in larger epidemiologic studies evaluating diseases of the cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems.

  3. Clinical biochemistry in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

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    Harvey, John W; Harr, Kendal E; Murphy, David; Walsh, Michael T; Chittick, Elizabeth J; Bonde, Robert K; Pate, Melanie G; Deutsch, Charles J; Edwards, Holly H; Haubold, Elsa M

    2007-06-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are endangered aquatic mammals living in coastal and riverine waterways of Florida and adjacent states. Serum or plasma biochemical analyses are important tools in evaluating the health of free-ranging and captive manatees. The purpose of this study was to measure diagnostically important analytes in the plasma of healthy manatees and to determine whether there was significant variation with respect to location (free-ranging versus captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, adults), and gender. No significant differences in plasma sodium, potassium, bilirubin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, or creatine kinase were found among these classes of animals. Compared to free-ranging manatees, captive animals had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma chloride, phosphate, magnesium, triglycerides, anion gap, and lactate. Captive manatees had significantly higher mean values of total CO2, calcium, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio than did free-ranging animals. Differences in the environments of these two groups, including diet, temperature, salinity, and stress, might account for some of these results. The higher plasma lactate and anion gap concentrations and lower total CO2 concentrations of free-ranging manatees were probably due to greater exertion during capture, but the lack of elevated plasma creatine kinase activity relative to captive animals indicates that there was no serious muscle injury associated with capture. Plasma phosphate decreased and total globulins increased with age. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were highest in small calves. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase was higher in large calves than in adults and subadults, and the albumin/ globulin ratio was higher in subadults than in adults. Plasma total CO2 was higher and chloride was slightly lower in females than in

  4. Clinical biochemistry in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Chittick, E.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Haubold, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are endangered aquatic mammals living in coastal and riverine waterways of Florida and adjacent states. Serum or plasma biochemical analyses are important tools in evaluating the health of free-ranging and captive manatees. The purpose of this study was to measure diagnostically important analytes in the plasma of healthy manatees and to determine whether there was significant variation with respect to location (free-ranging versus captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, adults), and gender. No significant differences in plasma sodium, potassium, bilirubin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, or creatine kinase were found among these classes of animals. Compared to free-ranging manatees, captive animals had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma chloride, phosphate, magnesium, triglycerides, anion gap, and lactate. Captive manatees had significantly higher mean values of total CO2, calcium, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio than did free-ranging animals. Differences in the environments of these two groups, including diet, temperature, salinity, and stress, might account for some of these results. The higher plasma lactate and anion gap concentrations and lower total CO2 concentrations of free-ranging manatees were probably due to greater exertion during capture, but the lack of elevated plasma creatine kinase activity relative to captive animals indicates that there was no serious muscle injury associated with capture. Plasma phosphate decreased and total globulins increased with age. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were highest in small calves. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase was higher in large calves than in adults and subadults, and the albumin/ globulin ratio was higher in subadults than in adults. Plasma total CO2 was higher and chloride was slightly lower in females than in

  5. Health Assessment and Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Wild Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sulzner (Kathryn); C. Kreuder Johnson (Christine); R.K. Bonde (Robert); N. Auil Gomez (Nicole); J. Powell (James); K. Nielsen (Klaus); M.P. Luttrell (Page); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.A. Aguirre (Alonso)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threaten

  6. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necropsies were conducted on four Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010-August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manat...

  7. Genetic variability in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Leroy R.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Tissue was obtained from 59 manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses salvaged from 20 counties in Florida. Allozyme phenotypes at 24 structural loci were determined by gel electrophoresis. Averages for the proportion of polymorphic loci and mean heterozygosity were 0.300 (range, 0.167-0.417) and 0.050 (range, 0.028-0.063), respectively. These estimates are equivalent to or higher than those generally reported for other species of marine mammals and do not support the hypothesis that body size and heterozygosity in mammals are related inversely. Among-region gene diversity accounted for only 4% of the total diversity. High rates of gene flow probably account for genetic homogeneity across regions. An F-statistic analysis revealed a general tendency toward excess homozygosity within regions. Management efforts to prevent future reductions in population size that would erode existing genic diversity should continue.

  8. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  9. Estudio del comportamiento de Manatí amazónico Trichechus inunguis en cautiverio (Puerto Nariño - Amazonas, Colombia Study of the behavior of Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis in captivity (Puerto Nariño – Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerda Ordoñez Enrique de Jesús

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El manatí amazónico es una especie considerada vulnerable, cuyo comportamiento ha sidoescasamente descrito. Esta investigación constituye el primer estudio sistemático delcomportamiento de un Trichechus inunguis. El individuo estudiado fue un juvenil macho, lactadoartificialmente, y para el cual se planea la reintroducción al medio silvestre. Se efectuaron 149horas de registro en dos estanques de diferente tamaño. Se realizó la descripción de conductasy el conteo de eventos, por observación ad libitum. La frecuencia de estados se hizo por mediode muestreos instantáneos de 30 minutos, con intervalos de un minuto. Se obtuvo el primercatálogo etológico para la especie, que incluye la descripción de 87 conductas, clasificadas enocho categorías comportamentales. Este trabajo presenta el análisis de cada tipo de actividadpara ambos sitios de cautiverio. Además, se estudió el uso del tiempo (ritmo de actividad y delespacio del manatí.The behavior of the amazon manatee, which is classified as “vulnerable”, has been poorlystudied. This research constitutes the first ethological study of one Trichechus inunguis. Theanimal concerned was a juvenile male held in captivity and bottle-fed with an artificial milkformula. The manatee was undergoing a long-term rehabilitation process for re-introducing itin to the wild. Ethological records during 149 hours in 2 different sized facilities were collected.Ad libitumobservations were used to describe behavior and events. The 30-minute recordingsessions were divided into 1-minute intervals. The first ethological catalog for this species wasdesigned, including 87 behavior patherns classified into 8 general categories. The studypresents an analysis of each type of activity for both facilities. Activity rhythm and the use ofspace by the manatee were also studied.

  10. Protection of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E.; Gluckman, C.J.

    1988-05-01

    Research and management actions necessary for the recovery of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) have received considerable attention over the past decade from many individuals, institutions, and agencies. A new Manatee Recovery Plan is being developed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and promises to provide research goals and timetables to enhance further recovery of manatees in Florida. Recommendations are made in the following areas; implementing local, site-specific management plans that specifically address manatee protection and habitat conservation; increasing research funding to allow better assessment of manatee critical habitat, life history parameters, mortality, and movement patterns; acquiring or restricting access to critical manatee habitat to create a system of reserves; expanding enforcement capability to protect manatees and their habitat; and coordinating education and awareness programs that target specific user groups.

  11. Nephrolithiasis and pyelonephritis in two West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martha; Moliner, José L; Vásquez, Grettys; Cruz, Danilo; Bello, Orestes; Costidis, Alex M; Rommel, Sentiel A; Mays, Maron B Calderwood; Gearhart, Scott

    2008-07-01

    Two West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus spp.) were reported with severe emaciation. One animal was a Florida manatee from the Everglades; the other was an Antillean manatee from Cuba. On necropsy, both animals had nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, and moderate to severe renomegaly. Histopathology revealed multifocal to diffuse pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and nephrocalcinosis. The stones were analyzed and consisted primarily of calcium carbonate. Serum chemistry values for the Florida animal revealed no renal abnormalities. The mechanism of calculus formation remains unclear in manatees. In horses, another hindgut fermenter, the most common urolith is also calcium carbonate. Urinalyses performed on manatees are very similar to those of horses (i.e., alkaline urine, low specific gravity, and calcium carbonate crystals). Formation of uroliths in manatees may have a pathogenesis similar to equine urolithiasis.

  12. Diagnostic stages of the parasites of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Monica; Larkin, Iskande V; Wright, Scott D; Greiner, Ellis C

    2014-02-01

    Limited information is available on diagnostic stages of parasites in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). We examined 67 fecal samples from captive and wild manatees to define the diagnostic stages of the parasite fauna known to occur in Florida manatees. Parasite eggs were freshly extracted ex utero from identified mature helminths and subsequently characterized, illustrated, and matched to those isolated from fecal samples. In addition, coccidian oocysts in the fecal samples were identified. These diagnostic stages included eggs from 5 species of trematodes (Chiorchis fabaceus, Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Moniligerum blairi, and Nudacotyle undicola), 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus), and oocysts of 2 coccidians (Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa).

  13. Diaphragmatic hernia and right-sided heart enlargement in a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Trevor J; de Wit, Martine; Landolfi, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Postmortem evaluation of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) revealed cold stress lesions and previous watercraft trauma that included broken ribs, a diaphragmatic hernia, an enlarged vena cava, and right-sided cardiomegaly. We discuss these findings and present a possible pathogenesis for the cardiomegaly.

  14. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-09

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death.

  15. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal.

  16. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  17. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS OF CLINICALLY HEALTHY FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Trevor J; Estrada, Amara H; Sosa, Ivan S; Powell, Melanie; Lamb, Kenneth E; Ball, Ray L; de Wit, Martine; Walsh, Mike T

    2015-06-01

    A standardized echocardiographic technique was recently established for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). There are no available published data on normal echocardiographic parameters in any Sirenian species. The purpose of this study was to report reference parameters for various echocardiographic measurements. These parameters are intended to serve as a comparison for future research into the prevalence of cardiac diseases in the manatee and to aid in diagnosing animals with suspected cardiac disease in rehabilitation facilities. Annual health assessments of free-ranging manatees in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, and pre-release health assessments of rehabilitated manatees at Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo permitted comparison of echocardiographic measurements in adult (n=14), subadult (n=7), and calf (n=8) animals under manual restraint.

  19. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, D G; Sarkis, J E S; Diaz, E; Soares, D G; Serrano, I L; Borges, J C G; Souto, A S; Taniguchi, S; Montone, R C; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2012-07-01

    The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is threatened with extinction in Brazil, and this study focused on nondestructive blood samples analyzed for metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Studied manatees were kept at Projeto Peixe-Boi headquarters in Pernambuco State, and at two natural areas in estuaries where they are released to the wild. Manatees kept at the natural estuary in Paraiba State have blood concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Sn that are 11, 7, 8 and 23 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations found in blood of animals from the same species in Florida, USA. An inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in manatees kept at the two reintroduction sites in Alagoas and Paraiba States indicated possible exposure of the animals to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides. PCBs and OCPs were not detected. Results from this study will help delineate conservation efforts in the region.

  20. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, K.C.; Nourisson, C.; Clark, A.; Kellogg, M.E.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Tempo de passagem de duas dietas no trato gastrointestinal do peixe-boi da Amazônia Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 em cativeiro Transit time of two diets in the gastrointestinal tract of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Sousa Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar o tempo de passagem do alimento no trato digestório de peixes-bois da Amazônia em cativeiro, foram testadas separadamente duas dietas distintas. Uma composta exclusivamente de capim do gênero Brachiaria (dieta experimental - DE 1 e outra de capim do gênero Brachiaria acrescentado de pequenas porções de ração extrusada para eqüinos (dieta experimental - DE 2. Foram selecionados do plantel do INPA dois animais adultos machos sadios, os quais foram isolados dos demais e submetidos a um período de aclimatação às dietas experimentais por 15 dias. Após este período, as dietas foram marcadas com uma fita plástica de 10 cm e fornecidas aos animais que foram monitorados em intervalos de uma hora. Todo material fecal foi coletado até a recuperação dos marcadores plásticos. A média do tempo de passagem da DE 1 foi de 123h57min, cerca de 5,15 dias e da DE 2 foi de 125h04min ou 5,21 dias. Não houve diferença estatística (PThe objective of this study was to determine the transit time of two diets in the digestive tract of the Amazonian manatee in captivity. We tested separately two different diets: one composed exclusively of grass of the genus Brachiaria (experimental diet - ED- A 1 and the other composed of grass Brachiaria added with small portions of extruded pellets for horses (experimental diet ED- A 2. Two healthy adult manatees were selected and isolated from the rest and underwent a period of food acclimation with the experimental diets for 15 days. After this period, the experimental diet was marked with a plastic colored tape of 10-cm length and given to the animals. The manatees were monitored at intervals of 1 hour and all fecal material was collected until recovery of the markers. The mean transit time of ED - A1 was 123h57min , about 5.16 days and ED - A 2 was 125h04min or 5.21 days. There was no statistical difference (P <0.05 between the transit time of the two diets provided. The transit time

  2. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  3. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  4. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  5. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Gomez, Nicole Auil; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  6. Audiogram and auditory critical ratios of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Joseph C; Bauer, Gordon B; Reep, Roger L; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Read, Latoshia; Mann, David A

    2012-05-01

    Manatees inhabit turbid, shallow-water environments and have been shown to have poor visual acuity. Previous studies on hearing have demonstrated that manatees possess good hearing and sound localization abilities. The goals of this research were to determine the hearing abilities of two captive subjects and measure critical ratios to understand the capacity of manatees to detect tonal signals, such as manatee vocalizations, in the presence of noise. This study was also undertaken to better understand individual variability, which has been encountered during behavioral research with manatees. Two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were tested in a go/no-go paradigm using a modified staircase method, with incorporated 'catch' trials at a 1:1 ratio, to assess their ability to detect single-frequency tonal stimuli. The behavioral audiograms indicated that the manatees' auditory frequency detection for tonal stimuli ranged from 0.25 to 90.5 kHz, with peak sensitivity extending from 8 to 32 kHz. Critical ratios, thresholds for tone detection in the presence of background masking noise, were determined with one-octave wide noise bands, 7-12 dB (spectrum level) above the thresholds determined for the audiogram under quiet conditions. Manatees appear to have quite low critical ratios, especially at 8 kHz, where the ratio was 18.3 dB for one manatee. This suggests that manatee hearing is sensitive in the presence of background noise and that they may have relatively narrow filters in the tested frequency range.

  7. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil.

  8. Vertebral anatomy in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: a developmental and evolutionary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Booth, Amy C; Webbink, Katherine E

    2007-06-01

    The vertebral column of the Florida manatee presents an unusual suite of morphological traits. Key among these are a small precaudal count, elongate thoracic vertebrae, extremely short neural spines, lack of a sacral series, high lumbar variability, and the presence of six instead of seven cervical vertebrae. This study documents vertebral morphology, size, and lumbar variation in 71 skeletons of Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) and uses the skeletons of Trichechus senegalensis (west African manatee) and Dugong dugon (dugong) in comparative analysis. Vertebral traits are used to define morphological, and by inference developmental, column modules and to propose their hierarchical relationships. A sequence of evolutionary innovations in column morphology is proposed. Results suggest that the origin of the fluke and low rates of cervical growth originated before separation of trichechids (manatees) and dugongids (dugongs). Meristic reduction in count is a later, trichechid innovation and is expressed across the entire precaudal column. Elongation of thoracic vertebrae may be an innovative strategy to generate an elongate column in an animal with a small precaudal count. Elimination of the lumbus through both meristic and homeotic reduction is currently in progress.

  9. Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Millan-Sanchez, S. L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Lefebvre, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and recent information on the status and distribution of West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia was reviewed. Opportunistic and systematic interviews were also conducted. Historical information suggested that the distribution of manatees had been reduced in the Caribbean basin. Manatees can be found in the Atrato, Sinu??, San Jorge, Cauca, Cesar and Magdalena rivers and the Cie??naga Grande de Santa Marta marsh in the Caribbean basin, and in the Meta River in the Orinoco basin. The Magdalena riparian system provides the largest area of suitable habitat, which also has the highest frequency of captures. Most animals (81.20%) were killed for sale or to share meat in a subsistence base. Hunting is apparently increasing but capture with nets still represents the species' major direct threat. Habitat destruction occurs in all areas. International and national laws protect the species, however, funding is inadequate for effective enforcement of present laws. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE NEOPLASMS IN WILD AND LONG-TERM CAPTIVE FEMALE FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Rotstein, David S; Ball, Ray L; Gerlach, Trevor J; Kinsel, Michael; Rodriguez, Maya; de Wit, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. This case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between April 2009 and May 2014. All cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) were made. The underlying cause of tumor development and effects on reproductive success is currently unknown, but possible asymmetric reproductive aging and/or a correlation between obesity and reproductive disorder in long-term nonreproductive female manatees are of interest and warrant further investigation.

  11. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  12. Electrocardiography in two subspecies of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Estrada, Amara; Bonde, Robert; Wong, Arthur; Estrada, Daniel J; Harr, Kendal

    2006-12-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were recorded in two subspecies of awake, apparently healthy, wild manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus) undergoing routine field examinations in Florida and Belize. Six unsedated juveniles (dependent and independent calves) and 6 adults were restrained in ventral recumbency for ECG measurements. Six lead ECGs were recorded for all manatees and the following parameters were determined: heart rate and rhythm; P, QRS, and T wave morphology, amplitude, and duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Statistical differences using a t-test for equality of means were determined. No statistical difference was seen based on sex or subspecies of manatees in the above measured criteria. Statistical differences existed in heart rate (P = 0.047), P wave duration (P = 0.019), PR interval (P = 0.025), and MEA (P = 0.021) between adult manatees and calves. Our findings revealed normal sinus rhythms, no detectable arrhythmias, prolonged PR and QT intervals, prolonged P wave duration, and small R wave amplitude as compared with cetacea and other marine mammals. This paper documents the techniques for and baseline recordings of ECGs in juvenile and adult free-living manatees. It also demonstrates that continual assessment of cardiac electrical activity in the awake manatee can be completed and can be used to aid veterinarians and biologists in routine health assessment, during procedures, and in detecting the presence of cardiac disease or dysfunction.

  13. Diet items of manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in three priority sites for the species in Mexico and Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cascante, Lavinia; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Castelblanco-Martínez, Nataly; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth; Auil, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are herbivorous mammals with opportunistic habits that feed on approximately 60 species of plants. The focus of this paper was to identify diet elements of the manatee by fecal analysis in two sites in Mexico (Jonuta, Tabasco and Bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo) and one site in Belize (Southern Lagoon). Samples were obtained from wild manatees and captive manatees temporarily captured for health assessment and sampling during 2004-2006. A total of 24 ...

  14. DETECTION OF INFECTION WITH Toxoplasma gondii IN MANATEES (Trichechus inunguis OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON Detección de infección por Toxoplasma gondii en manatíes (Trichechus inunguis de la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK MATHEWS DELGADO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the Amazon Basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 % of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p El manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis es un mamífero acuático que habita en ambientes de agua dulce y es endémico de la cuenca del Amazonas. La presencia de Toxoplasma gondii se investigó en 19 manatíes, en una unidad de rescate en la región norte del Perú. Los anticuerpos contra T. gondii fueron detectados en 12 (63,2 %, de 19 animales mediante el uso de la prueba de aglutinación modificada (título, 1:25. No fue observada asociación entre el sexo y edad de los animales con la presencia de anticuerpos de T. gondii (p < 0,05. Los resultados sugieren la contaminación por ooquistes de T. gondii en el medio acuático donde viven estos animales.

  15. Effects of environmental stressors on lymphocyte proliferation in Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Cathy J; Luer, Carl A; Noyes, David R

    2005-02-10

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected each year by exposure to cold weather or harmful algal blooms (red tide; Karenia brevis). Exposures can be sublethal, resulting in stressed animals that are rescued and taken to authorized facilities for rehabilitation, or lethal if exposures are prolonged or unusually severe. To investigate whether sublethal environmental exposures can impair immune function in manatees, rendering animals vulnerable to disease or death, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed in lymphocytes from manatees exposed to cold temperatures (N=20) or red tide (N=19) in the wild, and compared to lymphocyte responses from healthy free-ranging manatees (N=32). All animals sampled for this study were adults. Lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and proliferation was assessed after 96 h using incorporation of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), into newly synthesized DNA. Proliferation of lymphocytes from manatees rescued from exposure to red tide or cold-stress was approximately one-third that of lymphocytes from healthy free-ranging manatees. To examine the direct effects of red tide toxins on lymphocyte function, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed following co-culture of lymphocytes with K. brevis toxin extracts. Stimulation indices decreased with increasing toxin concentration, with a significant decrease in proliferation occurring in the presence of 400 ng red tide toxins/ml. When lymphocytes from cold-stressed manatees were co-cultured with red tide toxin extracts, proliferative responses were reduced even further, suggesting multiple stressors may have synergistic effects on immune function in manatees.

  16. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

    2012-11-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  17. Digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Graham A J; Worthy, Tamara A M

    2014-01-01

    Digestive efficiencies (Dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (Mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. The Dm of ex situ manatees determined using [Mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the Dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. Gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [Mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in the duodenum and small intestine but increased in the cecum, colon, and rectum, consistent with colonic digestion and absorption. In situ manatees consuming marine vegetation had significantly lower Dm (mean ± SE, 46.9% ± 1.8%; n=8) than did in situ manatees consuming freshwater vegetation (77.8% ± 2.6%; n=7), which in turn had significantly lower values than did ex situ manatees consuming lettuce (84.0% ± 0.7%; n=37). In situ manatees eating seagrasses had significantly higher Dm than did long-term ex situ animals consuming seagrass for short periods of time (46.9% ± 1.8% vs. 36.2% ± 1.2%, respectively), suggesting potential modification of gut flora over time. One significant ramification of our results is that manatees consuming seagrasses would require a greater standing biomass to support their needs than would be required if they were eating freshwater vegetation. This reinforces the critical need to implement habitat conservation and protection before considering downlisting or delisting manatees as an endangered species.

  18. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  19. THE VOCALIZATION MECHANISM OF THE FLORIDA MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS

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    Charles J. Grossman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which Florida manatees produce vocalizations is unknown. Anatomically, the laryngeal region in manatees lacks clearly defined vocal folds. Initially we developed a method to visualize the entire manatee upper respiratory system. We then forced air through fresh necropsied manatee larynxes and generated artificial vocalizations which closely duplicated the normal vocalizations produced by live manatees, both in fundamental frequency and structure of harmonics. Here we report that sound is generated in the larynx when air vibrates bilateral strips of tissue embedded in the lateral laryngeal walls which are in close approximation anteriorly but which diverge posteriorly. We propose that these strips of tissue are the modified vocal folds containing ligaments and we support this through histological stained sections and because they are connected anteriorly to the posterior side of the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly with the arytenoidal cartilages. We also suggest that these vocalizations are then modified within the resonance cavities in the frontal area of the head and the air used to generate these vocalizations also causes a transient deformation of this region before being conserved and returned to the lungs.

  20. Evaluation of adrenocortical function in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Kathleen M; Verstegen, John P; Deutsch, Charles J; Bonde, Robert K; de Wit, Martine; Manire, Charles A; Gaspard, Joseph; Harr, Kendal E

    2011-01-01

    The study objectives were to determine the predominant manatee glucocorticoid; validate assays to measure this glucocorticoid and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); determine diagnostic thresholds to distinguish physiological vs. pathological concentrations; identify differences associated with sex, age class, female reproductive status, capture time, and lactate; and determine the best methods for manatee biologists and clinicians to diagnose stress. Cortisol is the predominant manatee glucocorticoid. IMMULITE 1000 assays for cortisol and ACTH were validated. Precision yielded intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for serum cortisol: ≤23.5 and ≤16.7%; and ACTH: ≤6.9 and ≤8.5%. Accuracy resulted in a mean adjusted R(2)≥0.87 for serum cortisol and ≥0.96 for ACTH. Assay analytical sensitivities for cortisol (0.1 µg/dl) and ACTH (10.0 pg/ml) were verified. Methods were highly correlated with another IMMULITE 1000 for serum cortisol (r=0.97) and ACTH (r=0.98). There was no significant variation in cortisol or ACTH with sex or age class and no correlation with female progesterone concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were highest in unhealthy manatees, chronically stressed by disease or injury. ACTH was greatest in healthy free-ranging or short-term rehabilitating individuals, peracutely stressed by capture and handling. Cortisol concentrations ≥1.0 µg/dl were diagnostic of chronic stress; ACTH concentrations ≥87.5 pg/ml were diagnostic of peracute stress. In healthy long-term captive manatees, cortisol (0.4±0.2 µg/dl) and ACTH (47.7±15.9 pg/ml) concentrations were lower than healthy free-ranging, short-term rehabilitated or unhealthy manatees. Capture time was not significantly correlated with cortisol; ACTH correlation was borderline significant. Cortisol and ACTH were positively correlated with lactate.

  1. Observations and relocation of a West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) off Bimini, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Reid, James P.; Gittens, Lester; Adimey, Nicole; Dillet, Jared Z.

    2011-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are listed as vulnerable (IUCN Red List, 7 March 2009; Deutsch et al., 2008), with the subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus (Florida and Antillean, respectively) considered endangered (IUCN Red List, 21 January 2011; Deutsch, 2008; Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni, 2008). Manatees are not native to The Bahamas; however, sightings have been recorded periodically since 1904, with an increase in sightings documented in the 1990s (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In the area of Bimini, The Bahamas, the first recorded manatee sighting was in 1904 of a single individual that was apparently killed (Allen, 1942). The second was not until 1996, which was poorly documented. The small adult remained for approximately 6 wks before disappearing (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In 1998, a third sighting was reported off Bimini of a single individual. Although the animal was seen for several weeks and was relatively habituated to human presence (Al Sweeting, Jr., pers. comm., 28 November 2008), no data were collected on this individual nor any photographs suitable for identification purposes.

  2. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  3. Conservative management of pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum in two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Trevor J; Sadler, Valerie M; Ball, Ray L

    2013-12-01

    Two distressed Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were reported to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The first animal was determined to be an abandoned, emaciated calf. The second animal was a nursing calf that had sustained watercraft-related trauma. Both animals were captured and transported to Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo, where diagnostic evaluations, including physical examinations, blood work, computed tomography (CT), and radiographs were performed. Radiograph and CT scans identified the presence of free air within the pleural and abdominal cavities of both animals. Based on the lack of substantial findings in the first animal and a rapid resolution of clinical signs in the second animal, both animals were managed conservatively. This report documents simultaneous pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum, the associated clinical and diagnostic findings, and conservative medical management of these conditions in the Florida manatee.

  4. Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus on the northern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Menezes Pessanha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA, Pará (PA and Amapá (AP states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fishing activities, preferably those who hunted manatees. Catches followed by intentional killing were responsible for 94.07% of the cases of mortality, while animals stranded on the beach represented 5.93% of the cases. Intentional capture was the strongest factor in the manatee mortality, and hunting with a harpoon occurred in 86.38% of catches. After capture, the animals were used for the hunter’s subsistence (63.83% and human consumption and trading (30.64%, and the animals’ parts were used for diverse purposes (medicine, fetish and santerias. It was considered that a proper understanding of the communities’ customs concerning the animals was important for any proposal of conservation strategies.

  5. Molecular characterization of novel mucosotropic papillomaviruses from a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We isolated two new manatee papillomavirus (PV) types, TmPV3 and TmPV4, from a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Two PV types were previously isolated from this species. TmPV1 is widely dispersed amongst manatees and a close-to-root PV; not much is known about TmPV2. The genomes of TmPV3 and TmPV4 were 7622 and 7771 bp in size, respectively. Both PVs had a genomic organization characteristic of all PVs, with one non-coding region and seven ORFs, including the E7 ORF that is absent in other cetacean PVs. Although these PVs were isolated from separate genital lesions of the same manatee, an enlarged E2/E4 ORF was found only in the TmPV4 genome. The full genome and L1 sequence similarities between TmPV3 and TmPV4 were 63.2 and 70.3 %, respectively. These genomes shared only 49.1 and 50.2 % similarity with TmPV1. The pairwise alignment of L1 nucleotide sequences indicated that the two new PVs nested in a monophyletic group of the genus Rhopapillomavirus, together with the cutaneotropic TmPV1 and TmPV2.

  6. Topographical organization of the facial motor nucleus in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher D; Vaughn, Susan D; Sarko, Diana K; Reep, Roger L

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) possess modified vibrissae that are used in conjunction with specialized perioral musculature to manipulate vegetation for ingestion, and aid in the tactile exploration of their environment. Therefore it is expected that manatees possess a large facial motor nucleus that exhibits a complex organization relative to other taxa. The topographical organization of the facial motor nucleus of five adult Florida manatees was analyzed using neuroanatomical methods. Cresyl violet and hematoxylin staining were used to localize the rostrocaudal extent of the facial motor nucleus as well as the organization and location of subdivisions within this nucleus. Differences in size, length, and organization of the facial motor nucleus among mammals correspond to the functional importance of the superficial facial muscles, including perioral musculature involved in the movement of mystacial vibrissae. The facial motor nucleus of Florida manatees was divided into seven subnuclei. The mean rostrocaudal length, width, and height of the entire Florida manatee facial motor nucleus was 6.6 mm (SD 8 0.51; range: 6.2-7.5 mm), 4.7 mm (SD 8 0.65; range: 4.0-5.6 mm), and 3.9 mm (SD 8 0.26; range: 3.5-4.2 mm), respectively. It is speculated that manatees could possess direct descending corticomotorneuron projections to the facial motornucleus. This conjecture is based on recent data for rodents, similiarities in the rodent and sirenian muscular-vibrissal complex, and the analogous nature of the sirenian cortical Rindenkerne system with the rodent barrel system.

  7. Swimming kinematics of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris): hydrodynamic analysis of an undulatory mammalian swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojeszewski, Tricia; Fish, Frank E

    2007-07-01

    The submerged swimming of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, was studied by filming individuals as they swam rectilinearly in a large pool at several rehabilitation centers. The swimming was analyzed using videography to detail the kinematics in conjunction with a hydromechanical model to determine the power output (P(t)) and propulsive efficiency (eta(p)). Manatees swam at velocities of 0.06-1.14 m s(-1). Locomotion was accomplished by undulation of the body and caudal fluke. Undulatory locomotion is a rapid and relatively high-powered propulsive mode involved in cruising and migrating by a variety of swimmers. Manatees displayed an undulatory swimming mode by passing a dorso-ventrally oriented traveling wave posteriorly along the body. The propulsive wave traveled at a higher velocity than the forward velocity of the animal. The frequency of the propulsive cycle (f) increased linearly with increasing swimming velocity (U). Amplitude at the tip of the caudal fluke (A) remained constant with respect to U and was 22% of body length. P(t) increased curvilinearly with U. The mean eta(p), expressing the relationship of the thrust power generated by the paddle-shaped caudal fluke to the total mechanical power, was 0.73. The maximum eta(p) was 0.82 at 0.95 m s(-1). Despite use of a primitive undulatory swimming mode and paddle-like fluke for propulsion, the manatee is capable of swimming with a high efficiency but lower power outputs compared with the oscillatory movements of the high-aspect ratio flukes of cetaceans. The swimming performance of the manatee is in accordance with its habits as an aquatic grazer that seasonally migrates over extended distances.

  8. PARASITOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN URINE FROM MARINE MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS MAINTAINED IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.L. Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee (Trichechus manatus is one of the most endangered marine mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction. The main risks to the conservation of the species are from natural causes, such as the slow birth rate, human actions and infectious diseases. Among the main objectives of the National Centre for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (CMA/ICMBio is to promote scientific research and management actions for the conservation and recovery of endangered species of marine mammals, and develop and promote rehabilitation in captivity and release natural environment of the marine manatee. The passage of these individuals for captive is of utmost importance for the conservation of the species. The rehabilitation of captive cubs marine manatees and allow recovery and can return the animal to the natural environment, enables a greater knowledge of the species, referring to biological, behavioral and clinical. Studies on the parasitism of manatee in Brazil are few elucidated, more research related to the topic, it is necessary to better understand the disease and health aspects of the species. This work aims to realize the isolation of the parasite in urine samples of marine manatee kept in the rehabilitation process. All animals included in the study are from the rehabilitation center for wild animals CRAS/CMA/ICMbio , located in Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco. This deal is the first description of parasites in urine manatee in Brazil and can support management actions to be taken to ensure the health of animals in rehabilitation.

  9. Four-choice sound localization abilities of two Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

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    Colbert, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger; Mann, David A; Bauer, Gordon B

    2009-07-01

    The absolute sound localization abilities of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured using a four-choice discrimination paradigm, with test locations positioned at 45 deg., 90 deg., 270 deg. and 315 deg. angles relative to subjects facing 0 deg. Three broadband signals were tested at four durations (200, 500, 1000, 3000 ms), including a stimulus that spanned a wide range of frequencies (0.2-20 kHz), one stimulus that was restricted to frequencies with wavelengths shorter than their interaural time distances (6-20 kHz) and one that was limited to those with wavelengths longer than their interaural time distances (0.2-2 kHz). Two 3000 ms tonal signals were tested, including a 4 kHz stimulus, which is the midpoint of the 2.5-5.9 kHz fundamental frequency range of manatee vocalizations and a 16 kHz stimulus, which is in the range of manatee best-hearing sensitivity. Percentage correct within the broadband conditions ranged from 79% to 93% for Subject 1 and from 51% to 93% for Subject 2. Both performed above chance with the tonal signals but had much lower accuracy than with broadband signals, with Subject 1 at 44% and 33% and Subject 2 at 49% and 32% at the 4 kHz and 16 kHz conditions, respectively. These results demonstrate that manatees are able to localize frequency bands with wavelengths that are both shorter and longer than their interaural time distances and suggest that they have the ability to localize both manatee vocalizations and recreational boat engine noises.

  10. Vascular adaptations for heat conservation in the tail of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

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    Rommel, Sentiel A; Caplan, Heather

    2003-04-01

    Although Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low basal metabolic rates for aquatic mammals of their size, they maintain normal mammalian core temperatures. We describe vascular structures in the manatee tail that permit countercurrent heat exchange (CCHE) to conserve thermal energy. Approximately 1000 arteries juxtaposed to 2000 veins are found at the cranial end of the caudal vascular bundle (CVB); these numbers decrease caudally, but the 1:2 ratio of arteries to veins persists. Arterial walls are relatively thin when compared to those previously described in vascular countercurrent heat exchangers in cetaceans. It is assumed that CCHE in the CVB helps manatees to maintain core temperatures. Activity in warm water, however, mandates a mechanism that prevents elevated core temperatures. The tail could transfer heat to the environment if arterial blood delivered to the skin were warmer than the surrounding water; unfortunately, CCHE prevents this heat transfer. We describe deep caudal veins that provide a collateral venous return from the tail. This return, which is physically outside the CVB, reduces the venous volume within the bundle and allows arterial expansion and increased arterial supply to the skin, and thus helps prevent elevated core temperatures.

  11. Functional morphology of venous structures associated with the male and female reproductive systems in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, S A; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A

    2001-12-01

    The reproductive organs of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are surrounded by thermogenic locomotory muscles and insulating fat. Manatees are reported to maintain core body temperatures of 35.6 degrees -36.4 degrees C, temperatures known to interfere with production and maturation of viable sperm in terrestrial mammals. We describe two novel venous plexuses associated with the manatee epididymis. Each epididymis is located in a hypogastric fossa at the caudolateral extremity of the abdominal cavity. Each hypogastric fossa is lined by an inguinal venous plexus that receives cooled blood from a superficial thoracocaudal plexus. We conclude that male manatees may prevent hyperthermic insult to their reproductive tissues by feeding cooled superficial blood to venous plexuses deep within their bodies. Female manatees also possess hypogastric fossae and venous structures similar to those found in male manatees. The ovaries, uterine tubes, and distal tips of the uterine horns are located in the hypogastric fossae. We suggest that the thermovascular structures we describe also prevent hypothermic insult to female manatee reproductive tissues. The venous structures in manatees are functionally similar to structures associated with reproductive thermoregulation in cetaceans and phocid seals. Thus, these thermovascular structures appear to be convergent morphological adaptations that occur in three clades of diving mammals with independent evolutionary histories.

  12. Status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Mahon, Gary L.

    2017-04-11

    Trichechus manatus (West Indian manatee), especially T. m. latirostris, the Florida subspecies, has been the focus of conservation efforts and extensive research since its listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. To determine the status of, and severity of threats to, the Florida manatee, a comprehensive revision and update of the manatee Core Biological Model was completed and used to perform a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee. The probability of the Florida manatee population falling below 500 adults on either the Gulf or East coast within the next 100 years was estimated to be 0.42 percent. This risk of quasi-extinction is low because the estimated adult survival rates are high, the current population size is greater than 2,500 on each coast, and the estimated carrying capacity for manatees is much larger than the current abundance estimates in all four regions of Florida. Three threats contribute in roughly equal measures to the risk of quasi-extinction: watercraft-related mortality, red-tide mortality, and loss of warm-water habitat. Only an increase in watercraft-related mortality has the potential to substantially increase the risk of quasi-extinction at the statewide or coastal level. Expected losses of warm-water habitat are likely to cause a major change in the distribution of the population from the regions where manatees rely heavily on power plant effluents for warmth in winter (Southwest and Atlantic regions) to the regions where manatees primarily use natural springs in winter (Northwest and Upper St. Johns regions). The chances are nearly 50 percent that manatee populations in the Southwest and Atlantic regions will decrease from their 2011 levels by at least 30 percent over the next century.A large number of scenarios were examined to explore the possible effects of potential emerging threats, and in most of them, the risk of quasi-extinction at the coastal scale within 100 years did not rise above 1 percent. The four

  13. Assessement of serum amyloid A levels in the rehabilitation setting in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Dickey, Meranda; Brewer, Leah Brinson; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2013-12-01

    The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) has been previously shown to have value as a biomarker of inflammation and infection in many species, including manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). In the current study, results from an automated assay for SAA were used in a rehabilitation setting. Reference intervals were established from clinically normal manatees using the robust method: 0-46 mg/L. More than 30-fold higher mean SAA levels were observed in manatees suffering from cold stress and boat-related trauma. Poor correlations were observed between SAA and total white blood count, percentage of neutrophils, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio. A moderate correlation was observed between SAA and the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The sensitivity of SAA testing was 93% and the specificity was 98%, representing the highest combined values of all the analytes. The results indicate that the automated method for SAA quantitation can provide important clinical data for manatees in a rehabilitation setting.

  14. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal endemic to the southeastern United States. The primary threats to manatee populations are collisions with watercraft and the potential loss of warm-water refuges. For the purposes of listing, recovery, and regulation under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), an understanding of the relative effects of the principal threats is needed. This work is a quantitative approach to threats analysis, grounded in the assumption that an appropriate measure of status under the ESA is based on the risk of extinction, as quantified by the probability of quasi-extinction. This is related to the qualitative threats analyses that are more common under the ESA, but provides an additional level of rigor, objectivity, and integration. In this approach, our philosophy is that analysis of the five threat factors described in Section 4(a)(1) of the ESA can be undertaken within an integrated quantitative framework. The basis of this threats analysis is a comparative population viability analysis. This involves forecasting the Florida manatee population under different scenarios regarding the presence of threats, while accounting for process variation (environmental, demographic, and catastrophic stochasticity) as well as parametric and structural uncertainty. We used the manatee core biological model (CBM) for this viability analysis, and considered the role of five threats: watercraft-related mortality, loss of warm-water habitat in winter, mortality in water-control structures, entanglement, and red tide. All scenarios were run with an underlying parallel structure that allowed a more powerful estimation of the effects of the various threats. The results reflect our understanding of manatee ecology (as captured in the structure of the CBM), our estimates of manatee demography (as described by the parameters in the model), and our characterization of the mechanisms by which the threats act on manatees. As an

  15. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  16. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through permanova, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  17. Ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Alla M; Ketten, Darlene R; Odell, Daniel K; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2012-01-01

    The topographic organization of retinal ganglion cells was examined in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to assess ganglion cell size and distribution and to estimate retinal resolution. The ganglion cell layer of the manatee's retina was comprised primarily of large neurons with broad intercellular spaces. Cell sizes varied from 10 to 60 μm in diameter (mean 24.3 μm). The retinal wholemounts from adult animals measured 446-501 mm(2) in area with total ganglion cell counts of 62,000-81,800 (mean 70,200). The cell density changed across the retina, with the maximum in the area below the optic disc and decreasing toward the retinal edges and in the immediate vicinity of the optic disc. The maximum cell density ranged from 235 to 337 cells per millimeter square in the adult retinae. Two wholemounts obtained from juvenile animals were 271 and 282 mm(2) in area with total cell numbers of 70,900 and 68,700, respectively (mean 69,800), that is, nearly equivalent to those of adults, but juvenile retinae consequently had maximum cell densities that were higher than those of adults: 478 and 491 cells per millimeter square. Calculations indicate a retinal resolution of ∼19' (1.6 cycles per degree) in both adult and juvenile retinae.

  18. Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; O'Shea, T.J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The population dynamics of large, long-lived mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival. Understanding factors affecting survival patterns is therefore critical for developing and testing theories of population dynamics and for developing management strategies aimed at preventing declines or extinction in such taxa. Few studies have used modern analytical approaches for analyzing variation and testing hypotheses about survival probabilities in large mammals. This paper reports a detailed analysis of annual adult survival in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), an endangered marine mammal, based on a mark-recapture approach. Natural and boat-inflicted scars distinctively 'marked' individual manatees that were cataloged in a computer-based photographic system. Photo-documented resightings provided 'recaptures.' Using open population models, annual adult-survival probabilities were estimated for manatees observed in winter in three areas of Florida: Blue Spring, Crystal River, and the Atlantic coast. After using goodness-of-fit tests in Program RELEASE to search for violations of the assumptions of mark-recapture analysis, survival and sighting probabilities were modeled under several different biological hypotheses with Program SURGE. Estimates of mean annual probability of sighting varied from 0.948 for Blue Spring to 0.737 for Crystal River and 0.507 for the Atlantic coast. At Crystal River and Blue Spring, annual survival probabilities were best estimated as constant over the study period at 0.96 (95% CI = 0.951-0.975 and 0.900-0.985, respectively). On the Atlantic coast, where manatees are impacted more by human activities, annual survival probabilities had a significantly lower mean estimate of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.887-0.926) and varied unpredictably over the study period. For each study area, survival did not differ between sexes and was independent of relative adult age. The high constant adult-survival probabilities estimated

  19. A core stochastic population projection model for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    A stochastic, stage-based population model was developed to describe the life history and forecast the population dynamics of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in four separate regions of Florida. This population model includes annual variability in survival and reproductive rates, demographic stochasticity, effects of changes in warm-water capacity, and catastrophes. Further, the model explicitly accounts for uncertainty in parameter estimates. This model is meant to serve as a flexible tool for use in assessments relevant to management decision making, and was used in the State of Florida's recent biological status review. The parameter estimates and model structure described herein reflect our understanding of manatee demography at the time that this status review was completed. In the Northwest and Upper St. Johns regions, the model predicts that the populations will increase over time until warm-water capacity is reached, at which point growth will taper off. In the Atlantic region, the model predicts a stable or slightly increasing population over the next decade or so, and then a decrease as industrial warm-water capacity is lost. In the Southwest region, the model predicts a decline over time, driven by high annual mortality in the short-term and exacerbated by loss of industrial warm-water winter refuges over the next 40 years. Statewide, the likelihood of a 50% or greater decline in three manatee generations was 12%; the likelihood of a 20% or greater decline in two generations was 56%. These declines are largely driven by the anticipated loss of warm-water capacity, especially in the Atlantic and Southwest regions. The estimates of probability of extinction within 100 years were 11.9% for the Southwest region, 0.6% for the Northwest, 0.04% for the Atlantic, and manatees. Analyses of sensitivity and variance contribution highlight the importance of reducing uncertainty in some life-history parameters, particularly adult survival

  20. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates and diet-tissue discrimination in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D; Worthy, Graham A J

    2009-08-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is a herbivorous marine mammal that occupies freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats. Despite being considered endangered, relatively little is known about its feeding ecology. The present study expands on previous work on manatee feeding ecology by providing critical baseline parameters for accurate isotopic data interpretation. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were examined over a period of more than 1 year in the epidermis of rescued Florida manatees that were transitioning from a diet of aquatic forage to terrestrial forage (lettuce). The mean half-life for (13)C turnover was 53 and 59 days for skin from manatees rescued from coastal and riverine regions, respectively. The mean half-life for (15)N turnover was 27 and 58 days, respectively. Because of these slow turnover rates, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in manatee epidermis is useful in summarizing average dietary intake over a long period of time rather than assessing recent diet. In addition to turnover rate, a diet-tissue discrimination value of 2.8 per thousand for (13)C was calculated for long-term captive manatees on a lettuce diet. Determining both turnover rate and diet-tissue discrimination is essential in order to accurately interpret stable isotope data.

  1. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mario Rivera Chavarría

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz, and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats.

  2. Yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in Brazil and its relevance for animal health and management in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Guedes, Gláucia Morgana de Melo; Barbosa, Giovanna Riello; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Oliveira, Daniella Carvalho Ribeiro; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Attademo, Fernanda Löffler Niemeyer; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees kept in captivity in Brazil. Sterile swabs from the oral cavity, nostrils, genital opening, and rectum of 50 Trichechus inunguis and 26 Trichechus manatus were collected. The samples were plated on Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. The yeasts isolated were phenotypically identified by biochemical and micromorphological tests. Overall, 141 strains were isolated, of which 112 were from T. inunguis (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida famata, Candida krusei, Candida norvegensis, Candida ciferri, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Cryptococcus laurentii) and 29 were from T. manatus (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula minuta, Trichosporon sp.). This was the first systematic study to investigate the importance of yeasts as components of the microbiota of sirenians, demonstrating the presence of potentially pathogenic species, which highlights the importance of maintaining adequate artificial conditions for the health of captive manatees.

  3. Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal; Harvey, John; Bonde, Robert; Murphy, David; Lowe, Mark; Menchaca, Maya; Haubold, Elsa; Francis-Floyd, Ruth

    2006-06-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are afflicted with inflammatory and infectious disease secondary to human interaction, such as boat strike and entanglement, as well as "cold stress syndrome" and pneumonia. White-blood-cell count and fever, primary indicators of systemic inflammation in most species, are insensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease in manatees. Acute phase-response proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, have proven to be sensitive measures of inflammation/infection in domestic large animal species. This study assessed diagnosis of generalized inflammatory disease by different methods including total white-blood-cell count, albumin: globulin ratio, gel electrophoresis analysis, C-reactive protein, alpha, acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A. Samples were collected from 71 apparently healthy and 27 diseased animals during diagnostic medical examination. Serum amyloid A, measured by ELISA, followed by albumin:globulin ratio, measured by plasma gel electrophoresis, were most sensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. The reference interval for serum amyloid A is <10-50 microg/ml with an equivocal interval of 51-70 microg/ml. The reference interval for albumin:globulin ratio by plasma gel electrophoresis is 0.7-1.1. Albumin: globulin ratio, calculated using biochemical techniques, was not accurate due to overestimation of albumin by bromcresol green dye-binding methodology. Albumin:globulin ratio, measured by serum gel electrophoresis, has a low sensitivity of 15% due to the lack of fibrinogen in the sample. Haptoglobin, measured by hemoglobin titration, had a reference interval of 0.4-2.4 mg/ml, a diagnostic sensitivity of 60%, and a diagnostic specificity of 93%. The haptoglobin assay is significantly affected by hemolysis. Fibrinogen, measured by heat precipitation, has a reference interval of 100-400 mg/dl, a diagnostic sensitivity

  4. Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Lowe, Mark; Menchaca, M.; Haubold, E.M.; Francis-Floyd, R.

    2006-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are afflicted with inflammatory and infectious disease secondary to human interaction, such as boat strike and entanglement, as well as “cold stress syndrome” and pneumonia. White-blood-cell count and fever, primary indicators of systemic inflammation in most species, are insensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease in manatees. Acute phase-response proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, have proven to be sensitive measures of inflammation/infection in domestic large animal species. This study assessed diagnosis of generalized inflammatory disease by different methods including total white-blood-cell count, albumin: globulin ratio, gel electrophoresis analysis, C-reactive protein, alpha1 acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A. Samples were collected from 71 apparently healthy and 27 diseased animals during diagnostic medical examination. Serum amyloid A, measured by ELISA, followed by albumin:globulin ratio, measured by plasma gel electrophoresis, were most sensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. The reference interval for serum amyloid A is <10–50 μg/ml with an equivocal interval of 51–70 μg/ml. The reference interval for albumin:globulin ratio by plasma gel electrophoresis is 0.7–1.1. Albumin: globulin ratio, calculated using biochemical techniques, was not accurate due to overestimation of albumin by bromcresol green dye-binding methodology. Albumin:globulin ratio, measured by serum gel electrophoresis, has a low sensitivity of 15% due to the lack of fibrinogen in the sample. Haptoglobin, measured by hemoglobin titration, had a reference interval of 0.4–2.4 mg/ml, a diagnostic sensitivity of 60%, and a diagnostic specificity of 93%. The haptoglobin assay is significantly affected by hemolysis. Fibrinogen, measured by heat precipitation, has a reference interval of 100–400 mg/dl, a diagnostic

  5. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche.

  6. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; Byers, F M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  7. Brevetoxicosis in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from the 1996 epizootic: gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, G D; Baden, D G; Ewing, R Y; Roberts, B; Wright, S D

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, at least 149 manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) died in an unprecedented epizootic along the southwest coast of Florida. At about the same time, a bloom of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium breve, was present in the same area. Grossly, severe nasopharyngeal, pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and cerebral congestion was present in all cases. Nasopharyngeal and pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were also seen. Consistent microscopic lesions consisted of catarrhal rhinitis, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, multiorgan hemosiderosis, and nonsuppurative leptomeningitis. Immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal primary antibody to brevetoxin (GAB) showed intense positive staining of lymphocytes and macrophages in the lung, liver, and secondary lymphoid tissues. Additionally, lymphocytes and macrophages associated with the inflammatory lesions of the nasal mucosa and meninges were also positive for brevetoxin. These findings implicate brevetoxicosis as a component of and the likely primary etiology for the epizootic. The data suggest that mortality resulting from brevetoxicosis may not necessarily be acute but may occur after chronic inhalation and/or ingestion. Immunohistochemical staining with interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme showed positive staining with a cellular tropism similar to GAB. This suggests that brevetoxicosis may initiate apoptosis and/or the release of inflammatory mediators that culminate in fatal toxic shock.

  8. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  9. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (pimmune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee.

  10. A contribution for the definition of serum chemistry values in captive adults Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M O; Vergara-Parente, J E; Gomes, J K N; Teixeira, M N; Lima, R P

    2007-04-01

    Serum chemistry analyses represents a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and understanding of diseases in marine mammals. Although several studies are being conducted within the field of clinical pathology, haematological and serum chemistry data for Antillean manatees are deficient. The purpose of this study was to determine serum chemistry values for captive Antillean manatees within the CMA/Ibama facility in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from five captive adult Antillean manatees fed with seagrass and analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, phosphate, chloride, calcium and uric acid. Blood chemistry parameters were determined using a semi-automatic analyzer. Maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviations were calculated for each serum chemistry parameter. Differences on the values of males and females were verified using an unpaired Student's t-test. All the parameters analysed were similar between sexes, with exception of AP, which was higher in females (191.43 +/- 31.86 U/l). Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid values for Trichechus manatus manatus are reported for the first time in this paper. This study is the first to report serum chemistry parameter values for long-term captive male and female Antillean manatees. Therefore, the lower values of albumin, phosphate, chloride, cholesterol and triglycerides obtained here highlight the importance of clinical pathology during health monitoring of captive marine mammals.

  11. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  12. Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways. For marine mammals (e.g. the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but sublethal effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The development of 'biomarkers' allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes. A recently developed biomarker (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH) provides an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of gonadal function. The study objective was to determine AMH levels in wild manatees. In total, 28 male and 17 female manatee serum samples were assayed. Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and total length (cm). In certain cases, age of individuals was also known. AMH levels ranged from 160 to 2451.85 ng ml-1 (mean = 844.65 ng ml-1) in males and 0.00 to 0.38 ng ml-1 (mean = 0.10 ng ml-1) in females. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between male AMH levels and body weight (R2 = 0.452; p 2 = 0.338; p < 0.001). Due to the small sample size, regression analyses for female AMH and body weight and length were not significant. This represents the first report of AMH detection in a marine mammal. AMH levels in male manatees are the highest of any species observed to date, whereas levels in females are within reported ranges. Further studies will promote improved conservation decision by assessing AMH levels in the manatee as a function of various stressors including, but not limited to, nutritional status, serious injuries (e.g. watercraft collisions), exposure to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.

  13. Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P

    2009-08-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.

  14. Characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, J M; Johnson, C M; Marikar, Y; Gibbs, E P

    2005-12-15

    An in vitro system to determine surface interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from free-ranging manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris was developed. Human recombinant IL-2, conjugated with a fluorescein dye was used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine changes in surface expression of IL-2R at sequential times over a 48-h period of in vitro stimulation. Surface expression of IL-2R was detected on manatee PBMC, which also cross-reacted with an anti-feline pan T-cell marker. An expression index (EI) was calculated by comparing mitogen-activated and non-activated PBMC. Based on side- and forward-scatter properties, flow cytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of larger, more granular "lymphoblasts" following concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation. The appearance of lymphoblasts was correlated with an increase in their surface expression of IL-2 receptors. Surface IL-2R expression, in Con A-stimulated PBMC, was detected at 16 h, peaked at 24-36 h, and began to decrease by 48 h. Characterization of the IL-2R expression should provide additional information on the health status of manatees, and the effect of their sub lethal exposure to brevetoxin.

  15. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  16. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  17. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.

    2010-01-01

    Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA). Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night). However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.

  18. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo G. Nico

    Full Text Available Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA. Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night. However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.

  19. Detection of hydrodynamic stimuli by the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Joseph C; Bauer, Gordon B; Reep, Roger L; Dziuk, Kimberly; Read, Latoshia; Mann, David A

    2013-06-01

    Florida manatees inhabit the coastal and inland waters of the peninsular state. They have little difficulty navigating the turbid waterways, which often contain obstacles that they must circumnavigate. Anatomical and behavioral research suggests that the vibrissae and associated follicle-sinus complexes that manatees possess over their entire body form a sensory array system for detecting hydrodynamic stimuli analogous to the lateral line system of fish. This is consistent with data highlighting that manatees are tactile specialists, evidenced by their specialized facial morphology and use of their vibrissae during feeding and active investigation/manipulation of objects. Two Florida manatees were tested in a go/no-go procedure using a staircase method to assess their ability to detect low-frequency water movement. Hydrodynamic vibrations were created by a sinusoidally oscillating sphere that generated a dipole field at frequencies from 5 to 150 Hz, which are below the apparent functional hearing limit of the manatee. The manatees detected particle displacement of less than 1 μm for frequencies of 15-150 Hz and of less than a nanometer at 150 Hz. Restricting the facial vibrissae with various size mesh openings indicated that the specialized sensory hairs played an important role in the manatee's exquisite tactile sensitivity.

  20. Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margie E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W; Bonde, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.

  1. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  2. Model description and evaluation of the mark-recapture survival model used to parameterize the 2012 status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Kendall, William L.; Beck, Cathy A.; Kochman, Howard I.; Teague, Amy L.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Peñaloza, Claudia L.

    2016-11-30

    This report provides supporting details and evidence for the rationale, validity and efficacy of a new mark-recapture model, the Barker Robust Design, to estimate regional manatee survival rates used to parameterize several components of the 2012 version of the Manatee Core Biological Model (CBM) and Threats Analysis (TA).  The CBM and TA provide scientific analyses on population viability of the Florida manatee subspecies (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s 5-year reviews of the status of the species as listed under the Endangered Species Act.  The model evaluation is presented in a standardized reporting framework, modified from the TRACE (TRAnsparent and Comprehensive model Evaluation) protocol first introduced for environmental threat analyses.  We identify this new protocol as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL and this model evaluation specifically as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL, Barker RD version 1. The longer-term objectives of the manatee standard reporting format are to (1) communicate to resource managers consistent evaluation information over sequential modeling efforts; (2) build understanding and expertise on the structure and function of the models; (3) document changes in model structures and applications in response to evolving management objectives, new biological and ecological knowledge, and new statistical advances; and (4) provide greater transparency for management and research review.

  3. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K.E.; Allison, K.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Harvey, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate amino-transferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 ??mol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  4. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo G. Nico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA. Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night. However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.Várias espécies de Pterygoplichthys, siluriformes Neotropicais da família Loricariidae, tem sido largamente introduzidos além de suas áreas naturais de ocorrência. Neste artigo, eu apresento observações dos padrões de atividade diária de uma população não nativa de Pterygoplichthys, identificada tentativamente como P. disjunctivus, associados com a espécie ameaçada de peixe-boi nativa da Flórida, Trichechus manatus latirostris. O estudo foi conduzido em dezembro de 2009 em Volusia Blue Spring um sistema artesiano na bacia do rio St. John, Flórida (USA. Suplementado por informações reunidas durante visitas prévias ao sítio em análise, este estudo revelou que Pterygoplichthys adultos estiveram ativos durante a maioria dos períodos (dia, crepúsculo e noite. No

  5. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity.

  6. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida: a summary and analysis of biological, ecological, and administrative problems affecting preservation and restoration of the population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, P.

    1978-09-01

    The population of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), an endangered species, is estimated at 800-1,000 individuals in peninsular Florida. Observed annual mortality between 1974 and 1977 was 6-8% of the estimated population. Human activities are implicated in much of this mortality. Direct and indirect threats include boat collisions, diver harassment, creation of artificial warm water refuges, vandalism, entanglement in fishing gear, herbicides in food resources, and possible effects of offshore oil exploration. Lack of federal commitment to manatee protection is evidenced by an absence of implementing regulations under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, absence of a recovery plan for the species, faulty interagency communication, and a lack of law enforcement. Problems are discussed, with recommendations for conservation. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white)

  7. Osteological associations with unique tooth development in manatees (Trichechidae, Sirenia): a detailed look at modern Trichechus and a review of the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Brian Lee; Vitkovski, Taisia; Lambert, Olivier; Macrini, Thomas E

    2012-09-01

    Modern manatees have a unique type of tooth development, continually forming identical new molars in the posterior end of each quadrant of their mouths, and then progressively moving teeth anteriorly, only to reabsorb roots and spit out worn crowns. This process is not only developmentally complex, but requires space in the oral cavity that imposes its own limitations on other uses of that space. To gain a clearer understanding of the anatomical constraints on the evolution of this unique developmental process, we identified the specialized craniodental features in modern Trichechus that permit this specialization using visual observation and CT. Furthermore, to better understand the evolution of these traits, we review the fossil record of trichechids for these traits, including CT analysis of the skull of Miosiren kocki, a possible early member of the family from the Early Miocene of Belgium.

  8. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  9. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  10. Antifungal Resistance and Virulence Among Candida spp. from Captive Amazonian manatees and West Indian Manatees: Potential Impacts on Animal and Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; de Melo Guedes, Gláucia Morgana; Barbosa, Giovanna Riello; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Oliveira, Daniella Carvalho Ribeiro; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Attademo, Fernanda Löffler Niemeyer; da Bôaviagem Freire, Augusto Carlos; de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by Candida spp. isolated from sirenians in Brazil. The isolates (n = 105) were recovered from the natural cavities of Amazonian and West Indian manatees and were tested for the susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole and for the production of phospholipases, proteases, and biofilm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amphotericin B ranged from 0.03 to 1 µg/mL, and no resistant isolates were detected. Itraconazole and fluconazole MICs ranged from 0.03 to 16 µg/mL and from 0.125 to 64 µg/mL, respectively, and 35.2% (37/105) of the isolates were resistant to at least one of these azole drugs. Concerning the production of virulence factors, phospholipase activity was observed in 67.6% (71/105) of the isolates, while protease activity and biofilm production were detected in 50.5% (53/105) and 32.4% (34/105) of the isolates, respectively. Since the natural cavities of manatees are colonized by resistant and virulent strains of Candida spp., these animals can act as sources of resistance and virulence genes for the environment, conspecifics and other animal species, demonstrating the potential environmental impacts associated with their release back into their natural habitat.

  11. Seasonal response of ghrelin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in the free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Rachel L; Bonde, Robert K.; Avery, Julie P.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal changes in light, temperature, and food availability stimulate a physiological response in an animal. Seasonal adaptations are well studied in Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and hibernating mammals; however, limited studies have been conducted in sub-tropical species. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a sub-tropical marine mammal, forages less during colder temperatures and may rely on adipose stores for maintenance energy requirements. Metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and ghrelin influence growth rate, accretion of lean and adipose tissue. They have been shown to regulate seasonal changes in body composition. The objective of this research was to investigate manatee metabolic hormones in two seasons to determine if manatees exhibit seasonality and if these hormones are associated with seasonal changes in body composition. In addition, age related differences in these metabolic hormones were assessed in multiple age classes. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and ghrelin were quantified in adult manatee serum using heterologous radioimmunoassays. Samples were compared between short (winter) and long (summer) photoperiods (n = 22 male, 20 female) and by age class (adult, juvenile, and calf) in long photoperiods (n = 37). Short photoperiods tended to have reduced GH (p = 0.08), greater IGF-I (p = 0.01), and greater blubber depth (p = 0.03) compared with long photoperiods. No differences were observed in ghrelin (p = 0.66). Surprisingly, no age related differences were observed in IGF-I or ghrelin concentrations (p > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of GH tended (p = 0.07) to be greater in calves and juveniles compared with adults. Increased IGF-I, greater blubber thickness, and reduced GH during short photoperiod suggest a prioritization for adipose deposition. Whereas, increased GH, reduced blubber thickness, and decreased IGF-I in long photoperiod suggest prioritization of lean tissue

  12. Managing endangered species within the use-preservation paradox: the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a tourism attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Shafer, C Scott; Ditton, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    A significant challenge to wildlife managers in tourism settings is to provide visitors with opportunities to observe rare and endangered wildlife while simultaneously protecting the target species from deleterious impacts. Nearly 100,000 people annually visit Crystal River, Florida, USA to observe and swim with the Florida manatee, an endangered species. This research aimed to investigate and describe human-manatee interactions in a tourism context, to understand the salient issues related to such interactions as identified by stakeholders, and to recommend a course of action to address multiple interests in the planning and management of human-manatee interactions. Five issues were identified by all stakeholder groups: water quality, harassment, density and crowding, education, and enforcement. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for manatee management, does not have mechanisms in place to manage the tourism component of the manatee encounter. Although a regulatory approach can be taken, a better approach would be to create an organization of tour operators to establish "best practices" that reflect the goal of the managing agency to enhance manatee protection (and thus ensure their livelihood) and to enhance the visitor experience.

  13. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALVES OF AMAZONIAN MANATEES IN PERU: A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Roldán Arévalo-Sandi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichechus inunguis is an endemic species of the Amazon, which inhabits mainly in lakes and calm rivers. The objective of this study case was to describe the social behaviour of two female-orphaned calves, of T. inunguis in captivity. They were kept in the same pool at the facilities of the Amazon Rescue Center (ARC, Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. Between February and October 2011, the individuals were observed during day and night times, completing 352 hours of observation. Through ad libitum observation of the individuals, we developed a catalogue of social behaviors that includes descriptions of 93 behaviours, classified in eight behavioural categories.. The frequency of behaviours was assessed by instantaneous sampling (for states and continuous recording (for events. Manatees displayed mainly social behaviours, and the most frequent interaction was the simultaneous starting of the same behaviour by both individuals. Most of social behaviours occurred during the day, but ‘group resting’ was recorded mostly at night. ‘synchronized breathing’ and ‘group feeding’ did not have temporary variation between days or between daytimes. Regarding the use of the space, the majority of interactions occurred in shaded places. This study revealed strong interactions between confined calves, suggesting that social activity may play an important role in their learning process.Interacciones entre crías de manatí amazónico en Perú: un caso de estudio RESUMENTrichechus inunguis es una especie endémica del Amazonas que vive principalmente en lagos y ríos de aguas tranquilas. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue describir el comportamiento social de dos crías hembras huérfanas de T. inunguis en cautiverio, mantenidas en el mismo estanque en el Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA, Iquitos, Amazonía peruana. Entre febrero y octubre de 2011, las crías fueron observadas durante el día y la noche, para un total de 352 horas de observaci

  14. Ocorrência de infecção Cryptosporidium spp. em peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A criptosporidiose constitui-se como uma zoonose que pode afetar o homem e uma ampla variedade de animais domésticos e silvestres, principalmente indivíduos imunodeficientes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de infecção por Cryptosporidium em peixe-boi marinho. Após ser constatada a mudança de comportamento de um peixe-boi marinho mantido nos oceanários do Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, animal foi submetido à exame clínico e, posteriormente, à coleta de amostra fecal. As amostras fecais foram analisadas pela técnica de Kinyoun, teste de imunofluorescência direta e pelo corante 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenilindole (DAPI. No exame clínico, o animal apresentou sinais de desconforto abdominal. Os resultados obtidos nas análises de microscopia de luz e fluorescente revelaram a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes desse peixe-boi.Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.

  15. Debromoaplysiatoxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats on manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Florida King's Bay ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Szabo, Nancy J; Cichra, Mary; Phlips, Edward J

    2008-08-01

    Proliferation of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya, in Florida lakes and rivers has raised concerns about ecosystem and human health. Debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) was measured in concentrations up to 6.31 microg/g wet weight lyngbyatoxin A equivalents (WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from natural substrates. DAT was also detected (up to 1.19 microg/g WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from manatee dorsa. Ulcerative dermatitis found on manatees is associated with, but has not been proven to be caused by DAT.

  16. Sexing sirenians: Validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, J.M.; Sneath, H.L.; Ovenden, J.R.; Broderick, D.; Bonde, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Sexing wild marine mammals that show little to no sexual dimorphism is challenging. For sirenians that are difficult to catch or approach closely, molecular sexing from tissue biopsies offers an alternative method to visual discrimination. This paper reports the results of a field study to validate the use of two sexing methods: (1) visual discrimination of sex vs (2) molecular sexing based on a multiplex PCR assay which amplifies the male-specific SRY gene and differentiates ZFX and ZFY gametologues. Skin samples from 628 dugongs (Dugong dugon) and 100 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were analysed and assigned as male or female based on molecular sex. These individuals were also assigned a sex based on either direct observation of the genitalia and/or the association of the individual with a calf. Individuals of both species showed 93 to 96% congruence between visual and molecular sexing. For the remaining 4 to 7%, the discrepancies could be explained by human error. To mitigate this error rate, we recommend using both of these robust techniques, with routine inclusion of sex primers into microsatellite panels employed for identity, along with trained field observers and stringent sample handling.

  17. Sexing sirenians: validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Aquatic Mammals 35(2):187-192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Lanyon, J.; Sneath, H.; Ovenden, J.; Broderick, D.

    2009-01-01

    Sexing wild marine mammals that show little to no sexual dimorphism is challenging. For sirenians that are difficult to catch or approach closely, molecular sexing from tissue biopsies offers an alternative method to visual discrimination. This paper reports the results of a field study to validate the use of two sexing methods: (1) visual discrimination of sex vs (2) molecular sexing based on a multiplex PCR assay which amplifies the male-specific SRY gene and differentiates ZFX and ZFY gametologues. Skin samples from 628 dugongs (Dugong dugon) and 100 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were analysed and assigned as male or female based on molecular sex. These individuals were also assigned a sex based on either direct observation of the genitalia and/or the association of the individual with a calf. Individuals of both species showed 93 to 96% congruence between visual and molecular sexing. For the remaining 4 to 7%, the discrepancies could be explained by human error. To mitigate this error rate, we recommend using both of these robust techniques, with routine inclusion of sex primers into microsatellite panels employed for identity, along with trained field observers and stringent sample handling.

  18. Fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Dana L; Reynolds, John E; Sprinkel, Jay M; Schwacke, Lori; Mercurio, Philip; Rommel, Sentiel A

    2010-11-15

    Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is an important tool by which marine mammal scientists gain insight into foraging ecology. Fatty acid profiles (resulting from FASA) represent a potential biomarker to assess exposure to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Florida manatees are well studied, and an excellent necropsy program provides a basis against which to assess this budding tool. Results using samples from 54 manatees assigned to four cause-of-death categories indicated that those animals exposed to or that died due to brevetoxin exposure (red tide, or RT samples) demonstrate a distinctive hepatic fatty acid profile. Discriminant function analysis indicated that hepatic fatty acids could be used to classify RT versus non-RT liver samples with reasonable certainty. A discriminant function was derived based on 8 fatty acids which correctly classified 100% of samples from a training dataset (10 RT and 25 non-RT) and 85% of samples in a cross-validation dataset (5 RT and 13 non-RT). Of the latter dataset, all RT samples were correctly classified, but two of thirteen non-RT samples were incorrectly classified. However, the "incorrect" samples came from manatees that died due to other causes during documented red tide outbreaks; thus although the proximal cause of death was due to watercraft collisions, exposure to brevetoxin may have affected these individuals in ways that increased their vulnerability. This use of FASA could: a) provide an additional forensic tool to help scientists and managers to understand cause of death or debilitation due to exposure to red tide in manatees; b) serve as a model that could be applied to studies to improve assessments of cause of death in other marine mammals; and c) be used, as in humans, to help diagnose metabolic disorders or disease states in manatees and other species.

  19. Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Rember, Renee; Ginn, Pamela E; Lightsey, Jessica; Keller, Martha; Reid, James; Bonde, Robert K

    2011-10-01

    Watercraft-related trauma is the predominant cause of human-induced mortality in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a federal- and state-listed endangered species. Pyothorax (documented in this case report) and other secondary infections are common sequelae of inhalation of water and the open wounds caused by boat propellers. These secondary infections can lead to the demise of the animal weeks to months after the traumatic incident when external wounds have healed. Diagnosis of underlying disease on physical examination during capture and restraint can be difficult. Acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and albumin can be used to diagnose inflammatory disease in manatees and improve quality of medical care and husbandry. We also provide the first report of polycystic kidneys in Sirenians.

  20. Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E.; Rember, Renee; Ginn, Pamela E.; Lightsey, Jessica; Keller, Martha; Reid, James; Bonde, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Watercraft-related trauma is the predominant cause of human-induced mortality in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a federal- and state-listed endangered species. Pyothorax (documented in this case report) and other secondary infections are common sequelae of inhalation of water and the open wounds caused by boat propellers. These secondary infections can lead to the demise of the animal weeks to months after the traumatic incident when external wounds have healed. Diagnosis of underlying disease on physical examination during capture and restraint can be difficult. Acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and albumin can be used to diagnose inflammatory disease in manatees and improve quality of medical care and husbandry. We also provide the first report of polycystic kidneys in Sirenians.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from cytochrome b gene as a useful protocol in forensic genetics against the illegal hunting of manatees: Trichechus manatus, Trichechus inunguis, Trichechus senegalensis, and Dugong dugon (Eutheria: Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Braga Ferreira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms is one of the most efficient methods for species differentiation. Genotyping of molecular markers using PCR/RFLP is a reliable, sensitive and inexpensive method for the detection of species specific mutations. The major causes of decline in Sirenia populations are accidental and intentional catches, collisions with boats and habitat loss. The goal of the present study was to identify, in silico, nucleotide mutations in the cytochrome b gene that can be used for the future development of forensic tools capable of using small tissue fragments to discriminate manatee meat from domesticated species meat commonly used as food sources (bovine, ovine, caprine and swine. DNA sequence alignments revealed two polymorphic sites distinguishing the manatee species from domestic species. The present study reinforced the power of cytochrome polymorphisms as powerful markers for species identification, which may be particularly useful for identifying vulnerable/endangered species. The data provided herein also suggest such mtDNA markers as important conservation tools for combating predatory manatee hunting for illegal meat trade in the Americas

  2. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALVES OF AMAZONIAN MANATEES IN PERU: A STUDY CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Roldán ARÉVALO-SANDI; Delma Nataly CASTELBLANCO-MARTÍNEZ

    2016-01-01

    Trichechus inunguis es una especie endémica del Amazonas que vive principalmente en lagos y ríos de aguas tranquilas. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue describir el comportamiento social de dos crías hembras huérfanas de T. inunguis en cautiverio, mantenidas en el mismo estanque en el Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA, Iquitos, Amazonía peruana). Entre febrero y octubre de 2011, las crías fueron observadas durante el día y la noche, para un total de 352 horas de observación. Desar...

  3. Validation of a serum immunoassay to measure progesterone and diagnose pregnancy in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K.M.; Verstegen, J.P.; Deutsch, C.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Rodriguez, M.; Morales, B.; Schmitt, D.L.; Harr, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to validate a high-sensitivity chemiluminescent assay of serum progesterone concentrations for pregnancy diagnosis in manatees. Assay analytical sensitivity was 0.1 ng/mL, with mean intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 9.7 and 9.2%, respectively, and accuracy had a mean adjusted R2 of 0.98. Methods comparison (relative to Siemen's Coat-A-Count RIA) demonstrated r = 0.98, Deming regression slope of 0.95, and an intercept of 0.01. Based on ROC analysis, a progesterone concentration ???0.4 ng/mL was indicative of pregnancy. Assay results were not significantly altered by two freeze-thaw cycles of samples. Characteristic progesterone concentrations during pregnancy were Months 1-4 (1.7-4.7 ng/mL), 5-8 (???1.0 ng/mL), and 10 and 11 (0.3-0.5 ng/mL), whereas two late-pregnant females with impending abortion had progesterone concentrations of 0.1 ng/mL. Among pregnant females, maximum progesterone concentrations occurred in autumn (3.9 ?? 1.8 ng/mL), and were greater during all seasons than concentrations in non-pregnant females (0.1-0.2 ng/mL). Progesterone concentrations were also significantly higher in pregnant females than in non-pregnant females and males. This highly sensitive, specific, and diagnostic assay will be valuable for monitoring pregnancy and abortion in manatees. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Abundance, distribution and use of power plant effluents by manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard county, Florida. Final report, Jan 1978-Feb 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Brevard County, on Florida's east coast, contains one of the largest concentrations of manatees remaining in Florida. This population was studied from January 1978 through February 1980 using aerial surveys, and boat and land observations. As many as 250 manatees were counted in the county in the spring of 1979. During the warm months most manatees were observed in the Banana River, but during the winter most manatees (up to 100) were found in the warm effluent zones of two power plants on the Indian River. Declining air and water temperatures were significantly correlated with increases in the number of manatees in the power plant effluents. Manatees rely heavily upon these power plants as winter refuges, and plant shut-downs could prove disastrous for these animals.

  5. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CALVES OF AMAZONIAN MANATEES IN PERU: A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Roldán ARÉVALO-SANDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichechus inunguis es una especie endémica del Amazonas que vive principalmente en lagos y ríos de aguas tranquilas. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue describir el comportamiento social de dos crías hembras huérfanas de T. inunguis en cautiverio, mantenidas en el mismo estanque en el Centro de Rescate Amazónico (CREA, Iquitos, Amazonía peruana. Entre febrero y octubre de 2011, las crías fueron observadas durante el día y la noche, para un total de 352 horas de observación. Desarrollamos un catálogo de comportamientos social para los individuos mediante observación ad libitum . La frecuencia de comportamientos fue evaluada por muestreo instantáneo (para estados y registro continúo (para eventos. Los manatíes exhibieron principalmente comportamientos sociales, y la interacción más frecuente fue el inicio simultáneo del mismo comportamiento por ambos individuos. La mayoría de los comportamientos sociales ocurrieron durante el día, pero ‘descanso grupal’ fue registrado mayormente en la noche. ‘respiración sincronizada’ y ‘alimentación grupal’ no tuvieron variación diaria entre días o entre horas del día. En lo que respecta al uso de espacio, la mayoría de interacciones ocurrió en lugares sombreados. Este estudio reveló fuertes interacciones entre crías en cautiverio, sugiriendo que la actividad social cumple un rol importante en los procesos de aprendizaje de los manatíes.

  6. Using Pooled Local Expert Opinions (PLEO to Discern Patterns in Sightings of Live and Dead Manatees (Trichechus senegalensis, Link 1785 in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore B Mayaka

    Full Text Available We aimed at unveiling patterns in live and dead manatee sightings in the Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon. For this purpose, the expert opinions of 133 local fishers were collected during in-person interviews, distilled using categorical data analysis, and checked against scientific literature. The five main results are as follows: manatees were sighted averagely once a week in lakes, rivers, and the coast & estuaries, mostly in group sizes of 2-3; the odds of sighting live manatees (respectively dead manatees decreased (respectively increased from inland lakes to estuaries and the coast, via rivers; manatee carcasses were reported in all habitats, albeit more frequently in rivers; a distribution map based on fishers' reports show two manatee concentration areas: Lake Ossa and the Malimba-Mbiako section of River Sanaga; the number of manatees was perceived as increasing despite incidental and directed catches. Thus, our findings corroborate earlier assessments of the Lower Sanaga Basin as being a major manatee conservation area. Additionally, from these results and the literature, we identified three hypotheses about local manatee persistence: deep pools such as lakes offer year round sanctuaries, not just dry-season refugia; seasonality of specific habitat variables determine manatee occurrence patterns; and local variability in habitat encroachment mediate the meta-population dynamics of manatee in the Lower Sanaga Basin. Finally, we examine the implications for data requirements in light of the small ecological scale at which the surveyed fishers ply their trade. Thus, consonant with the Malawi principles for the ecosystem approach to management (www.cbd.int/ecosystem, we recommend collecting data preferably at landscape scale, through a participatory monitoring program that fully integrates scientific and traditional knowledge systems. This program should include, amongst others, a standardised necropsy protocol for collecting mortality and

  7. Using Pooled Local Expert Opinions (PLEO) to Discern Patterns in Sightings of Live and Dead Manatees (Trichechus senegalensis, Link 1785) in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaka, Theodore B; Takoukam Kamla, Aristide; Self-Sullivan, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at unveiling patterns in live and dead manatee sightings in the Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon. For this purpose, the expert opinions of 133 local fishers were collected during in-person interviews, distilled using categorical data analysis, and checked against scientific literature. The five main results are as follows: manatees were sighted averagely once a week in lakes, rivers, and the coast & estuaries, mostly in group sizes of 2-3; the odds of sighting live manatees (respectively dead manatees) decreased (respectively increased) from inland lakes to estuaries and the coast, via rivers; manatee carcasses were reported in all habitats, albeit more frequently in rivers; a distribution map based on fishers' reports show two manatee concentration areas: Lake Ossa and the Malimba-Mbiako section of River Sanaga; the number of manatees was perceived as increasing despite incidental and directed catches. Thus, our findings corroborate earlier assessments of the Lower Sanaga Basin as being a major manatee conservation area. Additionally, from these results and the literature, we identified three hypotheses about local manatee persistence: deep pools such as lakes offer year round sanctuaries, not just dry-season refugia; seasonality of specific habitat variables determine manatee occurrence patterns; and local variability in habitat encroachment mediate the meta-population dynamics of manatee in the Lower Sanaga Basin. Finally, we examine the implications for data requirements in light of the small ecological scale at which the surveyed fishers ply their trade. Thus, consonant with the Malawi principles for the ecosystem approach to management (www.cbd.int/ecosystem), we recommend collecting data preferably at landscape scale, through a participatory monitoring program that fully integrates scientific and traditional knowledge systems. This program should include, amongst others, a standardised necropsy protocol for collecting mortality and biological data

  8. Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie H; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex

    2012-09-01

    A rescued female manatee was observed expelling a fetal bone from the vulva. The manatee was anesthetized and diagnosed with uterine retention of a fetal skeleton by ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Episiotomy was performed to gain manual access to the vagina and uterus for removal of the skeleton. Second intention healing of the episiotomy site produced excellent results. Rescued female manatees should receive a thorough reproductive tract evaluation since presence of retained fetal tissues might not be evident in blood or hormone analyses. Retention of a whole or partial dead fetus can be life-threatening to manatees, and retained tissues should be removed as early as possible.

  9. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  10. Distribution and abundance of the west Indian manatee Trichechus manatus around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts: 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E. III, Wilcox, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten one-day aerial surveys were conducted in winter, 1984-85, to assess manatee distribution and abundance around five Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) plants: Cape Canaveral (PCC), Riviera (PRV), Port Everglades (PPE), Lauderdale (PFL) and Fort Myers (PFM). A total of 3804 manatees was observed, with a maximum of 636 animals for a single survey. Individual surveys for 1984-84 produced higher combined counts for all plants than in previous years. Maximum counts for PRV, PPE and PFM were the highest recorded for those particular plants. The maximum count for PCC in 1984-85 was lower than counts from most previous years, and the maximum from PFL was intermediate, relative to maxima from previous years. The counts along the east coast of Florida probably reflected a southward redistribution of manatees as well as very cold January weather after warm December conditions. The high count at PFM probably resulted from cold January weather and surface resting behavior by the manatees which made them more visible than usual. Calves represented 10 x 3% of the animals observed near the FPL plants and in Hobe Sound. PFM had a higher percentage of calves than did other plants.

  11. Congenital malformations of the flipper in three West Indian manatees, Trichechus manatus, and a proposed mechanism for development of ectrodactyly and cleft hand in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A G; Bonde, R K

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of congenital ectrodactyly of the flipper in the manatee are described, including one case of bilaterally-symmetrical cleft hand. A hypothesis assumes that a defect in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) in the developing hand plate of the early embryo is the initiating factor in the development of ectrodactylous and cleft hand malformations in man and other mammals. Variations in the site, extent, and time of the AER defect will account for many of the morphologic variations observed in these congenital malformations.

  12. Manatees mapping seagrass (USA & Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Butler, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are secretive creatures. While some of their behaviours at winter aggregation sites in Florida are readily visible to the casual observer, many of their habits and movements are difficult to observe. They rely on submerged vegetation for nutrition, and seagrasses are one of their most important food sources.

  13. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

    OpenAIRE

    L. Luiselli; Akani, G. C.; N. Ebere; Angelici, F.M.; Amori, G.; Politano, E.

    2012-01-01

    African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis) and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis) in the Niger Delta (Nigeria), testing the hypotheses that (i) manate...

  14. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  15. An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Rathbun, G.B.; Bonde, R.K.; Buergelt, C.D.; Odell, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-wk period in early 1982, 39 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were found dead in the lower Caloosahatchee River and nearby waters of southwestern Florida. Two were killed by boats. The remainder showed no evidence of trauma. Lesions indicative of infectious agents were not identified, and bacteriological and contaminant residue findings were unremarkable. Nonspecific lesions of congestion and hemorrhage were identified in brain tissue. Numerous reports were also received of manatee morbidity. Some distressed manatees showed no biochemical lesions in clinical analyses of blood samples and recovered quickly. Timing of manatee illnesses coincided with fish and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) mortality and morbidity. A widespread bloom of the dinoflagellate red tide organism (Gymnodinium breve) also coincided with these incidents. G. breve produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins). Circumstantial evidence links these events, and possible routes of exposure may include ingestion of filter-feeding ascidians. Ecological conditions that magnified the extent of the epizootic included an early dispersal of manatees into the area from a nearby winter aggregation site and unusually high salinities that facilitated the inshore spread of the red tide bloom. Management responses to future episodes of red tide in manatee areas are suggested.

  16. Manatee grazing impacts on a mixed species seagrass bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Provancha, Jane A.; Slone, Daniel H.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    2017-01-01

    The endangered manatee Trichechus manatus is one of few large grazers in seagrass systems. To assess the long-term impacts of repeated grazing on seagrasses, we selected a study site within Kennedy Space Center in the northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida, that was typically grazed by large numbers of manatees in spring. Two 13x13 m manatee exclosures and 2 paired open plots of equal size were established at the study site in October 1990. Shoot counts, biomass, and species composition of the co-dominant seagrass species, Syringodium filiforme and Halodule wrightii, were sampled 3 times per year in all 4 plots between October 1990 and October 1994. We used a Bayesian modelling approach, accounting for the influence of depth, to detect treatment (exclosed vs. open) effects. S. filiforme shoot counts, total biomass, and frequency of occurrence significantly increased in the exclosures. By July 1993, mean biomass values in the exclosures (167 g dry wt m-2) greatly exceeded those in the open plots (28 g dry wt m-2). H. wrightii decreased in the exclosures by 1994. Initially, both S. filiforme and H. wrightii responded positively to release from manatee grazing pressure. As S. filiforme continued to become denser in the exclosures, it gradually replaced H. wrightii. Our findings may be helpful to biologists and managers interested in predicting seagrass recovery and manatee carrying capacity of repeatedly grazed seagrass beds in areas of special significance to manatees and seagrass conservation.

  17. Influence of Manatees' Diving on Their Risk of Collision with Watercraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Edwards

    Full Text Available Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris. Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time-depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002-2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62-86% were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m, illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (<0.91 m, over seagrass, at night, and while stationary or moving slowly; they were less likely to be within striking depth when ≤50 m from a charted waterway. In shallow water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93-0.98 and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93-0.98 than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58-0.84. Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  18. Influence of Manatees' Diving on Their Risk of Collision with Watercraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly H; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J; Muller, Robert G; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Smith, Alexander J; Barlas, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time-depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002-2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62-86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93-0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93-0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58-0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  19. Influence of manatees' diving on their risk of collision with watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Muller, Robert G; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Smith, Alexander J; Barlas, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population’s growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time–depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002–2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water’s surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62–86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93–0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93–0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58–0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  20. Temperature inverted haloclines provide winter warm-water refugia for manatees in southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Doyle, Terry J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Soderqvist, Lars E.

    2010-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) overwintering in the Ten Thousand Islands and western Everglades have no access to power plants or major artesian springs that provide warm-water refugia in other parts of Florida. Instead, hundreds of manatees aggregate at artificial canals, basins, and natural deep water sites that act as passive thermal refugia (PTR). Monitoring at two canal sites revealed temperature inverted haloclines, which provided warm salty bottom layers that generally remained above temperatures considered adverse for manatees. At the largest PTR, the warmer bottom layer disappeared unless significant salt stratification was maintained by upstream freshwater inflow over a persistent tidal wedge. A detailed three-dimensional hydrology model showed that salinity stratification inhibited vertical convection induced by atmospheric cooling. Management or creation of temperature inverted haloclines may be a feasible and desirable option for resource managers to provide passive thermal refugia for manatees and other temperature sensitive aquatic species.

  1. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, J. L.; Wagner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects. ?? 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  2. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis in the Niger Delta (Nigeria, testing the hypotheses that (i manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.

  3. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  4. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  5. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  6. Molecular identification of a papilloma virus from cutaneous lesions of captive and free-ranging Florida manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R.A.; Bonde, R.K.; Bonilla, J.A.; Romero, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomatous lesions were biopsied from three captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) at Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP), Homosassa, Florida, USA, and from six free-ranging Florida manatees from Crystal and Homosassa rivers, Florida. Total DNA extracted from these lesions was assayed for the presence of papilloma virus genomes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that target the L1 capsid protein gene. The amplification generated DNA fragments 458 base pairs in length that encompassed a highly conserved domain within the L1 capsid protein and translated into identical polypeptides of 152 amino acids, suggesting the involvement of a single papilloma virus genotype. Multiple amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the L1 fragment indicated that the Florida manatee papilloma virus is a unique and quite distinct papillomavirus from other known papilloma viruses. The emergence of this new pathogen raises concerns about its potential impact on the already endangered Florida manatee.

  7. Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperate and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique

  8. Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

  9. Conservation: saving Florida's manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Robert K. Bonde of the U.S. Geological Survey writes about the protected population of manatees in Crystal River, Florida, including information about the threats they face as they migrate in and out of protected waters. Photographer Carol Grant shares images of "Angel," a newborn manatee she photographed early one winter morning.

  10. Capture-recapture analysis for estimating manatee reproductive rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modeling the life history of the endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an important step toward understanding its population dynamics and predicting its response to management actions. We developed a multi-state mark-resighting model for data collected under Pollock's robust design. This model estimates breeding probability conditional on a female's breeding state in the previous year; assumes sighting probability depends on breeding state; and corrects for misclassification of a cow with first-year calf, by estimating conditional sighting probability for the calf. The model is also appropriate for estimating survival and unconditional breeding probabilities when the study area is closed to temporary emigration across years. We applied this model to photo-identification data for the Northwest and Atlantic Coast populations of manatees, for years 1982?2000. With rare exceptions, manatees do not reproduce in two consecutive years. For those without a first-year calf in the previous year, the best-fitting model included constant probabilities of producing a calf for the Northwest (0.43, SE = 0.057) and Atlantic (0.38, SE = 0.045) populations. The approach we present to adjust for misclassification of breeding state could be applicable to a large number of marine mammal populations.

  11. Research on the impacts of past and future hurricanes on the endangered Florida manatee: Chapter 6J in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Beck, C.A.; Butler, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from 1982 through 1998 identified lower apparent survival rates for adult manatees during years when Hurricane Elena (1985), the March "Storm of the Century"(1993), and Hurricane Opal (1995) hit the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Although our analysis showed that a significant number of our monitored individual manatees failed to return to their winter homes after these storms, their actual fate remains unknown. With the aid of new satellite technology to track manatees during storms and new statistical techniques to determine survival and emigration rates, researchers are working to understand how hurricanes impact the endangered species by studying manatees caught in the path of the destructive hurricanes of 2004 and 2005.

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the maintenance water of Antillean manatees (Trichechusmanatus in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Kury Nobre Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the water consumption and supply of pools used by Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus in captivity. Six samples were collected from the pool's supply system (at the beach, water used for manatee consumption, mineral water used in the preparation of artificial milk formulas offered to orphan manatee calves, also used in permanent maintenance pools in the visitation area, and water utilized in the rehabilitation area, where calves of all ages were kept. Before the water samples were processed, each sample was submitted to a filtration process. The diagnosis of the parasite was obtained by Kinyoun technique and the positive samples were submitted to the Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 66.67% (4/6 of the samples from the water supply system and pool, with eight to 56 oocysts per liter. There was evidence that the water used in the maintenance of the Antillean manatees could be an important medium for hydric transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and that it may be a predisposing factor to the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in Antillean manatees in captivity.

  13. Amazonian coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, T

    1981-01-01

    A general overview of various aspects of Amazonian coca (Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu) is presented. This plant is considered a distinct variety of coca which has been developed as a cultivated plant in the upper Amazon basin. It differs from typical Andean coca in morphological, physiological and chemical features as well as in the method of preparation and use by Amazonian tribes. The main topics here discussed are the history, distribution, botany, chemistry, origin, methods of preparation and use, and the effects of Amazonian coca.

  14. Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this endangered aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin

    2012-01-01

    Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.

  15. Metals in Bone Tissue of Antillean Manatees from the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Calderón, Ana G; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Rosíles-Martínez, René; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Delgado-Estrella, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of seven metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were analyzed in 33 bone tissue samples of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) found dead in lagoons and rivers of Tabasco and Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean region. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly different between regions, with greater levels found in the Gulf of Mexico group than in the Mexican Caribbean group (p < 0.05). Pb concentrations differed significantly between adults and calves. No differences were observed between sexes. Metal concentrations detected in the manatee bones were higher than most of those reported for bones in other marine mammals around the world. Future studies are necessary to establish whether the metal concentrations represent a risk to the health of the species.

  16. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  17. Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K.

    2012-01-01

    Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.

  18. Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M.E.; Auil-Gomez, N. E.; Tucker, K.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Powell, J.; McGuire, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Fortunately, protections in Belize reduced hunting in the 1930s and allowed the country's manatee population to become the largest breeding population in the Wider Caribbean. However, increasing and emerging anthropogenic threats such as coastal development, pollution, watercraft collision and net entanglement represent challenges to this ecologically important population. To inform conservation and management decisions, a comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.

  19. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P manatee population.

  20. Patterns of mortality among South Florida Manatees: Evidence from oxygen, sulfur and deuterium stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Bacalan, V.; Kazantseva, M.; Rhodes, J.; Kim, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal whose coastal habitat has been heavily altered by human development. Sources of mortality include anthropogenic and environmental causes. Necropsies were completed on 75 deceased individuals, and tissues, including bone samples, were collected for later analysis. This study investigates the utility of manatee bone stable oxygen (δ18O), sulfur (δ34S) and deuterium (δD) for determining where the animals lived (which may not be where they where their bodies were recovered), and the relative importance of marine versus freshwater for the individual animals. The isotopes can provide a "geochemical map" showing the distribution of mortality, aiding in the evaluation of geographical patterns in mortality. The δ18O signatures of the bones ranged from 14 to 18.5‰, with no significant difference between male and female mean values. δ18O significantly decreased with increasing latitude (p=.0016), a trend positively correlated with coastal Florida seawater δ18O literature values obtained from the NASA Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database (http://data.giss.nasa.gov/o18data/) and the EAIA stable isotope database (http://www.univie.ac.at/cartography/project/wiser/). Bone δ34S indicated the influence of marine versus coastal freshwater dietary sources on the animals. Most individuals showed 34S-depleted signatures, which indicated a non-marine sulfur source; however some individuals clearly had taken up marine sulfate (mean 4.9 ± 3.7‰, range 0.8 to 13.8‰). Deuterium values were not available at the time this abstract was written, however we hypothesize that those values will co-vary with δ18O. We conclude that manatee diets are based on both marine and freshwater sources, but freshwater sources exert more influence. Marine water and manatee δ18O co-vary with latitude, suggesting that stable oxygen isotopes may be useful indicators of the latitude where manatees lived.

  1. Silicone Modeling of the Interior Spaces of Hollow Organs: Use in Dog and Manatee Respiratory Tract and in a Beef Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Grossman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The mechanism, by which the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris vocalizes, remains unknown because the manatee larynx does not contain true vocal cords. Since sound can be generated when air passes through a narrow respiratory structure we needed to visualize the internal anatomy of manatee respiratory tract to locate any candidate regions for study. Approach: To visualize the internal anatomy of upper and lower manatee respiratory tract we have developed a rapid but accurate method of modeling these structures using liquid silicone. We first tested this technique on the respiratory structure of a cadaver dog and then applied it to two small manatees which had died through natural causes. Incisions were made in the trachea of both dog and manatees and commercially available liquid silicone was then forced into the upper and lower respiratory tracts used a slightly modified common automobile grease gun. The animals were then refrigerated overnight and the silicone was allowed to cure for a period of 24 h. Results: In dog, we removed cured silicone model by applying mild force to it after surgically opening the nasal cavity. In the manatees some dissection was necessary for release of mold from the upper nasal cavity, but only mild force was necessary with no dissection to release silicone model from the lower tract. Because the models created exhibited great accuracy and fine structure, including presence of tertiary bronchi in the manatee respiratory tract, we realized that the technique was applicable for use in other hollow organs. We applied this method to the visualization of internal structure of a fresh beef heart and were pleased with the accuracy and detail of model produced. Conclusion: We suggest that this technique can be adopted for three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure and volume estimation of many hollow organs in a wide variety of organisms with both minimal

  2. From the Worm in a Bottle of Mezcal: iDNA Confirmation of a Leech Parasitizing the Antillean Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, J; Rueda-Calderon, H; Kvist, S; Siddall, M E; Oceguera-Figueroa, A

    2016-10-01

    Invertebrate-derived ingested DNA (iDNA) is quickly proving to be a valuable, non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. Using the DNA barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood-feeding leech Haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal-the latter is shown to be derived from the Caribbean manatee, Trichechus manatus . DNA amplification was successful despite the fact that the specimen was fixed in Mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). We report the first confirmed case of a leech feeding on a manatee, the first record of H. acuecueyetzin for the State of Chiapas and, to our knowledge, the first case of successful DNA amplification of a biological sample fixed in Mezcal other than the caterpillar "worms" more commonly found in that beverage.

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Manatee, Manatee County, Florida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Manatee, located in central Manatee County, Florida, is the principal drinking-water source for Manatee and Sarasota Counties. The drainage basin of Lake Manatee encompasses about 120 square miles, and the reservoir covers a surface area of about 1,450 acres at an elevation of 38.8 feet above NAVD 88 or 39.7 feet above NGVD 29. The full pool water-surface elevation is 39.1 feet above NAVD 88 (40.0 feet above NGVD 29), and the estimated minimum usable elevation is 25.1 feet above NAVD 88 (26.0 feet above NGVD 29). The minimum usable elevation is based on the elevation of water intake structures. Manatee County has used the stage/volume relation that was developed from the original survey in the 1960s to estimate the volume of water available for consumption. Concerns about potential changes in storage capacity of the Lake Manatee reservoir, coupled with a recent drought, led to this bathymetry mapping effort.

  4. Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification of individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.; Edwards, H.H.; Fick-Child, K. J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Barton, S.L.; Hartley, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We estimated adult survival probabilities for the endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in four regional populations using photo-identification data and open-population capture-recapture statistical models. The mean annual adult survival probability over the most recent 10-yr period of available estimates was as follows: Northwest - 0.956 (SE 0.007), Upper St. Johns River - 0.960 (0.011), Atlantic Coast - 0.937 (0.008), and Southwest - 0.908 (0.019). Estimates of temporal variance independent of sampling error, calculated from the survival estimates, indicated constant survival in the Upper St. Johns River, true temporal variability in the Northwest and Atlantic Coast, and large sampling variability obscuring estimates for the Southwest. Calf and subadult survival probabilities were estimated for the Upper St. Johns River from the only available data for known-aged individuals: 0.810 (95% CI 0.727-0.873) for 1st year calves, 0.915 (0.827-0.960) for 2nd year calves, and 0.969 (0.946-0.982) for manatee 3 yr or older. These estimates of survival probabilities and temporal variance, in conjunction with estimates of reproduction probabilities from photoidentification data can be used to model manatee population dynamics, estimate population growth rates, and provide an integrated measure of regional status.

  5. Passive thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; de Wit, M.; Edwards, H.H.; Langtimm, C.A.; Swain, E.D.; Soderqvist, L.E.; Reid, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Haloclines induced by freshwater inflow over tidal water have been identified as an important mechanism for maintaining warm water in passive thermal refugia (PTR) used by Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris during winter in extreme southwestern Florida. Record-setting cold during winter 2009–2010 resulted in an unprecedented number of manatee deaths, adding to concerns that PTR may provide inadequate thermal protection during severe cold periods. Hydrological data from 2009–2010 indicate that 2 canal systems in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region acted as PTR and maintained warm bottom-water temperatures, even during severe and prolonged cold periods. Aerial survey counts of live and dead manatees in TTI during the winter of 2009–2010 suggest that these PTR were effective at preventing mass mortality from hypothermia, in contrast to the nearby Everglades region, which lacks similar artificial PTR and showed high manatee carcass counts. Hydrological data from winter 2008–2009 confirmed earlier findings that without haloclines these artificial PTR may become ineffective as warm-water sites. Tidal pumping of groundwater appears to provide additional heat to bottom water during low tide cycles, but the associated thermal inversion is not observed unless salinity stratification is present. The finding that halocline-driven PTR can maintain warm water even under extreme winter conditions suggests that they may have significant potential as warm-water sites. However, availability and conflicting uses of freshwater and other management issues may make halocline-driven PTR unreliable or difficult to manage during winter.

  6. 33 CFR 117.300 - Manatee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manatee River. 117.300 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.300 Manatee River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Manatee River, mile 4.5 Bradenton, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is...

  7. Manatees: An Educator's Guide. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save the Manatee Club, Maitland, FL.

    The manatee is known for its gentleness and uniqueness and has become a symbol of human concern for endangered species. This guide provides current information on the West Indian manatee as well as strategies for teaching about this endangered animal. While focusing on the manatee, this guide points out the importance of interdependencies within…

  8. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Langtimm, C.A.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (8) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016?1.056) and 1.062 (1.037?1.081), respectively. The Southwest region has a growth rate of 0.989 (0.946?1.024), suggesting this population has been declining at about 1.1% per year. The estimated growth rate in the Atlantic region is 1.010 (0.988?1.029), but there is some uncertainty about whether adult survival rates have been constant over the last 10 yr; using the mean survival rates from the most recent 5-yr period, the estimated growth rate in this region is 0.970 (0.938?0.998). Elasticity analysis indicates that the most effective management actions should seek to increase adult survival rates. Decomposition of the uncertainty in the growth rates indicates that uncertainty about population status can best be reduced through increased monitoring of adult survival rate.

  9. Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Martínez, Arianna; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin

    2014-07-01

    Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers ≥ 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences ≥ 50%; bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences ≥ 50% during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences ≥ 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis. Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the

  10. Do manatees talk during sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Sullivan, Caryn; Gilbertson, Tamra; Evans, William E.

    2002-05-01

    On January 13, 1999, manatee vocalizations were recorded during a mating herd event in the Orange River, Florida. Although copulation could not be observed, multiple males were observed with exposed penises. During one 25 min sample (1300-1325 h), over 400 manatee signals were recorded. In March 2000, each signal was captured and digitized from the analog tape using a Marantz PMD 501, Ashly equalizer (gain=0, filter=0), MAC 8100, and Canary 1.2.1. In general, signals were 100-200 ms in length, highly harmonic (up to 8 harmonics ranging from 1 to 16 kHz), with little or no frequency modulation. Intervals between signals ranged from less than 1 s to 14 s (mean = 3 s), indicating that manatees do indeed talk (a lot) during sex. Noise from two passing boats was also recorded during the sample period. One abnormally low-frequency signal (0.4 kHz) was recorded during one boat pass. This apparent manatee vocalization could be seen and heard below the boat noise frequency band.

  11. Integrated Science: Florida Manatees and Everglades Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy; Butler, Susan M.; Doyle, Terry; Snow, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting and monitoring restoration effects on Florida manatees, which are known to make extended movements, will be incomplete if modeling and monitoring are limited to the smaller areas defined by the various res-toration components. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts, thus far, have focused on (1) collecting manatee movement data throughout the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region, and (2) developing an individual-based model for manatees to illustrate manatee responses to changes in hydrology related to the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP). In 2006, new regional research was begun to extend an Everglades hydrology model into the TTI region; extend the manatee movement model into the southern estuaries of Everglades National Park (ENP); and integrate hydrology and manatee data, models, and monitoring across the TTI region and ENP. Currently (2008), three research tasks are underway to develop the necessary modeling components to assess restoration efforts across the Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  12. Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert-Luke, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study.

  13. Tactile hairs on the postcranial body in Florida manatees: a Mammalian lateral line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, R L; Marshall, C D; Stoll, M L

    2002-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the sparsely distributed hairs found on the entire postcranial body of sirenians are all sinus type tactile hairs. This would represent a unique arrangement because no other mammal has been reported to possess tactile hairs except on restricted regions of the body, primarily the face. In order to investigate this issue further, hair counts were made systematically in three Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and hair follicle microanatomy was studied in 110 specimens gathered from 9 animals. We found that the postcranial body possesses approximately 1500 hairs per side, and hair density decreases from dorsal to ventral. External hair length ranged from 2-9 mm, and most hairs were separated from their nearest neighbor by 20-40 mm, resulting in an independent domain of movement for each hair. All hairs exhibited the anatomical characteristics of follicle-sinus complexes typical of tactile hairs, including a dense connective tissue capsule containing an elongated circumferential blood sinus and innervation by 20-50 axons which ascend the mesenchymal sheath. We conclude that this represents a unique distributed underwater tactile system capable of conveying detailed and significant external information concerning approaching animals, water currents and possibly the presence of large stationary features of the environment. Such a system would be analogous to the lateral line in fish, and would be particularly useful in the turbid habitat frequented by Florida manatees.

  14. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  15. Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Clark, Annmarie; Olivera-Gómez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert; McGuire, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) occupies the tropical coastal waters of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean, extending from Mexico along Central and South America to Brazil. Historically, manatees were abundant in Mexico, but hunting during the pre-Columbian period, the Spanish colonization and throughout the history of Mexico, has resulted in the significantly reduced population occupying Mexico today. The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between. Both populations show low genetic diversity (GMx: N(A) = 2.69; H(E) = 0.41 and ChB: N(A) = 3.0; H(E) = 0.46). The lower genetic diversity found in the GMx, the largest manatee population in Mexico, is probably due to a combination of a founder effect, as this is the northern range of the sub-species of T. m. manatus, and a bottleneck event. The greater genetic diversity observed along the Caribbean coast, which also has the smallest estimated number of individuals, is possibly due to manatees that come from the GMx and Belize. There is evidence to support limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas. The analyses presented here also suggest minimal evidence of a handful of individual migrants possibly between Florida and Mexico. To address management issues we suggest considering two distinct genetic populations in Mexico, one along the Caribbean coast and one in the riverine systems connected to the GMx.

  16. Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Clark, Ann Marie; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert; McGuire, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) occupies the tropical coastal waters of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean, extending from Mexico along Central and South America to Brazil. Historically, manatees were abundant in Mexico, but hunting during the pre-Columbian period, the Spanish colonization and throughout the history of Mexico, has resulted in the significantly reduced population occupying Mexico today. The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between. Both populations show low genetic diversity (GMx: NA = 2.69; HE = 0.41 and ChB: NA = 3.0; HE = 0.46). The lower genetic diversity found in the GMx, the largest manatee population in Mexico, is probably due to a combination of a founder effect, as this is the northern range of the sub-species of T. m. manatus, and a bottleneck event. The greater genetic diversity observed along the Caribbean coast, which also has the smallest estimated number of individuals, is possibly due to manatees that come from the GMx and Belize. There is evidence to support limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas. The analyses presented here also suggest minimal evidence of a handful of individual migrants possibly between Florida and Mexico. To address management issues we suggest considering two distinct genetic populations in Mexico, one along the Caribbean coast and one in the riverine systems connected to the GMx.

  17. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (pstrandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted.

  18. Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.

  19. Paenungulata: a comparison of the hemoglobin sequences from elephant, hyrax, and manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, T; Czelusniak, J; Goodman, M; Braunitzer, G

    1986-09-01

    Inspection of the amino acid differences among hemoglobin sequences of a wide range of mammalian species suggested that at alpha 19, alpha 110, alpha 111, beta 23, beta 44, and beta 56, synapomorphies group manatee (Trichechus inungius, Sirenia), Indian and African elephant (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana, Proboscidea), and rock hyrax (Procavia habessinica, Hyracoidea) into a monophyletic clade. Results obtained by parsimony analysis provide evidence for this grouping--and thus support for the genealogical validity of Simpson's superorder Paenungulata, which contains as the extant orders Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Hyracoidea. All of the 39 most, or nearly most, parsimonious of 10,395 trees constructed from a tandemly combined alpha- and beta-hemoglobin sequence for 103 vertebrate species (of which 79 were mammals from 16 extant orders), depicted Paenungulata as one of the most anciently separated branches of Eutheria. It was found on examining thousands of alternative trees that to not group Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and Sirenia in a monophyletic clade required at least four additional substitutions.

  20. 33 CFR 110.74a - Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74a Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla. The waters of the Manatee River enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 27°31′18.6″ N. longitude 82°36′49.2″...

  1. 76 FR 48880 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ..., Sarasota, FL; PRT-37808A The applicant requests a permit to take, import, and export manatee specimens from West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) and West African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis) for...

  2. 33 CFR 117.297 - Little Manatee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Manatee River. 117.297 Section 117.297 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.297 Little Manatee River. The draw...

  3. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  4. Climate science: The resilience of Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Isotope evidence suggests that, during dry periods associated with the most recent ice age, the Amazonian forest survived in a region that is sensitive to rainfall changes -- settling a debate about Amazonian aridity. See Letter p.204

  5. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Laist

    Full Text Available To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively. The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively. A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down.

  6. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laist, David W; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    The relationship between manatees and power plants was investigated at 2 power plants on the Indian River in Brevard County, Florida from January 1978-February 1980. Manatee presence in the power plant effluent zones was correlated with cold air and water temperatures. When air temperatures were below 16 C most manatees in the country were found in the effluent zones. Manatees in the effluent zones move with the wind-blown warm water plume, demonstrating a sensitivity to small changes in water temperature. Some individuals were frequently resighted at 1 plant, while others moved between the 2 plants. Because industrial warm water sources are less reliable than natural warm water refuges, it is recommended that no new artificial warm water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  10. 33 CFR 165.767 - Security Zone; Manbirtee Key, Port of Manatee, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Port of Manatee, Florida. 165.767 Section 165.767 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.767 Security Zone; Manbirtee Key, Port of Manatee, Florida. (a) Regulated area. The following area... extending 500 yards from the island's shoreline, in all directions, not to include the Port Manatee...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.247-71 - Protection of the Florida manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manatee. 1852.247-71 Section 1852.247-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.247-71 Protection of the Florida manatee. As prescribed in 1847.7001, insert the following clause: Protection of the Florida Manatee (MAR 1989) (a) Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act...

  12. Lessons from an Evaluation of a Boater Outreach Program for Manatee Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Julie K.; Jacobson, Susan K.; Flamm, Richard O.

    2007-10-01

    Watercraft collisions account for 25-30% of manatee deaths annually in Florida. Education and outreach interventions for boaters are strategies for reducing manatee mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Manatee Watch program by surveying primary boat users whose boats were approached by Manatee Watch. We compared the attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral intentions of boaters who received Manatee Watch materials with a control group of boaters observed by the Florida Marine Research Institute in Tampa Bay during 1999-2001. Results of the 51-item telephone survey with 499 boaters indicated that the Manatee Watch intervention had little effect on boater’s attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors regarding manatees. However, individual attitude scores were positively correlated with safe boating behaviors in shallow waters including maintaining a slower speed and watching out for manatees. Overall knowledge about manatees was correlated with one manatee-safe boating behavior. To improve efficacy, educators should (a) incorporate evaluation into the planning stages of program development; (b) target messages to influence boaters’ attitudes toward manatees and ecosystem health, and their feelings of ownership and empowerment; (c) facilitate active participation of the boaters; and (d) increase the duration and variety of intervention.

  13. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauset, S.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Steege, ter H.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Levis, C.; Toledo, M.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant’ species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem

  14. Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zori Roberto T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20 and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice, 3/7 (twice, 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice, 11/20, 12/22 (three times, 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19. Conclusion There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I, present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV, only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III. If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10

  15. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  16. Preliminary technical evaluation of an ARGOS-monitored radio tag for tracking manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, B.; Rathbun, G.; Merrick, R.; Reed, J.

    A radio tagged manatee was released into a river leading to subtropical waters and tracked by satellite. Up to 8 locations a day are reported. The manatee remained in the river system, but is expected to head for the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Manatee vibrissae: evidence for a "lateral line" function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, Roger L; Gaspard, Joseph C; Sarko, Diana; Rice, Frank L; Mann, David A; Bauer, Gordon B

    2011-04-01

    Aquatic mammals use vibrissae to detect hydrodynamic stimuli over a range from 5 to 150 Hz, similar to the range detected by lateral line systems in fishes and amphibians. Manatees possess ∼5,300 vibrissae distributed over the body, innervated by ∼209,000 axons. This extensive innervation devoted to vibrissae follicles is reflected in enlarged, elaborate somatosensory regions of the gracile, cuneate, and Bischoff's brain-stem nuclei, ventrobasal thalamus, and presumptive somatosensory cortex. Our preliminary psychophysical testing indicates that in Florida and Antillean manatees the Weber fraction for detection thresholds for grating textures ranges from 0.025 to 0.14. At the lower end of this range, sensitivity is comparable to human index finger thresholds. For hydrodynamic stimuli of 5-150 Hz, detection threshold levels for manatees using facial or postfacial vibrissae were substantially lower than those reported for harbor seals and similar to reports of sensitivity for the lateral line systems of some fish. Our findings suggest that the facial and postfacial vibrissae are used to detect hydrodynamic stimuli, whereas only the facial vibrissae are used for direct contact investigation.

  18. Identification of alimentary components of Antillean manatee diet in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Garcia Anzolin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The manatees are considered to be opportunist herbivors, consuming a great amount of alimentary items. The aim of the present study was to identify the alimentary components of the diet of Antillean manatees in free life in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples of stomach contents from six Antillean manatee carcasses were col¬lected, in addition to fecal samples from 11 native manatees and five that had been released. The material was identified at the genus and/or species level, based on its morpho-anatomic aspects, and 21 species of seaweeds, phanerogams and cnidarians were presented. Through these analyses it was possible to observe that Antillean manatees fed on a great variety of aquatic plants, with the predominance of red seaweeds.

  19. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and trans

  20. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  1. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Assessment of Longboat Pass, Manatee County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Pass , Manatee County, FL by Kelly R. Legault PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes the history of...ebb shoal morphology at Longboat Pass , Manatee County, FL, based on a review of the history and the recent inlet management studies for proposed...navigational dredging of the Pass . The study area is located on the southwest Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida (Figure 1). The goals of the study were to

  2. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  3. 33 CFR 165.760 - Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a vessel required to comply with 33 CFR part 120. Designated representative means Coast Guard Patrol... of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee, Rattlesnake, Old Port Tampa, Big Bend, Weedon... § 165.760 Security Zones; Tampa Bay, Port of Tampa, Port of Saint Petersburg, Port Manatee,...

  4. 77 FR 15617 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishing a Manatee Refuge in Kings Bay, Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... County and the City of Crystal River are an integral part of ``Florida's Nature Coast,'' a northwestern... manatees (Nature Coast Coalition 2010 Web site). In addition to viewing manatees, area recreationists engage in snorkeling and diving, boating, canoeing and kayaking, fishing, waterskiing, and...

  5. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  6. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  7. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C.; Laurance, Susan G.W.; Laurance, William F.; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W.; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Salomão, Rafael P.; Comiskey, James A.; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G.A.; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N. Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A.; Almeida, Everton C.; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.; Erwin, Terry L.; Morandi, Paulo S.; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B.X.; Zagt, Roderick J.; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J.; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K.; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J.; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A.; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A.; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L.; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ≈1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region. PMID:25919449

  8. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Establishment of Proposed Manatee Sanctuaries in Kings Bay of Crystal River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates seven alternatives for controlling human harassment of the West Indian Manatee an endangered species. The preferred...

  10. Evolution of cytoarchitectural landscapes in the mammalian isocortex: Sirenians (Trichechus manatus) in comparison with other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Reep, Roger L; Finlay, Barbara L

    2016-03-01

    The isocortex of several primates and rodents shows a systematic increase in the number of neurons per unit of cortical surface area from its rostrolateral to caudomedial border. The steepness of the gradient in neuronal number and density is positively correlated with cortical volume. The relative duration of neurogenesis along the same rostrocaudal gradient predicts a substantial fraction of this variation in neuron number and laminar position, which is produced principally from layers II-IV neurons. However, virtually all of our quantitative knowledge about total and laminar variation in cortical neuron numbers and neurogenesis comes from rodents and primates, leaving whole taxonomic groups and many intermediate-sized brains unexplored. Thus, the ubiquity in mammals of the covariation of longer cortical neurogenesis and increased cortical neuron number deriving from cortical layers II-IV is undetermined. To begin to address this gap, we examined the isocortex of the manatee using the optical disector method in sectioned tissue, and also assembled partial data from published reports of the domestic cat brain. The manatee isocortex has relatively fewer neurons per total volume, and fewer II-IV neurons than primates with equivalently sized brains. The gradient in number of neurons from the rostral to the caudal pole is intermediate between primates and rodents, and, like those species, is observed only in the upper cortical layers. The cat isocortex (Felis domesticus) shows a similar structure. Key species for further tests of the origin, ubiquity, and significance of this organizational feature are discussed.

  11. Mapping spatial resources with GPS animal telemetry: foraging manatees locate seagrass beds in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Turbid water conditions make the delineation and characterization of benthic habitats difficult by traditional in situ and remote sensing methods. Here, we develop and validate modeling and sampling methodology for detecting and characterizing seagrass beds by analyzing GPS telemetry records from radio-tagged manatees. Between October 2002 and October 2005, 14 manatees were tracked in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwest Florida (USA) using Global Positioning System (GPS) tags. High density manatee use areas were found to occur off each island facing the open, nearshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. We implemented a spatially stratified random sampling plan and used a camera-based sampling technique to observe and record bottom observations of seagrass and macroalgae presence and abundance. Five species of seagrass were identified in our study area: Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, Halophila engelmannii, and Halophila decipiens. A Bayesian model was developed to choose and parameterize a spatial process function that would describe the observed patterns of seagrass and macroalgae. The seagrasses were found in depths <2 m and in the higher manatee use strata, whereas macroalgae was found at moderate densities at all sampled depths and manatee use strata. The manatee spatial data showed a strong association with seagrass beds, a relationship that increased seagrass sampling efficiency. Our camera-based field sampling proved to be effective for assessing seagrass density and spatial coverage under turbid water conditions, and would be an effective monitoring tool to detect changes in seagrass beds.

  12. DNA Metabarcoding of Amazonian Ichthyoplankton Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggia, M. E.; Vigouroux, Y.; Renno, J. F.; Duponchelle, F.; Desmarais, E.; Nunez, J.; García-Dávila, C.; Carvajal-Vallejos, F. M.; Paradis, E.; Martin, J. F.; Mariac, C.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical rainforests harbor extraordinary biodiversity. The Amazon basin is thought to hold 30% of all river fish species in the world. Information about the ecology, reproduction, and recruitment of most species is still lacking, thus hampering fisheries management and successful conservation strategies. One of the key understudied issues in the study of population dynamics is recruitment. Fish larval ecology in tropical biomes is still in its infancy owing to identification difficulties. Molecular techniques are very promising tools for the identification of larvae at the species level. However, one of their limits is obtaining individual sequences with large samples of larvae. To facilitate this task, we developed a new method based on the massive parallel sequencing capability of next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with hybridization capture. We focused on the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The results obtained using the new method were compared with individual larval sequencing. We validated the ability of the method to identify Amazonian catfish larvae at the species level and to estimate the relative abundance of species in batches of larvae. Finally, we applied the method and provided evidence for strong temporal variation in reproductive activity of catfish species in the Ucayalí River in the Peruvian Amazon. This new time and cost effective method enables the acquisition of large datasets, paving the way for a finer understanding of reproductive dynamics and recruitment patterns of tropical fish species, with major implications for fisheries management and conservation. PMID:28095487

  13. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  14. Twelve years of “Astro” in Sergipe State: in search of harmony between the manatee and the local waterside communities =Doze anos de “Astro” no Estado de Sergipe: buscando harmonia entre o peixe-boi e as comunidades ribeirinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Francis Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus is the most threatened aquatic mammal in Brazil. It was considered to be extinct in Sergipe until 1998, when a re-introduced animal (Astro arrived. Given plans for the re-introduction of more animals, a survey was conducted of the waterside communities of the animal’s home range, on the southern coast of Sergipe. Between March and November, 2009, 27 people were interviewed in 12 communities, using a 14-item questionnaire. All the interviewees knew Astro and were familiar with his behaviour. The primary source of tension between the animal and the community is its habit of approaching vessels and, in particular, fishing equipment. Some fishermen reported that he takes fish from their nets. While most local residents are tolerant of the animal’s presence, some interviewees reported aggression in the context of fishing. Most of the interviewees agreed with the idea of re-introducing more animals locally, but conflicts related to fishing were seen as the main potential problem. Given this, there is a clear need for a comprehensive environmental education programme, in order to guarantee the conservation of the species in the region.O peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus é o mamífero aquático mais ameaçado no Brasil. Era considerado extinto em Sergipe até 1998, quando chegou um animal reintroduzido (Astro. Visando a eventual reintrodução de mais animais, foi realizado um levantamento de comunidades ribeirinhas de sua área de vida, no litoral Sul de Sergipe. Entre março e novembro de 2009, 27 pessoas foram entrevistadas em 12 comunidades, usando um questionário com 14 perguntas. Todos os entrevistados conheciam o Astro e tinham alguma noção de seu comportamento. A fonte principal de atrito entre o animal e a comunidade é seu hábito de se aproximar de embarcações e, principalmente, de equipamentos de pesca. Alguns pescadores relataram que o animal retira peixes de suas redes. Apesar da

  15. Carbon dynamics and ecosystem diversity of Amazonian peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehteenoja, O.

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim was to initiate peatland research in Amazonia, which has been referred to as 'one of the large white spots on the global peatland map'. Specifically, the study was to clarify how common peat accumulation is on Amazonian floodplains, and how extensive and thick peat deposits can be encountered. Secondly, the intention was to study how rapidly Amazonian peatlands sequester carbon, and how much carbon they store and thirdly, to gain some understanding of the diversity of peatland ecosystem types and of the processes forming these ecosystems

  16. Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: On sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela-Lasheras Irma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammals as a rule have seven cervical vertebrae, except for sloths and manatees. Bateson proposed that the change in the number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is due to homeotic transformations. A recent hypothesis proposes that the number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is unchanged and that instead the derived pattern is due to abnormal primaxial/abaxial patterning. Results We test the detailed predictions derived from both hypotheses for the skeletal patterns in sloths and manatees for both hypotheses. We find strong support for Bateson's homeosis hypothesis. The observed vertebral and rib patterns cannot be explained by changes in primaxial/abaxial patterning. Vertebral patterns in sloths and manatees are similar to those in mice and humans with abnormal numbers of cervical vertebrae: incomplete and asymmetric homeotic transformations are common and associated with skeletal abnormalities. In sloths the homeotic vertebral shift involves a large part of the vertebral column. As such, similarity is greatest with mice mutant for genes upstream of Hox. Conclusions We found no skeletal abnormalities in specimens of sister taxa with a normal number of cervical vertebrae. However, we always found such abnormalities in conspecifics with an abnormal number, as in many of the investigated dugongs. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that the evolutionary constraints on changes of the number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is due to deleterious pleitropic effects. We hypothesize that in sloths and manatees low metabolic and activity rates severely reduce the usual stabilizing selection, allowing the breaking of the pleiotropic constraints. This probably also applies to dugongs, although to a lesser extent.

  17. The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

  18. Towards an understanding of tree diversity in Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stropp Carneiro, J.

    2011-01-01

    Amazonian forests harbor the highest biodiversity of all terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. The origin of this extraordinary biodiversity and its current distribution are recently becoming better understood. Still, our knowledge of the contribution of processes operating at different temporal and spat

  19. Fungal community assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in

  20. New species of Monostylis Tulasne (Podostemaceae from the Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaléa Sprada Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until now, Monostylis Tulasne (Podostemaceae was considered monospecific, containing only M. capillacea Tulasne. However, recent field expeditions and an analysis of samples from the Amazonian region revealed three new species, Monostylis aripuanensis, M. goeldiana and M. paraensis. The present paper provides detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations, habitat data, comparative taxonomic comments and a dichotomous key to the species.

  1. The Amazonian Formative: Crop Domestication and Anthropogenic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arroyo-Kalin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of sedentism and agriculture in Amazonia continues to sit uncomfortably within accounts of South American pre-Columbian history. This is partially because deep-seated models were formulated when only ceramic evidence was known, partly because newer data continue to defy simple explanations, and partially because many discussions continue to ignore evidence of pre-Columbian anthropogenic landscape transformations. This paper presents the results of recent geoarchaeological research on Amazonian anthropogenic soils. It advances the argument that properties of two different types of soils, terras pretas and terras mulatas, support their interpretation as correlates of, respectively, past settlement areas and fields where spatially-intensive, organic amendment-reliant cultivation took place. This assessment identifies anthropogenic soil formation as a hallmark of the Amazonian Formative and prompts questions about when similar forms of enrichment first appear in the Amazon basin. The paper reviews evidence for embryonic anthrosol formation to highlight its significance for understanding the domestication of a key Amazonian crop: manioc (Manihot esculenta ssp. esculenta. A model for manioc domestication that incorporates anthropogenic soils outlines some scenarios which link the distribution of its two broader varieties—sweet and bitter manioc—with the widespread appearance of Amazonian anthropogenic dark earths during the first millennium AD.

  2. A Miocene perspective on the evolution of the Amazonian biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Between c. 23 and 8 Ma, western Amazonia was occupied by the vast Pebas long-lived lake/wetland system. The Pebas system had a variety of influences over the evolution of Miocene and modern Amazonian biota; it formed a barrier for the exchange of terrestrial biota, a pathway for the transition of ma

  3. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  4. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Martin

    Full Text Available The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107. This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  5. The structure of the Amazonian craton: Available geophysical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazonian craton, which covers a large area of South America, and is thought to have been stable since the end of the Mesoproterozoic, has recently benefited from a series of regional geophysical surveys. The Amazonian craton comprises the northern Guyana shield and the southern Central Brazil shield. It has become the main subject of seismological studies aiming to determine crustal thickness. Moho thickness maps that cover a large part of the South American continent summarize these studies. Receiver function studies, aided by surface wave dispersion tomography, were also useful tools applied in the region over the past decade. These have been improved by the addition of temporary and permanent regional seismological arrays and stations. An interesting NNW-SSE Moho depth anomaly, pointing to crustal thickening of up to 60 km in the central Guyana shield and a 50 km thick anomaly of the southern Central Brazil shield were recently identified. Areas with crustal thickening correspond to Paleoproterozoic magmatic arcs. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in part of the region has been determined from SKS splitting studies. The currently available seismic anisotropy information shows that the orientation of the determined anisotropic axis is related to the frozen in anisotropy hypothesis for the Amazonian craton. The orientation of the anisotropic axis shows no relation to the current South American plate motion in the Amazonian craton. Most recently, detailed information for the two shields has benefited from a series of high-resolution, regional aerogeophysical surveys, made available by CPRM, the Brazilian Geological Survey. In addition to the mentioned contribution from seismology for imaging deeper crustal structures, regional gravity surveys have been expanded, adding to previous Bouguer anomaly maps, and deep drilling information from early exploration efforts have been compiled for the Amazon basin, which covers the Amazonian craton separating the Guyana

  6. Avian gene trees, landscape evolution, and geology: towards a modern synthesis of Amazonian historical biogeography?

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Alexandre Luis Padovan; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have improved our understanding of Amazonian geological history during the late Tertiary and Quaternary, two periods regarded as critical for the recent diversification of the Amazonian avifauna. The notion that geologically older and more stable areas of Amazonia (such as the Brazilian and Guianan shields) functioned as ‘‘species-pumps’’, whereas geologically more dynamic areas (such as the western Amazonian lowlands) mostly ‘‘captured’’ part of the div...

  7. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  8. Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, F E; Burbridge, R; Killeen, T J

    2000-12-22

    Amazonian rain forest-savanna boundaries are highly sensitive to climatic change and may also play an important role in rain forest speciation. However, their dynamics over millennial time scales are poorly understood. Here, we present late Quaternary pollen records from the southern margin of Amazonia, which show that the humid evergreen rain forests of eastern Bolivia have been expanding southward over the past 3000 years and that their present-day limit represents the southernmost extent of Amazonian rain forest over at least the past 50,000 years. This rain forest expansion is attributed to increased seasonal latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which can in turn be explained by Milankovitch astronomic forcing.

  9. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Manatee County Habitat for Humanity, Ellenton, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this 18-home community, all homes are LEED Platinum and meet ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 requirements, HERS 23–53. Half way through the project, Habitat for Humanity heard about the DOE Challenge Home program and signed on, committing to build the next home, a three-bedroom, two-bath, 1,143 ft2 duplex, to Challenge Home criteria. The home is the first DOE Challenge Home in Manatee County, and was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.

  10. Karyomegaly in Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I; Di Cave, D

    2001-06-20

    Vesicular karyomegaly of the liver hepatocytes is described from Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae), in 3 out of 7 fish, collected from Rio Xingu in central Amazonian (neutral water) Brazil and kept about 2 wk in a holding facility fed with acid water (pH 5.0 to 5.5). Altered cells also occurred in the gill epithelium. The vesicles in the liver were shown to contain a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive substance or residue.

  11. Plant reproduction in the Central Amazonian floodplains : challenges and adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cristiane da Silva; Fernandez Piedade, Maria Teresa; Wittmann, Astrid de Oliveira; Franco, Augusto César

    2010-01-01

    Background The Central Amazonian floodplain forests are subjected to extended periods of flooding and to flooding amplitudes of 10 m or more. The predictability, the length of the flood pulse, the abrupt transition in the environmental conditions along topographic gradients on the banks of major rivers in Central Amazonia, and the powerful water and sediment dynamics impose a strong selective pressure on plant reproduction systems. Scope In this review, we examine how the hydrological cycle i...

  12. 78 FR 18314 - Foreign-Trade Zone 169-Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 169--Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC; Subzone 169A (Textile Fabric Adhesive Bandage Coating and Production);...

  13. 75 FR 68719 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Emergency Rule To Establish a Manatee Refuge in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... activities. These activities are an important source of income for the area. Local eco-tour operators, dive shops, marinas, hotels and motels, restaurants, and other businesses benefit from these activities... including on-water volunteer efforts to educate manatee viewers, improved coordination with local...

  14. Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, C.; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Bongers, F.; Pena Claros, M.; Braga Junqueira, A.

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which pre-Columbian societies altered Amazonian landscapes is hotly debated. We performed a basin-wide analysis of pre-Columbian impacts on Amazonian forests by overlaying known archaeological sites in Amazonia with the distributions and abundances of 85 woody species domesticated by p

  15. The utilization of aquatic bushmeat from small cetaceans and manatees in South America and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Cosentino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g. marine mammals that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as near threatened, and one as vulnerable, as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 cetacean species are listed as data deficient, hence some of these species may also be at risk. No reports (recent or otherwise were found for some countries, however caution is needed in concluding that aquatic bushmeat is not utilized in these nations. Moreover, although aquatic bushmeat is mostly obtained opportunistically and was likely originally taken only for local consumption, directed catches occur in most countries and may have reached unsustainable levels in some areas. For example, in Peru and Nigeria, thousands of small cetaceans are illegally hunted annually. Reliable, recent data and a better overall understanding of the drivers of aquatic bushmeat will be essential in the development of effective mitigation measures.

  16. Effects of Reducing River Flow on Pulse Residence Time in Little Manatee River, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wenrui; LIU Xiaohai

    2009-01-01

    Residence time is an important indicator for river environmental management. In this paper, a 3D hydrody-namic model has been successfully applied to Little Manatee River to characterize the mixing and transport process and residence time. The model employs horizontal curvilinear orthogonal grids to represent the complex river system that consists of branches and bayous. The model has been satisfactorily calibrated and verified by using two continuous data sets. The data sets consist of hourly observations of all forcing boundaries, including freshwater inputs, tides, winds, salin-ity and temperatures at bay boundary, and air temperatures for model simulations. The data sets also consist of hourly observations of water levels, salinity, and temperature at several river stations. The calibrated and verified hydrodynamic model was used to predict residence time in the Little Manatee River. Under the minimum flow of 0.312 m3/s, the pulse residence time (PRT) is 108 days. Model simulations were also conducted for 17 flow scenarios. Empirical regression equations have been satisfactorily derived to correlate PRT to freshwater inflow. Correlation coefficient R2 is 0.982 for PRT.

  17. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency.

  18. Fire-free land use in pre-1492 Amazonian savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, José; Power, Mitchell J; Rostain, Stéphen; Mayle, Francis E; Jones, Huw; Watling, Jennifer; Whitney, Bronwen S; McKey, Doyle B

    2012-04-24

    The nature and scale of pre-Columbian land use and the consequences of the 1492 "Columbian Encounter" (CE) on Amazonia are among the more debated topics in New World archaeology and paleoecology. However, pre-Columbian human impact in Amazonian savannas remains poorly understood. Most paleoecological studies have been conducted in neotropical forest contexts. Of studies done in Amazonian savannas, none has the temporal resolution needed to detect changes induced by either climate or humans before and after A.D. 1492, and only a few closely integrate paleoecological and archaeological data. We report a high-resolution 2,150-y paleoecological record from a French Guianan coastal savanna that forces reconsideration of how pre-Columbian savanna peoples practiced raised-field agriculture and how the CE impacted these societies and environments. Our combined pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses reveal unexpectedly low levels of biomass burning associated with pre-A.D. 1492 savanna raised-field agriculture and a sharp increase in fires following the arrival of Europeans. We show that pre-Columbian raised-field farmers limited burning to improve agricultural production, contrasting with extensive use of fire in pre-Columbian tropical forest and Central American savanna environments, as well as in present-day savannas. The charcoal record indicates that extensive fires in the seasonally flooded savannas of French Guiana are a post-Columbian phenomenon, postdating the collapse of indigenous populations. The discovery that pre-Columbian farmers practiced fire-free savanna management calls into question the widely held assumption that pre-Columbian Amazonian farmers pervasively used fire to manage and alter ecosystems and offers fresh perspectives on an emerging alternative approach to savanna land use and conservation that can help reduce carbon emissions.

  19. Studies on the pharmacological activity of Amazonian Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, W D; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    1988-01-01

    Plant material from 34 Amazonian species of the family Euphorbiaceae were collected and extracts prepared. Sixteen of these species have a documented use as a medicinal agent. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans; the dermatophytic fungi, Microsporum canis, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton gallinae; the viruses, Sindbis virus and murine cytomegalovirus; and tumours induced on potato discs by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. They were also examined for their toxicity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina. The results are discussed with respect to ethnobotanical information available for some of the species.

  20. Late Miocene Tidal Deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Matti E.; Linna, Ari M.; Santos, Jose C. R.; Negri, Francisco R.

    1995-07-01

    Late Miocene tidal sediments of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia, were deposited in an embayment or interior seaway located in the sub-Andean zone. This late Tertiary embayment system may once have connected the Caribbean with the South Atlantic. The tidal coasts of the embayment-seaway have provided an avenue for the earliest waif (over water) dispersal phases of the great American biotic interchange in the late Miocene. The subsequent change from semimarine to terrestrial environments is of value in assessing the importance of earlier hypotheses on the evolution of the western Amazonian landscape and gives insight into the formation of several observed biogeographic patterns, especially of aquatic biota.

  1. A free-access online key to identify Amazonian ferns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zuquim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is urgent need for more data on species distributions in order to improve conservation planning. A crucial but challenging aspect of producing high-quality data is the correct identification of organisms. Traditional printed floras and dichotomous keys are difficult to use for someone not familiar with the technical jargon. In poorly known areas, such as Amazonia, they also become quickly outdated as new species are described or ranges extended. Recently, online tools have allowed developing dynamic, interactive, and accessible keys that make species identification possible for a broader public. In order to facilitate identifying plants collected in field inventories, we developed an internet-based free-access tool to identify Amazonian fern species. We focused on ferns, because they are easy to collect and their edaphic affinities are relatively well known, so they can be used as an indicator group for habitat mapping. Our key includes 302 terrestrial and aquatic entities mainly from lowland Amazonian forests. It is a free-access key, so the user can freely choose which morphological features to use and in which order to assess them. All taxa are richly illustrated, so specimens can be identified by a combination of character choices, visual comparison, and written descriptions. The identification tool was developed in Lucid 3.5 software and it is available at http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org:8080/sandbox/keys.jsp.

  2. HLA genes in Lamas Peruvian-Amazonian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Juan; Seclen, Segundo; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Villena, A; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Zamora, Jorge; Moreno, Almudena; Ira-Cachafeiro, Juan; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    The Lamas Amerindians are the Chancas descents who established before 1532 a.d. (Spanish conquest) at Lamas City, Wayku quarter in a Peruvian-Amazonian province (San Martin). The Lamas HLA profile shows significant differences with other Amerindians HLA profile, i.e.: (a) a higher number of newly found haplotypes compared to other studied Amerindian populations, particularly HLA-A*02-B*48-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302, A*02-B*48-DRB1*0804-DQB1*0402 and A*02-B*40-DRB1*0407-DQB1*0302; (b) a relative high frequency of HLA-DRB1*0901 (a high frequency southern Asian allele) and HLA-B*48 (a Na-Dene, Siberian and Eskimo allele); both alleles are also found frequently in Quechuas and Aymaras, but not in many other (particularly Meso American) Amerindians and (c) correspondence and neighbor-joining dendrogram analyses show that Lamas (Chancas) may have an origin close to Amazonian Indians that later reached the Andean altiplano.

  3. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots (e.g. RAINFOR, ATDN has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing south to northeast and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east. Here we describe the results of the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that, as predicted, the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25–182.25 cm2. The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2 is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the north-west of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  4. A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indian manatee populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Presently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.

  5. Complementary methods to estimate population size of Antillean Manatees (Sirenia: Trichechidae at Cienaga de Paredes, Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Arevalo-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on manatee population size in Colombia is limited. This study was aimed at determining manatee population size in the Cienaga de Paredes (Colombia by three different methods: boat-based surveys, side-scan Sonar (SSS surveys and local interviews. Manatees were counted during breathing events by direct observation during the dry season, with the number of sightings per hour (NSH and maximum number of simultaneous sightings (MNSS used as occurrence indices. In 2002, we obtained an average NSH of 27.62 (SD=12.34 and the MNSS was 18; in 2010 the values were 55.71 (SD=29.79 and four respectively. Using linear-transect SSS data we estimated a population size of 12 individuals (%CV=27.3. The local community claimed that no hunting or entanglements had taken place in the area for over 20 years. These methods have pros and cons in terms of investment, effort, efficiency and community involvement, and their efficiency may vary in different seasons. Applying them in a complementary way and at greater spatial and temporal scales could enhance the accuracy of results.

  6. Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep in the Amazonian dolphin, Inia geoffrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M

    1987-08-18

    An electroencephalographic study of sleep in Amazonian dolphins, Inia geoffrensis, revealed that unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is the dominant sleep type in this species, as in the other two dolphin species that were studied earlier.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa CACIAM 03, a Cyanobacterium Isolated from an Amazonian Freshwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Wendel Oliveira; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; Baraúna, Anna Rafaella Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Carício; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Given its toxigenic potential, Microcystis aeruginosa is an important bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Here, we present a draft genome and annotation of the strain CACIAM 03, which was isolated from an Amazonian freshwater environment. PMID:27856592

  8. C dynamics in Amazonian podzols under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Soro, Andre; Potard, Kevin; Pouteau, Valerie; Montes, Celia; Melphi, Adolpho; Lucas, Yves; Chenu, Claire

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been shown that the C stocks in Amazonian podzols are very large. They are much larger than was previously thought, particularly in the Bh horizon, which has been estimated to contain in excess of 13Pg C for Amazonia alone. It is predicted that the changes in regional climate will result in a drier soil water regime which may affect the C dynamics in these soils that are usually saturated. In order to determine the vulnerability to change of the organic C contained in the Amazonian podzols, a series of incubation experiments were established in which the effects of a number of different factors on microbial decomposition were measured. The direct effect of drier soil water regimes was tested by incubating undisturbed cores from the Bh horizon at a range of matric potentials (saturation to wilting point). Contrary to what is usually found in soils, no significant difference in mineralisation was found among matric potentials, suggesting that other factors control microbial mineralisation of this organic C. The effect of nitrogen additions, of anaerobic conditions and of the addition labile C substrate were also tested on undisturbed cores of the Bh horizon of the podzols. Samples incubated under aerobic conditions produced 3 times more CO2 than samples incubated under anaerobic conditions, whilst samples incubated under aerobic conditions with the addition of N mineralised 6.7 times more CO2 than the anaerobic samples. The addition of labile C did not have a significant effect on C mineralisation, i.e. there was no priming effect. The combined addition of labile C and mineral N did not stimulate C mineralisation more than N additions alone. By extrapolating the differences obtained here to the whole of the Amazonian podzols, it is estimated that changes in conditions which result in an increase in O2 and in N (i.e. changes in vegetation due to increases in dry periods with the establishment of a savanna for example) in the soil will cause the release

  9. Mapping phytophysiognomies to undisclosed past landscape in an Amazonian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, E.; Rossetti, D.; Zani, H.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands cover 800,000 km2 in the Amazon basin, and these not distributed randomly in the landscape. These areas record a complex geomorphological history during the late Quaternary, mainly due to interplay of tectonics and climatic changes, which resulted in high volumes of sediment deposited in renewed accommodation spaces. It is interesting that these wetlands are highlighted by open vegetation of non-random distribution in contrast with the surrounding rainforest. In general, natural patches of open vegetation within the Amazonian forest have been most often assigned to past arid climatic episodes, or contrasting soil properties. In this work, we analyzed the relationship between geomorphology and the distribution of vegetation patterns over an Amazonian wetland located in the interfluve of the Negro and Branco Rivers. This area is interesting because it contains one of the largest (i.e., more than 100 km in length and 50 km in width) patches of open vegetation (mostly grassland campinarana) in sharp contrast with the rainforest. The main goal was to perform a phytophysiognomic map based on decision tree classifier and data mining of reflectance factor and backscattering using TM/Landsat (dry season) and PALSAR (wet season) images. Five phytophysiognomies were categorized: rainforest; flooded forest; wooded open vegetation; grassy-shrubby open vegetation; and water body. The output map showed an overall accuracy of 94% and Kappa index of 0.93 (p grassy, shrubby and woody) from forested areas (rainforest and flooded forest). Together with the visual interpretation of remote sensing products, the achieved phytophysiognomic map served as the basis for a geomorphological interpretation of the study area. Hence, grassy and shrubby open vegetation class defines a triangular, cone-shaped morphology sharply bounded by flooded and dense forests. Within the open forest, there are also numerous, narrow and elongated belts of wooded open vegetation and forest, which

  10. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree...... degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century....

  11. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

  12. Impact of pre-Columbian "geoglyph" builders on Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Jennifer; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis E; Schaan, Denise; Pessenda, Luiz C R; Loader, Neil J; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Dickau, Ruth E; Damasceno, Antonia; Ranzi, Alceu

    2017-02-21

    Over 450 pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) geometric ditched enclosures ("geoglyphs") occupy ∼13,000 km(2) of Acre state, Brazil, representing a key discovery of Amazonian archaeology. These huge earthworks were concealed for centuries under terra firme (upland interfluvial) rainforest, directly challenging the "pristine" status of this ecosystem and its perceived vulnerability to human impacts. We reconstruct the environmental context of geoglyph construction and the nature, extent, and legacy of associated human impacts. We show that bamboo forest dominated the region for ≥6,000 y and that only small, temporary clearings were made to build the geoglyphs; however, construction occurred within anthropogenic forest that had been actively managed for millennia. In the absence of widespread deforestation, exploitation of forest products shaped a largely forested landscape that survived intact until the late 20th century.

  13. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L V; Gloor, M; Miller, J B; Doughty, C E; Malhi, Y; Domingues, L G; Basso, L S; Martinewski, A; Correia, C S C; Borges, V F; Freitas, S; Braz, R; Anderson, L O; Rocha, H; Grace, J; Phillips, O L; Lloyd, J

    2014-02-06

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48 ± 0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C yr(-1)) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06 ± 0.1 Pg C yr(-1)) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25 ± 0.14 Pg C yr(-1), which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39 ± 0.10 Pg C yr(-1) previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  14. Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Leandro; Macedo, Marcia N

    2016-03-01

    Hydrological connectivity regulates the structure and function of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems and the provisioning of services that sustain local populations. This connectivity is increasingly being disrupted by the construction of dams, mining, land-cover changes, and global climate change. This review analyzes these drivers of degradation, evaluates their impacts on hydrological connectivity, and identifies policy deficiencies that hinder freshwater ecosystem protection. There are 154 large hydroelectric dams in operation today, and 21 dams under construction. The current trajectory of dam construction will leave only three free-flowing tributaries in the next few decades if all 277 planned dams are completed. Land-cover changes driven by mining, dam and road construction, agriculture and cattle ranching have already affected ~20% of the Basin and up to ~50% of riparian forests in some regions. Global climate change will likely exacerbate these impacts by creating warmer and dryer conditions, with less predictable rainfall and more extreme events (e.g., droughts and floods). The resulting hydrological alterations are rapidly degrading freshwater ecosystems, both independently and via complex feedbacks and synergistic interactions. The ecosystem impacts include biodiversity loss, warmer stream temperatures, stronger and more frequent floodplain fires, and changes to biogeochemical cycles, transport of organic and inorganic materials, and freshwater community structure and function. The impacts also include reductions in water quality, fish yields, and availability of water for navigation, power generation, and human use. This degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems cannot be curbed presently because existing policies are inconsistent across the Basin, ignore cumulative effects, and overlook the hydrological connectivity of freshwater ecosystems. Maintaining the integrity of these freshwater ecosystems requires a basinwide research and policy framework

  15. MANEJO Y REHABILITACIÓN DEL MANATÍ AMAZÓNICO (Trichechus inunguis EN CAUTIVERIO EN EL PERÚ

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    Carlos Marcial Perea Sicchar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La caza furtiva de adultos y la comercialización de crías de manatí amazónico o vaca marina Trichechus inunguis en el Perú, especialmente en la selva baja del departamento de Loreto, ha originado la necesidad de contar con normas técnicas apropiadas para el manejo y rehabilitación de esta especie en condiciones de cautiverio, lo que conllevó a la conformación de la “Fundación Iquitos – Centro de Rescate Amazónico”, un esfuerzo interinstitucional que está involucrado en la conservación y protección de mamíferos acuáticos amazónicos. El Centro de Rescate Amazónico, atiende a 13 manatíes y asiste a otros 4 ubicados en otros predios, logrando la rehabilitación de varios de ellos que se encuentran aptos para su liberación; además que ha generado el inicio de investigaciones y el desarrollo de actividades de educación ambiental relacionados a esta especie.

  16. 75 FR 30428 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; PRT-10640A The applicant requests a permit to import dried skin samples... (Lontra feline), manatees (Trichechus spp.), dugongs (Dugong dugon), polar bears (Ursus maritimus)...

  17. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  18. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

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    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  19. Deep plant-derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

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    C. R. Montes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial podzols are soils characterized by thick sandy horizons overlying more clayey horizons. Organic matter produced in the topsoil is transferred in depth through the sandy horizons and accumulate at the transition, at a depth varying from 1 to more than 3 m, forming deep horizons rich in organic matter (Bh horizons. Although they cover great surfaces in the equatorial zone, these soils are still poorly known. Studying podzols from Amazonia, we found out that the deep Bh horizons in poorly drained podzol areas have a thickness higher than 1 m and store unexpected amounts of carbon. The average for the studied area was 66.7 ± 5.8 kg C m−2 for the deep Bh and 86.8 ± 7.1 kg C m−2 for the whole profile. Extrapolating to the podzol areas of the whole Amazonian Basin has been possible thanks to digital maps, giving an order of magnitude around 13.6 ± 1.1 Pg C, at least 12.3 Pg C higher than previous estimates. This assessment should be refined by additional investigations, not only in Amazonia but in all equatorial areas where podzols have been identified. Because of the lack of knowledge on the quality and behaviour of the podzol organic matter, the question of the feedback between the climate and the equatorial podzol carbon cycle is open.

  20. Oxidative mitigation of aquatic methane emissions in large Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Bastviken, David; Sawakuchi, André O; Ward, Nicholas D; Borges, Clovis D; Tsai, Siu M; Richey, Jeffrey E; Ballester, Maria Victoria R; Krusche, Alex V

    2016-03-01

    The flux of methane (CH4 ) from inland waters to the atmosphere has a profound impact on global atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) levels, and yet, strikingly little is known about the dynamics controlling sources and sinks of CH4 in the aquatic setting. Here, we examine the cycling and flux of CH4 in six large rivers in the Amazon basin, including the Amazon River. Based on stable isotopic mass balances of CH4 , inputs and outputs to the water column were estimated. We determined that ecosystem methane oxidation (MOX) reduced the diffusive flux of CH4 by approximately 28-96% and varied depending on hydrologic regime and general geochemical characteristics of tributaries of the Amazon River. For example, the relative amount of MOX was maximal during high water in black and white water rivers and minimal in clear water rivers during low water. The abundance of genetic markers for methane-oxidizing bacteria (pmoA) was positively correlated with enhanced signals of oxidation, providing independent support for the detected MOX patterns. The results indicate that MOX in large Amazonian rivers can consume from 0.45 to 2.07 Tg CH4 yr(-1) , representing up to 7% of the estimated global soil sink. Nevertheless, climate change and changes in hydrology, for example, due to construction of dams, can alter this balance, influencing CH4 emissions to atmosphere.

  1. The Sound-Symbolic Expression of Animacy in Amazonian Ecuador

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    Janis B. Nuckolls

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several anthropologists of Amazonian societies in Ecuador have claimed that for Achuar [1] and Quichua speaking Runa [2-4] there is no fundamental distinction between humans on the one hand, and plants and animals on the other. A related observation is that Runa and Achuar people share an animistic cosmology whereby animals, plants, and even seemingly inert entities such as rocks and stones are believed to have a life force or essence with a subjectivity that can be expressed. This paper will focus on Quichua speaking Runa to seek linguistic evidence for animacy by examining the sound-symbolic properties of a class of expressions called ideophones. I argue that structural features of ideophones such as canonical length and diversity of sound segments as well as type of sound segments, help express the animism of the Runa lifeworld. Moreover, although these features are not indicative of any essential distinctions between plants and animals, they may be indicative of a scalar view of animacy, along the lines suggested by Descola who first proposed a continuum or ‘ladder of animacy’ for the Achuar [1, pp. 321-326]. Ideophones, then, may be understood as one set of linguistic tools for coming to terms with the diversity of their ecological setting, a setting which spans highly animate humans and animals, through less animate plants, trees, and rocks.

  2. Evidence for Middle Amazonian catastrophic flooding and glaciation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.; Platz, Thomas; Fairén, Alberto G.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Rice, James W.; Glines, Natalie

    2014-11-01

    Early geologic investigations of Mars revealed some of the largest channels in the Solar System (outflow channels), which appear to have mostly developed ∼3 byr ago. These channels have been the subject of much scientific inquiry since the 1970s and proposed formative processes included surface erosion by catastrophic floods, glaciers, debris flows and lava flows. Based on the analysis of newly acquired Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX, 5.15-5.91 m/pixel) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE, 25-50 cm/pixel) image data, we have identified a few locations contained within relatively narrow canyons of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels that retain well-preserved decameter/hectometer-scale landform assemblages. These terrains include landforms consistent in shape, dimension and overall assemblage to those produced by catastrophic floods, and at one location, to glacial morphologies. Impact crater statistics for four of these surfaces, located within upstream, midstream and downstream outflow channel surfaces, yield an age estimate of ∼600 myr. This suggests that the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels were locally resurfaced by some of the most recent catastrophic floods on the planet, and that these floods coexisted within regional glacier environments as recently as during the Middle Amazonian.

  3. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

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    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  4. Branchfall dominates annual carbon flux across lowland Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, David C.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-09-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but knowledge of interannual variation in the total tropical carbon flux and constituent carbon pools is highly uncertain. One such pool, branchfall, is an ecologically important dynamic with links to nutrient cycling, forest productivity, and drought. Identifying and quantifying branchfall over large areas would reveal the role of branchfall in carbon and nutrient cycling. Using data from repeat airborne light detection and ranging campaigns across a wide array of lowland Amazonian forest landscapes totaling nearly 100 000 ha, we find that upper canopy gaps—driven by branchfall—are pervasive features of every landscape studied, and are seven times more frequent than full tree mortality. Moreover, branchfall comprises a major carbon source on a landscape basis, exceeding that of tree mortality by 21%. On a per hectare basis, branchfall and tree mortality result in 0.65 and 0.72 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 gross source of carbon to the atmosphere, respectively. Reducing uncertainties in annual gross rates of tropical forest carbon flux, for example by incorporating large-scale branchfall dynamics, is crucial for effective policies that foster conservation and restoration of tropical forests. Additionally, large-scale branchfall mapping offers ecologists a new dimension of disturbance monitoring and potential new insights into ecosystem structure and function.

  5. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  6. Biotransformations of terpenes by fungi from Amazonian citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rueda, Maria Gabriela; Guerrini, Alessandra; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Medici, Alessandro; Grandini, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pedrini, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The biotransformations of (RS)-linalool (1), (S)-citronellal (2), and sabinene (3) with fungi isolated from the epicarp of fruits of Citrus genus of the Amazonian forest (i.e., C. limon, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, and C. paradisiaca) are reported. The more active strains have been characterized, and they belong to the genus Penicillium and Fusarium. Different biotransformation products have been obtained depending on fungi and substrates. (RS)-Linalool (1) afforded the (E)- and (Z)-furanlinalool oxides (7 and 8, resp.; 39 and 37% yield, resp.) with Fusarium sp. (1D2), 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one (4; 49%) with F. fujikuroi, and 1-methyl-1-(4-methypentyl)oxiranemethanol (6; 42%) with F. concentricum. (S)-Citronellal (2) gave (S)-citronellol (12; 36-76%) and (S)-citronellic acid (11; 5-43%) with Fusarium species, while diastereoisomeric p-menthane-3,8-diols 13 and 14 (20 and 50% yield, resp.) were obtained as main products with Penicillium paxilli. Finally, both Fusarium species and P. paxilli biotransformed sabinene (3) to give mainly 4-terpineol (19; 23-56%), and (Z)- and (E)-sabinene hydrates (17 (3-21%) and 18 (11-17%), resp.).

  7. Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, C; Costa, F R C; Bongers, F; Peña-Claros, M; Clement, C R; Junqueira, A B; Neves, E G; Tamanaha, E K; Figueiredo, F O G; Salomão, R P; Castilho, C V; Magnusson, W E; Phillips, O L; Guevara, J E; Sabatier, D; Molino, J-F; López, D Cárdenas; Mendoza, A M; Pitman, N C A; Duque, A; Vargas, P Núñez; Zartman, C E; Vasquez, R; Andrade, A; Camargo, J L; Feldpausch, T R; Laurance, S G W; Laurance, W F; Killeen, T J; Nascimento, H E Mendonça; Montero, J C; Mostacedo, B; Amaral, I L; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Brienen, R; Castellanos, H; Terborgh, J; Carim, M de Jesus Veiga; Guimarães, J R da Silva; Coelho, L de Souza; Matos, F D de Almeida; Wittmann, F; Mogollón, H F; Damasco, G; Dávila, N; García-Villacorta, R; Coronado, E N H; Emilio, T; Filho, D de Andrade Lima; Schietti, J; Souza, P; Targhetta, N; Comiskey, J A; Marimon, B S; Marimon, B-H; Neill, D; Alonso, A; Arroyo, L; Carvalho, F A; de Souza, F C; Dallmeier, F; Pansonato, M P; Duivenvoorden, J F; Fine, P V A; Stevenson, P R; Araujo-Murakami, A; Aymard C, G A; Baraloto, C; do Amaral, D D; Engel, J; Henkel, T W; Maas, P; Petronelli, P; Revilla, J D Cardenas; Stropp, J; Daly, D; Gribel, R; Paredes, M Ríos; Silveira, M; Thomas-Caesar, R; Baker, T R; da Silva, N F; Ferreira, L V; Peres, C A; Silman, M R; Cerón, C; Valverde, F C; Di Fiore, A; Jimenez, E M; Mora, M C Peñuela; Toledo, M; Barbosa, E M; Bonates, L C de Matos; Arboleda, N C; Farias, E de Sousa; Fuentes, A; Guillaumet, J-L; Jørgensen, P Møller; Malhi, Y; de Andrade Miranda, I P; Phillips, J F; Prieto, A; Rudas, A; Ruschel, A R; Silva, N; von Hildebrand, P; Vos, V A; Zent, E L; Zent, S; Cintra, B B L; Nascimento, M T; Oliveira, A A; Ramirez-Angulo, H; Ramos, J F; Rivas, G; Schöngart, J; Sierra, R; Tirado, M; van der Heijden, G; Torre, E V; Wang, O; Young, K R; Baider, C; Cano, A; Farfan-Rios, W; Ferreira, C; Hoffman, B; Mendoza, C; Mesones, I; Torres-Lezama, A; Medina, M N U; van Andel, T R; Villarroel, D; Zagt, R; Alexiades, M N; Balslev, H; Garcia-Cabrera, K; Gonzales, T; Hernandez, L; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I; Manzatto, A G; Milliken, W; Cuenca, W P; Pansini, S; Pauletto, D; Arevalo, F R; Reis, N F Costa; Sampaio, A F; Giraldo, L E Urrego; Sandoval, E H Valderrama; Gamarra, L Valenzuela; Vela, C I A; Ter Steege, H

    2017-03-03

    The extent to which pre-Columbian societies altered Amazonian landscapes is hotly debated. We performed a basin-wide analysis of pre-Columbian impacts on Amazonian forests by overlaying known archaeological sites in Amazonia with the distributions and abundances of 85 woody species domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples. Domesticated species are five times more likely than nondomesticated species to be hyperdominant. Across the basin, the relative abundance and richness of domesticated species increase in forests on and around archaeological sites. In southwestern and eastern Amazonia, distance to archaeological sites strongly influences the relative abundance and richness of domesticated species. Our analyses indicate that modern tree communities in Amazonia are structured to an important extent by a long history of plant domestication by Amazonian peoples.

  8. Estimating distribution of hidden objects with drones: from tennis balls to manatees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Burgess, Matthew A; Percival, H Franklin; Fagan, Daniel E; Gardner, Beth E; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G; Ifju, Peter G; Evers, Brandon S; Rambo, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), or drones, have been used widely in military applications, but more recently civilian applications have emerged (e.g., wildlife population monitoring, traffic monitoring, law enforcement, oil and gas pipeline threat detection). UAV can have several advantages over manned aircraft for wildlife surveys, including reduced ecological footprint, increased safety, and the ability to collect high-resolution geo-referenced imagery that can document the presence of species without the use of a human observer. We illustrate how geo-referenced data collected with UAV technology in combination with recently developed statistical models can improve our ability to estimate the distribution of organisms. To demonstrate the efficacy of this methodology, we conducted an experiment in which tennis balls were used as surrogates of organisms to be surveyed. We used a UAV to collect images of an experimental field with a known number of tennis balls, each of which had a certain probability of being hidden. We then applied spatially explicit occupancy models to estimate the number of balls and created precise distribution maps. We conducted three consecutive surveys over the experimental field and estimated the total number of balls to be 328 (95%CI: 312, 348). The true number was 329 balls, but simple counts based on the UAV pictures would have led to a total maximum count of 284. The distribution of the balls in the field followed a simulated environmental gradient. We also were able to accurately estimate the relationship between the gradient and the distribution of balls. Our experiment demonstrates how this technology can be used to create precise distribution maps in which discrete regions of the study area are assigned a probability of presence of an object. Finally, we discuss the applicability and relevance of this experimental study to the case study of Florida manatee distribution at power plants.

  9. Estimating distribution of hidden objects with drones: from tennis balls to manatees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Martin

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, or drones, have been used widely in military applications, but more recently civilian applications have emerged (e.g., wildlife population monitoring, traffic monitoring, law enforcement, oil and gas pipeline threat detection. UAV can have several advantages over manned aircraft for wildlife surveys, including reduced ecological footprint, increased safety, and the ability to collect high-resolution geo-referenced imagery that can document the presence of species without the use of a human observer. We illustrate how geo-referenced data collected with UAV technology in combination with recently developed statistical models can improve our ability to estimate the distribution of organisms. To demonstrate the efficacy of this methodology, we conducted an experiment in which tennis balls were used as surrogates of organisms to be surveyed. We used a UAV to collect images of an experimental field with a known number of tennis balls, each of which had a certain probability of being hidden. We then applied spatially explicit occupancy models to estimate the number of balls and created precise distribution maps. We conducted three consecutive surveys over the experimental field and estimated the total number of balls to be 328 (95%CI: 312, 348. The true number was 329 balls, but simple counts based on the UAV pictures would have led to a total maximum count of 284. The distribution of the balls in the field followed a simulated environmental gradient. We also were able to accurately estimate the relationship between the gradient and the distribution of balls. Our experiment demonstrates how this technology can be used to create precise distribution maps in which discrete regions of the study area are assigned a probability of presence of an object. Finally, we discuss the applicability and relevance of this experimental study to the case study of Florida manatee distribution at power plants.

  10. Potential for saltwater intrusion into the Upper Floridan aquifer, Hernando and Manatee counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Pumpage from the Upper Floridan aquifer has caused a lowering of the potentiometric surface and has increased potential for saltwater intrusion into the aquifer in coastal areas of west-central Florida. Groundwater withdrawals are likely to increase because of expected population growth, especially in coastal areas. To increase the understanding of the potential and mechanics of saltwater intrusion, two sites were selected for study. Data were collected at each site from a centrally located deep well, and digital models were developed to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport. The northern site is in Hernando County near the town of Aripeka. The test well in the area was drilled about 1 mile from the coast to a depth of 820 ft. Freshwater was present in the carbonate rock aquifer to a depth of about 500 ft and saltwater occurred from 560 ft to the base of the aquifer at about 750 ft. Between the freshwater and saltwater is the zone of transition, also referred to as the freshwater-saltwater interface. The southern site is in Manatee County near the town of Rubonia. Drilling of the test well was completed at 1,260 ft, just below the base of the Upper Floridan aquifer. The transition zone in this well occurs between 875 and 975 ft within a highly permeable zone. Digital simulations show flow patterns similar to the cyclic flow of seawater and interface theory. Simulations have shown that saltwater contamination of coastal wells would not be noticed as quickly as water-level declines resulting from inland pumpage. (USGS)

  11. Game depletion hypothesis of amazonian adaptation: data from a native community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, W T

    1988-03-25

    The low population densities and impermanent settlements of Amazonian Indians are often interpreted as adaptations to a fauna that offers limited protein resources and is rapidly depleted by hunting. Data spanning the 10-year life cycle of one northwestern Amazonian settlement show that variations in hunt yields result from temporal variations in peccary (Tayassu pecari and T. tajacu) kills that appear extrinsic to native population size. After 10 years, hunting success remained high and the kill rates for most prey did not suggest depletion. An array of environmental factors accounts for the incipient settlement relocation observed.

  12. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  13. Alluvial deposits and plant distribution in an Amazonian lowland megafan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, H.; Rossetti, D.; Cremon; Cohen, M.; Pessenda, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    A large volume of sandy alluvial deposits (> 1000 km2) characterizes a flat wetland in northern Amazonia. These have been recently described as the sedimentary record of a megafan system, which have a distinct triangular shape produced by highly migratory distributary rivers. The vegetation map suggests that this megafan is dominated by open vegetation in sharp contact with the surround rainforest. Understanding the relationship between geomorphological processes and vegetation distribution is crucial to decipher and conserve the biodiversity in this Amazonian ecosystem. In this study we interpret plant dynamics over time, and investigate its potential control by sedimentary processes during landscape evolution. The study area is located in the Viruá National Park. Two field campaigns were undertaken in the dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 and the sampling sites were selected by combining accessibility and representativeness. Vegetation contrasts were recorded along a transect in the medial section of the Viruá megafan. Due to the absence of outcrops, samples were extracted using a core device, which allowed sampling up to a depth of 7.5 m. All cores were opened and described in the field, with 5 cm3 samples collected at 20 cm intervals. The δ13C of organic matter was used as a proxy to distinguish between C3 and C4 plant communities. The chronology was established based on radiocarbon dating. The results suggest that the cores from forested areas show the most depleted values of δ13C, ranging from -32.16 to -27.28‰. The δ13C curve in these areas displays typical C3 land plant values for the entire record, which covers most of the Holocene. This finding indicates that either the vegetation remained stable over time or the sites were dominated by aquatic environments with freshwater plants before forest establishment. The cores from the open vegetation areas show a progressive upward enrichment in δ13C values, which range from -28.50 to -19.59‰. This trend is

  14. Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Gardner, Toby A; Rosa, Isabel; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Sutherland, William J

    2015-04-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon.

  15. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, William E.; Anderson, Marti J.; Schlegel, Martin; Pe’er, Guy; Henle, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species’ turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species. PMID:28225774

  16. 76 FR 71517 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... of the charge is less than one second. As part of the development of the protected species monitoring... (Physeter macrocephalus) whale, and West Indian (Florida) manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). The... groups: mysticetes (baleen whales), odontocetes (toothed whales), and sirenians (the manatee). The...

  17. Widespread loess-like deposit in the Martian northern lowlands identifies Middle Amazonian climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Thomas Platz,

    2014-01-01

    Consistently mappable units critical to distinguishing the style and interplay of geologic processes through time are sparse in the Martian lowlands. This study identifies a previously unmapped Middle Amazonian (ca. 1 Ga) unit (Middle Amazonian lowland unit, mAl) that postdates the Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian lowland plains by >2 b.y. The unit is regionally defined by subtle marginal scarps and slopes, has a mean thickness of 32 m, and extends >3.1 × 106 km2 between lat 35°N and 80°N. Pedestal-type craterforms and nested, arcuate ridges (thumbprint terrain) tend to occur adjacent to unit mAl outcrops, suggesting that current outcrops are vestiges of a more extensive deposit that previously covered ∼16 × 106 km2. Exposed layers, surface pits, and the draping of subjacent landforms allude to a sedimentary origin, perhaps as a loess-like deposit emplaced rhythmically through atmospheric fallout. We propose that unit mAl accumulated coevally with, and at the expense of, the erosion of the north polar basal units, identifying a major episode of Middle Amazonian climate-driven sedimentation in the lowlands. This work links ancient sedimentary processes to climate change that occurred well before those implied by current orbital and spin axis models.

  18. Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero Vallejo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation,

  19. Recent (Late Amazonian) enhanced backweathering rates on Mars : Paracratering evidence from gully alcoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling; Conway, Susan J.; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mars is believed to have been exposed to low planet-wide weathering and denudation since the Noachian. However, the widespread occurrence of alcoves at the rim of pristine impact craters suggests locally enhanced recent backweathering rates. Here we derive Late Amazonian backweathering rates from th

  20. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Grández, César

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that cause variation in commonness (abundances and range sizes) of species remain debated in ecology, and a repeatedly observed pattern is the positive relation between local abundances and larger scale range sizes. We used the Amazonian palm species (Arecaceae) to investigate...

  1. Effects of Amazonian Dark Earths on growth and leaf nutrient balance of tropical tree seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero Vallejo, Estela; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are ancient anthropogenic soils distributed in the Amazon basin. They are characterized by high nutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium and nitrogen. We studied the effect of ADE on growth, morphology and physiology of 17 tree species from a

  2. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin. PMID:27651991

  3. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluv

  4. The Perceptions of Knowledge and Learning of Amazonian Indigenous Teacher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintie, Tuija; Holm, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions of knowledge and learning by indigenous students in an intercultural bilingual teacher education programme in Amazonian Ecuador. The study framed within postcolonial and critical theory attempts to create a space for the indigenous students to speak about their own views through the use of photography and…

  5. [Myths concerning malarial transmission among Amazonian Indians and their relation with 2 types of transmission encountered in the Amazonian forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molez, J F

    1999-01-01

    Among the Indians Desana's (Tukano amerindians) in the Upper Rio Negro, the interseasonal variation of the malarial fevers were associated with two myths (localised in two distinguishable places). One myth associates the malarial with the rivers which contain "malaria pots". Conception based on an observation of localised water collection in the banks and the rocky rapids ("banks and rocky's fever"). The transmission and the anophelian density present variation between the seasons in relation to the river's level. Another myth associates malarial fevers in the forest, with the song of a frog ("fever's frog") and the flowering and fructification of a tree (Poaqueira sericea Thul.). There is in South America a particular type of forest malaria, known as "Bromelia malaria" and denounced in human and/or simian transmission. This forest malaria is transmitted by the a sub-genus anopheles (Kerteszia) which larval breeding are areal in the canopy. The breeding places are found in the forest in the epiphyte bromeliads. To understand this type of transmission, we must take reference to the previous endomological data at the Upper Oyapock Wayâpi (Tupi amerindians). This Bromelia malaria could fluctuated according larval density variation, related to washing of epiphytes (end of the rainy season) or to their flowering (end of the dry season). The "fever's frog" myth collected at the Desana's in the Upper Rio Negro can be related to the existence of Bromelia malaria in this amazonian habitat. These myths showed the perfect adaptation of the amerindians to their environment and their complete knowledge of the neotropical forest.

  6. Drought tolerance as predicted by leaf water potential at turgor loss point varies strongly across species within an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1. Amazonian droughts are predicted to become increasingly frequent and intense, and the vulnerability of Amazonian trees has become increasingly documented. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms and the diversity of drought tolerance of tropical trees due to the lack of quantitative measurements. 2. Leaf water potential at wilting or turgor loss point (pi(tlp)) is a determinant of the tolerance of leaves to drought stress and contributes to plant-level physiological...

  7. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  8. Patterns of energy allocation to reproduction in three Amazonian fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo N. dos Santos

    Full Text Available The study considered the influence of the hydrological cycle and gonadal development on the accumulation and use of energy in three fish species from an Amazonian flooded area. Fishes were sampled over a 24 hour period at monthly intervals between July 2004 and June 2005 using gillnets of different mesh sizes. Body cavity fat and gonadosomatic indices were determined, as well as energy content of gonads and muscles. Amongst the studied species, different means of energy allocation for reproduction were found: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris allocate energy from body cavity fat to its gonads; Pygocentrus nattereri uses mainly energy accumulated in the muscles for the process of gonadal maturation; and Hoplosternum littorale uses energy accumulated in their muscles and body cavity fat for reproductive processes. It is quite clear that the flood pulse regulates the gain and use of the energy reserves in fishes from the Amazonian floodplain.

  9. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  10. Did the martian outflow channels mostly form during the Amazonian Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Platz, Thomas; Gulick, Virginia; Baker, Victor R.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Kargel, Jeffrey; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles comprise some of the largest outflow channels on Mars. Their excavation has been attributed variously to (or a combination of) erosion by catastrophic floods, glaciers, and debris flows. Numerous investigations indicate that they formed largely during the Late Hesperian (3.61-3.37 Ga). However, these studies mostly equate the ages of the outflow channel floors to those of the flows that generated mesoscale (several hundred meters to a few kilometers) bedforms within them. To improve the statistical accuracy in the age determinations of these flow events, we have used recently acquired high-resolution image and topographic data to map and date portions of Simud, Tiu and Ares Valles, which are extensively marked by these bedforms. Our results, which remove the statistical effects of older and younger outflow channel floor surfaces on the generation of modeled ages, reveal evidence for major outflow channel discharges occurring during the Early (3.37-1.23 Ga) and Middle (1.23-0.328 Ga) Amazonian, with activity significantly peaking during the Middle Amazonian stages. We also find that during the documented stages of Middle Amazonian discharges, the floor of Tiu Valles underwent widespread collapse, resulting in chaotic terrain formation. In addition, we present evidence showing that following the outflow channel discharges, collapse within northern Simud Valles generated another chaotic terrain. This younger chaos region likely represents the latest stage of large-scale outflow channel resurfacing within the study area. Our findings imply that in southern circum-Chryse the martian hydrosphere experienced large-scale drainage during the Amazonian, which likely led to periodic inundation and sedimentation within the northern plains.

  11. Amazonian dark earths and Caboclo subsistence on the middle Madeira River, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, James Angus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) and Caboclo subsistence on the Middle Madeira River, Brazil. ADE are fertile anthropogenic (man-made) soils formed through practices of burning and waste disposal by pre-Columbian Amerindian populations. “Caboclo” is a social category that refers to the people of diverse origins that form the majority of the contemporary rural population of Brazilian Amazonia. Bitter manioc fields (roças) and homegardens (sítios) are th...

  12. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  13. Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W H; Kennelly, E J; Bass, G N; Wedner, H J; Elvin-Lewis, M P; Fast, D

    1991-01-01

    In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds.

  14. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442

  15. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Grández, César; Salo, Jukka; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-07-01

    The mechanisms that cause variation in commonness (abundances and range sizes) of species remain debated in ecology, and a repeatedly observed pattern is the positive relation between local abundances and larger scale range sizes. We used the Amazonian palm species (Arecaceae) to investigate the dependence between and potential determinants of commonness across three (local, landscape, continental) spatial scales. Commonness at the smaller scales (local abundance, landscape frequency) was estimated using data from 57 transects (5 × 500 m) in primary, non-inundated ( terra firme) rainforest in a western Amazonian landscape, while commonness at the largest scale (continental range size) was estimated from digitized distribution maps. Landscape frequency was positively related to both local abundance and continental range size, which, however, were not related to each other. Landscape frequency was positively related to topographic niche breadth. Stem height correlated with continental range size and was the only species life-history trait related to any commonness measure. Distance from the study area to a species' range centre did not influence any of the commonness measures. The factors determining commonness in the Amazonian palm flora appear to be scale-dependent, with the unrelated local scale abundance and continental range size probably being controlled by different driving factors. Interestingly, commonness at the intermediate, landscape scale seems linked to both the smaller and the larger scale. Our results point towards topographic niche breadth at the smaller scales and stem height, possibly reflecting species' dispersal potential, at the continental scale as important determinants of commonness.

  16. Siliceous spicules enhance fracture-resistance and stiffness of pre-colonial Amazonian ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Corrales, Tomas P.; Wanka, Stephanie; Zaslansky, Paul; Kappl, Michael; Lima, Helena Pinto; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Pottery was a traditional art and technology form in pre-colonial Amazonian civilizations, widely used for cultural expression objects, utensils and as cooking vessels. Abundance and workability of clay made it an excellent choice. However, inferior mechanical properties constrained their functionality and durability. The inclusion of reinforcement particles is a possible route to improve its resistance to mechanical and thermal damage. The Amazonian civilizations incorporated freshwater tree sponge spicules (cauixí) into the clay presumably to prevent shrinkage and crack propagation during drying, firing and cooking. Here we show that isolated siliceous spicules are almost defect-free glass fibres with exceptional mechanical stability. After firing, the spicule Young’s modulus increases (from 28 ± 5 GPa to 46 ± 8 GPa) inferring a toughness increment. Laboratory-fabricated ceramic models containing different inclusions (sand, glass-fibres, sponge spicules) show that mutually-oriented siliceous spicule inclusions prevent shrinkage and crack propagation leading to high stiffness clays (E = 836 ± 3 MPa). Pre-colonial amazonian potters were the first civilization known to employ biological materials to generate composite materials with enhanced fracture resistance and high stiffness in the history of mankind.

  17. Controls of Nazca ridge subduction on the Amazonian foreland basin geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Martinod, J.; Bolaños, R.

    2006-12-01

    In the central Andes, the Nazca ridge subduction imprints can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The western part of the Amazonian basin is currently an atypical foreland basin because the Amazonian foreland basin 3-D geometry does not follow the foreland basin system model of DeCelles and Giles [1]. The Amazonian foreland basin consists of two main subsiding basins separated by the NE-SW trending structural/morphologic Fitzcarrald Arch. Geomorphic and lithospheric data provide evidence that the large wavelength Fitzcarrald Arch uplift at 750 kilometers ahead of the trench results from the Nazca ridge flat subduction. The flexure of the South American lithosphere is overcompensated by the buoyancy of the Nazca ridge impeaching a four-component foreland basin system. The recent deformations of the Amazon basin are characterized by vertical motions as recorded by the radial modern drainage network and the deformation of Pliocene to recent fluvial deposits on both sides of the arch, according to the kinematics of the Nazca ridge subduction. In addition, analogue lithospheric experiments similarly show that the ridge buoyancy induces uplift above the flat-slab segment in the foreland basin separating two subsiding sub-basins resulting from the flexure of the continental lithosphere. [1] DeCelles, P.G., and Giles, K.A.(1996)Foreland basin systems: Basin Research, 8, 105-123.

  18. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants.

  19. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Peres, Carlos A; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P; Castilho, Carolina V; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G W; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Comiskey, James A; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Jimenez, Eliana M; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I A; Vos, Vincent A; Zent, Eglée L; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal species are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian tree species are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant species on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to trees throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world's >40,000 tropical tree species now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened species if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century.

  20. Energetic planning in isolated Amazonian communities using geographical information system; Planejamento energetico em regioes isoladas da Amazonia utilizando sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Arthur [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia Eletrica; Rocha, Brigida R.P.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Gaspar, Gabriella C.M. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao; Aarao Junior, Raimundo N.N. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a system of electric planning in isolated Amazonian communities. For those communities, we propose the use of decentralized systems of electric energy with biomass as fuel. We also propose a computer system of electric planning with geographical information systems for its facilities of integrating geographical information, so useful in an Amazonian context. (author)

  1. The role of tectonics and climate in the late Quaternary evolution of a northern Amazonian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Sawakuchi, André de Oliveira; Cohen, Marcelo Cancela Lisboa

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin has most of the largest rivers of the world. However, works focusing the geological evolution of the trunk river or its tributaries have been only partly approached. The Branco River constitutes one of the main northern Amazonian tributaries. A previous work proposed that, before flowing southward into the Negro-Amazon Rivers, the Branco River had a southwest to northeast course into the Caribbean Sea. The present work aimed to establish if the proposed change in the course of this river is supported by morphological and sedimentological data. Other goals were to discuss the factors influencing river development and establish its evolution over time within the chronological framework provided by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. The work considered the entire course of the Branco River downstream of the Precambrian Guiana Shield, where the river presumably did not exist in ancient times. The river valley is incised into fluvial sedimentary units displaying ages between 100 and 250 ky old, which record active and abandoned channels, crevasse splay/levees, and point bars. The sedimentary deposits in the valley include two alluvial plain units as old as 18.7 ky and which intersects a Late Pleistocene residual megafan. These characteristics suggest that a long segment of the Branco River was established only a few thousand years ago. Together with several structural anomalies, these data are consistent with a mega-capture at the middle reach of this river due to tectonic reactivation in the Late Pleistocene. This integrated approach can be applied to other Amazonian tributaries to unravel how and when the Amazonian drainage basin became established.

  2. Investigation of host candidate malaria-associated risk/protective SNPs in a Brazilian Amazonian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Silva Santos

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Amazon is a hypo-endemic malaria region with nearly 300,000 cases each year. A variety of genetic polymorphisms, particularly in erythrocyte receptors and immune response related genes, have been described to be associated with susceptibility and resistance to malaria. In order to identify polymorphisms that might be associated with malaria clinical outcomes in a Brazilian Amazonian population, sixty-four human single nucleotide polymorphisms in 37 genes were analyzed using a Sequenom massARRAY iPLEX platform. A total of 648 individuals from two malaria endemic areas were studied, including 535 malaria cases (113 individuals with clinical mild malaria, 122 individuals with asymptomatic infection and 300 individuals with history of previous mild malaria and 113 health controls with no history of malaria. The data revealed significant associations (p<0.003 between one SNP in the IL10 gene (rs1800896 and one SNP in the TLR4 gene (rs4986790 with reduced risk for clinical malaria, one SNP in the IRF1 gene (rs2706384 with increased risk for clinical malaria, one SNP in the LTA gene (rs909253 with protection from clinical malaria and one SNP in the TNF gene (RS1800750 associated with susceptibility to clinical malaria. Also, a new association was found between a SNP in the CTL4 gene (rs2242665, located at the major histocompatibility complex III region, and reduced risk for clinical malaria. This study represents the first association study from an Amazonian population involving a large number of host genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility or resistance to Plasmodium infection and malaria outcomes. Further studies should include a larger number of individuals, refined parameters and a fine-scale map obtained through DNA sequencing to increase the knowledge of the Amazonian population genetic diversity.

  3. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  4. How does the Nazca Ridge subduction influence the modern Amazonian foreland basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espurt, N.; Baby, P.; Brusset, S.; Roddaz, M.; Hermoza, W.; Regard, V.; Antoine, P.-O.; Salas-Gismondi, R.; Bolaños, R.

    2007-06-01

    The subduction of an aseismic ridge has important consequences on the dynamics of the overriding upper plate. In the central Andes, the Nazca Ridge subduction imprint can be tracked on the eastern side of the Andes. The Fitzcarrald arch is the long-wavelength topography response of the Nazca Ridge flat subduction, 750 km inboard of the trench. This uplift is responsible for the atypical three-dimensional shape of the Amazonian foreland basin. The Fitzcarrald arch uplift is no older than Pliocene as constrained by the study of Neogene sediments and geomorphic markers, according to the kinematics of the Nazca Ridge subduction.

  5. Variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas de peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inungui jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora K.F. Sousa

    Full Text Available Resumo: Peixes-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inungui jovens são frequentemente encontrados e resgatados de rios, no entanto para avaliar e monitorar o estado de saúde desses animais é necessário conhecer os valores de referência das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas nessa faixa etária. O trabalho objetivou determinar os valores hematológicos e bioquímicos de peixes-boi da amazônia jovens e saudáveis, mantidos em cativeiros. Foram coletadas 20 amostras sanguíneas de peixes-boi para a realização do hemograma e bioquímica. Os valores médios e desvio padrão das variáveis hematológicas foram: volume globular, 37±4%; eritrócitos, 4,4±0,35x106/μL; hemoglobina, 12,5±1,6g/dL; volume corpuscular médio (VCM, 85,33±4,28fL; hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM, 28,29±1,39pg; e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM, 33,13±0,20%, leucócitos totais, 9.080±1.868x103/μL; segmentados, 5.078±1.044,24x103/μL; linfócitos 3.556±1,063x103/μL; eosinófilos, 288± 215,51x103/μL; e monócitos, 165± 114,11x103/μL. A média e o intervalo (mínimo e máximo das variáveis bioquímicas foram: creatinina quinase (CK, 112,53 (50,10-295,80 U/L; aspartato aminotransferase (AST, 6,02 (2,80-10,20 U/L; gama glutamiltransferase (GGT, 25,24 (10,80-45,30 U/L; fosfatase alcalina (FA, 98,73 (14,66-198,30 U/L; proteína total, 6,12 (5,38-7,10 g/dL; albumina, 4,23 (3,50-5,00 g/dL; colesterol, 310,13 (144-518 mg/dL; triglicerídeos, 127,98 (57,50-213,50 mg/dL; glicose, 43,63 (24,50-73,80 mg/dL; ureia, 30,21 (14,30-54,25; creatinina, 1,34 (0,93-1,76 mg/dL; cálcio, 10,08 (9,25-11,10 mg/dL; e fósforo inorgânico; 6,50 (4,10-8,80 mg/dL. No presente trabalho foi possível determinar valores hematológicos e bioquímicos de peixes-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inungui jovens, mantidos em cativeiro, os quais podem ser utilizados como referência para animais em cativeiro e de vida livre, mantidos em condições ambientais, e de manejo

  6. Enzymes of energy metabolism in hatchlings of amazonian freshwater turtles (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    WP. Duncan

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.

  7. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-07-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  8. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  9. Long-term landscape change and bird abundance in Amazonian rainforest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Philip C; Bierregaard, Richard O; Strong, Cheryl; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2006-08-01

    The rainforests of the Amazon basin are being cut by humans at a rate >20,000 km2/year leading to smaller and more isolated patches of forest, with remaining fragments often in the range of 1-100 ha. We analyzed samples of understory birds collected over 20 years from a standardized mist-netting program in 1- to 100-ha rainforest fragments in a dynamic Amazonian landscape near Manaus, Brazil. Across bird guilds, the condition of second growth immediately surrounding fragments was often as important as fragment size or local forest cover in explaining variation in abundance. Some fragments surrounded by 100 m of open pasture showed reductions in insectivorous bird abundance of over 95%, even in landscapes dominated by continuous forest and old second growth. These extreme reductions may be typical throughout Amazonia in small (rainforest. Abundance for some guilds returned to preisolation levels in 10- and 100-ha fragments connected to continuous forest by 20-year-old second growth. Our results show that the consequences of Amazonian forest loss cannot be accurately described without explicit consideration of vegetation dynamics in matrix habitat. Any dichotomous classification of the landscape into 'forest" and "nonforest" misses essential information about the matrix.

  10. Scale dependence of the simulated impact of Amazonian deforestation on regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, A. J.; Lorenz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Using a global climate model, Amazonian deforestation experiments are conducted perturbing 1, 9, 25, 81 and 121 grid points, each with 5 ensemble members. All experiments show warming and drying over Amazonia. The impact of deforestation on temperature, averaged either over the affected area or a wider area, decreases by a factor of two as the scale of the perturbation increases from 1 to 121 grid points. This is associated with changes in the surface energy balance and consequential impacts on the atmosphere above the regions deforested. For precipitation, as the scale of deforestation increases from 9 to 121 grid points, the reduction in rainfall over the perturbed area decreases from ˜1.5 to ˜1 mm d-1. However, if the surrounding area is considered and large deforestation perturbations made, compensatory increases in precipitation occur such that there is little net change. This is largely associated with changes in horizontal advection of moisture. Disagreements between climate model experiments on how Amazonian deforestation affects precipitation and temperature are, at least in part, due to the spatial scale of the region deforested, differences in the areas used to calculate averages and whether areas surrounding deforestation are included in the overall averages.

  11. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. Methods The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. Results 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. Conclusion The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications.

  12. Do soil fertilization and forest canopy foliage affect the growth and photosynthesis of Amazonian saplings?

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    Nilvanda dos Santos Magalhães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and poor in nutrients. Therefore, photosynthesis and plant growth should positively respond to the addition of mineral nutrients. Surprisingly, no study has been carried out in situ in the central Amazon to address this issue for juvenile trees. The objective of this study was to determine how photosynthetic rates and growth of tree saplings respond to the addition of mineral nutrients, to the variation in leaf area index of the forest canopy, and to changes in soil water content associated with rainfall seasonality. We assessed the effect of adding a slow-release fertilizer. We determined plant growth from 2010 to 2012 and gas exchange in the wet and dry season of 2012. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect sapling growth or leaf gas exchange parameters. Although soil amendment increased phosphorus content by 60 %, neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic parameters were influenced by the addition of mineral nutrients. However, photosynthetic rates and growth of saplings decreased as the forest canopy became denser. Even when Amazonian soils are poor in nutrients, photosynthesis and sapling growth are more responsive to slight variations in light availability in the forest understory than to the availability of nutrients. Therefore, the response of saplings to future increases in atmospheric [CO2] will not be limited by the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil.

  13. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  14. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  15. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayorga, E; Aufdenkampe, A K; Masiello, C A; Krusche, A V; Hedges, J I; Quay, P D; Richey, J E; Brown, T A

    2005-06-23

    Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations in rivers originate largely from in situ respiration of organic carbon, but little agreement exists about the sources or turnover times of this carbon. Here we present results of an extensive survey of the carbon isotope composition ({sup 13}C and {sup 14}C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and three size-fractions of organic carbon across the Amazonian river system. We find that respiration of contemporary organic matter (less than 5 years old) originating on land and near rivers is the dominant source of excess carbon dioxide that drives outgassing in mid-size to large rivers, although we find that bulk organic carbon fractions transported by these rivers range from tens to thousands of years in age. We therefore suggest that a small, rapidly cycling pool of organic carbon is responsible for the large carbon fluxes from land to water to atmosphere in the humid tropics.

  16. Hydrological pulse regulating the bacterial heterotrophic metabolism between Amazonian mainstems and floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing in Amazonian floodplain lakes and mainstems, during both high and low water phases (p < 0.05. Our results showed that Bacterial Production (BP was lower and more variable than Bacterial Respiration (BR, determined as total respiration. Bacterial Carbon Demand (BCD was mostly accounted by BR and presented the same pattern that BR in both water phases. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (0.2–23% and low mean value of 3 and 6 %, (in high and low water respectively suggesting that dissolved organic carbon (DOC was mostly allocated to catabolic metabolism. However, BGE was regulated by BP in low water phase. Consequently, changes in BGE showed the same pattern that BP. In addition, the hydrological pulse effects on mainstems and floodplains lakes connectivity were found for BP and BGE in low water. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that indexes of organic matter quality (chlorophyll-a, N stable isotopes and C/N ratios were the strongest seasonal drivers of bacterial carbon metabolism. Our work indicated that: (1 the bacterial metabolism was mostly driven by respiration in Amazonian aquatic ecosystems resulting in low BGE in either high and low water phase; (2 the hydrological pulse regulated

  17. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Rocha, Da H.R.; Freitas, De H.C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Manzi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil respirati

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The ecology and evolution of Caribbean anoles are well described, yet little is known about mainland anole species. Lack of phylogenetic information limits our knowledge about species boundaries, morphological evolution, and the biogeography of anoles in South America. To help fill this gap, we provide an updated molecular phylogeny of the Dactyloa (Dactyloidae), with emphasis on the punctata species group. By sampling understudied Amazonian taxa, we (i) assess the phylogenetic placement of the 'odd anole', D. dissimilis; (ii) infer the relationships of the proboscis-bearing D. phyllorhina, testing the hypothesis of independent nasal appendage evolution within the anole radiation; and (iii) examine genetic and dewlap color variation in D. punctata and D. philopunctata. Combining multiple nuclear loci with a review of the fossil record, we also (iv) estimate divergence times within the pleurodont iguanian clade of lizards, including Amazonian representatives of Dactyloa and Norops (Dactyloidae) and of Polychrus (Polychrotidae). We recover the five Dactyloa clades previously referred to as the aequatorialis, heteroderma, latifrons, punctata and roquet species groups, as well as a sixth clade composed of D. dissimilis and the non-Amazonian D. neblinina and D. calimae. We find D. phyllorhina to be nested within the punctata group, suggesting independent evolution of the anole proboscis. We consistently recover D. philopunctata nested within D. punctata, and report limited genetic divergence between distinct dewlap phenotypes. The most recent common ancestor of Dactyloa, Anolis and Norops dates back to the Eocene. Most Amazonian taxa within both Dactyloa and Norops diverged in the Miocene, but some diversification events were as old as the late Eocene and late Oligocene. Amazonian Polychrus diverged in the Pliocene. Our findings have broad implications for anole biogeography, disputing recent suggestions that modern dactyloid genera were present in the Caribbean region

  19. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  20. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. O. C. Aragão

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The net primary productivity (NPP of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1 How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2 How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (mean±standard error, at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  1. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  2. Phylogenetic origins of local-scale diversity patterns and the causes of Amazonian megadiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Pyron, R Alexander; Moen, Daniel S

    2011-07-01

    What explains the striking variation in local species richness across the globe and the remarkable diversity of rainforest sites in Amazonia? Here, we apply a novel phylogenetic approach to these questions, using treefrogs (Hylidae) as a model system. Hylids show dramatic variation in local richness globally and incredible local diversity in Amazonia. We find that variation in local richness is not explained primarily by climatic factors, rates of diversification (speciation and extinction) nor morphological variation. Instead, local richness patterns are explained predominantly by the timing of colonization of each region, and Amazonian megadiversity is linked to the long-term sympatry of multiple clades in that region. Our results also suggest intriguing interactions between clade diversification, trait evolution and the accumulation of local richness. Specifically, sympatry between clades seems to slow diversification and trait evolution, but prevents neither the accumulation of local richness over time nor the co-occurrence of similar species.

  3. Elemental mercury in the atmosphere of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, D.; Wasserman, J.C.Tessier, E.; Donard, O.F.X. [Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l`Adour, Pau (France). Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement

    1999-09-01

    Gaseous atmospheric mercury was investigated at two sites of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana) in the Petit Inini River basin and the Petit Saut Lake in June, 1998. Gaseous atmospheric mercury was identified as elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). Diurnal variation of atmospheric Hg{sup 0} in both studied aquatic environments were significantly correlated with air temperature and anticorrelated with relative humidity. Average Hg{sup 0} concentrations were higher above the Petit Inini River that the Petit Saut Lake. Background Hg{sup 0} concentrations in the Petit Inini River basin were higher than those observed in remote environments. These data suggest that gold mining activity (i.e., Petit Inini River basin) may influence mercury mobilization in tropical forest ecosystems and that atmospheric transfer is a major pathway for mercury cycling in these environments.

  4. A Synopsis of Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae in the Neotropical extra-Amazonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Sloanea is comprised of 150 species, of which about 50 occur in Brazil among several vegetation types but mainly the Amazon and Atlantic forests. The present work provides a synopsis of the Neotropical species of Sloanea in the extra-Amazonian region based on a recent revision of the genus. In general, morphologically Sloanea comprises large trees endowed with buttressed roots; simple leaves; flowers with sepals that may or may not cover the reproductive organs in pre-anthesis phases; stamens with the connective prolonged into an awn that is acuminate, acute or aristate and fruit covered with rigid or flexible bristles or sometimes unarmed. This synopsis describes 17 species, and provides an identification key, illustrations and comments on their diagnostic characters, geographical distribution and main bibliographic references.

  5. Carbon recovery dynamics following disturbance by selective logging in Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piponiot, Camille; Sist, Plinio; Mazzei, Lucas; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Rutishauser, Ervan; Shenkin, Alexander; Ascarrunz, Nataly; de Azevedo, Celso P; Baraloto, Christopher; França, Mabiane; Guedes, Marcelino; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; d'Oliveira, Marcus Vn; Ruschel, Ademir R; da Silva, Kátia E; Doff Sotta, Eleneide; de Souza, Cintia R; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales Ap; Hérault, Bruno

    2016-12-20

    When 2 Mha of Amazonian forests are disturbed by selective logging each year, more than 90 Tg of carbon (C) is emitted to the atmosphere. Emissions are then counterbalanced by forest regrowth. With an original modelling approach, calibrated on a network of 133 permanent forest plots (175 ha total) across Amazonia, we link regional differences in climate, soil and initial biomass with survivors' and recruits' C fluxes to provide Amazon-wide predictions of post-logging C recovery. We show that net aboveground C recovery over 10 years is higher in the Guiana Shield and in the west (21 ±3 Mg C ha-1) than in the south (12 ±3 Mg C ha-1) where environmental stress is high (low rainfall, high seasonality). We highlight the key role of survivors in the forest regrowth and elaborate a comprehensive map of post-disturbance C recovery potential in Amazonia.

  6. Qualitative assessment of visuospatial errors in mercury-exposed Amazonian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Sullivan, Kimberly; White, Roberta F.;

    2009-01-01

    In order to better define the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on neurodevelopment, qualitative error types observed in the responses of exposed children to the Stanford-Binet Copying Test were categorized and quantified using raw data from two studies of 395 Amazonian children aged 7...... with adjustment for confounders. In the combined data set, mercury exposure was negatively associated with scores on the drawing task: a score reduction of 1.2 (s.e., 0.3) points was observed in the children with a hair-mercury concentration above 10 μg/g compared to those with a hair level below 1 μg....../g; this effect appeared to be stronger in the younger children. Risk of committing one or more errors of rotation, simplification or perseveration in the drawings increased with hair-mercury concentration in both cultural settings, providing convergent evidence of specific types of MeHg-related neurocognitive...

  7. Potential application in biocatalysis of mycelium-bound lipases from Amazonian fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotto, Sandra P.; Romano, Israel P.; Lisboa, Lilian U.S.; Duvoisin Junior, Sergio; Lima, Fabiana A.; Silva, Soraya F.; Alburquerque, Patricia M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Programa em Biotecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Amazonia. Lab. de Biorganica; Martins, Mayra K. [Centro de Biotecnologia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 212 fungi were isolated from Amazon region plants, aiming to obtain mycelium bound-lipase-producing biocatalysts. These isolates were submitted to hydrolytic and synthetic activity assays. When submitted to the tributyrine substrate test, 87% of the isolates showed hydrolytic activity. Of these, 30% showed good growth in lipase inducing liquid media and were submitted to evaluation of synthetic activity in esterification and transesterification reactions in organic solvents. The nine fungi which had the best synthetic activity were evaluated in the (R, S)-2-octanol resolution reaction, in order to verify the enantioselectivity of mycelium-bound lipases. The isolate UEA{sub 1}15 was the most versatile biocatalyst, showing good performance in esterification reactions (conversion > 90%) and good ability for the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol (ees 29%; eep 99%; c 22%; E > 200). Thus, this study has demonstrated the great potential of the Amazonian fungi as lipase suppliers for biocatalysts.(author)

  8. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  9. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant.

  10. Securitization, alterity, and the state Human (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  11. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. In this study, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and above-ground, coarse wood production of trees ≥10 cm diameter (CWP for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Average species maximum height and wood density are lower in Western than Eastern Amazonia and are negatively correlated with CWP. To test the hypothesis that variation in these traits causes the variation in CWP, we generate plot-level estimates of CWP by resampling the full distribution of tree biomass growth rates whilst maintaining the appropriate tree-diameter and functional-trait distributions for each plot. These estimates are then compared with the observed values. Overall, the estimates do not predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of CWP, suggesting that the variation in community-level trait values does not determine variation in coarse wood productivity in Amazonian forests. Instead, the regional gradient in CWP is caused by higher biomass growth rates across all tree types in Western Amazonia. Therefore, the regional gradient in CWP is driven primarily by environmental factors, rather than the particular functional composition of each stand. These results contrast with previous findings for forest biomass, where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns in above-ground biomass. Therefore, in tropical forests, above-ground wood productivity may be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  12. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. Here, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and wood production for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Firstly, we examine how community-level species traits vary across Amazonia. Average species maximum height and wood density are low in western, compared to eastern, Amazonia and are negatively correlated with aboveground wood productivity and soil fertility. Secondly, we compare biomass growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we ask whether the data on the abundance and average biomass growth rates of different functional groups is sufficient to predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of wood productivity. We find that the lower rate of wood production in eastern compared to western Amazonia cannot be estimated on the basis of this information. Overall, these results suggest that the correlations between community-level trait values and wood productivity in Amazonian forests are not causative: direct environmental control of biomass growth rates appears to be the most important driver of wood production at regional scales. This result contrasts with findings for forest biomass where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns. Tropical forest wood productivity may therefore be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  13. A Molecular Survey of the Diversity of Microbial Communities in Different Amazonian Agricultural Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio A. Navarrete

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production.The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I—“Slash-and-Burn” the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II—“Anthropogenic Soil”, the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE, black carbon (BC and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria—24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria—10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria—7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes—3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the

  14. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  15. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Freitas Alvarado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances <100 km, where north-western and south-western Amazonian regions showed greater floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  16. Recent (Late Amazonian) enhanced backweathering rates on Mars: Paracratering evidence from gully alcoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Conway, Susan; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Mars is believed to have been exposed to low planet-wide weathering and denudation since the Noachian period (˜4.1 - 3.7 Ga). However, the widespread occurrence of alcoves at the rim of pristine impact craters suggests locally enhanced recent backweathering rates. Here we derive Late Amazonian backweathering rates from the alcoves of 10 young equatorial and mid-latitude craters, ranging in age from 0.2 to 45 Ma. The enhanced Late Amazonian Martian backweathering rates (10-4 - 10-1 mm yr-1) are approximately one order of magnitude higher than previously reported erosion rates, and are similar to terrestrial rates inferred from Meteor crater and various Arctic and Alpine rock faces, when corrected for age. Alcoves on initially highly fractured and oversteepened crater rims following impact show enhanced backweathering rates that decline over at least 101 - 102 Myr as the crater wall stabilizes. This 'paracratering' backweathering decline with time is analogous to the paraglacial effect observed in rock slopes after deglaciation, but the relaxation time scale of 101 - 102 Myr compared to 10 kyr of the Milankovitch-controlled interglacial duration questions whether a paraglacial steady state is reached on Earth. The backweathering rates on the gullied pole-facing alcoves of the studied mid-latitude craters are much higher (˜2 - 60 times) than those on slopes with other azimuths and those in equatorial craters. The enhanced backweathering rates on gullied crater slopes may result from liquid water acting as a catalyst for backweathering. The decrease in backweathering rates over time might explain the similar size of gullies in young (<1 Ma) and much older craters, as alcove growth and sediment supply decrease to low background rates over time.

  17. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  18. Development of a biocompatible magnetic nanofluid by incorporating SPIONs in Amazonian oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, André S.; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Amaral, Vítor S.; Costa Lima, Sofia A.; Khomchenko, Vladimir A.; Santos, Judes G.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Durães, Luísa

    2017-02-01

    Higher quality magnetic nanoparticles are needed for use as magnetic nanoprobe in medical imaging techniques and cancer therapy. Moreover, the phytochemistry benefits of some Amazonian essential oils have sparked great interest for medical treatments. In this work, a magnetic nanoprobe was developed, allying the biocompatibility and superparamagnetism of iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with benefits associated with Amazonian oils from Copaiba and Andiroba trees. SPIONs were obtained by two thermal decomposition procedures and different amounts of precursors (iron acetylacetonates). Their characterization was accomplished by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization. The obtained nanoparticles composition and magnetic properties were not affected by the relative proportion of iron(II) and iron(III) in the precursor system. However, when changing the reducing and stabilizing agents the coating layer shows different compositions/relative weight - the more promising SPIONs have a coating mainly composed by oleylamine and an iron oxide:coating wt% ratio of 55:45. Nanoparticles size distributions were very narrow and centred in the average size of 6-7 nm. Cellular assays confirmed the biocompatibility of SPIONs and their effective internalization in human colon cancer cells. Mössbauer/XRD results indicated maghemite as their main iron oxide phase, but traces of magnetite proved to be present. Magnetization saturations of 57 emu/g at 5 K and 42 emu/g at 300 K were achieved. With incorporation of SPIONs into Copaiba and Andiroba essential oils, these values show a 4-fold decrease, but the supermagnetic behaviour is preserved providing the effective formation of a nanofluid.

  19. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  20. Understory Bird Communities in Amazonian Rainforest Fragments: Species Turnover through 25 Years Post-Isolation in Recovering Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Stouffer, Philip C.; Johnson, Erik I.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Thomas E Lovejoy

    2011-01-01

    Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragme...

  1. Parasitism of the isopod Artystone trysibia in the fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum from the Tena River (Amazonian region, Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junoy, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food.

  2. Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil

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    Alexander Krings

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and M. trichopedicellata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including M. hildegardiana and M. pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided.

  3. "Apu Ollantay": Inca Theatre as an example of the modes of interaction between the Incas and Western Amazonian societies

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    Cristiana Bertazoni

    Full Text Available The article looks closely at the Quechua play "Apu Ollantay" in order to better understand the relationships of power that the Incas established with the Amazonian corner of their empire, known in Inca terms as Antisuyu. It is argued that the drama "Apu Ollantay" functioned as a social and political device in order to enhance Inca imperial magnitude and project an image of a magnanimous ruler.

  4. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  5. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

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    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  6. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  7. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

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    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  8. Provenance of late Oligocene to quaternary sediments of the Ecuadorian Amazonian foreland basin as inferred from major and trace element geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddaz, Martin; Christophoul, Frédéric; Burgos Zambrano, José David; Soula, Jean-Claude; Baby, Patrice

    2012-08-01

    Oligocene to Quaternary deposits from the Oriente Amazonian foreland basin (Ecuador and Peru) were analyzed for major and trace element geochemistry (46 and 32 samples respectively) and Nd-Sr isotopic systematics (n = 10). Chemical Index of Alteration values lower than those of other Amazonian foreland basin sediments and scattering along the AK join in the A-CN-K diagram indicate that the Oriente foreland basin has been continuously fed by poorly to moderately weathered sediments having an overall Andesitic composition since the Oligocene. Chemical ratios such as Cr/Th and Th/Sc as well as Eu anomaly and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions indicate that most of the analyzed sediments contained a greater proportion of volcanic arc rock material than the other Amazonian foreland basin sediments. When compared with the older sediments The Quaternary sediments are characterized by a greater contribution of the volcanic arc source. The composition of the sediments deposited in the Ecuadorian Amazonian foreland basin is mainly controlled by geodynamic processes. We suspect the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene subduction of the Carnegie ridge to be responsible for the back arc volcanism feeding the Amazonian foreland with more basic materials. Input of young Ecuadorian volcanic rocks may explain the difference in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of suspended sediments between the Solimoes and the Madeira rivers.

  9. Molecular identification of Amazonian stingless bees using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M T; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2014-07-25

    In countries containing a mega diversity of wildlife, such as Brazil, identifying and characterizing biological diversity is a continuous process for the scientific community, even in face of technological and scientific advances. This activity demands initiatives for the taxonomic identification of highly diverse groups, such as stingless bees, including molecular analysis strategies. This type of bee is distributed in all of the Brazilian states, with the highest species diversity being found in the State of Amazônia. However, the estimated number of species diverges among taxonomists. These bees are considered the main pollinators in the Amazon rainforest, in which they obtain food and shelter; however, their persistence is constantly threatened by deforestation pressure. Hence, it is important to classify the number and abundance of bee specie, to measure their decline and implement meaningful, priority conservation strategies. This study aims to maximize the implementation of more direct, economic and successful techniques for the taxonomic identification of stingless bees. Specifically, the genes 16S rRNA and COI from mitochondrial DNA were used as molecular markers to differentiate 9 species of Amazonian stingless bees based on DNA polymorphism, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique. We registered different, exclusive SSCP haplotypes for both genes in all species analyzed. These results demonstrate that SSCP is a simple and cost-effective technique that is applicable to the molecular identification of stingless bee species.

  10. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

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    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  11. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability.

  12. DETERMINING OSTEOPOROSIS RISK IN OLDER COLONO ADULTS FROM RURAL AMAZONIAN ECUADOR USING CALCANEAL ULTRASONOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADIMENOS, FELICIA C.; LIEBERT, MELISSA A.; CEPON-ROBINS, TARA J.; SNODGRASS, J. JOSH; SUGIYAMA, LAWRENCE S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence, while well-documented in wealthy nations, are poorly studied in rural, non-clinical contexts in economically-developing regions such as Latin America. This study contributes preliminary osteoporosis risk data for a rural Colono (mestizo) population from Amazonian Ecuador. Methods Anthropometrics were collected for 119 adult participants (74 females, 45 males [50–90 years old]). Heel bone density and T-scores were recorded using calcaneal ultrasonometry Results Approximately 33.6% of the participants had low bone density and were at high-risk for osteoporosis. Four times as many females as males were considered high-risk. Consistent with epidemiological literature, advancing age was significantly associated with lower bone density values (p=0.001). Conclusions Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence are expected to increase in this and other economically-transitioning populations, yet infrastructure to monitor this changing epidemiological landscape is almost non-existent. Human biologists are uniquely positioned to contribute data from remote populations, a critical step towards initiating increased resource allocation for diagnosis and prevention. PMID:25242164

  13. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  14. Beings of a Feather: Learning About the Lives of Birds with Amazonian Peoples

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    Kevin Jernigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a memoir of the author's fieldwork experiences studying traditional knowledge of bird species in the Peruvian Amazon. It describes his growth as a researcher, in light of the practical and methodological challenges of carrying out this kind of work. It also relates how the author's thinking has evolved on questions of current theoretical interest in ethnobiology. The first section outlines how the author came to be interested in this topic while pursuing an ethnobotanical dissertation project. Next, the discussion follows his work with the indigenous Aguaruna and Iquito peoples, learning about and documenting their understandings of the nesting, foraging and reproductive behavior of local avian species. On one hand, he found that local people provided details of these behaviors that match, in many ways, the counts of academic ornithologists. However, local interpretations of why these behaviors take place are often framed by some very different assumptions. The author uses Victor Toledo's tripartite framework of kosmos (overarching belief systems, corpus (cognitive categories, and praxis (set of practices to discuss similarities and differences in Aguaruna, Iquito, and academic ornithology. He also discusses his progression of views on the topic of perspectivism and eventual preference for a theoretical framework favoring a polyontological approach to understanding Amazonian ethnoecology.

  15. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  16. Unique meteorite from early Amazonian Mars: water-rich basaltic breccia Northwest Africa 7034.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Carl B; Wilson, Nicole V; McCubbin, Francis M; Ziegler, Karen; Polyak, Victor J; Sharp, Zachary D; Asmerom, Yemane; Nunn, Morgan H; Shaheen, Robina; Thiemens, Mark H; Steele, Andrew; Fogel, Marilyn L; Bowden, Roxane; Glamoclija, Mihaela; Zhang, Zhisheng; Elardo, Stephen M

    2013-02-15

    We report data on the martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034, which shares some petrologic and geochemical characteristics with known martian meteorites of the SNC (i.e., shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite) group, but also has some unique characteristics that would exclude it from that group. NWA 7034 is a geochemically enriched crustal rock compositionally similar to basalts and average martian crust measured by recent Rover and Orbiter missions. It formed 2.089 ± 0.081 billion years ago, during the early Amazonian epoch in Mars' geologic history. NWA 7034 has an order of magnitude more indigenous water than most SNC meteorites, with up to 6000 parts per million extraterrestrial H(2)O released during stepped heating. It also has bulk oxygen isotope values of Δ(17)O = 0.58 ± 0.05 per mil and a heat-released water oxygen isotope average value of Δ(17)O = 0.330 ± 0.011 per mil, suggesting the existence of multiple oxygen reservoirs on Mars.

  17. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos.

  18. Molecular taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria epidemiology in southern Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2 + COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR.

  19. Prospects for malaria elimination in non-Amazonian regions of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha Lucia; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Corredor, Vladimir; Fuller, Douglas O; Mateus, Julio Cesar; Calzada, Jose E; Gutierrez, Juan B; Llanos, Alejandro; Soto, Edison; Menendez, Clara; Wu, Yimin; Alonso, Pedro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Galinski, Mary; Beier, John C; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2012-03-01

    Latin America contributes 1-1.2 million clinical malaria cases to the global malaria burden of about 300 million per year. In 21 malaria endemic countries, the population at risk in this region represents less than 10% of the total population exposed worldwide. Factors such as rapid deforestation, inadequate agricultural practices, climate change, political instability, and both increasing parasite drug resistance and vector resistance to insecticides contribute to malaria transmission. Recently, several malaria endemic countries have experienced a significant reduction in numbers of malaria cases. This is most likely due to actions taken by National Malaria Control Programs (NMCP) with the support from international funding agencies. We describe here the research strategies and activities to be undertaken by the Centro Latino Americano de Investigación en Malaria (CLAIM), a new research center established for the non-Amazonian region of Latin America by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Throughout a network of countries in the region, initially including Colombia, Guatemala, Panama, and Peru, CLAIM will address major gaps in our understanding of changing malaria epidemiology, vector biology and control, and clinical malaria mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. In close partnership with NMCPs, CLAIM seeks to conduct research on how and why malaria is decreasing in many countries of the region as a basis for developing and implementing new strategies that will accelerate malaria elimination.

  20. The Organization of Repetitive DNA in the Genomes of Amazonian Lizard Species in the Family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Pinheiro, Vanessa S S; Carmo, Edson J; Goll, Leonardo G; Schneider, Carlos H; Gross, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes.

  1. Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

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    Lima Albertina Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM. Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988, or 3 years (1993 before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993 logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

  2. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

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    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  3. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  4. The in vitro genotoxic effect of Tucuma (Astrocaryum aculeatum), an Amazonian fruit rich in carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Cadoná, Francine; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Morel, Ademir Farias; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2013-11-01

    Tucuma (Astrocaryum aculeatum) is an Amazonian fruit that presents high levels of carotenoids and other bioactive compounds such as quercetin. The extracts of tucuma peel and pulp present strong antioxidant activity which illustrate an elevated concentration that causes cytotoxic effects in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). This study performed additional investigations to analyze the potential genotoxic effects of the tucuma extracts on PBMCs. The genotoxicity was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, Comet assay, and chromosomal instability G-band assays. The acute tucuma extract treatment showed genoprotective effects against DNA denaturation when compared with untreated PBMC cells. However, in the experiments with 24 and 72 h treatments to tucuma treatments, we observed low genotoxicity through a concentration of 100 μg/mL, some genotoxic effects related to intermediary concentrations (100-500 μg/mL), and more pronounced genotoxic effects on higher tucuma extract concentrations. After 24 h of treatment, the reactive oxygen species were similar among treatments and PBMC control groups. However, the caspase-1 activity related to the apoptosis and pyroptosis process increased significantly in higher tucuma concentrations. In summary, tucuma extracts, despite their higher antioxidant content and antioxidant activity, would present PBMCs genotoxic effects that are dependent on concentration and time exposition. These results need to be considered in future in vitro and in vivo studies of tucuma effects.

  5. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

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    Jos Barlow

    Full Text Available Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001 community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

  6. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  7. Social isolation and aggressiveness in the Amazonian juvenile fish Astronotus ocellatus

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    E. Gonçalves-de-Freitas

    Full Text Available We tested the effect of social isolation on the aggressiveness of an Amazonian fish: Astronotus ocellatus. Ten juvenile fishes were transferred from a group aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm containing 15 individuals (without distinguishing sex to an isolation aquarium (50 x 40 x 40 cm. Aggressiveness was tested by means of attacks on and displays toward the mirror image. The behavior was video-recorded for 10 min at a time on 4 occasions: at 30 min, 1 day, 5 days and 15 days after isolation. The aggressive drive was analyzed in three ways: latency to display agonistic behavior, frequency of attacks and specific attacks toward the mirror image. The latency to attack decreased during isolation, but the frequency of mouth fighting (a high aggressive attack tended to increase, indicating an augmented aggressive drive. Our findings are congruent with the behavior of the juvenile cichlid, Haplochromis burtoni but differ from the behavior observed in another cichlid, Pterophylum scalare. Increased aggressiveness in A. ocellatus may be mediated by means of the primer effect, the effect of prior residence or processes involving recognition of a conspecific.

  8. [Aboveground biomass input of Myristicaceae tree species in the Amazonian Forest in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta Adrianzén, Marisabel

    2015-03-01

    Amazonian forests are a vast storehouse of biodiversity and function as carbon sinks from biomass that accumulates in various tree species. In these forests, the taxa with the greatest contribution of biomass cannot be precisely defined, and the representative distribution of Myristicaceae in the Peruvian Amazon was the starting point for designing the present study, which aimed to quantify the biomass contribution of this family. For this, I analyzed the databases that corresponded to 38 sample units that were previously collected and that were provided by the TeamNetwork and RAINFOR organizations. The analysis consisted in the estimation of biomass using pre-established allometric equations, Kruskal-Wallis sample comparisons, interpolation-analysis maps, and nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results showed that Myristicaceae is the fourth most important biomass contributor with 376.97 Mg/ha (9.92 Mg/ha in average), mainly due to its abundance. Additionally, the family shows a noticeable habitat preference for certain soil conditions in the physiographic units, such is the case of Virola pavonis in "varillales", within "floodplain", or Iryanthera tessmannii and Virola loretensis in sewage flooded areas or "igapo" specifically, and the preference of Virola elongata and irola surinamensis for white water flooded areas or "varzea" edaphic conditions of the physiographic units taken in the study.

  9. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; MacNaughton, W K; Zhang, X J; Thompson, J H; Charbonnet, R M; Bobrowski, P; Lao, J; Trentacosti, A M; Sandoval, M

    2000-07-01

    Sangre de grado is an Amazonian herbal medicine used to facilitate the healing of gastric ulcers and to treat gastritis, diarrhea, skin lesions, and insect stings. This study was designed to evaluate the gastrointestinal applications. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by brief serosal exposure of the fundus to acetic acid (80%). Sangre de grado was administered in drinking water at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions from the postoperative period to day 7. Guinea pig ileum secretory responses to capsaicin, electrical field stimulation, and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) agonist [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P were examined in Ussing chambers. Sangre de grado facilitated the healing of experimental gastric ulcer, reducing myeloperoxidase activity, ulcer size, and bacterial content of the ulcer. The expression of proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated by ulcer induction but reduced by sangre de grado treatment, particularly iNOS and IL-6. In Ussing chambers, sangre de grado impaired the secretory response to capsaicin but not to electrical field stimulation or the NK-1 agonist. We conclude that sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions.

  10. Clinical spectrum of uncomplicated malaria in semi-immune Amazonians: beyond the " symptomatic " vs " asymptomatic " dichotomy

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    Mônica da Silva-Nunes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed prospectively 326 laboratory-confirmed, uncomplicated malarial infections (46.3% due to Plasmodium vivax, 35.3% due to P. falciparum, and 18.4% mixed-species infections diagnosed in 162 rural Amazonians aged 5-73 years. Thirteen symptoms (fever, chills, sweating, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, cough, dyspnea, and diarrhea were scored using a structured questionnaire. Headache (59.8%, fever (57.1%, and myalgia (48.4% were the most frequent symptoms. Ninety-six (29.4% episodes, all of them diagnosed during cross-sectional surveys of the whole study population (96.9% by molecular technique only, were asymptomatic. Of 93 symptom-less infections left untreated, only 10 became symptomatic over the next two months following diagnosis. Fever was perceived as " intense " in 52.6% of 230 symptomatic malaria episodes, with no fever reported in 19.1% episodes although other symptoms were present. We found significant differences in the prevalence and perceived intensity of fever and other clinical symptoms in relation to parasite load at the time of diagnosis and patient's age, cumulative exposure to malaria, recent malaria morbidity, and species of malaria parasite. These factors are all likely to affect the effectiveness of malaria control strategies based on active or passive detection of febrile subjects in semi-immune populations.

  11. Sensitivity of Amazonian TOA flux diurnal cycle composite monthly variability to choice of reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. Brant; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-05-01

    Amazonian deep convection experiences a strong diurnal cycle driven by the cycle in surface sensible heat flux, which contributes to a significant diurnal cycle in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux. Even when accounting for seasonal variability, the TOA flux diurnal cycle varies significantly on the monthly timescale. Previous work shows evidence supporting a connection between variability in the convective and radiative cycles, likely modulated by variability in monthly atmospheric state (e.g., convective instability). The hypothesized relationships are further investigated with regression analysis of the radiative diurnal cycle and atmospheric state using additional meteorological variables representing convective instability and upper tropospheric humidity. The results are recalculated with three different reanalyses to test the reliability of the results. The radiative diurnal cycle sensitivity to upper tropospheric humidity is about equal in magnitude to that of convective instability. In addition, the results are recalculated with the data subdivided into the wet and dry seasons. Overall, clear-sky radiative effects have a dominant role in radiative diurnal cycle variability during the dry season. Because of this, even in a convectively active region, the clear-sky radiative effects must be accounted for in order to fully explain the monthly variability in diurnal cycle. Finally, while there is general agreement between the different reanalysis-based results when examining the full data time domain (without regard to time of year), there are significant disagreements when the data are divided into wet and dry seasons. The questionable reliability of reanalysis data is a major limitation.

  12. Pollination of lark daisy on roadsides declines as traffic speed increases along an Amazonian highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargas, J H F; Chaves, S R; Fischer, E

    2016-05-01

    Ecological disturbances caused by roadways have previously been reported, but traffic speed has not been addressed. We investigate effects of traffic speed on pollination of Centratherum punctatum (Asteraceae) along an Amazonian highway roadside. We hypothesised that frequency of flower visitors, duration of single visits and pollen deposition on stigmas will vary negatively as traffic speed increases. After measuring vehicle velocities, we classified three road sections as low-, mid- and high-velocity traffic. The main pollinator bee, Augochlora sp., visited C. punctatum inflorescences with decreasing frequency from low- to high-velocity roadside sections, whereas the nectar thief butterflies did the opposite. Duration of single visits by bees and butterflies was shorter, and arrival of pollen on C. punctatum stigmas was lower, in high- than in low-velocity roadside. Air turbulence due to passing vehicles increases with velocity and disturbed the flower visitors. Overall, results support that traffic velocity negatively affects foraging of flower visitors and the pollination of C. punctatum on roadsides.

  13. Solid state bioreactor production of transglutaminase by Amazonian Bacillus circulans BL32 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken; Heck, Júlio Xandro; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2008-12-01

    In this work, we investigated the production of transglutaminase (TGase) by an Amazonian isolated strain of Bacillus circulans by solid-state cultivation (SSC). Several agro-industrial residues, such as untreated corn grits, milled brewers rice, industrial fibrous soy residue, soy hull, and malt bagasse, were used as substrates for microbial growth and enzyme production. Growth on industrial fibrous soy residue, which is rich in protein and hemicellulose, produced the highest TGase activity (0.74 U g(-1) of dried substrate after 48 h of incubation). A 2(3) central composite design was applied to determine the optimal conditions of aeration, cultivation temperature and inoculum cell concentration to TGase production. The best culture conditions were determined as being 0.6 L air min(-1), 33 degrees C and 10 log (10) CFU g(-1) of dried substrate, respectively. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the model predicted an enzyme production of 1.16 U g(-1) of dried substrate, closely matching the experimental activity of 1.25 U g(-1). Results presented in this work point to the use of this newly isolated B. circulans strain as a potential alternative of microbial source for TGase production by SSC, using inexpensive culture media.

  14. Facing operational problems in a biodigester in Yuvientsa - Amazonian region of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragundy, J.

    2007-07-01

    Yuvientsa is a Shuar indigenous community located in the Morona Santiago Province in the southwestern part of the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Two types of alternative energies have being implemented in Yuvientsa to satisfy people's needs. Solar panels provide electricity to the community. A biodigester to treat the school lavatories' brown-water (fecal water) and to provide gas for cooking to the communal kitchen was built as well. During the operational phase the biodigester faced some difficulties as: being perforated by people of the community as started inflating, being fumigated against malaria, and not having enough organic matter to produce biogas. As a result in this time the biodigester did not operate satisfactorily and the community did not believe that it could work and produce biogas. A biodigester should not be built without an awareness campaign or showing a direct benefit to the community that ensures its adequate operation and maintenance. Before constructing the reactor the organic matter source to operate the biodigester should be clearly identified and its amount should be enough. (orig.)

  15. TERRAIN, MANATEE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Digital Elevation Model originated as a Laser File Format (.LAS) file containing Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) points. The data generally conform to the...

  16. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of Eastern Amazonian Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Jan E.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul;

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety...... malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An...

  17. Influence of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of regional surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard L.; Guillod, Benoit P.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-05-01

    The extent of the Amazon rainforest is projected to drastically decrease in future decades because of land-use changes. Previous climate modelling studies have found that the biogeophysical effects of future Amazonian deforestation will likely increase surface temperatures and reduce precipitation locally. However, the magnitude of these changes and the potential existence of tipping points in the underlying relationships is still highly uncertain. Using a regional climate model at a resolution of about 50 km over the South American continent, we perform four ERA-interim-driven simulations with prescribed land cover maps corresponding to present-day vegetation, two deforestation scenarios for the twenty-first century, and a totally-deforested Amazon case. In response to projected land cover changes for 2100, we find an annual mean surface temperature increase of over the Amazonian region and an annual mean decrease in rainfall of 0.17 mm/day compared to present-day conditions. These estimates reach and 0.22 mm/day in the total-deforestation case. We also compare our results to those from 28 previous (regional and global) climate modelling experiments. We show that the historical development of climate models did not modify the median estimate of the Amazonian climate sensitivity to deforestation, but led to a reduction of its uncertainty. Our results suggest that the biogeophysical effects of deforestation alone are unlikely to lead to a tipping point in the evolution of the regional climate under present-day climate conditions. However, the conducted synthesis of the literature reveals that this behaviour may be model-dependent, and the greenhouse gas-induced climate forcing and biogeochemical feedbacks should also be taken into account to fully assess the future climate of this region.

  18. The impact of deforestation in the Amazonian atmospheric radiative balance: a remote sensing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian radiative budget after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages. The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazon was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the imbalance in the radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual albedo-change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m−2. Biomass burning aerosols impact the radiative

  19. Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M Bruna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same host plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used empirical data and inverse modeling--a technique developed by plant ecologists to model seed dispersal--to quantify and compare the dispersal kernels of queens from three Amazonian ant species that compete for access to host-plants. We found that the modal colonization distance of queens varied 8-fold, with the generalist ant species (Crematogaster laevis having a greater modal distance than two specialists (Pheidole minutula, Azteca sp. that use the same host-plants. However, our results also suggest that queens of Azteca sp. have maximal distances that are four-sixteen times greater than those of its competitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found large differences between ant species in both the modal and maximal distance ant queens disperse to find vacant seedlings used to found new colonies. These differences could result from interspecific differences in queen body size, and hence wing musculature, or because queens differ in their ability to identify potential host plants while in flight. Our results provide support for one of the necessary conditions underlying several of the hypothesized mechanisms promoting coexistence in tropical plant-ants. They also suggest that for some ant species limited dispersal capability could pose a significant barrier to the rescue of populations in isolated forest fragments. Finally, we demonstrate that inverse models parameterized with field data are an excellent means

  20. Model testing for nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from Amazonian cattle pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Franko, Uwe; Spott, Oliver; Stange, C. Florian; Jungkunst, Hermann F.

    2016-10-01

    Process-oriented models have become important tools in terms of quantification of environmental changes, for filling measurement gaps, and building of future scenarios. It is especially important to couple model application directly with measurements for remote areas, such as Southern Amazonia, where direct measurements are difficult to perform continuously throughout the year. Processes and resulting matter fluxes may show combinations of steady and sudden reactions to external changes. The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is known for its sensitivity to e.g. precipitation events, resulting in intense but short-term peak events (hot moments). These peaks have to be captured for sound balancing. However, prediction of the effect of rainfall events on N2O peaks is not trivial, even for areas under distinct wet and dry seasons. In this study, we used process-oriented models in both a pre-and post-measurement manner in order to (a) determine important periods for N2O-N emissions under Amazonian conditions and (b) calibrate the models to Brazilian pastures based on measured data of environment conditions (soil moisture and Corg) and measured N2O-N fluxes. During the measurement period (early wet season), observed emissions from three cattle pastures did not react to precipitation events, as proposed by the models. Here both process understanding and models have to be improved by long-term data in high resolution in order to prove or disprove a lacking of N2O-N peaks. We strongly recommend the application of models as planning tools for field campaigns, but we still suggest model combinations and simultaneous usage.

  1. Visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA is highly heterogeneous in primary cervical screening in Amazonian Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Almonte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional cytology (Pap and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI, a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV. We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention. METHODS: At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor "D" (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention. RESULTS: Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values25, p-values0.05 for HR-HPV. No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed. CONCLUSION: The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement.

  2. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.

  3. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

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    Pablo R Stevenson

    Full Text Available Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  4. Abrupt Increases in Amazonian Tree Mortality Due to Drought-Fire Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silverio, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nobrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, longterm experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW x m(exp -1)). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with less than 1% in nondrought years. These results show that a few extreme drought events, coupled with forest fragmentation and anthropogenic ignition sources, are already causing widespread fire-induced tree mortality and forest degradation across southeastern Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change.

  5. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

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    Roosevelt Silva Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. RESULTS: The means dft (standard deviation and DMFT (standard deviation for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12, 3.41 (2.69, 5.96 (4.19, 16.00 (7.30 and 25.96 (9.82. Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population.

  6. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

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    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  7. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Julie; Nguyen, Anne; Flores-Ferrer, Alheli; Blanchet, Denis; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus) that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus), and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species.

  8. Mercury Bioaccumulation in the Brazilian Amazonian Tucunares (Cichla sp., Cichlidae, Perciformes

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    Maria Josefina Reyna Kurtz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, soil and rivers of the Brazilian Amazon stem from many sources. Once in the atmosphere, the metal is oxidized and immediately deposited. In the water, the transformation to methylmercury takes place mostly by the action of microorganisms. The formation of methylmercury increases the dispersion and bioavailability of the element in the aquatic environment. Methylmercury can be assimilated by plankton and enters the food chain. The concentration of mercury increases further up in the trophic levels of the chain and reaches the highest values in carnivorous fishes like tucunare. Therefore, mercury emissions cause the contamination of natural resources and increase risks to the health of regular fish consumers. The objective of this work was to study the bioaccumulation of mercury in tucunares (Cichla sp., top predators of the food chain. The fishes were collected at two locations representative of the Amazonian fluvial ecosystem, in the state of Pará, Brazil, in 1992 and 2001. One location is near a former informal gold mining area. The other is far from the mining area and is considered pristine. Average values of total mercury concentration and accumulation rates for four different collection groups were compared and discussed. Tucunares collected in 2001 presented higher mercury contents and accumulated mercury faster than tucunares collected in 1992 notwithstanding the decline of mining activities in this period. The aggravation of the mercury contamination with time not only in an area where informal gold mining was practiced but also far from this area is confirmed.

  9. Production and some properties of crude alkaline proteases of indigenous Central Amazonian rhizobia strains

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two rhizobia strains isolated from soils of the Central Amazonian floodplain produced appreciable quantities of crude alkaline protease extracts with inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources. These protease crude extracts were optimally active at pH 9.0-11.0. The optimum temperatures were 35 ºC for Rhizobium sp. strain R-986 and 55 ºC for Bradyrhizobium sp. strain R-993. Protease activities in the crude extracts were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM metal ions, such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Rhizobia proteases were strongly inhibited by PMSF, a serine-protease inhibitor. The enzymes were active in the presence of surfactants (SDS and Triton X-100 and stable in oxidizing (H2O2 and reducing agents (β-mercaptoethanol, and organic solvents (acetone, hexane, methanol, 1-propanol and toluene.Duas estirpes de rizóbia isoladas de solos de várzea da Amazônia Central produziram grandes quantidades de proteases alcalinas extracelulares, usando fontes baratas de carbono e nitrogênio. Os extratos brutos de proteases foram ativos em pH 9,0-11,0. As temperaturas ótimas foram de 35 ºC para a enzima do Rhizobium R-986 e de 55 ºC para a do Bradyrhizobium R-993. As atividades proteolíticas aumentaram na presença de 5 mM dos íons Na+, Ca2+ , Mg2+ e Mn2+ . As proteases secretadas pelos rizóbios foram fortemente inibidas por PMSF, um inibidor de serina protease. As enzimas foram ativas na presença de surfactantes (SDS e Triton X-100, e estáveis na presença de agentes oxidantes (H2O2 e redutores (β-mercaptoetanol e solventes orgânicos (acetona, hexano, metanol, 1-propanol e tolueno.

  10. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

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    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  11. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  12. Virus-bacterium coupling driven by both turbidity and hydrodynamics in an Amazonian floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nathan; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Soares, Maria C; Melo, Rossana C N; Roland, Fábio

    2010-11-01

    The importance of viruses in aquatic ecosystem functioning has been widely described. However, few studies have examined tropical aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluated for the first time viruses and their relationship with other planktonic communities in an Amazonian freshwater ecosystem. Coupling between viruses and bacteria was studied, focusing both on hydrologic dynamics and anthropogenic forced turbidity in the system (Lake Batata). Samples were taken during four hydrologic seasons at both natural and impacted sites to count virus-like particles (VLP) and bacteria. In parallel, virus-infected bacteria were identified and quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Viral abundance ranged from 0.5 × 10⁷ ± 0.2 × 10⁷ VLP ml⁻¹ (high-water season, impacted site) to 1.7 × 10⁷ ± 0.4 × 10⁷ VLP ml⁻¹ (low-water season, natural site). These data were strongly correlated with the bacterial abundance (r² = 0.84; P < 0.05), which ranged from 1.0 × 10⁶ ± 0.5 × 10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ (high water, impacted site) to 3.4 × 10⁶ ± 0.7 × 10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ (low water, natural site). Moreover, the viral abundance was weakly correlated with chlorophyll a, suggesting that most viruses were bacteriophages. TEM quantitative analyses revealed that the frequency of visibly infected cells was 20%, with 10 ± 3 phages per cell section. In general, we found a low virus-bacterium ratio (<7). Both the close coupling between the viral and bacterial abundances and the low virus-bacterium ratio suggest that viral abundance tends to be driven by the reduction of hosts for viral infection. Our results demonstrate that viruses are controlled by biological substrates, whereas in addition to grazing, bacteria are regulated by physical processes caused by turbidity, which affect underwater light distribution and dissolved organic carbon availability.

  13. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

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    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during

  14. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  15. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Honorio Coronado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale

  16. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

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    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  17. Frugivory in Canopy Plants in a Western Amazonian Forest: Dispersal Systems, Phylogenetic Ensembles and Keystone Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Pablo R; Link, Andrés; González-Caro, Sebastian; Torres-Jiménez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores. We carried out diurnal observations on 73 canopy plant species during a period of two years. During focal tree sampling, we recorded frugivore identity, the duration of each individual visit, and feeding rates. We did not find support for the existence of sub assemblages, such as specialized vs. generalized dispersal systems. Visitation rates on the vast majority of canopy species were associated with the relative abundance of frugivores, in which ateline monkeys (i.e. Lagothrix and Ateles) played the most important roles. All fruiting plants were visited by a variety of frugivores and the phylogenetic assemblage was random in more than 67% of the cases. In cases of aggregation, the plant species were consumed by only primates or only birds, and filters were associated with fruit protection and likely chemical content. Plants suggested as keystone species based on the amount of pulp going from plants to frugivores differ from those suggested based on network approaches. Our results suggest that in tropical forests most tree-frugivore interactions are generalized, and abundance should be taken into account when assessing the most important plants for frugivores.

  18. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  19. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1

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    N. M. Fyllas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma, leaf nitrogen (NL and phosphorus (PL content and wood density (DW used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG and net (ΠN primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU. Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  20. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H

    2012-02-01

    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context.

  1. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  2. [Profile of leprosy patients in a hiperendemic area of Amazonian Maranhão, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Caldas, Arlene de Jesus Mendes; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Costa, Jackson Maurício Lopes

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological cross-sectional study of 207 patients with leprosy disease, was undertaken between August 1998 to november 2000, aiming at evaluating the socioeconomic, demographic and ambiental profiles of the patients as well as physical incapacity due to the disease. The study was performed in the municipality of Buriticupu-Maranh o state, a hiperendemic leprosy area in the Amazonian Maranh o. The level of incapacity was assessed from parameters established by the Brazilian Health Minister. The clinical evaluation and the results of the physical tests were registered in a standardized form. It was observed a predominance of married people (45,9%), with low level of education (56%), being lend workers (40,1%), with familiar income to the minimum wage (76,3%), aged from 14 to 44 years (63,3%), males (60,9%) and brown (67,6%); 44% living in mud huts, 82,6% deposited their excrements in cesspits and 63,8% do not treat the drinking water, 58% utilized well-water and 51,7% do not use treated water for ingestion. The most affected segments of the body were the feet (62,3%), eyes (51,2%) end hands (7,2%), being the higher percentage of physical incapacitaties found among the patients bearing the borderline form of the disease (93%) mainly hands and feet, and in the virchowian form greatest frequency of eyes incapacities. It is concluded that the hyperendemicity associated with the precarious socioeconomic conditions and with a high level of physical incapacities may be involved with the living quality of the patients.

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF AMAZONIAN ORNAMENTAL FISH FROM PERU WITH HIGHER DEMAND OF EXPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current status of Amazonian ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand of exportation was analyzed. The ornamental freshwater fishes from Peru with higher demand are Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 (Osteoglossidae, followed by ray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 (Potamotrygonidae. Main ornamental and continental fish family that exports is Loriicaridae (Siluriformes. The vast continental and ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand are climate tropical and clear waters with pH de 6.5 a 7.5. Four species (Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963, Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988, Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner, 1881 and Corydoras julii Steindachner, 1906 that exists are not reported on check-list of continental fishes from Peru performed by Ortega & Vari (1986 and, Chang & Ortega (1995. C. julii, is the unique fish not found in the ornamental fish list from Peru performed by “Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonia Peruana” (IIAP and “Comisión para la Promoción de Exportaciones” (PROMPEX. O. bicirrhosum, P. motoro, Corydoras arcuatus Elwin 1938 and C. julii are fish with more data obtained. Fish with less data obtained was Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski, 1981. Main problematic observed on ornamental continental Peruvian fish since an ecological point of view, are pollution of fish environment, mainly by heavy metals, alteration on great scale from habitat, where lives and surroundings, and also, introduction alien species. The main problem that suffer commercialization of ornamental fish as in other species, is regulation and foment by part of authority respect to bio-business initiatives bio-business; generating confusion between user and lack of motivation legalities of these bionegocio.

  4. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments.

  5. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Cortez, Yolanda; Vera, Nadia; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21'12″ S, 75°00'54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,534 paired ends reads were generated which were assigned into 5434 numbers of OTUs. All the resulting 16S rRNA fragments were then classified into 58 bacterial phyla and 2 archaeal phyla. Proteobacteria (88.06%) was found to be the highest represented phyla followed by Thermi (6.43%), Firmicutes (3.41%) and Aquificae (1.10%), respectively. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the only 2 archaeal phyla detected in this study with low abundance. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX1809286. Functional categorization of the assigned OTUs was performed using PICRUSt tool. In COG analysis "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (8.5%) was found to be the highest represented category whereas among predicted KEGG pathways "Metabolism" (50.6%) was the most abundant. This is the first report of a high resolution microbial phylogenetic profile of an Amazonian hot spring.

  6. Land cover change drives climate extremes and aridity in non-Amazonian South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Salazar, A.; Mcalpine, C. A.; Syktus, J.; Katzfey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence is showing the relevance of land cover change on the regional mean climate. However, the mechanisms that explain these interactions remain a challenge in land - atmosphere interactions science. This challenge is particularly significant in understanding the role of vegetation change on climate extremes and aridity, which has been barely addressed by the literature. In this paper we focus on this gap by investigating the effects of land use and land cover change on selected climate extremes indices and aridity in non-Amazonian South America over an area of about 3 million km2. We run a 3 ensemble climate model nudged with the ERA-Interim reanalysis and stretched to 25 km resolution for present (year 2005) land cover relative to realistic historic vegetation distribution. The most important results of this experiment are that the degree of change in vegetation structure determines whether extreme daytime temperatures will increase or decrease, particularly during the dry season. This is because a large change in surface roughness promotes increased wind speeds and heat advection, whereas a small change in surface roughness does not increase wind and can increase heat build-up in the atmosphere since the sensible heat flux also increases. We also put these results in a wider context of land surface - atmospheric feedbacks by looking at the corresponding change in aridity (precipitation / potential evapotranspiration). This shows the processes that drive the changes in temperature extremes also determine whether significant changes in aridity occur, since all the change in aridity can be prescribed to changes in potential evaporation, or atmospheric water demand. We propose a conceptual model of the mechanisms that explain these alterations which is an advance in understanding land-atmosphere interactions and provides evidence of the main mechanisms responsible of changes in the feedbacks because of changes in natural vegetation.

  7. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  8. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  9. Ridges and rivers: a test of competing hypotheses of Amazonian diversification using a dart-poison frog (Epipedobates femoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, S C; Gascon, C; Jones, D A; Bogart, J P; Boag, P T

    1999-09-22

    Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence data from a dart-poison frog, Epipedobates femoralis, were used to test two hypotheses of Amazonian diversification: the riverine barrier and the ridge hypotheses. Samples were derived from sites located on both banks of the Rio Juruá and on both sides of the Iquitos Arch in western Amazonia. The phylogeographic structure was inconsistent with predictions of the riverine barrier hypothesis. Haplotypes from opposite river banks did not form monophyletic clades in any of our phylogenetic analyses, nor was the topology within major clades consistent with the riverine hypothesis. Further, the greatest differentiation between paired sites on opposite banks was not at the river mouth where the strongest barrier to gene flow was predicted to occur. The results instead were consistent with the hypothesis that ancient ridges (arches), no longer evident on the landscape, have shaped the phylogeographic relationships of Amazonian taxa. Two robustly supported clades map onto opposite sides of the Iquitos Arch. The mean haplotypic divergence between the two clades, in excess of 12%, suggests that this cladogenic event dates to between five and 15 million years ago. These estimates span a period of major orogenesis in western South America and presumably the formation of these ancient ridges.

  10. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José R.; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S.; Robles‐Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar‐Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R.; Paz‐y‐Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua‐Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre‐Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or “shaven heads”, assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua‐Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre‐Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas’ ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q‐M3 Y‐chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua‐Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self‐identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  11. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae) in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Colatreli, Olavo; de Fraga, Rafael; Kaefer, Igor L; Moravec, Jiří; Lima, Albertina P

    2016-01-01

    Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs.

  12. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae) in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Colatreli, Olavo; de Fraga, Rafael; Kaefer, Igor L.; Moravec, Jiří; Lima, Albertina P.

    2016-01-01

    Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs. PMID:27806089

  13. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  14. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Michelle O.; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; Randow, Von Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves De Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J.M.M.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C.; Fiore, Di Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N.; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C.L.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A.; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Steege, Ter Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Heijden, van der Geertje M.F.; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody producti

  15. Exploring eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under climate and land-use changes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Castanho, A. D.; Moghim, S.; Bras, R. L.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Levine, N. M.; Longo, M.; McKnight, S.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation and drought have imposed regional-scale perturbations onto Amazonian ecosystems and are predicted to cause larger negative impacts on the Amazonian ecosystems and associated regional carbon dynamics in the 21st century. However, global climate models (GCMs) vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia, giving rise to uncertainty in the expected fate of the Amazon over the coming century. In this study, we explore the possible eco-hydrological consequences of the Amazonian ecosystems under projected climate and land-use changes in the 21st century using two state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models—Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1(ED2.1) and Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS)—driven by three representative, bias-corrected climate projections from three IPCC GCMs (NCARPCM1, NCARCCSM3 and HadCM3), coupled with two land-use change scenarios (a business-as-usual and a strict governance scenario). We also analyze the relative roles of climate change, CO2 fertilization, land-use change and fire in driving the projected composition and structure of the Amazonian ecosystems. Our results show that CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation productivity and above-ground biomass (AGB) in the region, while land-use change and fire cause AGB loss and the replacement of forests by the savanna-like vegetation. The impacts of climate change depend strongly on the direction and severity of projected precipitation changes in the region. In particular, when intensified water stress is superimposed on unregulated deforestation, both ecosystem models predict large-scale dieback of Amazonian rainforests.

  16. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity and major fatty acid constituents of Amazonian native flora oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Silva Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to treat hyperpigmentation-related problems, there has been a global trend in developing cosmetics claiming to have skin-whitening properties, which act by inhibiting melanin biosynthesis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of five Amazonian native flora oils, and so to verify the possibility of their incorporation into cosmetic products. In addition, the fatty acid composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection in order to determine the main components of these oils. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the tested oils was found to be in the following order: açaí (IA50 = 66.08 µg mL-1 > tucumã > patauá > pracaxi > castanha do Brasil. This study suggests that açaí oil has great potential in the treatment of hyperpigmentation and other related disorders, due to its considerable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.Com o intuito de se tratar problemas dermatológicos de hiperpigmentação, há uma tendência mundial no desenvolvimento de cosméticos que possuam propriedades despigmentantes, os quais agem inibindo a biossíntese de melanina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a atividade de inibição da tirosinase de cogumelo de cinco óleos de plantas nativas da Amazônia e, desta forma, verificar a possibilidade de sua incorporação em produtos cosméticos. Ainda, a composição de ácidos graxos dos óleos foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama, no intuito de determinar os principais componentes destes óleos. A atividade de inibição da tirosinase dos óleos testados foi encontrada na seguinte ordem: açaí (IA50 = 66,08 µg mL-1 > tucumã > patauá > pracaxi > castanha do Brasil. Este estudo sugere que o óleo de açaí possui grande potencial para o tratamento da hiperpigmentação cutânea e doenças correlatas, devido à sua considerável atividade de inibi

  17. Evidence for Amazonian mid-latitude glaciation on Mars from impact crater asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Susan J.; Mangold, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    deposits on both their floor and pole-facing walls, occur preferentially at the mid-latitudes and have marked positive asymmetry. These deposits were likely laid down during high obliquity excursions (>45°) at least 5 My ago and potentially over the whole Amazonian epoch. Their preservation to the present-day relies on the presence of a surface lag of debris, which inhibits sublimation.

  18. Mesoarchean sanukitoid rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Althoff, Fernando Jacques; da Silva Leite, Albano Antonio

    2009-02-01

    The Archean sanukitoid Rio Maria Granodiorite yielded zircon ages of ˜2.87 Ga and is exposed in large domains of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane, southeastern Amazonian craton. It is intrusive in the greenstone belts of the Andorinhas Supergroup, in the Arco Verde Tonalite and Caracol Tonalitic Complex (older TTGs). Archean potassic leucogranites, younger TTGs and the Paleoproterozoic granites of Jamon Suite are intrusive in the Rio Maria Granodiorite. The more abundant rocks of the Rio Maria Granodiorite have granodioritic composition and display medium to coarse even-grained textures. These rocks show generally a gray color with greenish shades due to strongly saussuritized plagioclase, and weak WNW-ESE striking foliation. The significant geochemical contrasts between the occurrences of Rio Maria Granodiorite in different areas suggest that this unit corresponds in fact to a granodioritic suite of rocks derived from similar but distinct magmas. Mingling processes involving the Rio Maria Granodiorite and similar mafic to intermediate magmas are able to explain the constant occurrence of mafic enclaves in the granodiorite. The associated intermediate rocks occur mainly near Bannach, where mostly quartz diorite and quartz monzodiorite are exposed. The dominant rocks are mesocratic, dark-green rocks, with fine to coarse even-grained texture. The Rio Maria Granodiorite and associated intermediate rocks show similar textural and mineralogical aspects. They follow the calc-alkaline series trend in some diagrams. However, they have high-Mg#, Cr, and Ni conjugate with high contents of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), typical of sanukitoids series. The patterns of rare earth elements of different rocks are similar, with pronounced enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and strong to moderate fractionation of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). Field aspects and petrographic and geochemical characteristics denote that the granodiorites and

  19. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  20. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  1. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  2. Influence of hydrological pulse on bacterial growth and DOC uptake in a clear-water Amazonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Azevedo, Debora A; Esteves, Francisco A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Roland, Fabio; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate: (1) the bacterial growth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake in an Amazonian lake (Lake Batata) at high-water and low-water periods of the flood pulse; (2) the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) additions on bacterial growth and DOC uptake in Lake Batata at two flood pulse periods; and (3) the bioavailability of the main DOC sources in Lake Batata. Lake Batata is a typical clear-water Amazonian lake, located in the watershed of Trombetas River, Central Amazon, Brazil. Bacterial batch cultures were set up with 90% 0.2-microm filtered water and 10% inoculum from Lake Batata. N-NH(4)NO(3) and P-KH(2)PO(4), with final concentrations of 50 and 5 microM, respectively, were added to the cultures, except for controls. Extra sources of DOC (e.g., algal lysate, plant leachates) were added to constitute six distinct treatments. Bacterial response was measured by maximum bacterial abundance and rates of bacterial production, respiration, DOC uptake, and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Bacterial growth and DOC uptake were higher in NP treatments than in controls, indicating a consistent nutrient limitation in Lake Batata. The composition of DOC also seems to be an important regulating factor of bacterial growth in Lake Batata. Seasonally, bacterial growth and DOC bioavailability were higher at low-water period, when the phytoplankton is a significant extra source of DOC, than at high-water period, when the forest is the main source of DOC. DOC bioavailability was better estimated based on the diversity and the diagenetic stage of carbon compounds than on single classes of labile compounds. Changes in BGE were better related to CNP stoichiometry in the water, and the "excess" of organic substrates was oxidized in catabolism, despite the quality of these compounds for bacterial growth. Finally, we conclude that bacterial growth and DOC uptake vary throughout the flood pulse in clear-water Amazonian ecosystems as a result

  3. Theileria electrophorin.sp., a parasite of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus (Osteichthyes: Cypriniformes: Gymnotidae from Amazonian Brazil

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    Ralph Lainson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The name Theileria electrophori n.sp. is proposed for a small parasite described in the erythrocytes of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, from Amazonian Brazil. Division of the organism in the erythrocyte produces only four bacilliform daughter cells which become scattered in the host cell, without a cruciform or rosette-shaped disposition. Exoerythrocytic meronts producing a large number of merozoites were encountered in Giemsa-stained impression smears of the internal organs, principally in the liver, and are presumably the source of the intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite. This developmental pattern is characteristic of piroplasms within the family Theileriidae, where the author considers the parasite of E. electricus to most appropriately belong. It effectively distinguishes the organism from the dactylosomatid parasites Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956 and Dactylosoma Labbé, 1894 also found in fishes. This appears to be the second report of Theileria Bettencourt, Franca and Borges, 1907 in a fish.

  4. Math skills and market and non-market outcomes: Evidence from an Amazonian society of forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2013-12-01

    Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people's Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings.

  5. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

  6. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  7. A review of the tectonic evolution of the Sunsás belt, SW Amazonian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Wilson; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Matos, Ramiro; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Saes, Gerson; Vargas-Mattos, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The Sunsás-Aguapeí province (1.20-0.95 Ga), SW Amazonian Craton, is a key area to study the heterogeneous effects of collisional events with Laurentia, which shows evidence of the Grenvillian and Sunsás orogens. The Sunsás orogen, characterized by an allochthonous collisional-type belt (1.11-1.00 Ga), is the youngest and southwesternmost of the events recorded along the cratonic fringe. Its evolution occurred after a period of long quiescence and erosion of the already cratonized provinces (>1.30 Ga), that led to sedimentation of the Sunsás and Vibosi groups in a passive margin setting. The passive margin stage was roughly contemporary with intraplate tectonics that produced the Nova Brasilândia proto-oceanic basin (aborted rifts that evolved to the Huanchaca-Aguapeí basin (1.17-1.15 Ga). The Sunsás belt is comprised by the metamorphosed Sunsás and Vibosi sequences, the Rincón del Tigre mafic-ultramafic sill and granitic intrusive suites. The latter rocks yield ɛNd(t) signatures (-0.5 to -4.5) and geochemistry (S, I, A-types) suggesting their origin associated with a continental arc setting. The Sunsás belt evolution is marked by "tectonic fronts" with sinistral offsets that was active from c. 1.08 to 1.05 Ga, along the southern edge of the Paraguá microcontinent where K/Ar ages (1.27-1.34 Ga) and the Huanchaca-Aguapeí flat-lying cover attest to the earliest tectonic stability at the time of the orogen. The Sunsás dynamics is coeval with inboard crustal shortening, transpression and magmatism in the Nova Brasilândia belt (1.13-1.00 Ga). Conversely, the Aguapeí aulacogen (0.96-0.91 Ga) and nearby shear zones (0.93-0.91 Ga) are the late tectonic offshoots over the cratonic margin. The post-tectonic to anorogenic stages took place after ca. 1.00 Ga, evidenced by the occurrences of intra-plate A-type granites, pegmatites, mafic dikes and sills, as well as of graben basins. Integrated interpretation of the available data related to the Sunsás orogen

  8. Observational Evidence for a Decade-long climate optimum near the Hesperian/Amazonian Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Hesperian to Amazonian-aged valleys (HAVs) are predominantly found in the southern equatorial and mid-latitudes of Mars and form parallel to dendritic networks. These features record a significant warming of the regional/global climate which may have been associated with outflow channel formation and/or a period of alluvial fan deposition in Margaritifer Terra [1]. HAVs are distinct from older valley networks in both their age and morphology and they provide a window into the past climate conditions and potential water sources which formed them. Using quantitative geomorphic analysis we calculate the expected range of timescales, water volumes, precipitation rates and atmospheric conditions which contributed to HAV formation. In Newton crater (40oS, -159oE) we measured valley widths, depths, slopes and alluvial fan volumes. These observations, when combined with a set of terrestrial sediment transport prediction functions [2,3,4,5], allow us to calculate an expected duration of fluvial activity ranging from 0.1 to 10 years for water-filled channel depths ranging between 20 and 130 cm, and median sediment grain size ranging from 1 mm to 10 cm. The water volume required to form a single HAV in Newton crater ranges between 1.8 and 5.7~km3 based on the Darcy-Weisbach equation [6] in combination with the aforementioned range in channel depths, grain sizes and formation timescales. These results imply water runoff rates of between 1 to 10~cm/day over a typical, 300~km2, drainage area. Such a high runoff rate and short formation time suggest a brief, dramatic regional to global climate excursion. The source of water which formed these features remains unclear, but it must have been released at the aforementioned rates, and was widely distributed within each drainage catchment, and regionally over Newton crater and the southern highlands. HAV formation was likely a two-step process involving, first, the deposition of a 10s of meters thick regional snowpack along

  9. Thermal structure of the Poraquê lake, Central Amazonian, Brazil = Estrutura térmica do lago Poraquê, Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Marques Aprile

    2011-01-01

    Thermal gradient of a Central Amazonian lake was studied to establish a link between seasonal variations in the water level, temperature, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and thermal stratification. Bimonthly measurements of temperature and PAR radiation were made at 0.25 m intervals from the surface to bottom from February 2004 to July 2006. Daily occurs full vertical mixing of the water column, and classic thermal stratification was not observed in the period. The effect of the winds asso...

  10. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

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    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  11. Molecular and morphological differentiation between two Miocene-divergent lineages of Amazonian shrimps, with the description of a new species ( Decapoda , Palaemonidae , Palaemon )

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Carvalho; Célio Magalhães; Fernando Mantelatto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Palaemon carteri (Gordon, 1935) and Palaemon ivonicus (Holthuis, 1950) are morphologically similar species of South American freshwater shrimps. Past studies have questioned the taxonomic status of both species, which are supposed to have partially sympatric geographic distributions in the Amazon basin. We analyzed a 550 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from these Amazonian Palaemon species as well as from 11 palaemonids as the outgroup. Additionally, we checked diagnos...

  12. Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants respond to Pleistocene climatic change as species, not as associations or biomes. This has been demonstrated unequivocally by paleobotanical data for temperate latitudes. In the far richer vegetations of the tropics species populations also fluctuated independently in response to climatic forcing, from their longlasting glacial states to the patterns of brief interglacials like the present and back again. We use pollen data to reconstruct the vegetation of the Amazon basin in oxygen isotope stages 3 and 2 of the last glaciation in order to measure how the plant populations of the Amazon responded to the global warming at the onset of the Holocene. We find that plant communities of the neotropics vent copious pollen to lake sediments and that this pollen yields powerful signals for community composition. Three continuous sedimentary records reaching through oxygen isotope stage 2 are available from the Amazon lowlands, those from Carajas, Lake Pata and marine deposits off the mouth of the Amazon River. All three records yield pollen histories of remarkable constancy and stability. By comparing them with deposits of equal antiquity from the cerrado (savanna) of central Brazil, we show that most of the Amazon lowlands remained under forest throughout a glacial cycle. This forest was never fragmented by open vegetation as postulated by the refugia hypothesis. Instead the intact forest of glacial times included significant populations of plants that are now montane, suggesting that the global warming of the early Holocene resulted in the expulsion of heat intolerant plants from the lowland forest. Pollen data from the Amazonian flank of the Andes and from Pacific Panama provide evidence that populations of these heat intolerant plants survive the heat of interglacials in part by maintaining large populations at cooler montane altitudes. Our conclusion that the Amazon lowlands were forested in glacial times specifically refutes the hypothesis of Amazonian glacial

  13. Estimating Amazonian methane emissions through 4D-Var inverse modelling with satellite observations from GOSAT and IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. J.; Chipperfield, M.; Gloor, M.; McNorton, J.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L. V.; Siddans, R.; Bloom, A. A.; Basso, L. S.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Monks, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is emitted from a range of anthropogenic and natural sources, and since the industrial revolution its mean atmospheric concentration has climbed dramatically. CH4 produces a relatively high radiative forcing effect upon the Earth's climate, and its atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years makes it an appealing target for the mitigation of climate change. However, the spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions are not well understood, though in recent years a number of top-down and bottom-up studies have attempted to construct improved emission budgets. However, some top-down studies suffer from poor observational coverage near the Amazon basin, particularly in the planetary boundary layer. Since emissions from this region, coming mainly from wetland and burning sources, are thought to be relatively high, additional observations in this region would greatly help to constrain the geographical distribution of the global CH4 emission budget. To this end, regular flask measurements of CH4 and other trace gases have been taken during flights over four Amazonian sites since 2010, as part of the AMAZONICA project. The GOSAT has been used to retrieve global column-average CH4 concentrations since mid-2009, whilst IASI, on-board Metop-A, has also been measuring atmospheric CH4 concentrations since its launch in 2006. We present an assessment of Amazonian methane emissions for 2010 and 2011 using the TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model and the new variational inverse model, INVICAT. These models are used to attribute methane variations at each Amazon site to a source type and region, to assess the ability of our current CH4 flux estimates to reproduce these observations and to produce improved posterior emission estimates through assimilation of atmospheric observations. This study represents the first use of the INVICAT scheme to constrain emissions of any atmospheric trace gas. Whilst there is generally good agreement between the model and the

  14. Understory bird communities in Amazonian rainforest fragments: species turnover through 25 years post-isolation in recovering landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Philip C; Johnson, Erik I; Bierregaard, Richard O; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragments of 1-100 ha, beginning before the fragments were isolated in the 1980s, and continuing through 2007. Using a method that accounts for imperfect detection, we estimated extinction and colonization based on standardized mist-net surveys within discreet time intervals (1-2 preisolation samples and 4-5 post-isolation samples). Between preisolation and 2007, all fragments lost species in an area-dependent fashion, with loss of as few as extinction and colonization occurred in every time interval. In the last two samples, 2000 and 2007, extinction and colonization were approximately balanced. Further, 97 of 101 species netted before isolation were detected in at least one fragment in 2007. Although a small subset of species is extremely vulnerable to fragmentation, and predictably goes extinct in fragments, developing second growth in the matrix around fragments encourages recolonization in our landscapes. Species richness in these fragments now reflects local turnover, not long-term attrition of species. We expect that similar processes could be operating in other fragmented systems that show unexpectedly low extinction.

  15. Effect of 7 yr of experimental drought on vegetation dynamics and biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Portela, Bruno Takeshi Tanaka; da Costa, Mauricio; Silva Junior, João de Athaydes; Braga, Alan P; de Gonçalves, Paulo H L; de Oliveira, Alex A R; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver L; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Levy, Peter; Meir, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    *At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. *Results are presented from a 7 yr TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and above-ground biomass. *Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr(-1), compared with 1.25% yr(-1) in a nearby control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm diameter at breast height (dbh)) size class (4.1% yr(-1) in the TFE and 1.4% yr(-1) in the control). Wood production in the TFE plot was c. 30% lower than in the control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 +/- 2.0 Mg carbon (C) ha(-1) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), compared with no change in the control. *These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that eastern Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  16. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed.

  17. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  18. Nematodes of Amazonian birds, with a description of Hoazinstrongylus amazonensis n.gen.n.sp. (Trichostrongylidae, Libyostrongylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available During recent studies of the parasites of birds from the Amazonian Regio, the following nematodes were recovered: Hoazinstrongylus amazonensis n.gen.n.sp. from Opisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776; Ascaridia columbae (Gmel., 1790 Travassos, 1913, from Leptotila r. rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1712 representing a new host record; Inglisakis ibanezi Freitas, Vicente & Santos, 1969, Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914 and Thelazia digitata Travassos, 1918. A compelte description is restrained to the new genus and new species here proposed. The other known and well described species are listed and accounted.Durante recentes estudos dos parasitas de aves capturadas na Região Amazônica, foram identificadas as seguintes espécies de nematóides: Hoazinstrongylus amazonensis n.gen.n.sp, de Opisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776, Ascaridia columbae (Gmel., 1790 Travassos, 1912, de Leptotila r. rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1712 que se constitui em um novo hospedeiro para a espécie, Inglisakis ibanezi Freitas, Vicente & Santos, 1969, Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914 e Thelazia digitata Travassos, 1918.

  19. The effects of cannibalism on Amazonian poison frog egg and tadpole deposition and survivorship in Heliconia axil pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Kyle

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of cannibalism on egg and larval mortality, and on the deposition strategies of adults, in a tropical anuran breeding in very small leaf axil pools. Patterns of egg and tadpole deposition and mortality in the Amazonian poison frog, Dendrobates ventrimaculatus, were monitored in rainforest near Pompeya in Sucumbios Province, Ecuador. Oviposition and tadpole deposition typically ocurred in leaf axils of Heliconia plants. Pools typically received more than one oviposition. Egg survivorship was low, and significantly lower when eggs were deposited in pools with large tadpoles, indicating that cannibalism is an important source of mortality. Tadpole survivorship was also associated with the presence of other tadpoles: most pools ended with only one surviving tadpole, regardless of the number of tadpoles deposited in the pool. Egg deposition was signifcantly less likely for pools that had a tadpole in them, suggesting that adults can detect the presence of tadpoles and avoid ovipositing in pools that contain them. This hypothesis was tested with a series of pool choice experiments, which revealed that D. ventrimaculatus avoid placing either eggs or tadpoles into a pool which contains a large tadpole. Several hypotheses which could explain multiple deposition in this species are discussed.

  20. Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile Amazonian anthrosoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change.

  1. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention.

  2. Root Niche Separation as Strategy of Avoidance of Seasonal Drought Stress in a Mature Amazonian Forest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Hutyra, L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.; Fatichi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forests experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, and show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic vegetation-hydrology model is developed to test the roles of deep roots and the possibility of 'root niche separation,' in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data on canopy phenology, energy fluxes, soil moisture, and soil and root structure from the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented.

  3. Amazonian mid- to high-latitude glaciation on Mars: Supply-limited ice sources, ice accumulation patterns, and concentric crater fill glacial flow and ice sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    Concentric crater fill (CCF) occurs in the interior of impact craters in mid- to high latitudes on Mars and is interpreted to have formed by glacial ice flow and debris covering. We use the characteristics and orientation of deposits comprising CCF, the thickness of pedestal deposits in mid- to high-latitude pedestal craters (Pd), the volumes of the current polar caps, and information about regional slopes and ice rheology to address questions about (1) the maximum thickness of regional ice deposits during the Late Amazonian, (2) the likelihood that these deposits flowed regionally, (3) the geological regions and features most likely to induce ice-flow, and (4) the locations and environments in which ice is likely to have been sequestered up to the present. We find that regional ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions requires ice thicknesses exceeding many hundreds of meters for slopes typical of the vast majority of the surface of Mars, a thickness for the mid-latitudes that is well in excess of the total volume available from polar ice reservoirs. This indicates that although conditions for mid- to high-latitude glaciation may have persisted for tens to hundreds of millions of years, the process is “supply limited”, with a steady state reached when the polar ice cap water ice supply becomes exhausted. Impact craters are by far the most abundant landform with associated slopes (interior wall and exterior rim) sufficiently high to induce glacial ice flow under Late Amazonian climate conditions, and topographic slope data show that Amazonian impact craters have been clearly modified, undergoing crater interior slope reduction and floor shallowing. We show that these trends are the predictable response of ice deposition and preferential accumulation and retention in mid- to high-latitude crater interiors during episodes of enhanced spin-axis obliquity. We demonstrate that flow from a single episode of an inter-crater terrain layer comparable to Pedestal

  4. Peru's Amazonian oil and gas industry: Risks, interests and the politics of grievance surrounding the development of block 76, Madre de Dios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Romera, B. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    investment in developing Amazonian oil and gas reserves. Specifically, this article aims to understand grievance-based conflict risk by documenting the positions and motivations of various organisations and local communities affected by exploration work conducted in block 76 overlapping the Amarakaeri...... Communal Reserve (ACR) in the region of Madre de Dios. An account is offered of how these positions have been steered and governed by a government-sanctioned management framework for the ACR, and by a limited and selected consultation process which lies at the heart of wider conflict over the large...

  5. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  6. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  7. Understory bird communities in Amazonian rainforest fragments: species turnover through 25 years post-isolation in recovering landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Stouffer

    Full Text Available Inferences about species loss following habitat conversion are typically drawn from short-term surveys, which cannot reconstruct long-term temporal dynamics of extinction and colonization. A long-term view can be critical, however, to determine the stability of communities within fragments. Likewise, landscape dynamics must be considered, as second growth structure and overall forest cover contribute to processes in fragments. Here we examine bird communities in 11 Amazonian rainforest fragments of 1-100 ha, beginning before the fragments were isolated in the 1980s, and continuing through 2007. Using a method that accounts for imperfect detection, we estimated extinction and colonization based on standardized mist-net surveys within discreet time intervals (1-2 preisolation samples and 4-5 post-isolation samples. Between preisolation and 2007, all fragments lost species in an area-dependent fashion, with loss of as few as <10% of preisolation species from 100-ha fragments, but up to 70% in 1-ha fragments. Analysis of individual time intervals revealed that the 2007 result was not due to gradual species loss beginning at isolation; both extinction and colonization occurred in every time interval. In the last two samples, 2000 and 2007, extinction and colonization were approximately balanced. Further, 97 of 101 species netted before isolation were detected in at least one fragment in 2007. Although a small subset of species is extremely vulnerable to fragmentation, and predictably goes extinct in fragments, developing second growth in the matrix around fragments encourages recolonization in our landscapes. Species richness in these fragments now reflects local turnover, not long-term attrition of species. We expect that similar processes could be operating in other fragmented systems that show unexpectedly low extinction.

  8. Sediment source, turbidity maximum, and implications for mud exchange between channel and mangroves in an Amazonian estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nils Edvin; Gomes, Vando José Costa; Ogston, Andrea; Borges, José Carlos Corrêa; Nittrouer, Charles Albert

    2016-02-01

    The tide-dominated eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazonian coast includes large mangrove areas and several estuaries, including the estuary associated with the Urumajó River. There, the dynamics of suspended sediments and delivery mechanisms for mud to the tidal flats and mangroves are complex and were investigated in this study. Four longitudinal measuring campaigns were carried out, encompassing spring/neap tides and dry/rainy seasons. During spring tides, water levels were measured simultaneously at 5 points along the estuary. Currents, salinity, and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were measured over the tidal cycle in a cross section at the middle sector of the estuary. Results show a marked turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) during the rainy season, with a 4-km upstream displacement from neap to spring tide. During dry season, the TMZ was conspicuous only during neap tide and dislocated about 5 km upstream and was substantially less apparent in comparison to that observed during rainy season. The results show that mud is being concentrated in the channel associated with the TMZ especially during the rainy season. At this time, a substantial amount of the mud is washed out from mangroves to the estuarine channel and hydrodynamic/salinity conditions for TMZ formation are optimal. As expected, transport to the mangrove flats is most effective during spring tide and substantially reduced at neap tide, when mangroves are not being flooded. During the dry season, mud is resuspended from the bed in the TMZ sector and is a source of sediment delivered to the tidal flats and mangroves. The seasonal variation of the sediments on the seabed is in agreement with the variation of suspended sediments as well.

  9. Henneguya torpedo sp. nov. (Myxozoa), a parasite from the nervous system of the Amazonian teleost Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hypopomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson

    2011-02-22

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya torpedo sp. nov., is described from the brain and spinal cord of the Amazonian teleostean fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus collected from the Peixe Boi River, State of Park, Brazil. The spores were surrounded by a thick hyaline sheath that is homogeneous and electron translucent and consists of 2 layers of different densities. The total spore length is 48.62 +/- 0.51 microm (mean +/- SE), the ellipsoidal spore body length is 28.53 +/- 0.36 microm, the body width is 7.25 +/- 0.31 microm and the body thickness is 3.06 +/- 0.26 microm. Each of the 2 equal-sized valves presented a tapering tail (19.64 +/- 0.44 microm in length). The 2 equal-sized thin and smooth valves surrounded 2 equal-sized and elongated ellipsoidal polar capsules (6.41 +/- 0.26 x 1.84 +/- 0.19 microm) that contained 5 to 6 (rarely 7) polar filament coils. The binucleated sporoplasm contained numerous spherical sporoplasmosomes (-260 x -280 nm) with a laterally eccentric-dense structure containing a half-crescent section. The sporoplasmosomes are surrounded by a hyaline homogenous sheath. Based on the data obtained by light and electron microscopy and on the host specificity, the spores differed from the previously described Henneguya spp., mainly in the presence of a sheath surrounding the spores, the spore shape and size and the number and arrangement of the polar filament coils. Therefore, from this description we propose the establishment of a new species, which we have named Henneguya torpedo sp. nov.

  10. Modeling disease vector occurrence when detection is imperfect: infestation of Amazonian palm trees by triatomine bugs at three spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae, the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD in northern South America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40-60% across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%. Detection probability is higher ( approximately 0.55 on average in the richest-soil region than elsewhere ( approximately 0.08. Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height explain most of infestation rate variation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation

  11. Virus-Bacterium Coupling Driven by both Turbidity and Hydrodynamics in an Amazonian Floodplain Lake ▿ † ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nathan; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Soares, Maria C.; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Roland, Fábio

    2010-01-01

    The importance of viruses in aquatic ecosystem functioning has been widely described. However, few studies have examined tropical aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluated for the first time viruses and their relationship with other planktonic communities in an Amazonian freshwater ecosystem. Coupling between viruses and bacteria was studied, focusing both on hydrologic dynamics and anthropogenic forced turbidity in the system (Lake Batata). Samples were taken during four hydrologic seasons at both natural and impacted sites to count virus-like particles (VLP) and bacteria. In parallel, virus-infected bacteria were identified and quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Viral abundance ranged from 0.5 × 107 ± 0.2 × 107 VLP ml−1 (high-water season, impacted site) to 1.7 × 107 ± 0.4 × 107 VLP ml−1 (low-water season, natural site). These data were strongly correlated with the bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.84; P < 0.05), which ranged from 1.0 × 106 ± 0.5 × 106 cells ml−1 (high water, impacted site) to 3.4 × 106 ± 0.7 × 106 cells ml−1 (low water, natural site). Moreover, the viral abundance was weakly correlated with chlorophyll a, suggesting that most viruses were bacteriophages. TEM quantitative analyses revealed that the frequency of visibly infected cells was 20%, with 10 ± 3 phages per cell section. In general, we found a low virus-bacterium ratio (<7). Both the close coupling between the viral and bacterial abundances and the low virus-bacterium ratio suggest that viral abundance tends to be driven by the reduction of hosts for viral infection. Our results demonstrate that viruses are controlled by biological substrates, whereas in addition to grazing, bacteria are regulated by physical processes caused by turbidity, which affect underwater light distribution and dissolved organic carbon availability. PMID:20833790

  12. Nematodes as indicators of shrimp farm impact on an amazonian estuary (Curuçá, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virag Venekey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp farming reduces demand on wild fishery stocks and avoids environmental damage resulting from fishing practices, however, it has the potential to affect the water quality if not properly managed. In this study the impacts of a shrimp farm in an Amazonian estuary were evaluated, focusing on changes in nematodes regarding taxonomic composition, richness, density and diversity. Sampling was conducted in August 2004 (dry season and January 2005 (rainy season in the river at stations situated upstream and downstream at different distances from the main source of farm effluent discharge. Thirty-eight genera were recorded with Terschellingia dominating in the dry season and Terschellingia, Daptonema, Ptycholaimellus and Gomphionema in the rainy season. Abundances were within the range recorded in other estuaries and together with genera richness and diversity showed a strong temporal pattern with significantly higher values in the rainy season. No clear patterns of changes were observed at the stations. Some signs of organic enrichment were detected but they were not yet intense, probably a consequence of the strong local hydrodynamics and the age of the shrimp farm, which was just starting its operation. We recommend that in future studies on farming impacts a combination of factors, beyond the physical and chemical parameters of the water and sediments or taxonomic refinement, should be taken into account - such as the duration of the operation of the farm, the area occupied by ponds and the farm's production. Furthermore, we also believe that nematodes are a useful tool for evaluating aquaculture impacts due to the ease of sampling and because they are organisms at the base of marine food chain.

  13. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P. subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity.

  14. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position.

  15. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests.

  16. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, E K; Marques, D K S; Ferreira, L K S G

    2008-11-01

    The 'tucunaré', Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the 'tucunaré' could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  17. Experimentally increased temperature and hypoxia affect stability of social hierarchy and metabolism of the Amazonian cichlid Apistogramma agassizii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Campos, Derek Felipe; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position.

  18. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  19. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  20. Napoleon Bonaparte and the fate of an Amazonian rat: new data on the taxonomy of Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Cuisin, Jacques; Patton, James L; Hänni, Catherine; Catzeflis, François

    2003-04-01

    The spiny rat Mesomys hispidus is one of many South American rodents that lack adequate taxonomic definition. The few sampled populations of this broadly distributed trans-Amazonian arboreal rat have come from widely separated regions and are typically highly divergent. The holotype was described in 1817 by A.-G. Desmarest, after Napoleon's army brought it to Paris following the plunder of Lisbon in 1808; however, the locality of origin has remained unknown. Here we examine the taxonomic status of this species by direct comparison of 50 extant individuals with the holotype at the morphometric and genetic levels, the latter based on 331 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene retrieved from a small skin fragment of the holotype with ancient DNA technology. Extensive sequence divergence is present among samples of M. hispidus collected from throughout its range, from French Guiana across Amazonia to Bolivia and Peru, with at least seven mitochondrial clades recognized (average divergence of 7.7% Kimura 2-parameter distance). Sequence from the holotype is, however, only weakly divergent from those of recent samples from French Guiana. Moreover, the holotype clusters with greater that 99% posterior probability with samples from this part of Amazonia in a discriminant analysis based on 22 cranial and dental measurements. Thus, we suggest that the holotype was originally obtained in eastern Amazonia north of the Amazon River, most likely in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Despite the high level of sequence diversity and marked morphological differences in size across the range of M. hispidus, we continue to regard this assemblage as a single species until additional samples and analyses suggest otherwise.

  1. Heterogeneous movement of insectivorous Amazonian birds through primary and secondary forest: A case study using multistate models with radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Powell, Luke L.; Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Erik l.; Nichols, James D.; Stouffer, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Given rates of deforestation, disturbance, and secondary forest accumulation in tropical rainforests, there is a great need to quantify habitat use and movement among different habitats. This need is particularly pronounced for animals most sensitive to disturbance, such as insectivorous understory birds. Here we use multistate capture–recapture models with radiotelemetry data to determine the successional stage at which within-day movement probabilities of Amazonian birds in secondary forest are similar to those in primary forest. We radio-tracked three common understory insectivore species in primary and secondary forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments project near Manaus, Brazil: two woodcreepers, Glyphorynchus spirurus (n = 19) andXiphorhynchus pardalotus (n = 18), and the terrestrial antthrush Formicarius colma(n = 19). Forest age was a strong predictor of fidelity to a given habitat. All three species showed greater fidelity to primary forest than to 8–14-year-old secondary forest, indicating the latter’s relatively poor quality. The two woodcreeper species used 12–18-year-old secondary forest in a manner comparable to continuous forest, but F. colmaavoided moving even to 27–31-year-old secondary forest—the oldest at our site. Our results suggest that managers concerned with less sensitive species can assume that forest reserves connected by 12–18-year-old secondary forest corridors are effectively connected. On the other hand, >30 years are required after land abandonment before secondary forest serves as a primary forest-like conduit for movement by F. colma; more sensitive terrestrial insectivores may take longer still.

  2. Masking interference and the evolution of the acoustic communication system in the Amazonian dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Hödl, Walter; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Castellanos, Lina; Erdtmann, Luciana; de Araújo, Maria Carmozina

    2006-09-01

    The efficacy of communication relies on detection of species-specific signals against the background noise. Features affecting signal detection are thus expected to evolve under selective pressures represented by masking noise. Spectral partitioning between the auditory signals of co-occurring species has been interpreted as the outcome of the selective effects of masking interference. However, masking interference depends not only on signal's frequency but on receiver's range of frequency sensitivity; moreover, selection on signal frequency can be confounded by selection on body size, because these traits are often correlated. To know whether geographic variation in communication traits agrees with predictions about masking interference effects, we tested the hypothesis that variation in the male-male communication system of the Amazonian frog, Allobates femoralis, is correlated with the occurrence of a single species calling within an overlapping frequency range, Epipedobates trivittatus. We studied frogs at eight sites, four where both species co-occur and four where A. femoralis occurs but E. trivittatus does not. To study the sender component of the communication system of A. femoralis and to describe the use of the spectral range, we analyzed the signal's spectral features of all coactive species at each site. To study the receiver component, we derived frequency-response curves from playback experiments conducted on territorial males of A. femoralis under natural conditions. Most geographic variation in studied traits was correlated with either call frequency or with response frequency range. The occurrence of E. trivittatus significantly predicted narrower and asymmetric frequency-response curves in A. femoralis, without concomitant differences in the call or in body size. The number of acoustically coactive species did not significantly predict variation in any of the studied traits. Our results strongly support that the receiver but not the sender

  3. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  4. ORTHOIMAGERY, MANATEE COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 8-bit 3-Band (Red, Green, Blue) one-foot orthophotos were flown with a Z/I Intergraph DMC airborne digital sensor. The flight season was from December 15, 2008...

  5. Beautiful Manatee%美人鱼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张络之

    2006-01-01

    @@ 月光下的兰朵镇格外的忧伤.麦田在风里呜咽.央河踩着节拍汩汩地流淌.一朵朵粉泱泱的荷花,舒展枝叶盛开在央河的两侧.它们纠缠着水草,暖昧地摇曳.红色头颅高傲的耸立着.花茎绵密之处,偶尔会探出一张女孩模糊的脸.她静静的浮在水面上.似乎正透过叶缝,张望月下的央河.

  6. HYDRAULICS, MANATEE COUNTY, FLORIDA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, Brazil: Hydrothermal alteration and metallogenetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; Lagler, Bruno; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri

    2016-06-01

    Geological, petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies revealed hydrothermalized lithotypes evidenced by overprinted zones of potassic, propylitic, sericitic, and intermediate argillic alterations types, with pervasive and fracture-controlled styles, in Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic units of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The Sobreiro Formation presents propylitic (epidote + chlorite + carbonate + clinozoisite + sericite + quartz ± albite ± hematite ± pyrite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate), and potassic (potassic feldspar + hematite) alterations. The prehnite-pumpellyite pair that is common in geothermal fields also occurs in this unit. The Santa Rosa Formation shows mainly potassic (biotite + microcline ± magnetite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate ± chlorite ± gold), and intermediate argillic (montmorillonite + kaolinite/halloysite + illite) alterations. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of magma-sourced and meteoric fluids and draw attention to the metallogenetic potential of these volcanic units for Paleoproterozoic epithermal and rare and base metal porphyry-type mineralizations, similar to those already identified in other portions of the Amazonian craton.

  8. Differential Expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factor Genes in the Skeletal Muscles of Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818 from Amazonian Black and Clear Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Alves-Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that the Amazonian water system differences would affect the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier 1818, this study aimed to analyze the morphometric data and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs in the white and red muscle from tambaqui obtained from clear and black Amazonian water systems. All of the MRF transcript levels (myod, myf5, myogenin, and mrf4 were significantly lower in the red muscle from black water fish in comparison to clear water fish. However, in white muscle, only the myod transcript level was significantly decreased in the black water tambaqui. The changes in MRFs gene expression in muscle fibers of tambaqui from black water system provide relevant information about the environmental influence as that of water systems on gene expression of muscle growth related genes in the C. macropomum. Our results showed that the physical and chemical water characteristics change the expression of genes that promote muscle growth, and these results may be also widely applicable to future projects that aim to enhance muscle growth in fish that are of substantial interest to the aquaculture.